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Koncx to Bvbkxjbxrs.— to ©mating the address ©Tyourpapersebsayeo.toprevaildelay, beauesnd BpecUy what edition you use—Weekly, Tri-Wcckly Or Dally. Also, give joatprment and future address. TAddren “CHICAGO TRIBUNE." Chicago, til FRIDAY. APRIL SO, 1866. TUB IABT PBRMPRNriAL STUMP SPEECH. Those who believed or hoped thet the passage of the Civil Rights BUI over tbe veto had had a good efleet npon Andrew Johnson, were profoundly disappointed by his speech to the Soldiers* and Sailors’ Association in Washington on the 18th Inst. This herangue Is, in some respects, the worst exhibition be has yet made of himself In public. The Idea running through it, and risible from beginning to end. Is that if be (Andrew Johnson) had the power, he. would try conclusions with Congress in a way which they wouldn’t relish. IT be could summon tbe physical force, which is the only kind of force' he thoroughly believes in, be would see whether the Southern States would not be represented at the national capilol! This spirit per meates his whole speech. It glistens here and there like the tongne of a ' caged snake. “ The President,** be says, 44 is tbe ** tribune of tlwasnto. I thank God I am, “anjLeVarrplaord In the. x e power whiehthe tave.lniended to imply, by assefVhat he may cr, must be left to conjecture, as bo t-ig pow define his meaning. Be la mistaken, however,* In saying ti**f the people ever cave him the power which he is now exercising—much less the power to compel tbe admission of rebels inio Congress. All the power for mischief which he has, was given him by that unpar alleled mischief-maker, J. Wilkes Booth. And. as for his asst **ng any power which be has not already asserted, to accom plish the representation of the Southern Slates in .Congress, be dare not, with all his froth and blaster, attempt anything of the kind. Lacking the power to accomplish his cods, he b** undertaken to gain It **y making flump speeches. He evidently fancies that In putting these harangues before the people of the North he Is addressing the poor whites of East Tennessee. 41 1 will stand bv you,” he says to the soldiers and sailors. • 1 led you to victory, while the*c miserable cowards in Congress were skulking out of danger. I fought, bled and died as Military Governor of Tennessee, while the poltroons, who passed the Civil Rights BUI the otucr day, were en joying their case in the balls of Congress. I stood by yon then, and I will stand by you now. It is difficult to perceive what excess of vir tue there woe la lording it over tbe city of Nashville, or that portion of it which was sot under fire, over that ofattending to one's duties In Congress. The only differencels that tbe latter was useful while tbe former was useless. It is a fact'that daring his term of office os tetrarch of a small portion of Tennessee, Mr. Johnson made himself exces sively odious to the army, both officers and privates,' serving In that State. The Ken tucky soldiers, a few days since, gave ex pression to their sentiments concerning his usefulness by tabling a resolution endorsing him. If the army oflhe'West could be polled on the question of Andrew Johnson and his policy, be would not get an average ol five rotes'ln each regiment. Tet he will stand br them—he willl Mr. JcLuSon" says that when tbe rebellion 'in Massachusetts was put down, Massachu setts was not out of tbe Union, and when the. rebellion In Pennsylvania was put down Pennsylvania was not out of the Union. This is a brazen falsification of history. Shay’s rebellion In Massachusetts was a rebellion against the State Itself—a mob, not half so for midable as the New Fork an Li-draft mob lo 1863. It was suppressed in a few days by the local TppHtft- The whiskey rebellion in Pennsylva nia was an equally Insignificant affair, and equally short-lived—a mob and nothing else. Andrew Johnson would have ns believe that Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, at aome time In their history, seceded from the Union and levied war against the United States— that they were coerced Into submission by tbe Federal armies, and that then It was de rided that they had not been put of the Union at all. .Ve mn Imagine the astonishment with which the honest soldiers and sailors re ceived the information from the Presi dent that Massachusetts and Pennsylvania had each rebelled against the Government, hut we cannot conceive how Andrew Johnson should have had .he hardihood to tell them so. Not to put too"fine a point upon It, Mr. Johnson Is an unblushing falsifier when be rays that Massachusetts and Pennsylvania ever engaged in rebellion against tbe Govern ment. It is a little ominoas that this speech of the President reaches us simultaneously with the comments of the Richmond press on the Civil Rights BRL Tbe Examiner, Enquirer, VTTug, and all tbe rest, urge the President to bring matters to a decisive Issue with Congress, and express the belief that be will be pre pared to use ‘ force, if necessary. .We be-- lievc that Andrew Johnson, like most peo ple who use large words, and talk in a lona tone of voice, and tell him how they have suffered and made sacrifices, is a coward at heart. But whether be is os brave as his words would make him, or otherwise, be has taken then the wrong time to frighten the American people. The men of the loyal States have not put down the slaveholders, rebellion, with its million of fighting men, to be terrified by tbe mouthing* of A. Johnson, backed by tbe whipped scccdcrs of Virginia. 11 wc bare another war we shall make a doomsday hook. pjOKE BECOIN'STKf'CTIOIf TESTI IOONY. ■ The reconstruction testimony of Governors Sharkey and Johnson and A- H. Stephens, Is of znuch Interest, They are witnesses for the President on the reconstruction question, and every statement they make f imii to eupori bis policy. Some of tbeir st at cm cuts are very singular and a little con tradictory. Governor Sharkey says that “in seven counties in Mississippi—in one of them In particular—freedmen arc finding employment at any wages they choose to ask—and in said county a thousand freedmen could find em ployment at f25 a month, besides theiy board and sugar and coffee.” £ He does not state that any freedman has actually been employed at those prices, but ouly that they could be. After having thus filled our mental vision with the glories of- Mississippi as a Paradise for freed negiocs,- be utterly confounds and overwhelms ns by the paradoxical statement that these negroes, who had all their previous lives fed upon wild rice and alligator's eggs, and who are suddenly offered their “ board and sugar and coffee and $25 a month,” have died off in Immense numbers—one-half of the freedmen of the State having died within the year. Jfow the colored population of. Mississippi in 16G0 was 437,404. The effect of the war was vastly to increase tbdr number; by the numbers sent thither from the Border States. It is reasonable, therefore, to state the total colored population, when they were set free, at 500,000. Governor Sharkey is confident that half, and absolutely certain that a third, of these negroes—in short, from 106,000 to 250,000 of them—have died within the year. This esti mate is about equal to the whole number of « rebel lives lost in battle and in hospital da. ring the war. IVe have beard no wail from the orphans and widows of this host of un recorded dead! The Froodmcn’e Bureau has had no orders for extra ship-loads of coffins for Mississippi! The colored people them* selves, whose homes have been desolated by this terrible mortality, exceeding the direst effects oi the London plague and the Asiatic cholera, have been singularly oblivions of their aad condition! In abort, no human be ing but Governor Sharkey has ever bad the remotest suspicion of such a state of facta, which we might feci inclined to doubt, had not the Governor sworn to it positively. But the terrible fact being established that a quarter of a million of negroes hare died in liississlppl in consequence of being set free against their will, the question arises what there is In “pood board, besides sugar and cofioe and twenty-five dollars a month,” to occasion this fearful mortality among the Af ricans. IVhy Is It that good wages aad plenty | to eat U thus total to them ? 1 Perhaps an explanation of these conflicting statements of Gov. Sharkey may be found m the testimony cf Captain Matthews, Com missioner of the Frecdmgn’fi Bureau for Miss issippi since July last. The dnlica of this office give him greater opportunities of know ing the condition of the freedmen than have been enjoyed by Gov. Sharkey or any person in the State. He docs nut testily to such an awful mortality, nor to the “ €33 a month, besides hoard, sugar and coffee.” But he stales that the condition of the freedmen dnr- Inglhc past year was very had, and that “in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, alter Lee's surrender, when contracts were made with negroes for their labor, at the end of the year the; 'were drir« off without payment or a division of the crop.” ~* It probably did not occur to Gov. Sharkey that as extensive system of robbing the ne groes of Mississippi of their only means of sustaining Ufa might add somewhat to the number of their -deaths.. Gov. Sharkey In speaking of the willingness of the people to repudiate the rebel debt, says: “Oar former history shows that we are not very much In ' dined to pay our debts.” Be might have il lustrated this tnitb by their treatment of the jreedmeu as sworn toby Captain Matthews. Alexander H. Stephens testifies that a major ily of the people of Georgia are anxious to re sume their power to the Union under the dilution of the United States as it now'stands amended. But If in addition to the amend ment-abolishing slavery, which th? President* required. Congress should require a further amendment, cither extending the right of suffrage to the colored men* or any portion of them, or limiting the representation of the State in Congress on the basis of the nmhber. ©factual voters, as a condition precedent to. the re-admission of Georgia to her seats in Congress, Mr. Stephens thicks that Georgia and the whole eleven States onght to decline to come In on those terms. In short Stephens occupies precisely the same political position as the President. He would not object to ex tending tbe suffrage with proper Umitatloos to the freedmen, but alleges that Congress, as at present constituted, has do right to im pose terms in this respect. It is hardly reasonable to expect the Tice President of tbe late Confederacy to take a more republican view than the acting Presi dent of the United States. Both Sharkey of Mississippi, and Johnson of Georgia, testify that most of-the members of Congress elect from those States are Union men, 44 violently opposed to the late rebel lion,” who accepted commissions in the rebel armies under pressure. If pressure has such an effect upon Southern men, we think Con gress bad batter exert a little of it to secure the ballot-box_for their entire people, with-■ out distinction of color. SOUTH AMERICAN TROUBLES. The latest accounts from tbe theatre of war on the La Flats, represent tho imminence of an attack of the allied forces upon the Para guayan stronghold of Humalta. The squad ron, not includlag the Argentine fleet, com posed ol sixteen Brazilian frigates, carrying In the aggregate seventy-seven guns and 4,400 mat, under command of Admiral Tamandare, is to co-operate with* v * 4 land forces, of forth* - bringing the war to a close by storming Humaita. But, says the Buenos Ayres Standard, 44 Both the army and navy “have a hard and bloodyroadto travel before •‘getting to Humaita, and it is difficult to say 44 what measures will be taken by the common 44der-ln-chief or the admiral. But what is 4 ’mostly believed is that they will act aceordfitg “to circumstances. * The fact is that Hunalta la strongly defend ed. Lope* the Paraguayan mler and com mander-in-chief *• inexhaustible In his ro ' mounxe, and though be Is now being attacked by overwhelming forces, it Is still doubtful whether Httmaita .will succumb, or whether, alter all, the fall of this place will be follow ed by the downfall of Paraguay. There Is, on the contrary, every reason to suppose that Lopez, who has performed so many marvels of heroism since the outbreak of this war, will not foil cosily a prey .to the BraziUton slave-oligarchy; and while the task ol the allies Is admitted by their own organ at Bue nos Ayres to be beset with difficulties on land and sea, it has, so for, only resulted in enriching speculators and contractors, at the expense of the national treasury, which is in a rather dilapidated condition. The Brazilian Finance Minister, Carvalho, has tendered hU resignation, he being an upright man, but unable to grapple with the ahoddyists of Bra zil, and his successor, Carrao, has entered upon ids functions Tmdcr the most critical cir cumstances. While this part of South America is thus in great trouble. Chill, Fern and Bolivia are threatened with the vengeance of Spain, and the bombardment and capture of the port ol Concepcion is reported by the latest Havana accounts. We trust that this report, os well os that of the In tended destruction of Valparaiso, may turn out to be false. If It were true, it would cover Spain with disgrace, and make her amenable to the payment of immense dam ages to England, France, the German Slates, and all other nations, whose merchants In Chili would be the greatest sufferers from a bombardment of Valparaiso. irxnr a civil bights bill was keeokd. The late Legislature of Mississippi parsed four acta relative to treedmen: First. “As act to confer aril rigb's on freed men, and foe other purposes,'" Second. “An an to reruiate tbe relation of master and apprentice, as relate* to freedmen, £r*# negroes ana malat'oea.” Third. “As act to amend tbe vagrant laws of the Etaie” Fourth- u An act to ptmleh certain offence] therein named, and for o-her parpo-ea.” In the fourth act, section lour, is as follows: Jie it further enacted. That all the penal and crim • In.l Uw s now In force in tnls btate, defining offence* and prevcrlhiog tbe mode* of punishment for crime* and misdemeanor* committed by slaves, free ne groes or nmlatioes, be and the same are hereby re enacted ana declared to be In foil force and effect, against freedmen, free negroes, and maUUoea, ex cept H) fir as tbe mode and manner or trial and punishment hate been changed or altered by law. Some of the “penal and .criminal Jaws” which have been re-enacted far the freedmen are hs follows: ... Art. 56. Sec zi, p. 248. Bev. Code makes It pun* iihable with deam fora negro to ranrder. commit rape, burn booses, commit robbery, or attempt to commit such crimes- White persons arc not pan ieuabie with death for most of tbe offences men tioned in thi.- section, nor for the attempt to com mit any one of them. Article 45, of the above named act, page 245, provides that a slave shall receive twenty lashes If be he found away from the place of his employment without a pass. This is re enacted lor freedmen. Article 46, page 316, awards thirty-nine lashes to the slave for having or selling with out written permission. Reenacted for tbe freedmen. • Article 476, page 24, allows civil officers and others to appropriate to their own use any article a slave may 'be seeking to sell. Re-enacted for the freedmen. Article 51, page 247, makes it punishable for negroes to congregate at night, or bold schools, etc. Re-enacted as above. Article 63, page 249-—Both ears are to be cut off for false witness. (No white cars lobe served so.) Re-enacted as above. These are some of the laws of a State, especially re-enacted for the freedmen; a btate which has “ accepted the situationa State which demands to lake part in the ac tion of Congress and help make laws for the benefit of the people. A white murderer may escape scot free, a negro shall be banged even for attempt. It would be childish to deny that« Civil Rights Bill is needed in a Slate not yet emerged from barbarism. COLONEL PttIXCUAaO- The award of prizes for the capture of Jef ferson Davis bavins been promulgated* and the whole earn having been adjudeed to Lt. Col.. Pritchard and bis men, of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, it may be assumed that all disputed points, under that head, are settled. We have the fullest confidence In the Impar tiality of Judge Holt and Gen. Townsend, as well as the correctness of their judgment, and hence we take the first opportunity in correct ing any impressions which we may have caus ed to the injury ol Col. Pritchard, or any per son in his command. The report of IA- Col. Herndon, of the First Wisconsin Cavalry, and the endorsements ofhls superior officers there* on, in direct conflict, with the decision of the Commission, bnt since these documents were evidently .examined by them before making the award, we conclude that they were entirely at variance with the facts. CoL Herndon’s report, it is true, did not claim for himself or his command the credit of the cap ture, bnt left the impression very broadly that Col. Pritchard hod defrauded and deceived him, leading him Into a trap, by-whicn sev eral brave soldiers were murdered by firing upon each ojber in the dark. The report of the Commission not only absolves Col.Pritch ard of this implied charge, but commends him for his conduct throughout the entire transaction. We arc gratified that this stigma has been removed from Col. Pilchard's lame, and we take the earliest opportunity of doing fall Justice to him as a gentleman aoda soldier. • SPECIAL PROVIDENCE, The New York Worid , commenting on the death of Daniel 8. Dickinson, says that bad not Andrew Johnson been nominated for the Vice Presidency, in the Baltimore Conven tion, Daniel S-Dickinson would. His death would have devolved the duties of the office . on Mr. Foster, as President pro tern., until a special election could be ordered and held. Bnt Ehoold a special election be held, the Democratic party would claim that the vote ot the unreconstructed Stales should be ad mitted, which would elect a Democratic President. The Republican party would that it be excluded, which would elect a Republican President. This, the TPbrW says, would give rise to a war between the Democratic and Republican parties, and hence the choice of Andrew Johnson by the Baltimore Convention was a special Provi dence, designed to avert civQ war. A more direct way in which Providence could Inter vene in behalf of the Copperhead and rebel party to prevent it from getting another drubbing, would be to revive a vivid recollec tion of its last thrashing. It that should not have the desired effect, we think Providence would a little rather see it get another thrashing than not. The Presbytery of Nashville have severed Us connection with the General Assembly of the Old School Presbyterian Church North, mid united -with the General Assembly of the Church South. The action »as had on tha sth lust., at Franklin, Tcnu. All the churches represented, except the Second Church at Nashville, and the churches at Ed-efield and Sheluyyllle, Toted In favor of the resolution of withdrawal. The minister and elders ol thechnrchnamed above entered a protest and complaint against the action of the Presbytery, withdrew from the House, add proceeded to organize a separate Presby tery to be also denominated the Presby tery of Nashville, The protest recites, as grounds of complaint, first: that the act is schismatics! and unconstitutional, and M 2 coed, that the several churches of the Presbytery have not authorized it to separate them from the church of their fathers. The protest, however, was not allowed to be en tered upon the Journal- TUB COUBCH Ilf SOUTH CARO JLINA. .The last report of tbe General Connell of the Episcopal dioccso of£onth Carolina upon itio evangelization of tbe colored people of that State, says: Onr Bishops in lh*lr council addresses tad upon their visitations, did all In their power to keepalive toe interest of the diocese Id their spiritual welfare. Our parochial clergy sod nmsiossnev zealously co operated with oar chief pastors, «blle tbe laity con tributed liberally of thetr substance, and tammy cases added to their persona) tabors to forward tbe work of evangelizing these heathens, who. to tbe providence ol God and by the agency of others, wereTommitted to oar care.' Tbe re.a)t of these zealous end harmonious efforts is exhibited by ma parochial reports published id the journals of IS6I. At tbe breamgont of (be wat-tbere wereoftht* class £.cts in full communion with our church in thta dioGeae-ronly six less than while comm uni casts. The result of their labors “ from colonial times** down to the present hour, in a popu lation “ of heathens,** now numbering nearly five hundred thousand souls, is the conversion of 2,678, or about one In two hundred. The report says.: If wholesome, religious Instruction be sot pro Tided by n*, they moat be left .to tbe Iniadlcaous teaching of others, or to the blind guidance of self* cousurated, confident and Ignorant guides of th«r own condition and cuss. What a pity 1 One would think that those who bad enjoyed the field so long, and to so little profit, wonld feel glad of any assistance they might get, from any quarter. If any are to be excluded from the field, modesty would suggest that It bo those who have so long neglected Its cultivation. Spirit of tbfe German-Amcrican Frcss. The St. Loots n'etillc/u Poet of tbe 24th Inst., contains a very suggestive and comprehensive dis quisition, by Gustav Strove, on ‘•■European Na tionalities." Tbe come journal of the 15th instant announce! its Intention of publlfhlog m future regular ex •tracts from tbe principal Anglo-American journals,. and begins with tboee of tbe Copperhead press. ShlsSqflflsy coition ofibe Pott (JTutUiippl lilai lug papers are t&x I™*l 1 ™* 1 abundance of Interesting lately from Genera, and an STt&JcT* most strik rian Telegraph, from tbe German tSSt «atT, »d Petersburg, based upon communications pnbjiMP** by Mr. I>. Romanoff (a name-sake ofthe Czar’s fam ily), the com tractor of the Amoor Tdevraph, in tbe Ruffian journal ol tbe Muscovite Capital. Ur. Bomanoff gives sad accounts of the wilderness through which Mr. Collins’ telegraph line propose* to p» aa t be hti tbe highest opinions of tbit gentleman and of American enterprise general ly, heyet anticipates insuperable difficulties from the nature of tbe country designed on Mr. Collins' map for the laying ol the wires—myriads of deadly - injects in summer, and horrid snow-storm* in win ter, endangering the existence of the constructors, n bile there are ether innumerable rftka to be ran m all directions. Mr. Romanoff proposes to keep altogether aloof from the dreary Northern Eamschatkv laud regions, and to connect NlchoJa j-fftkaandKomschfikaby a submarine cable, and thence by tbe way ot tbe Aleutian islands, to tbe American shores. The Cincinnati VoltsUatt of the 16th lost., re buke* the Commercial, of that city, for publishing disparaging (ketches of Americas life, under the caption of •‘German Pres?,” from which U might be inferred that German-American journals are re fponeible for these discreditable sketches, where**, they have never been publfehed In any German paper. The VoltsUatt li Indignant at the Vommer doT# attempt to fasten this responsibility upon the German prees. The Louisville Voltsbtatt, of the 15*h Inst., pub* Ibbcs a leading article, establishing a parallel be tween Abranam Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, both men of the people, bat tbe former a* sublime a champion of liberty and progress as tbe latter is an abject mlntop of eiaveiy and retrogression; the lor mer's administration delivering tbe country from the monster slavery, while tbe latter is bent on re these chans upon the nation's neck. The Tennessee Stoats ZextanQ, of the 10th, 12lh and 15th, have reached - us simultaneously, minut tbe imervenlcg number*. This new journal enjoys already an extensive advertising patronage, and is destined to ao a vast deal ol good in Tesneasec. Foreign Items. Mr. Barnum’s work, “The Humbugs of the World.” has been recently translated Into French under the title u JJtagues ds ffThfaers." It will cnenltte by thousands In Arts, the headquarters ot French blague or humbug. Mr. Banmm has reason to reerft baring no copyright of the transla tion, hi* book bring ‘sure to enrich the lucky traoriator. —Tbe editor of the Paris Gploion ifafionafshas been called upon by Head Centre Stephens, during bis visit to Fans, and say* that “he 1* a gen'lemin M of medium sire and distinguished appearance. ■ Hl* countenance la Instinct wnhabrewdntes and ‘'energyjmd embeltsbed by a long falrbeanband by ■ lone batr of ratbsr dark color. Hie broad fore* ‘Head reveal* on common Intellectual pa were, ’backed by a strong wIU, whicn la still farther m ‘ oica’ed Ip hia busby and salient eye-browa. The ‘ fiery and yet geode expression of bis eyes, la still ‘ more charareriitlc of tbe fertfUty of a mind en ‘ ibnriastlcally devoted to the emancipation oflre ‘ land. In one word, every expression in the phys- ' lognomy and kabUus corporis of Mr. dlehpau.ii • characteristic ol one who has consecrated hla life ‘ to generous Ideas, and who does not shrink from ‘ tbe responsibility of carrying them into practical • effect.” —Tbe exasperation of the Schleswig-HoUteinar* •gaiutt Cismaik's tyranny, at the imprisonment for Ihe.or ten yean, in-the house of correction, of certain supporters ot the Aogcsteobnre dynasty, baa 'been lately roused to a atiU higher pitch by the violent stoppage oftheDnke'a carnage, while «n --caged In escorting the remains of hit deceased rather to the family each at Krnsendorf, near Kiel. rbrDoke ofAugostcnbiirg being, u far at dynastic rights are concerned, the only lawfuTruler recog nizable by the bcbleswig-Holilemera and the Ger man Confederation, this petty persecution to which ho baa been saljeeted by Bit mark's minions, lest he might utter on the tomb of bis father a few words in favor of bis own and adverse to the Uuhenzollem dynasty, are resented by the Schlet* wtg-Qolsteinen as personal Insults, and contribute uoia little to make the rule of Bitmark altogether intolerable in this new Germanic principality. —Several riotous distrlcta ot Bohemia have been placed under martial law by order of tbe Austrian antboritles, and ibe same fate awaits that entire kingdom, if tbe cruel persecutions to which tbe dews and Germans, and particularly the former, are ‘objected by the Case population, do not cease Im mediaely. —in his recent Interview with Mr. Golzet, tbe Emperor remarked to him that he was in favor of hberty in literature, and laid aneb an emphasis npon tbe’ist word, as to Imply that be w«s advene to liberty m other spheres of activity, and of course in politic*. Tbe veteran minister of Louis PhlfiJpe abstained from making any reply. The death is announced of Mr. Thomas Thorn ton, who was for forty years coiraec'ed with the Parliamentary staff of the London 7\ftue lie was rarely absent from his duty, which was that of pre paring the summary of the debate la tbe House ol Commons. lie was in tbe habit of attending the House at four o’clock, when tbe Speaker took the chair, and never left nntll tbe Honse rose, involv ing in many cases a sitting of sine or ten noon. Uo also attended the Wednesday afternoon sit tings; and even during the morning sittings, when extremely dry subjects are usually pot upon tbe paper, he might always be seen to bis seat in tbe centre of tbe gallery devoted to tbe press. He re tired from bis Parliamentary duties at tbs close of last session. —The Iter. Mr. Meyer, the Evangelical pastor of Marietta, has addressed the following let.er to the Corrfcre dtUe Marche of Ancona: *• B&burta. March S3. “Tceterdayoorcrdfnary Hall of Conference waa a‘*al‘cd br a .warm of modern Pharisees, led by a pnesi named Ruggiero Tosdeilonc, who for several days past has been ezallne thepopulaeeto excesses against the Prote'tania. The whole bending was set on Ere- Poor of our brethren were killed, or I should rather say twoof our brethren and two per sons «bo came to thelrasalaUnce, One of our mm tntn raved himself by a miracle- I myself escaped over the roofs of the houtet- The hoa-e of p. C., the wine merchant, was completely burned down. He himself escaped. 1 write to yoa still concealed in a cell it of my house.” —The Empress of Austria, one of the handsomest' princesses of Europe, is about to visit Eugenie of France, and Isabella of Spain, on her way to Ma deira; and probably with a view of diplomatizing agai&t Prussia, i The War Record of lowa* From the report of Adjutant General Baker of lowa, for the year ending January 1, 1668, and now In press, we gather the following in teresting facts : The entire militia returns of the State for 1805 are 81,017 men. The Adju tant General claims that lowa furnished 66,814 .three years men, equivalent to 133,023 two years men, 200,413 one year, or 267,250 nine months men. The promotions to Major Gen* eralshlps were asfoUows: Samuel B. Curtis, Frederick Steele, Frank J. Herron, Grenville M. Dodge. In addition to these, there were uthcr promotions, as follows : 21 Brigadiers, r, Brevet Major Generals and 10 Brevet Briga dier Generals. Among officers during the «ar v l4s were killed, 74 died of wounds, 123 of disease, two deserted. Among enlisted men, 3,263 were killed, 8.409 died of disease, 9,777 were discharged for disability, and 46 dishonorably. The Memphis Avalanche thus owns the Identity of Interest between the slaveholders of the United States' and the rotten aristoc racy of Great Britain, and between the Re publicans of America and the Reformers of England. It says; -All the Englishmen, snch as Bright. Stuart MUI, and llocbe*— cocipicnong In the Uatflvi year* :oran on*mnpalooa antaeonbnt to our effort to es ubU«b a government of our own cbolraaod motdd* lav. are the leaoine ot this Reform Bill. a fact which we confe*#. casts suspicion upon ns vris <tom In our micas; for they arc tbe political con fetters of tbe extremerlradtcal* ol this country—the Weces. hmnnen. Chandler*, Stevenses and belly*, of tbe United states Congress. i>t—birds of a feather will flock together —and U Is lair to assume that the councils or tho-s allies of our radicals' would pranas perni cious for tiuzland a# the leveling destructive meas ures of their special admirers id the United States must be. if triumphant, to onr Institutions and to rhetor existence of any genuine liberty among vs. we have, tn fact, been already brought to the * cry verge ol mob rule by these Jacobins, who for r»»eyears, coder*he plead militaryutces:by. ; ave noi scrupled or nevitsted to set aside pi tin pro vicious of the Federal Constitution, which they row vises to tear irom the written instrumentlbd}. Following emnlonvly in the traces of these Ameri can destructives, their British tnesds will not be » low to reduce the time honored institutions qi England to the drear, dead level of universal eof- Irage.' BUhop Elliott, ot Georgia, has written a ictlerto Bishop Johns, of the Diocese of Virginia, giving official notice of the re-umon of the Diocese of Georgia with the Protestant Episcopal Church of be United States. THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO. Diplomatic Intrigues or the State Department. t-laytag Fast aad l/ooae with Maxl mllla& and Juarez—3l ax Offer* to Cede Moribem Mexico to tbe (Jutted State* on Conditions of Bmusulilod- Deaperate Condition of Johnson** Party—Scheme of Extrication—A War France Contemplated—The Fifty Million Mexican Loan. [from As Occasional Correspondent.) WasmxoTOX, D. C., April 16,1866. In European nations it is a common practice for the rulers to carry on intrigue* effecting the rights and interests of the inhabitants, form secret treaties, and arrange for war or peace without the knowledge or consent of their people. Bat such things are not sane* 'tionedin Ibis country. There should bo no mysterious State secrets in a Republic. The policy of tho Government toward other powerdfehonld be openly avowed and mode ■ known to Congress and the citizens. The toeereignty is in onr voters, who are the source and fountain of all political power. The of ficers of the Government from tbe President down are merely agents. The people are the principals. And no agent has any right to be carrying on a dark, forked-tongne diplomacy with any nation. Tbe policy of the United States Government toward Mexico, France or Great Britain should be made known to the citizens, who are the lawful owners of the country, who pay the taxes that support the Government, who furnish the soldiers to defend It in war, and who develop Its re sources in peace. DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH MEXICO. ■, , ibe diplomatic relations of the United States with the French usurpation in Mexico have not been. carried on in an open, frank and straightforward manner, but have been crooked and sinuous, as a narrative of tbe past year will show. Mr. Seward Is by na ture an intriguer, who prides himself on his cunning and on his ability to decelv? and overreach the most astute and wily of tho diplomats of European courts. THJSAHMY OP OBSERVATION. ■When the war ended and the rebellion ter minated, a heavy force ol troops was des patched to the Rio Grande, or within support* lug distance In Western Texas: It was the prevailing opinion in army circles that our Government intended to enforce the Monroe Doctrine in Mexico, and that Maximilian was abont to receive 'notice to depart from that country. It Is no longer a secret that Mr. for the first three or four mor.""* hlsmiiiu’. . . , , .ora ~ -wcenlon to the executive chair.,, dS’the military governments over them. It Is also now known that several of the rebel chiefs in the Southwest made overtures to-iOrtfisb large bodies of disbanding rebel soldiers to form part of the force to be employed In driving the usurpers out of Mexico. ACTIOS or SECRETARY SEW ARB. But the foxy Secretary of State refused his assent to this programme, and induced John eon to drop or postpone it. Orders were given to muster out the Bio Grande Army of Observation, and there now remains but a few colored regiments doing garrison duty on that boundary lino. Ido not propose to ar raign the wisdom or prudence of the course pursued by the Secretary of State. It was doubtless for the best that we should have no war with France at the termination of our struggle with the rebels. But Mr. Seward, report says, went much farther than merely to avoid or postpone a war with France, and that he has been playing a double game with the Maximilian and Juarez factious, and with the Americas people. He has in a quasi sort of way acknowledged the Government of Maximilian and tbe French usurpation. AND TUB MEXICAN MISSION. OES. LOO AN After Mr. Corwin left Mexico, In conse- quence of the invasion of the French, the Secretary of Legation remained to await in* structlons. He has remained there ever since, and in some measure maintains diplomatic relations with Maximilian. Last fall there was a loud demand, on the part of the press, that a Minister should be appointed to tbe the Liberal Government. The name of Major General Logan was suggested, and met with remarkable favor from all parties. The President resolved to appoint him, in com pliance with the popular demand. The Gen eral was telegraphed to come on-to Washing top by tbe President, and was appointed Min- 1 Utcr to the Mexican Juarez Government. : Seward proceeded to make out bis Instruc tions, which, in effect, accredited him to Maximilian! A conference wl.h Seward dis closed to the astonished Illinois General that be recorded Maximilian’s as tbe de facto and established Government of Mexico; and that he had no intention of enforcing the Monroe doctrine, and furthermore that he believed the Juarez Government to be on Its last legs. General Logon was amazed at the views of the Secretary, and peremptorily declined the appointment, telling Mr. Seward that he was unappemsably hostile to the French usurpa tion, and to the establishment of a monarchy in Mexico by foreign bayonets on the ruins of the Republic; that be believed sincerely in the Monroe .doctrine—that he was willing to fight to enforce it, but could not consent to . be made Instrumental in trampling It under loot, and that he never could hold diplomatic relations with the usurpers. This ended the interview. CAMPBELL’S APPOINTMENT. The Prebldent shortly afterwards ap pointed Mr. Campbell, ci-membcr Of Con gress from Ohio, to be Minister to Mexico, who has no such patriotic scruples on tbe subject of tbe Mexican Monarchy and the Monroe doctrine. But tbe Senate hap de clined to confirm him, not harlot confidence in the man, nor approving of the rote he is instructed to play. Mr. Campbell la a*• con servative” Republican, who has a horror of colored suffrage, and Is rapturously enamored ot the Jobnson-Seword policy ol recon structing the South, by letting all the rebels Into the Government, and keeping the loyal (colored) men out o( U. lie is likely to cool his heels in tbe corridors of tbe Senate Cham ber for some time, before he receives his con firmation and outfit as Minister to Mexico at the Court of Maximilian. A MEXICAN BAIEBOAD JOB. While this appointment hung fire In tbe Senate, other branches of tbe business'went on swimmingly. Maxlmflikn was not slow in learning that he had an influential friend in tbe State Department in Washington. Thar low Weed, who hates all “rings” and Jobs and schemes for turning an honest penny, is said to have discovered at an early day bow rich a placer Maximilian's Government was, and at what profit It might be worked; and, as usual, did not profit by the discovery. A railroad Is being constructed from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. Several of Weed’s friends have not got any fat contracts on It ; of course not. Why should they? But Maxi milian bas become exceedingly friendly to Americans in favor at the State Department. Not long since he granted a charter or mo nopoly, with extraordinary privileges, to on American Transportation and Express Com pany, to carry freight and valuables on the new railway from Vera Cruz to the capital and elsewhere In Mexico. At the head of this company la Clarence Seward, nephew of the Secretary of State—a very nlceyotmginan— and several other friends of Tburlow Weed. If nothing intervenes to prevent. It is ex pected that the stockholders wlll make a good tbimr of their monopoly either by selling out to others or by operating It. MAXIMILIAN’S VIEWS. Maximilian, ia conversation with Ameri cans, freely admits that he holds his throne by sufferance of the United States, and that It is not in the power of the French Emperor* to maintain him In the event of a war with this, conntry. He professes unbounded ad miration of the power and majesty of the Great Republic ot the North, and desires that it shall consent to bis retaining his throne. He is willing to mate almost any sacrifice in concession to secure the recognition of his Government by the United States • in which event he would discharge the French troops and send them home. He is chafing under Ihs insolence and dictation of the French, who assume imperial airs and treat him as a puppet or tool, and look upon themselves as the lords and mailers of Mexico. Maximilian wishes to shake them off and get rid of them. Southern and Central Mexico have submitted to his rule, and peace and order are being re stored. Industry and commerce, and security to life and property are Improving* in the Northern provinces the liberals have possession ot the conntry, and the French scarcely a foothold; and unless the latter are being reinforced, they will be totally driven out ot it. A CONFIDENTIAL MISSION. About two weeks ago an American citizen o( some standing arrived here from Mexico on a confidential mission from Maximilian to Secretory Seward. As diplomatic secrets and iDtrignes are against the genius ol a free country, so they are peculiarly hard to keep. And in this case the proposition brought by the confidential courier has transpired; that is to say, a few persons outside of the State De partment are assisting Mr. Seward to keep It. And as it Is a heavy secret, I desire the trust worthy readers of the Tribune also to assist in preserving it Inviolate. MAXIMILIAN’S PROPOSITION. Maximflian’s proposition Is as follows*. He will cede to the United States all that portion of Mexico north of a'line drawn from the month of the Rio Grande due west to the Pacific Ocean, to Include the ports of Mazat lan and San Bias, and the States of Dower California, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Coahmla, containing something like 400,000 square miles, vast mineral wealth, and about a mil-. Hon of turbulent, warlike Mexicans and fero cionsl untamable Camanche and Appache Indians, whom he finds it impossible to con oner But he has no doubt that they would p.yp peaceable, useful and valuable citizens ol the Crest Republic, If-they were once an nexed. At least, be has fall faith that Uncle Sam coold tame them-and reduce them to obedience to law. ■ln consideration of this large cession of tempting territory, the United States shall pay him a few millions of dollars to make the purchase valid, and to recognize his as the lawful Government of Mexico, to make a commercial treaty with him and re establish diplomatic relations between the two countries. He is willing to give up one third of Mexico to ns for the sake of quieting bis title to the remainder, and being placed in secure possession thereof; after which he pro poses to send the French home, and depend' on the Austrian and Belgian troops. -A. K2SOXBBIAOB. Humor has it, that when the courier first presented this scheme to the Secretary of State he was greatly pleased with It, as it was precisely what he bad been fishing for, ever since last summer. The trout was at last biting at his “fly.” Should belaud him? But before the arrival of Max’sconfidentlal agent, new troubles had arisen at the White House. The President, his master, was in a “ bad fix,” and urgently In need of extrication. The bottom had all fallen out of the “John son Union-party.” In abort, the new party was a “miscarriage.” Notwithstanding the skill and experience of ; tbe accouchers and “grannies,” the bantling was still-born. Whatis to be done for Andy, who stands before the country in a most piti able and ridiculous plight? The Republican party stubbornly resisted the utmost ol Johnson, Seward, Blair, Weed, Doolittle and Dixon to break it in twain. It would not crack or split, but stood immovable and solid as a mountain. Some “conservative” dirt and aand.was scraped off or blown away; but to the astonishment of the conspirators, the whole mountain was found to be radical gran ite. Mr. Seward had actually confirmed Johnson in his belief, that the Radicals were only a small faction, while the great body of the Republican party were “conservatives” like Doolittle and himself, who endorsed the “ Johnson policy” of reconstruction. He was partly-cared of this error when he read the comments of the Republican Dress on his 22d of February speech to the Copperheads; but his eyes were not fully opened until ho wit nessed the triumphant passage of the Civil Rights Bill over his veto by both Houses of Congress, by enormous majorities. He then discovered that his “ Johnson n»' ty” was a myth, a. ♦ 'ike the Irishman’s flea, when hepo*' a 1 ff r ° n “- " ’“‘"f to his only conspiracy. There middle ground for him to occupy. He must either return to the Republican party I »ud be governed by its principles and poli cies, or he must openly Join the Copperheads ana rebels and depend on them for support in the future. If he pursues the latter course, the probabilities are that Weed, Raymond, Lane, Dixon, and all his Cabinet, will aban don him and refuse to follow him into the Cop perhead ranks. Eerbaps Doolittle and Cowan aic tbe only two Republicans he would be able to'take with him into the enemy’s camp. Seward is alarmed at the deplorable con dition of his master’s affairs; nor can be bear the thought of having the alternative placed before him of resigning his portfolio and retiring into private life, or following Johnson into the Copperhead party. In this • emergency, it Is reported, that he has a grand scheme partly concocted which it is expected will relieve Johnson from his dilemma, restore his * popularity, and produce reconciliation between the loyal apd disloyal sections of the Union. The plan Is, for tbe Government to espouse tbe cause of the liberals in Mexico, guarantee their loan of fifty millions, take a mortgage on the North ern States of Mexico In security for its pay ment, pick a quarrel with Maximilian, which will be cosy to do, come to blows with the French on tbe Rio Grande, let Franco declare war on tbe United States, march an army In to Mexico and drive the invaders out, seize the French sugar Island In the West Indies by means of their contiguity, and our superi ority at sea. In other words tbe scheme Is to divert tbe attention of the American people from domestic to foreign politics. It.ls pro posed to constitute the “army of liberation” of| equal portions of. ex-rcbels, Northern Un ion men and colored troops. Ho thinks that after winning battles, whipping the French and driving fhem out of th* country and reaping glory in partnership, tbe people of the North and South would thereafter frater nize and an era of good feeling would he in augurated. And that the reconstruction of the insurgent States would be effected on terms satisfactory to tbe ex-rebels, as tbe North wonld be in a compliant mood and conceding humor. He illustrates hi* position by citing the frequent and tomlllar ease of on Irishman and his wife lighting with each oilier ;*and when a neighbor rushes In to save the wutnvn from a bad beating, they make up Ihcir quarrel instantly and torn on the intru der and. pommel him, TUE MEXICAN LOAN. As the Mexicans never pay the principal of any debt, the idea is that onr Government wquld 'have to foreclose • the fifty million mortgage and take possesa’on of tbe thinly populated States of Northern Mexico in pay ment thereof, and In compensation for onr services in freeing their country of foreign In vaders.. What gives additional weight to those re- ports la the alleged fact that .Senor Romero the Mexican Minister who for the past six months has been treatedlcoidly and distantly by the State Department, la now re ceived with smiles and complai- faitce. A strong lobby Is being formed to put the fifty million loan through Congress. Rumor has it that ten millions of the Ally Is to,bo divided among the ‘‘lobby” for patting the loan through. How much,U any, will find its way into the pockets of the members, is not known, bat the lobby can afford to be liberal, and still keep large plants for their own trouble and services. It Is fair to pre* same that those members who vote and speak against the loon are out side of the “ring.” CORBOBORATTVE PROOFS. It is well understood by those who have ac cess to the “green-room” and can see behind the scenes, that Maximilian stock has rapidly fallen since tbe passage of tbe Civil Bights Bill over thereto, and the consequent evapo ration of the “ Johnson Conservative party.” It is also reported that orders bare been gent to the various navy yards to place a large nom* ber of naval vessels iu couditon for immediate service. The gathering war cloud in Europe and the dl&coutcntcd state of the French peo ple with Napoleon, arc deemed to furnish a favorable opportunity for enforcing the Mon roe doctrine in Mexico and rescuing the Presi dent from his entanglements and restoring him once more to a position of commanding Influence and popularity. Odsbrveb. FRO 31 ITALY. Onr Florence Letter. Election Declared Null and ■ynld—Tbe IVar Bamorw—Pualilnn of Italy—Tbe Near ffiarrlago Bcglstra* llou—Complaints Against Garibaldi. [From Oar Special Correspondent. ] Florence, Italy, March SO, ISM. The principal event of the week is the action of Parliament on the election of Mazzini by the city of Messina to the Cham ber of Deputies. After a long discussion, the election was declared null on the ground that Mazzini Is still under condemnation for rebel lion against the Government of Piedmont. It was noticeable that nothing was said against Mazzini; the orators for the Government simply maintained that until pardoned by Royal Grace the great apostle ol Italian liber ty must obey tbe law as all other Italians do. They even pronounced words of admiration and praise which must be grateful to the martyr who lies dying in London. Probably the real reason for bis rejection is a diplo matic one. Tod know Louis Napoleon got him condemned a year ago for a conspiracy— hatched in a French police office—against the Emperor’s valuable life, and It is currently reported that tbe French Ambassador's Influ ence stayed the gracious act that would have removed the only harrier to Mazzial’s en trance into the Chamber.. Still, more than a hundred deputies voted to declare the election valid. The liberals argned stoutly that to annul the elctlon on the ground of disobedience and treason under Piedmont, was to declare that the rest of It aly .was annexed to the ex-kingdom of Sonli ala. whereas the kingdom of Italy, they con tend, is a thing distinct from that, as from all the other Governments ol the Peninsula prior to 1860, and rests solely on tbe popular icm expressed by the plebiscite, or national cl-. eel lon- So far as the action of the Chamber of Deputies can be supposed to be free—n very doubtful matter—the vote must be taken to declare in favor of the doctrine of annexation; and it is an unfortunate decision, for to all the rest of Italy, Uls a matter of sensitive honor to claim that their votes are part of the Integral popular act which made Italy. Rumors of war fly thick and fast; but very few pereons attach any Importance to them. The Ministry have done a foolish thing m sending General Govone—one of the best offi cers of the Kingdom—to Berlin, ostensibly to examine tbe Prussian system of military or ganization. It Is taken in Europe to denote anxiety on tbe part of Italy to lorm an alli ance with Prussia against Austria.' General Govone la believed to be an envoj with ex traordinary powers to plan a campaign. • Now, as Italy wants a war it was her interest not to prevent one; but no act of hers could more tend to peace than the sending a mili tary envoy to Berlin, for Austria is notified by that act she most, yield to Prussian de • monds, arbitrate, or flghl enemies In front and: rear; and tbe rest of Eorone, which wants peace, is roused to throw itself between tbe German contestants and force them to adjust their matters. . . There Is, Indeed, one ground onjwhlch Italy may be justified for this public threat to Aus tria. If she Is negotiating with Austria, it may be an effort to induce that power to con cede ltalian rights In Venitia. Tbe telegraph will advise yon, before you receive this, what position has been finally taken up by Austria, tor it Is scarcely possible this state of suspends* can continue, in the meantime, our bourses are very uneasy, and American sec unties suf fer With the rest, because people jptfer to hold their money for investments in German bonds at low rates. It appears that the new law for tho regis tration ofmarrtarea'ls not obeyed by the peo ple, even la Turin. The prlesta have cele brated, since the first ot January, one third more marriages than are recorded in the mu nicipal office ol that city. If this happens In Turin, it is safe to say that, throughout the Kingdom, not one half of tbemarriagesmade ' this year are legal. The law makes the chil dren of these unions Illegitimate, and the mar riages them selves only concubinage; while on the other hand the priests declare all merely civil marriages by the same ugly name. If the priests aid their doty and gate the people good adnee, the law would be respected and conformed to. But the priests are resulted to force upon the Government the necessity of .modifying the law in favor of Innocent chil dren bom out of legal wedlock. When once the law Is modified, the"*reverends will say to the people. “ Ton see we are the stronger; your usurping Government confesses it!*' it is one of the best signs of the times that In Naples—priest-ridden Naples, that wor shipped San Gennaro, the civil marriage law, is most valued and obeyed. There have been in that city several marriages of priests, and hundreds of other cases in which the Church is not asked to give her approval and bless ing. By the way, a recent census of that city gives U a population of six hundred and fifty thousand souls. With the addition of contiguous bnrghs and villages, nearly a mil lion of population la counted on a space equal to that covered by Chicago. The city flourishes under the new order of .things, and although reaction Is busy and virulent, the people are Intensely patriotic and loyal >Feople are anxious to hear from Garibaldi oh the coming war; but he holds his tongue —very properly, I think. A manifesto from him would weigh something in favor of peace at Vienna. Meanwhile, there Is Just com plaint that be has held the office of Deputy far six years without performing the duties of his station. Honorary Deputies may be well enough os an outside matter, but those Who elect Garibaldi have a right to be repre sented ouce in a while at Florence. A public meeting In Piacenza recently requested him to visit the Chamber ot Deputies before the close of this session. The meeting was com posed of his political friends, and their advice Is a friendly warning; but Ido not think he will heed It. Stebo- THE CAB DBITBBS* STRIKE. Six lb Day of tbe Embargo on Up-Town Residents—Scenes and Incidents—Ae» -tlon of tbe common Connell-ICevo cation of tbe Railroad Charier*—Re ported Assaults. [From the New York Tribune, iTlh^ Tbe drivers arc cosll£t»ance oluos companies mexorgconvenlenccd and annoyed. .Uc t prevails on all sides, and there Is not tbe slightest prospect of the speedy restoration of public tranquility. Tbe dri vers imagine themselves the only parties aggrieved, tbe railroad companies think they are being very roughly dealt with in being compelled to open their purse strings against their will, and the good natured public have long since come to tbe conclusion that they arc the victims of indeed very unfortunate circumstances, Tbe Metropolitan Police have serious thoughts of resigning, at least that portion of tbe force that nos been detailed on the running service; the new drivers have made up their minds that tbe “freedom” of the American citizen is all nonsense, and per haps the horses, who bare to do all the work and get no pay whatever, except that very unsatisfactory recompense doled out to the Hibernian fiddler “ more kicks than half pence,” ore the only animals who have rea son to feel gratified at the general disorder .and confusion. There Is, however, a report to the effect that they too ore made to sutler, the railroad companies having discovered some way or other that tbe horse that does not work can go on half rations. Yesterday ffiorning and evening the public indignation against the entire crowd of directors, drivers, &c., reached Us height. In the pleasant sun shine of Sunday and the preceding days, pedestrianLnn was, tossy the least, not un comfortable. It was somewhat of a novelty for a great many people to walk a mile, or even two, and H was not after all very displeasing. And then It was something to talk about, and formed a very good topic for a few moments* desultory conversation. But yesterday morn ing, when the up-town business mao awoke, and saw tbe ram pattering against his win dowsed- beheld tbe miniature lakes la the streets, tbe cataracts from the house-tops, and the respectable sized rivulets coursing along tbe gutters, but no cars, he was driven almost- to distraction. However, cavalry boots, otl-sklns and an umbrella got him bravely over the difficulties both natural and artificial. The women who- do business In stores, &c., and bad to go out yesterday, suf fered a great deal, and deserve onr sympathies more than any other class. THE SITUATION. Yesterday was the sixth day of the strike and the end appears yet far on- The railroad companies have succeeded In running a few of their cars, bat one tenth of the people can not be accommodated. The new drivers cun not be relied on. Inexperienced bands they cannot “keeptime," and not ono in five-of thorn remain longer than twenty-lour boors. However the companies show no disposition to accede to the demand, and tbe “ strikers" appear equally resolved to persist in their ?• resent course. Their organization Is becom np more and more complete and they appear inclined to think that the companies will have to adjust the matter to their satisfaction. It is stated that men are being brought fiom New Jersey, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Cuuuevtlvul mail oilier Slates, and that the men now driving are nearly all strangers In; this city. They ore not licensed drivers, to become which, it is necessary to be a citizen of the United States, a resident for one year of the State, and of tbe county for six months. CertiQeates of competency are also required. It Is asserted that one of the companies brought a large railroad car of men from one of the New England States, tbe greater number of whom were Immediately put to drive. This action baa given great dissatisfaction to the old drivers,hat It Is very probable that tbe new comers will not remain tong. Many of the persona now driving are mere boys, and the horses suffer In conse quence. There is considerable skill required alter all in so managing a car that it will be comparatively easy even when heavily loaded to'start it again. Some of the men who have stiuck have been seven and eight years driv ing on some of the lines, and there is scarcely a hollow or a hill ever so small on the line which they do cot know. . There is no very bad feeling among the strikers on the Secondave; railroad, and Mr. RDey, tbe President, extended the time to last evening for tbe old drivers to come back at the old prices. None availed themselves of the grace up to a late hour last evening, and the present drivers of the few cars that arc running arc all new men. The President of the Third-avc. railroad company employed some “green” bands yes terday morning, and about thirty-five cars were running during the day—a very email proportion of tbe entire number. The Uon. W1 A* Barling addressed the drivers at the depot yesterday and advised them to goto work, stating that the Company would take tbe matter into consideration and probably give them an Increase. But Mr. Darling failed to charm them to obedience. Tbe Fourth avenue line was running about fortv cars yesterday—all new, drivers, and nearly all other than the ones they had on Saturday. Some of them, alter remaining on a few hours, jump off and leave the carlo the conductor. One brought a car down to tbe City ilall yesterday, and there “tied up;” while another on a different car thought to jump off in Centre street, but was held at Us post by tbe policeman. The Sixth avenue Company were running about seventeen cars, and the Eighth about twenty-three. The Bleeckcr street line ran thirty cars yesterday, and today they nay off the old drivers. Tbe travel on other Hues is about the same os on last Friday and Sat urday. The Common Conned adopted a resolution yesterday directing tbe Corporation Counsel to take the necessary legal steps to revoke the charters of the railroad companies In con sequence of irregularity in the rpnnmg of their cars. t From tbe New York Herald, 17.] By the laws of the city no one is permitted to ] drive a city railway car unless be is licensed, such license to he procured at the Mayor's office. To procure this license Uls accessary to be twenty-cue years of age, a citizen, and to have resided at least sis mouths In the city of New York. That a number of unlicensed and ineffleent men are at ’ present acting os drivers is sufficiently proven from the fact qt there haring been but on? hundred and thirty-eight drivers' licenses altogether taken out since tbe 12th lust. As the men at present driv lug the cars have with- In the lost lew days been imported from New Haven, Hartford, Boston and -other places, the requirements foe the procuring ofllceoscs canrot have existed. The Mayor, as well as the first Marshal, arc determined to exercise the greatest strictness in the granting of licenses, although several clear cases of per jury on tbe port of applicants have been dis covered. - . The Effect of Use New York Strikes* ; [From the New York World. 17ffi loaf.] . Strikes sometimes have a solution not look ed for by either the employer or the employe. We have a recent example. Tbe masons and plasterers have recently struck for higher wages and shorter hours, demanding, at the. same lime, some regulations respecting the manner of conducting the trade, Tbe build ers were obliged to yield, but limited their new contracts as much as possible. The re sult is a great decline lo the price of building materials. Brick Is three dollars per thou sand lower. Lath have declined from six dol lars to four dollars per thousand, and lime has’decliued from two dollars to a dollar and twefaty-flve cents per barrel- Thus, Instead ol exacting anything from those for whom building is done, or dimin ishing the profits of the builder (who has probably got an advance on his contract by pleading the strike), the party Injured Is the poorly paid class, who go Into the woods and get out lumber, who make brick, or who burn Time. The practical result of the strike of the masons has been as if they and the car penters were each receiving three dollars per dayi the masons, by demanding and re ceiving four dollars, should compel the car neuters to work for two dollars per day. We have another .illustration. The molders about Troy have been standing out on & strike recently, during which pig iron de clined seven dollars per ton, and coal two dollars per ton—the result of which will be, tbot the miners will ultimately be compelled to accept lower wages. Beyond a certain cost, tbe building of bouses and tbe con stmetion of machinery is checked; when the utmost cost Is reached, the strike of one class of operatives works Injury only to an other class. The Cigar Steamer. The nautical problem involved in the. launching of Mr. Wman’s celebrated cigar steamer, has been at least partially solved. The London Star of March flOth says: Yesterday tbe ship got fclrly out Into the Chan nd anti went return toe coast as far as Bnehton, where Mr- Wxnans reside*. About half past twelve she came np from the eastward, going very fast Sue came wubla a quartet ol a mile of the snore, oer strange aod ngtj appearance exciting the creftlm interest among tbe crowd* wno. as It happened, to consequence of the fine weather, werejuM then on the sea-front. When s short dl:- rance to the West of Brighton she turned and came back again at slow speim past the ipwn. The ses was calm, hut there wav a flight swell on, to which the queer a aft moved ligbtlvand easily, bhe left scarcely any rough water behind her. and seemed locut cleanly through the tide. Alter repaying the town she put on steam aguts to the eastward. THE PACIFIC BAILWAY. Befionrces of the Far West. Speech of Llratsuat Governor Bums Before the New Fork Chamber of. Commerce. The following speech of Lieutenant Gover nor Braes, of Illinois, bos been published in pamphlet form by the New Tork Chamber of Commerce, before whom it was delivered on the 25th of January last: ADDBBU or user. GOT. BBOSS. Hb. Pntsiuurr ajcd OEsnim: Now that the war U over. I’- is the fluty, as it seems to me. of the American people to inquire bow they can most rapidly develop the resources of their tan country, ana bow tbey can beat promole tne •■ability and welfare of the Republic. A knowledge ol the ex tent of that country, of Ita climate and topography, of Its mineral and agricultural rtchraps essential to all those who mean to be Identified with that new era of development, upon which. It Is believed, the Vnloa la now entering. It is with the hope that lean contribute fomeibreg to that knowledge that I have ventured to appear before you to-day. TUB OTTBUKD JOCSOT. :jt is already known to all or jon, bathe intro duction of your President, that, daring the last summer, the Hoe- Sckujler Doifsx, Speaker of the House of HcpreseotsUvef. executed a purpose loo* entertained to visit the Pacific coast. He had for many year* occupied m Important and leading position among tbe lectsmtora of the nation. As chairman of the Post Office Committee of the House ot Representatives, be had brought in the “Over land Dally MaD” and “Pacific Telegraph” bills. He bad also used all his influence to para the Pa cific Hallway bill, and he wanted to see what fur ther legislation was necessary to develop tbe Pa dfleStates of the Republic, and, wl'b this view, he resolved to make a persons! tour through this vast region. Be invited Mr. Bowles, of the Springfield RrtjwWiccn, (who has written a most interesting account of our travels, in which ail particulars concerning the country can he found, or at lea-t more of them than any where else,) Mr. Richard •os. of the New York Tribune, and yoor speaker to he tbe companions of his Journey. It ta to such facts and observations as I was able to make on that journey of thirteen thousand miles, particularly those which relate to the Pacific Rail wav, Us location and the meant of sustaining so vast an eotepriae, that I wish to call your attention. Tbe great belt of % alley and mountain, divided . Into Mates and Territories, stretching trom tha At lantic to tbe Pacific coast, which forms our com pact ind now moie than ever glorious Union, em braces the very best portions of the North American con*lsent. A glance, therefore, at the topography of the country will enable oa the better to under* stand the great future which. It la behaved. P*— dencc has in store lor oa. .. nreg at tbe xomrcict* America, too same ’ Atwi first, as to lea mmv through North America, southern eztren&'up Into the regions of eternal grand tuo-is' in all respects tbe moal remarkable TOCe ol mountains upon the globe. Whether the theory of elevation or subsidence be adopted, these mountains arc undoubtedly due to the same geolo gical causes, operating far back m the history of 1 must ask you, Mr. Chairman, and the Chamber, to excuse any errors of lasgaige 1 may commit In the extemporaneous expreislou of as many factsaslcm express within the limits of an hour.' " Tbe manuscript which I have complied on the subject would require nearly two hours to de liver. 1 shall go directly to the map, and point out the route we took across tbe continent, and tbe rente for the railway, and give you such facts as I think wIQ be moH interesting in relation to this great national enterprise. 1 prefer to do this in onr plain Western style, giving you the facts, rather than to make any particular attempt at a finished literary effort. lam perfectly aware that the gentlemen here have not more than an hour to spare, and in that honr 1 want to give yon all th» information I can. lUiUIUJfIUVW - V«M* : 1 bee to nil your attention to the map. What la reiUy tha extension of tbe Andes from sontb Amer ica, this monnialn none, tods west and northwest, fondue the lath tun? of Btxlen, through Central America, till it reaches the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Here It divides. The western range trends a little weM of north, near the Pacific coast, ana whether called tbe Cordilleras in Mexico, the Sierra Neva daa m California, or tbe Cascades la Oregon, It la tbe tame grand chain of mountains, losing Itself far to thenorib In the Russian Territory. Starting ab oat tbe Gnlf of Tehuantepec, the other division rana nearly north lor some 4,000 miles, forming too western boundary of the valleys ol the Mississippi and McKenzie's mer. while its northern peaks brood over the Arctic Ocean. It is commonly call ed the Pocky Mountains. The third chain of mocptalna within the limits of the United Stales is the Allegheny range. It commences near the month of the St. Lawrence, trends to the southwest, and passing within from one lo three hundred miles or the Atlantic coast, •broach New England and tbe Middle States, the range loses itselfin Georgia and Alabama. These moDotaia ranges bound the great valleys of the con tinent, and from them, of come with a few excep tions. tbe riven find their way to the ocean. The UVUr. ,WV - .. v.» 'MW.. W—Mi .MU streams and the cOTkfpondmg Talleys of the Atlactx slope are so well known tost a mere reterence to them is all that is necessary. 11l should call the mere, the Hudson, the Delaware, Sosaoehasna, Potomac and the rest little mill streams, leaping down from the enmmin of tbe Alleghany Mountains. I should scarcely mis name them, if compared with tbe St. Lawrence, the Miesljflppt and the Columbia, the three great rivers ol me continent. And jef, as Greece, a little specie upon the map of Europe, gave language and literature and law to all subsequent hUtory, so will these narrow valleys of the Atlantic seaboard give Christian civilization and freedom to this vast con- tinent. ThU broad belt of country, some twenty-five handled mltea wide at tts northern limit, between these two rods, (placing them npon the map,) one, yon will observe, lying upon the Allegheny and tbe other upon the Kocsy Mountains, la the valley of the Mississippi. In toe comparison yon see that all the valleys or the Atlantic slope do not amount to much- It Is tbe largest, and in all respects tbe richest valley upon the globe, and a very few de cades more wul mllice to concentrate there the wealth and the population and tbe power ol the Republic. From it New Tork mu.-t draw that commerce which will make her the largest and tbe , moat magnificent city upon me globe. 1 TUX VIIXEIS. Five of the seven great valleya formed by the Rocky sed the Siena Nevada Mountain#he within tbe United States. Ilere (pointing It oat upon the msp) U the valley of the Bio del Norte, toe only river that breaks through tbe Rocky Mountains to tbe son'heast, lo all its course between tbe Gulf of Trhaaatepee and the Arctic Sea. The upper por tion! of this valley, in New Mexico, are valuable for ■cricnimral purposes, and they areslso exceedingly rich In mineral resources. We notice next the valley ol the Colorado of tbe West, probably ice least valuable ot all. Ihc Colorado Is the only rlvertbat breaks through tbe grand Pacificrsose between the 6mf of California and tbe mouth of the Colombia. Tbe vallev of Great Salt Lake, eome four hundred miles long by three hundred miles wide, la me tvpe of several other smaller valleys weat el it, Rom which tbe river* have no outlet to tbe ocean. All tbe water that tails upon the moun tains in which their rivers and stream* take their rue, either sinks away in the sand or u evaporated and carried off bv the winds of heaven. North of bill Like lie* the valley of the Columbia, aext In site snd taper mce 10 that of the 511*iU*ippl. Thla msgsificest river breaks through tbe Cascade Mountains la l*Htode4B°, forming some of the most beautiful and sublime jccnery upon ibe con* ttoeni. Beside its frowntoe battlements of basalt, many of them said to be four thousand feet high, the Catskills tod Palusdes of tbe Hudson are dwarfed Into utter Insignificance. It 1» a remarkable fact that, through all these great mountain ranges there are depressions or Seset through which the great lines or travel and inslt can find their way from one valley to the o'her.|Not so much so inib Earope&Tbe Alps rise up Is the centre, and from them the riven too In all directions to the sea. ho with Aria. The Ilimalaja Mountain?, north of India shoot np far |into tbe regions of per* petnal snow, and from them the great rivers ot the continent room rib. ea«i and sooth tmothe Arctic, the pacific and the Indian Oceana, and west into the Caspian Sea. These mountains in the Old World form practically Impartible harriers between the people who dwell along the great rivers that rtre in them, and hence the nations of Europe and Asia have alwajs differed In language, ins il lations and laws, Europe and Asia may be compared to a bowl wrong side np. while In America we have eevt.nl grand hwra«, right side op, with the rims at convenient points smoothed down for the great highways of commerce to pass from one to the other, manifestly ahowing that Providence intended Amenta to be the home of cue homogeneous, great and free people. Let one Constitution ever be the palladium of their liber* ties, and one flax, the glorious start and »tripci, float over them forever. ' the pacific uailuoad norrza. Wa bp* Tiniv nimamt In fnllntv ttiT mnt* f/ip th* We are now prepared to follow the rente for the Pacific Kaliway, the survey* for which, yon will remember, the Ute Senator Beaton e&id tbe baflalo had made lottfi before Coinmbtta landed upon tbe Western Hemisphere. The carters terminus of tbe mam trunk tine, yon will remember, was fixed bv tbe late Pretidvnl Lincoln, at Omaha, In Nebraska, on the Mtstonri river. Before tracing the line west or that point, I remark that there u still s sec tion of one hundred and thirty miles wot ot Boons boro, on the Bea Uoinea river, to be completed, in order to open a dlMt railroad connection between New York and The Directors of the Ce dar Rapids and Muronrl River Roads have agreed with the Northwestern company to have a perpet ual lease oi tbe line, to Complete It by the Ist of January, I6e8; but it is-confldcntly believed they will have U done on or bclore tbe Ist of May, I 85«. It ought to be finished in a single year, and New Yorker Chicago could uellailord to fUmiah the extra funds necessary to do iL Turningjonrattentlon to the map. Ictus now trace tbe line marked out by nature for tbe great central highway for Ibe commerce of tbe world iiioh ihe Americas continent. Beginning at Oma ha, *he line would tun for seven hundred miles (I tpeak to all cafe? m round nnmbera; up the valley ol tbe Plane, the north branch ot this river and the Sweet Water, to the Sooth Pats. Thence It would cross an elevated plain west ol the mountains, ran nlng a little north of west for two bandied ana fifty miles, reaching Ibe trlhatanea of tbe Snake River, a Branch ot the Columbia. Thence It would ran down tbe valley of that stream till it emerged on tbe west aide of Ibe Cascade Range, whence it could continue down to Portland, or deflect a little northwest and reach Puget’s Sound, one of the most beautiful sheets of water upon the globe, it is a remarkable fact, that by Hus route there Is not a single mountain barrier be tween New York and Ibe Pacific Ocean— not oxa. He, who fashioned the globe, when Be bid tbe great mountain ranges ot Ihe continent me np from the depths of the ocean, smoothed down a pathway lor the Pacific Railway. True, at tbe South i’aa* you are seven thousand feet above the level of the sea; but yon have seven hundred miles In which to make the ascent, np the valley of the Platte: and on tbe west of the Pass, the road would follow down the natural and gradual descent ol the Columbia to the ocean. But the wealth ol the great city of San Fraodsco, the wonderful agricultural developments of the great Salt lake valley, and the untold mineral riches of Nevada, bare forced the selection of an other rente tor this road. Until it reaches the sierra Nevada Mountains, It is, on the whole, neany If sot quite os favorable as the line ireluve jost traced, it follows np tbe valley of toe Platte till It reaches the south lorfcof that river; thence np that blanch to the month of tbe Cache lePo acre; thence up that stream it finds its way without eerion* obstruction among the Black Bills to tbe Laramie Plains: thence onward, across the North Platte and op the a'rcams which enter it from the weal. It reache* Bridget's Pass, with much less engineering difficulties than were overcome by the Erls and the Pennsylvania Central Bui ways, sotrrn pass. Too may be pnzzkd to know, as I was, why that past is called the Sooth Pub when Bridget's Pass la some two hundred miles to the tooth of it. The reason is that the old tnppen who reared op the ease aide of the*e raoanums supposed that the Sooth Pass was the must southerly pass In the mountains through which one might cross them from east to west. They called it, therefore, the Sooth Pass, and it retains ira name (o this day. Bat Captain Bridget found this pass two hundred miles room of the Sooth Pats, and hence It bean his name. There is no pass south of this till yoo get to the Rio del Norte, which breaks through the Rocky Mountains to the southeast, from New 3be descent on the west side of Bridget's Pass is not more difficult than the ascent on the east. The road wxll first run down the Valley of the Moddy, thence it crosses a low ridee to Bitter Creek Valley, down which it will run nearly doe west a hundred miles to Gretn Hirer, the main tributary of the Col otadooi the' West. Crossing this river, and fol lowing op the streams that enter It from the west, it will run near Fort Bridger, soon after passing which it reaches the streams that run into salt Lake. CRAPINO. These it will follow through the mountains till it reaches the great and highly prosperous Cuy of the Saints From Salt Lake the road is to ran a little north of west, through a pass to the Humboldt Mountains, till it reaches the head waters of the rxvecof that rame. Down this stream U will ran for crate Are hundred miles, till It meets the Trucker from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Be* tween what Is called the sinks of the two rivers— the places where they are lost in the eantt—there is a low sandy plain of come forty miles wide, so that a capital route for the road exists west of Salt Lake lo the casiern base of the mountains. Here toe K al difficulty of the work commences. An eleva tion of three thousand leel Is lo be overcome from me east, and from the Donner Lake summit there is a descent ot seven thousand leel to the Sacra mento rit er; but the highest grade on cither side 1s a hundred and five leet lo the mile. Governor SteSortT the President, and Crocfefr. the contractors, took our party over the non* tatas-to Donner Lake, on and , ne ?f.l|f e of the road: and from actual ins Pectin® of this nut of the Ime, from conversations with the engineers, an examination ol thdr reports, and crossing tbo Rocky Mountains through Bndrer's Pass, and travelling alone the bna 1 have described for at least fifteen hundred miles, I repeat tae as surance that there are no four hundred tad hlty mile* of this road that win cost anything like what the Erw otf Pennsylvania Centra/ build them. For five hundred mile* op the valley of the Platte, thoplow md *«J«»P er i ) W ■ Ts* JiiUe levelling oa by the wilj grade the coed nrach Crater than » will lg po«IbIe to procure the non and doa to build it. For *hun dred iellea down Ac Bitter Creek V tiler, «fd «» fOroe Are mile* down the Humboldt and up the Trnckey, the ending ol the line c*a be done With very hole fTpumir- th* csstiul ud cnon neme cowi***- Two companies, the Central end the Union Pa cific, are bonding the roed Best end Weit, Md ' when they meet they ire to become one tee. Toe Central Pacific have the California end of the rood, sod they are building it right up the idem Nevada Mountains. with in energy tod e success which ere worthy ofal! prabe. Tbcyhadflfty-stxmlleadone, to the new town of Colihx, when we left Ban Fran cisco. In September, and fourteen more will b« com pleted. to Iraicn Flar, by tne drat of Slay. They promise to be at 9ali Lake la three ycen; and If U xa possible for human energy to acconpbatt so greet a w* rk in so short a time, tae < alirorntana ere Just tinmen to do u. Whatever the people of thePe* clflccoasr undertake, they carry oat with e power of endurance and a success that are On oor aide, the Union Pacific Company, of wolcb Major-General Dix Is President, are building the road west from Omaha. They now bare forty miles flmsheo, and sixty more will be to opera! ion by the lint ,of Jnly. It it expected that another hundred, reaching to Fort Kearny, will be com pleted daring the present year, certainly by the spring of I£6>.- The road can he pushed forward six hundred miles to the mountains as fast as tho iron and ties can be procured to do it. When once that la done, the gold of Colorado and Montana will pour into New fork in such amounts that ■Wall amet will at first look on in amazement, and then shout aloud for Joy. These two companies are simply the agents of the American people, for by the munificent aid Con* gtess has granted them, the naJou has adopted the work as its own. Hence the people ought to hold them to a strict accountability, and require jhem to do It In the best possible manner, and as fa*t as men and mosey can do JU If in any respert they fail to do their doty, let Congress take the work out of their hands, and give It to men who properly appreciate the vast importance of the trust com muted to their care. To each of these companies Congress has granted or loaned the bonds.of the Government, to be reimbursed by carrying the mails and other services, to the amount or sixteen, ibirty-two and foity-elght thousand dollars per mile, proportioned accoraing to tho difficulty and coat ot the wort In different seetto of tho road, to be delivered, e s aa l as twenty miles are finished—* of the Gov ernment permits a first nw»”*n® ttad: so that amounts, to be a lien pr* honestly built, these ersmcßi' to be-’- enmtetl bj lh« Ooteni if economiwild tbo raid. But, in addl boodsaiTiblf, Congress haa given tbe companies cwelve thousand eight hundred acres of land per mile to further aid in its construction. True, in long section*, these lands most ever be worthless; but even without them, the companies hive abun dant means at command 'o complete and fully to equip the line in five—at most m eight years; and it there is any flinching, and whining lor more aid, be sore there is an attempt at swindling or stealing hr some one. When completed, the meo who have I,‘r.ilt ibis road will in my Judgment, be tbe richest n.en in America; but no on* will grudge them their coed fortune If they baud It rapidly, and conduct it energetically and laitly when once it is finished. ASCMULVCE or XATXBUL. Now, a* to the material for building the road. 1 be puollc have been taught to believe that the en tire country, for nearly 2,500 miles between the Missouri River and the Sierra Nevada Mountains, is entirely destitute of 1 1 tuber; and, in fact, so it ap pears to be. a* seen from the stage-coach m trav elling over the route. But this scarcity of timber is more apparent than real. For the first 100 miles or more we-t of the Mlstann, ties most be procured mainly from the valley of that river. Halfway up the Inattelherf) arc valleys rntmng out norm and south, in which there are said to be very large Quan tities of cedar suitable for ties. For a considerable distance the station* of the stage company are built of timber taken from these valley*, in the Rocky Mountains therei’an abundance of timber for ail purposes. It can be thrown Into the Plait* and its tributaries, floated down In high water to where it is wanted, slopped by a boom across the river, taken out and sawed np by portable saw nulls, and thus. If the work is properly managed, u can be finished np to the mountains in less than three years. For a hundred miles or two west of Brid gets Pass tbc lies would bave to be procured from the Rocky Mountains. For convenient distances east and west of Green River the lies can be obtain ed from (be Wind River Mountains at the head of that stream, and floated down, as in the care of the Platte. The mountains about Salt lake will fur nish an abundance of ties to bnlld the road east sod west of them. The Humboldt Mountains will tfUU lICII Ul blivUi. lUCUUUinuutitfuuuvMi. snpplv tlum for the valley of that river, and the Si erra Nevada Mountains have timber enough to boild and lurntoh fuel for the entire road lor a hun dred yrtrs to come, could it be properly distributed along tbc line. General Dix, toe President of the Onion Pacific Company, told me yesterday, that the engineers bad nported a lar better supply ol tim ber than It had been supposed couid be found. It inil be expensive In some sections to get it wnere it i* wanted; but this will In most cases be more man balanced by the very little amount of grading which, for hundreds of miles, the companies will have to do. tvstsr. Then as to the means to operate the road ; and firjf, as to water. My Information 1* that for the entire distance across the continent there is an abundance of this essential element wltbtn the or dinary run of a locomotive. It mil probably not be eo diflicnll to supply the line wl'h water as U was the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central, running as It does on the dividing ridge between the'Wabash and the Illinois mere. PCEL. There is an abundance of fuel along the Hne to supply the road for some time to come. Half the way up the valley of the Platte there is plenty of blti-mmona coal. At Booidcr City, n-ar Denver. IQ Colorado, there are five veins ol excellent coal, tho largest being fifteen and the emsllea'.flrc feet thick. At the croesing'of the North Platte, we saw a coal strata among the rocks on the North sldeot the nver. At Rolphor spring*, the first elation west o! Brioccr’aPass, the Ares were made of coal found nearby; and half way down the Bitter Creek there is afro an abundance of coal. In the valley of the Weber, near ball lake, they have been working a coal mine lor several years, and coal has also been found In unlimited quantities in Nevada. FHither explorations will undoubtedly show that there is ?lenty of coal in other sections of the great central asms of the continent, so that not the least scarcity of fuel need be feared by the projroiors and friends ot this gnat national enterprise. AGBlCCL’Ttmxi. RESOURCES. And now as to the means ol suata-ning the road— of giving it hnrines*. That will depend, gentlemen, upon the agricultural resources of toe country through wmeb It pastes, upon the mineral re toarcesof that conntrv, and upon ihe through tra vel and freight which vhc road will command from tbc commerceoftne world. A* toil? agricultural naourccs, I eaidtn another place that most of us have been accustomed to believe all ihe central portions ot the continent Vo be entirely destitute of limberand of the meant of anstvimnir life. It bas . nun proved that ihla.ua very great fallacy. As to trees, ms true that for five hundred miles up the valley of the Platte there arc only a few ecaifered couon woods along the banks of the river, bnt on either <lde, and everywhere, there is what is called buffalo glass. This crass grows op rap idly _,tn the spring, being watered by the rnoo? of winter and the early rains, and when toe hot rummer cornea uta dned by ihe eun. It Is ex ceedingly nutritious, because during the summer no rain fall? upon It, and it la cured by the sun, aa hay Is Cared. In the autumn It is an uncut hay. This grass has sustained million* on millions of buffalo ever since they were lint curated by Provi dence. and our own judgment is, that instead of there being a great de eri, as laid down on nearly every school atlas, and as we have been taught by geographies from childhood to the present hoar, (for oruT a few days since 2 saw a new map that still recorded this as the great American assert,) yet there la no desert there, nor anything like a ceseri ll the imfihta can live, why cannot the ox live there loo? In onr opinion, this vast region wa< speclilly intended to oe the great meat-producing sec tion of the continent. The buffalo already live there In counties’ millions; fore, can “ the cattle on • bill*.' 1 So *OOO as the railway shall be open, and population can be spared to tend the flocks, the gnat herds of the continent will concentrate' here, and supply the food or the world. Immediaiely beyond the mountains lies the country ofthe sage brush and the bunch grata. Not a tree ia to be wen for five hundred mile* In that region. There la no vegetation there hut the sage brn-b and the bunch grate. The bunch grata la a modest little grass, pomethtng like red-top. Like buffalo gnu?, it grow* np rapidly in the spring, and cures in the pot. The drivers of the stage coaches tell ns that it is extremely nutritions—as nu'rltious as oat*. Were it cot for this little modest bunch cra»s, nei ther animal nor man coold cross the continent, for no team could draw provender enough to sustain bath its driver and uself-for so long a distance. The bunch gnus i* the great nutriiiou agent of that portion of the continent. The sane brush is a little frtaruD-Ukc plant, with a stalk two or three Inches ta thickness, and grows to a height of about four feet. It forms a beanutnl bead, and has a green circular top in color very much like the sage. That is all iht- vegetation to be scene in travelling between the mountains. UiVWUUU)* . . . bait iaku errr. Tbe Mormons have proved that wherever there Is water to be found la toe central portion of the con tinent. the soil can be made Immensely productive. In 1637 the Mormons settled at Salt Lake. They then knew very little of tbe country, bnt have since gamed experience, and there are now 100,000 people living in tne Salt Lake Valley, mainly by agricul ture. Brigham Young told na be bad harvested ninety-three bushels of wbeat to tbe acre; and If yon stand in Salt lake City, or among the farms 'batsmiownd It, and look at tbe Immense crops that the Mormons raise, yon will be tadsfled that m the whole central Section of the continent, all along tbe streams, If yon take the water out from its bed and lead It among your fruits and farm pro duct?, yon will raise them in tbe utmost luxuriance. 1 here is so city that I have seen to equal Silt Lake In beauty and fertility. Aa yon look down upon it, after having travelled fifteen hundred miles from tbe Missouri, it is an object of indescribable bcanty, and as yon approach it, it becomes only ihe more heantl- Ini. The streets are wide, the blocks arc regular, and by tbe side ol each street, beamitally paved, runs a stream ot water from ihe mountains as pure and clear aa crystal. As this crystal stream passes by the home of each thrifty Mormon, he takes out a little thread and leads It around among his bruits, and flowers, and trees, and there they grow and revel in a perfect paradise of beauty. All through that central section of tbe comment, which has heretofore been opposed to be entirely worthless, the soil is very fertile, and only needs intelligent, earnest labor to make it yield the finest crops. All through the Rocky Mountains there are im mense park*, beautiful as It is po«*bl« tor it»m to be, ana covemi trim rich grass. To these parks, I am convinced, that aa anon as the railway reaches Colorado, the people of New York •vin go with tbeir families to enjoy tbe summer, in toat pure, biadnvt air, to derive health and vigor from tbe abundant oxygen abounding is that rep 100. and to feast tbe eye and ear upon tbe beantuxU eights and sounds that greet them on every tide. I never, tf yon wiQ penult a stogie peetonal remark, felt so like a boy as among those mountains, and I etltl ftel the energy I received from passing through this fine coomryln the stage coach, and Irom steeping out in the open air. If any one bo trembled with rheumatism in Walt Mieet, Ireconnnend him to a journey across the Kocky Mountains. There are parts ot Montana and of the Upper Valley of the Colombia which will be filled by very prosnerons farming communi ties. Everywhere throughout that vast valley, op weft of the mountains, there will be terms in abandonee, wbeie tbe air Is dry and pare and brac iog.stlmalatlng alike to men and to vegetation. In a word, tome ol tbe bc«t sections of tbe continent are to be found Jar np in that central region, where It was supposed that nothing could live. Tbe Mor mons have proved this abundantly. srcrgßAL RESOURCES. Xow,a? to theminetal resources ofthis vast central region of the continent, whttc development de pccds In a large measure on the early completion of the Pacific Railway. 1 begin with Colorado. Bight yean ago this new State was the home only of wild waste, and wilder, more savage Indians, with a few trappers. The gold discoveries, just before the breaking out of the rebellion, sent a large emigra tion to Pike’s Peak and its vicinity, and now Color ado bos its Senators and Representatives at the door of Congress, asking for admission among herold«r sisters of the Union. The product of the Colorado mines up to the close of the last year, from statis tic- and the best Information we could obtain, will bo about *30,000.000. Owing to the delays caused by the introduction of new and more perfect ma cnlnery and other cau»cs. the amount realized last year, according to the figures of gentlemen best posted on the subject, will not exceed a million of dollars. But the entire product hereto lore taken from the mines is a mere taction of what will ha ob-. tamed as soon as the railway Is completed. The goods and nearly all the provisions to supply the twenty to thirty thousand people of Colorado, and all their heavy mining machinery, must be carted from fix to seven hundred miles, at an expense of from ten to twenty-five cents per pound, or at the rate of two to five hundred dollars per ton. Hence ‘ only the richest ores can bo worked. Build the paaflc Railway, and Colorado will soon have ten times the population and produce tea times as much sold as the did in her most prosperous yean. The officers In command at Fort Kearny assured us that more freight, during the summer mouth?, passed there every day for the mountains than any one railway carried out of Chicago. Any one who has teen the interminable line of teams dragging them slow length along, can very readily understand the truth of this assertion. Colonel Potter. United Ma*es Quartermaster at Leavenworth, told me be had tent 33.i€0,000 Ibaof freight we-t during the present season, op to October Ist, and that he had kept constantly employed It,ooo mulea and 3,000 horses. De is preparing for service next season 2.C00 wagons. Wno can doubt, therefore, with the small cost of the railway up the Ptatte Valley, toat r will pay handsomely as soon as completed to tho mountains? THE MIXES or XOXTAXA. Xotth of Colorado, and among and ea«t of the mountains, is the Territory of Moa'ana. I have no definite statistics of the total amount ot cold pro duced there rlcce the discovery oftbe mines. The Montana Post* of October 89,1965, says: "Last in gngohacka. IK th* Collector ol Internal Be very lor Mmtoma w ruory antes to Washington that Gie peodacu oi tbegoldand piivtr mines of year 18R5, will be upwards of Bffi.lWß.oPh. In 1383 the Tizrtorv nil wlldcmeae. oniohabaed except by ravage*. . .. The amount of gold no« produced, a» proved oy the above, is amazing; and give the territory access to a railway a* the eastern base of tbe moon* lama,and ihe product would be immense. It la asserted, that larger amounts hare beta taken out ofcirenlocantiea there In ashorter dmo than Cali fornia or any other miciug district ever yielded. )Ww>l W V’WA Vi... . aatr lakx nixsaannoaracca. That silver and prohaoly gold exist m paving qnanilttealnihemonntlina about Salt Lake there rasrot hff* particle of aoobr. It has always been the pclicy oi Brigham Young to keep bis follower* steadily devoted to agriculture and me manufacture of such snide* as bl» people consome. But ia spite of Mormon influence, tbe officers and soldiers oT Gen. Conner's *ommand. daring seasons ol quiet have explored in small punt*, and have wund lead, copper and silver In Rush and other valleys. Kr Colfax and his party visited the termer, and bad ocular dexnonatraion that these mineral* are found there in large quantities. Be sides ihe iron and coal, the precious metalv of Ctgh would add largely to the traffle of the railway. To (bow the amount of buiiness already done at Balt t-*ke, we mention here, tbit Mr. Jennings, a toeing merchant, and Messrs. Walker, told o« that their freight nuts alone would each amount, during tbe year ISCC, to JISO.UCO. toe year iocv>, io C3A.no. 2Corth of ttah is the new and,- tn min erals, rich territory ot Idaho. The mines have been discovered and Developed to their present extent within the last three or four years. This territory, with hll Us vast wealth, will reach the Pacific Rail way to Balt Lake, or somewhere In the vicinity of Fort kßrldger. What lu trade haa already done may be judged Irom the fact, that within the last five years the Oregon steam MngaUon Company havepnt on a dally Ime of steamer?, and road* around the Cascades and iv *ve huudrcu twenty miles, and they are Blacl ® ?, bl P* navl»atin<r the b J Wells, Fargo A Co. * of the packages of which it :ry Boont all our good right arm coo-d do to lift, -xnc sold di po-*lts ol the Boise District, all accounta agree, are on the most extensive scale; and tram the Owyhee District, when the f tamp mini sent up thl* sexton are m full operation, they expect to ship stiver by the ion, aa they do now from Nevada. m mvADi. eiLTEa. Tbc stiver developments in the new State of Ne vada within the nest three years have been truly wonderful. The tint dlsixlcvof any considerable importance we reached going treat wtu that of Austin or Reese Hirer. The progress we found here had all been made vrtthic. the li»t three years, and yet, to and about Austin, there are some ten thousand people engaged mainly In mmlpg eliver. The miner and ledges, are absolutely bewildering in their n amber and richness. The ore yields from City to two and three thousand dollar* per too, and sometimta even twice that amount is ooiaroodfrom selected specimens. Although 11 costs from ten to iwelve cents pet pound freight from Austin to San Francisco, a Large quantity of me beat ores are sent lothatdiy and thence to Europe to be reduced. There were in operation in June last. In and about Austin, some half dozen mills, wim nearly a hundred stamps; but during tbo summer these facilities were to be mote than doubled. The range tn which the silver la found extends along distance north and lonib, and 1 am prepared to oelicve it forms a part even of the wonderml Owyhee range In Idaho, to which l bare alluded. Practically the amount of silver that may be taken from the Reese Hirer mines it limited by the supply of machinery and labor that can be commanded to work them, it cost, when we wen there in June last, nearly a hundred dollars per ton to reduce the ores; and hence rock that would not pay about that figure was thrown aside till the opening of the rail nay affords Cicili tles to work u mote cheaply. The first dircoreries of silver In Nevada were made at or nev Virginia City, two hundred miles west of Austin, seven or eight years ago; but the development of the mines uas been made mainly since iscu; and yet. tu that time, Virginia city, containing some ten thousand Innabltant*, with solid brick llre-proof stores, hotels and dwellings of the most substantial character, some of them truly elegant, bas been built—• beautiful little ciir, fir op among the mountains. In and about it there were, last June, seventy-seven quartz mills la ope ration. and the mining machinery is generally on the moi-t extensive scale. Silver is shipped hence to San Franci-co literally by the ton. Ilia castinto hrick-s perhaps ten inches long by five wide and four thick, we saw more than a ton of them in the safe of Wells, Fargo «S Co. A rail nay. withahaad car, extends from the door to toe safe m the nack part of the store, for the convenience df receiving and shipping the brick*. .Toe most radical advo cate ot a metallic ba-ts for our currency would re gard bis wildest visions as anre to be realized, if be made a week's visit to Austin, Virginia City. Gold inn, blmr City, and the oih<»r mining district* of Nevada. West we believe reliable statistics gives the Amount ol gold and silver bullion—for there is some gold in nearly oil the sliver mines—shipped during the last year by Well*, Fargo JfcCo/s Express, from Virginia City alone, at f10,000,109, and it Is slated that as rnnco m n re was yielded by the o.her mining districts of Nevada. From person d in spection of the mines and all the diets we wemabie to gather, 1 cordially endorse the statement of Bishop Simpson, who stated lathe Cooper laid tnie,alter hit visit to that State, “ that iheruu wealth enough there to give every soldier who has returned from ourbattlefleldaamastet of silver in place of his Iron one; and now that our victorious iron-clads have performed their part so nobly, there will be sliver enough lett to plank them more beanly Ibao they were plated with iron.” ■ln ail countries where silver mines are worked they have never been exhausted. Political insecu rity, as tn Mexico, lornetimes atop* their develop ment: but they are undoubtedly as rich as ever. The silver mines of Hungary, wrought by the Ro mans before ihe birth of Christ, s&U yi ld their treasures toman; and In Saxony they have been worked Kteaailj since the eleventh century. n ViACU IliibV * UD ClblbUlU btMlbbi j , THE CUCTOHKIA SOWING rnODCCT. Of the mines ol California, for years so well known to all of you, I need not speak at length. From Mr. bwaln. Superintendent of the Mint at San Francisco, we learned that the prodoct of the mines or the Pacific coast, including Oregon, Neva da and Washington Territory, was. In 1661. *Vfr- SiLCCO; In 1662. *49.379 000: fn 1562. *52,500.000; and, m I 6&, the amount will be found to be about *63,450.000. ’1 he yfr Id of the California mines last year was about *45.000,000. Twenty minima and a scarter5 carter were coined in the Mint at San Francfrco. « was decidedly refreshing to see a mas* of sold worth STS.OCO mel etl is a single retort; and from the atampim.' machine eolil eagles were dzopping much (aater than you could count them. There can be no doubt that there are large de posits of gold In Washington and Oregon- We saw a two cnishtl box fall ofthe finest specimens of geld bearing quartz, taken from the eastern gold districts of Oregon, in the office of the Oregon bteaxn Navlgailon Company, at Portl-md In tne central portion? of ihe continent, Colorado, Mon tart, Idaho, Tiab and Nevada. there are now nearly two hundred thousand people who would give a large local btuincss to the Pacific Railway. Build the road within five year?, and yon will have Irom three to five millions of industrious freemen there in Alices yean more, and our gold and silver mines will thin yield five hundred millions per annum. We have long etnee proved that we have the gran ary of the world, and we should then. In the lan guage ol the sagacious Lincoln, show to mankind “that -we have the treasury aa wciL” II • the ' road can be finished even to the mountains in three year*, Mr. Secretary McCulloch can go to sleep over thu na tional debt, for Colorado.-Montana, Idaho and Ne vada win put a gold and silver pillar under every bond and every greenback be has afloat, and make (hem par beyond any possible contingency- The production ot so vast an amount of the oteclou* mttaw will give to thl* nation a power 10 cou’rol ihe commerce and the dvUiratlon of the world, far b*yondall that the elides! fmacina'ion ever dared to picture. Napoleon, Is his most stupendous schemes of empire, never dreamed of what the younger norMon of tar audience wilt be sore to see' accotnplfrbed tor onr now free, and may we not hope, tver-gloricus Republic. so, there thousand THBocon name. Beside* the oractlcally unlimited local trade whlcn tbe development of ihe vast mineral resources of tbe central coitions ol tbe continent mil give to the Pacific Kailway, Us through traffic will t>e told In figures that would atartie old To?: Ism, could any one now put down tbe amounts People by tens of thousands, from all tbe eastern States, and from Europe, mil Tim tbe Yo Semite Talley, tbe Big Tree?, tbe Geysers, tbe magnificent mountains, and other woeders of Calilorrua, to aay nothing of the Californians and people Irom tbe other Pacific Slates, who will return home, to wander among tbe hallowed scenes of tbeir childhood. Two lines of bi-monthly steamers, making between them one atrlra! and one departure, every week, now ply between New York and San Francisco. By a wise appropriation of tbe list Con trreß*, a Hue of splendid maU steamers will, within the next year, be established between San fc'can cisco tbe Sandwich Islands, Japin and China. Toe Pacific Man Steamship Company bars tbe con tract, and tbe nation can be assured that they have both tbe means and the abili ty to do In the beet manner whatever they undertake. These, In connection with tbe Pnciflc Hallway, when completed, will unquestion ably control the travel and tbe commerce between Western Europe and Eastern Asia. Tbe Queen ol England and tbe Empress of France will order tbeir teas and tbeir silks by tbe American line. Tbe yoatbfhl sculptor, now a lad of perbapa ten summers, whit tling out bis first le-sonawith ajacs-knlfe among ite mountains of New England, Mew York, or tbe prariee of tbe West, Is preparing himself to realize tbe splendid conception of the late Senator Benton, varied to suit tbe altered glories of our na*ion*s his tory. Manhood's prime will find him hewing one peak cf the Rocky Mountains mio statues of Col umbus and Washington, and tbe opposite. Into ibote of onr own immortal Lincoln and Gram. while ths commerce of the world for all time, will roll by at thru feet, % Thus yon see, gentlemen of tbe Chamber of Commerce, that tbe vast gold fields, and Ihe eahaastless silver ledges of the continent, are waiting to poor their treasures into the lap ot New York. More than that—tbe com merce of tbe world ta within vonr grasp when tbe Pacific Hallway la completed. In all past age?, •baldly which baa‘coo'rolled tbe traffic of Asia bas, lor the time being, been tbe largest and tbe most powerful aty upon the globe. To a self com placent Englishman tbe preolction may seem ab surd; hat l firmly believe tbe child is bom who will see New York larger, richer, and tar more po tent among the nations than Loudon. True, Man haiian lelazul m«T nor be able to contain such an immense mas? of bnmaatty r nut Long Island, and the bills west ol the Hudson will, and they are really component parts of tbe great commercial metropolis ot America. SOCIAL Alt I) POLITICAL QXASO.VS. The social andpoUHcal rcaeona fortheearivcom pledon of the Paaflc Railway might rrell form the subject of an entire lecture. Wherever ilr. Colfax ana his parly neat, among the soon-capped mooa tains of Colorado, the stiver hills of Nevada, the rich valleys and gold-bearing iedees of California, turner the frowning ba-altic crags that brood over the Colombia, among the majestic pines and firs of Ore gon—everywhere the people spoke of the old States as home. I bey said, ‘‘now that the warleover, will no the nation bend its energies to butldinz the Pacific Railway? W« waxt ro oo no**.” It' was affecting to bear them talk of Mends toor thousand miles away, toward the rising too. By sea or land, and the only means of travel no tv in nee, the journey 15 long and so expensive, tost thousands of noble men and hoping women are waning to return home till the road is done. Then they will come—for they can do it In a week’s time or less. Then the hlHs, associated with a thousand fond memories of child hood. will be revisited. The old school boose, and the old church, and the venerable paternal mansion, even though owned by strangers, will give them welcome and cheer the thoughtful visitor. Who can (ell. In paltrr pelt the value of preserv ing fresh and clowlna these endearing associations to bled the nation together in all Us latere-ts and all its clorv r Mark me—these sacred fires will bora oat with the life of the men woo new chenrb them. An other generation is growing np on the Paaflc con* t, who, if they remain Isolated there, will think mile and care lees for the early homes of their fa thers. The Paaflc Railway is, therefore, not only a commercial, it Is a political necessity, essential alike to (be nel&re. the integrity, and the very Ute onhe-oaiioo. Ron that Congress hate, with a pa triotic wisdom never before equalled, made such munificent grantsof money ano of lands to the companies engaged in building the line, let the people bold these men to a strict accountability to execute this high trust in the shortest possible time; and In five, at most In eight years, the road will be done, sndtbe integrity and piosperity of the nation will be aecured for all coming tune. TUB IXTURS OP AMERICA. A few words to the .younger portion of my audi ence. and Z have done. Gird youraeivea for the work, my friend-, acquit, yourselves like men—for you arc bern to a grand, a glorious Inheritance, when your speaker, and those of similar age, be gan life, the frontier settlements were In Xew York and eastern Ohio. The steamboat bad just hezaa to come into general nre. The ocean steamer, the railway, the telegraph, the reaping machine, ana scores of similar improvements wete unknown. Mote—and far worse than all this —the dark, blight ing pall of slavery bnoz over the farieat pontons or the and wita all our efforts to conceal our sins from ourselves and from others.. we were a divided people. What la the lecacy which we, as soon, one after another, we are gathered to our Cithers, beqamh to yoa-ourcblldren? hettlementshave been pushed beyond the Missouri, more than a thousand mues westward. The country has been rescued from me dominion of the panther and tho savage- Inun* merahie toes ot railway have been it takes li tie more than three days toM»« Sew York to Lawrence, la Kansas. /gn churches, and all the htc*etacaofoiirlir sTaas i a?B&.“ ss ™ w San Francisco—entirely across tho continent— tbe tfchtamg hoe- The iiessstup vexes nyy; and ihe reaper and the threshing-machine harvests, whose magnitude woold have astoo tbe fanner* of fifty jear» ago. We hand yoo o Colorado and bevaoa, Montana and Idaho, Ca.ue. ni» nd Washington. with all their countless trees • ores of silver and gold: and we mean to give to* the Pacific Railway to develop their resource*, and to control the commerce of the world. Better soD —ln all this broad land, from tbe lakes to the 0«l f » from the Atlantic to the Pacific, tbe fo' 1 of the slave pollute* cot the halloo •oil of America. But west of all thl Wbit though the stars and stripes flu over the richest ami the finest land on the fhco the earth—what of all the clone* ot ihe past to jf an —what though, amid torilhng shoot* oft: tizrpD, the Sag of the na*Um he Nme above t cloud* on Lookout Mountain—lf individual ai soctal corruption asp the foundations of the Go eminent I A* vice Destroy the stroru-rat si the finest physical organization. *o surely wilt ruin, and in the end blot out tho most wealth ’ tbe moat cultivated, and the most powerf nations. Aa oor fathers did. so do re. Pla* schools and churches, tide by side, in all U laud which you go tn to posses*, and give the cordlal support where they already exist. Leu) principles of our holy Christianity, the gospel ourhferaed Saviour, be the foondalton of whir you ever build. Teacn there truths to your chlldre a* we hare taught them to you. Wmothemopo the door posts of voor booses, and an approvt* conscience, the blessing* ot posterity and it smiles ofDeavezt, shall attend you. Too will the do whai voo can to make tbe name sad the tame < tbe Republic grow brighter and_ brighter upon ih page* of history till toe end of time. May Heave otos and prosper yonr efforts.” ~ . On the conclusion of the address, which was r< peatedly interrupted by warm applause, era molioa of Mr. Charles Bailer, the thanks ol the dumb* were nnanimutsl/ tendered to Mr. Brora for hi* in (cresting lecture. „ . - The gentlemen present were then severanv *- dneed to Governor Brora, and th«.rL T/v _ .onrned. _oi.IDAXIO'« TEIEGB WVfttfm 9CMkbolden->Bf __ of the CuouulUm of UTMllSt lion—Sm»plcl<m of Treachery on the Part of Kaelern Xroaioea—Dl*poalUon ofihe sukjtrt (From the Cincinnati Gazette, April 17.] An adjourned meeting of tbe stockholder* in the United States Telegraph Company, re siding in this city and ylciolty, was belli yes terday afternoon ta the Stock Exchange room- The meeting v»os organized by calling Mr. Hugh Mcßlrney to tVi Chair, who slated that the object for which th* gentlemen pres ent had assembled waa to hear » report iron a committee that had been appointed a week ogo to investigate circumstances and cause* leading to the'consolidation ol the U. S- Tel egraph Company with the Western Union Telegraph Company. " nrrosT or w. a. ottocsßEcm Mr G roes beck, a* one of the committee. aUlod that be had amended two meetings, and. In con* junction with the other members, bad made tome effort to ucer am aomethit/g about the consolida tion of ibo two companies. Speaking for hlmaeK^ ; alone, be did not think he sufficiently understood the case to express an opinion, or venture a re ! commendation, on which be would have anybody I act. We left the consideration of the subject, said Mr. Croc-beck. with about the same Impression* with \ bleb we began it. 1 am one of those whom the consolidation struck unfavorably, and I am still ol Ibe same opinion: not that I would wish to inti-' mate that there was not power in tbe Board to make the consolidation; nor do I know that there was not a necessity, under tbe clrcamttauce» of tbe care. 1 objected at first, and still object, that aocb a movement was made whhontgivinc all the stock holders an opportunity ol expressing their withes iu regard to the matter. At the same time 1 have been advised of persons voting fortheconsolidMoo fa whom I have great confidence, and therefore I lorbesr expressing my mind further. I think the stockholders of the United State* Telegraph Company proper should have been consulted qufie aa mnch as those who repre sent tbe Pacific arm of it. 1 have beard it was made upon their motion, and earned through by their votes. The consolidation may have been a judi cious movement, bat 1 would have preferred to see tbe United State* Telegraph Company go on carry ing out its own enterprise; bnt the President of the Company, and all the Directors who were pres ent, advised tbe consolidation, and 1 decline to ex press any decided opinion about it. except that I do not yet comprehend why It was dons without con sultation with tbe stockholders. If 1 had bren present at tbe former meeting, I should not tuv accepted a place in the committee, preferring to a on my own Judgment. In this way I propose to gt. out of thD difficulty tbe beM way I can. it is ih.i (Int time 1 have been tuns canght. and it will be the last. 1 cannot advise stockholders here to msti'Uto legal proceedings against the Board, as they would not bare taken the steps they did without being ad 'viaed that that they bad the power to do so. Sir. W. W. Scarborough, another of tho committee, remarked that he coincided with Mr. Groeebeckentirely. BEPOBT or HICIIAHD SKITTI. ESQ. Daring investigated this mailer somewhat fully and having no personal acquaintance with any of theTrui-tecs of ihe United Slates Telegraph com pany. except with our own local Trustee. Mr. Geo. V. Dana, in whom 1 have entire confidence, Ido not feel a* much delicacy in expressing myself upon the facta presented to tt* as Mr. Qroesbeck that originally the stock of the United States Telegraph Company - was *3, (XX), 000. After organizing and constructing their lines, they made a contiact for the construction of a line to the Paci fic, agreeing to pay the contractors $6,500,000, la Mock of the United States Company, whenever they should have ih* Dnecomplelsd- That amount -ita.sab*eqneolty, by some process, reduced to $5,11X1.000. This amount, in stock of the United States Telegraph Company, they would have the privilege ef merging mto the Westers Union Tele craob Company, it appear* that three of the Trustees ol the United plates Telegraph Compcay were parties to that contract for eozotrncting the Pacific line; and I have It from a person who ought to know, that it never wsa expected that ibat line to the Pacific, which was to be built from Chicago, would cost over a million of dollar*. Consequently they would make lour minions of dollars by the operation. There was something In that contract between tbe trustees of tbe United S ales Telegraph Com pany and those ac'fatg ta another capacity which may be correct under the laws and morals ol Mew 'York, but out here Ido not believe ills legal for Irns’aea to make contracts with themselves. The way the thing has turned out It cer ainly place* those Individual* who were contrsctota for the Pacific route to a suspicions debt. They are now encaged with tl>* W<wi«n Cuiua Telegraph Com pany in disposing of that contract to them, and I •understand >hat the Wes'ern Union Comnany can save a large amount of money by uaiag their own poles, showing that the two lines run over the same route . Tbe truster* having gone Into thl* contiact for building a lire to California, and having agreed to take United Stater Telegraph stock for the com pensation, they come back and urge bu consolida tion, and 1 presume were at the bottom of It, in orcertbat they might get into the Western Union company, and thus make the United state* Tete giapb Company's stock more r&luajle than u other wise would have been. The next Act «e got out va* this: that during the year 18CS the United Stale* Telegraph Company proper lost fG7.COO; that Is, according to their miement their receipt* were not equal by fCT.OOO to Ihslroperatlngexpensea But from information I have received, I regard It a* doubtful vhetber their operating expense* did not indado the construction account. They have their books ao mfxed up that they have not been able to tell po-lttveiy wbat their operatise expense* were. I suoiUd consider that if the company had lost only *67,000 daring tbe first year, while opening office*, introducing ibelf, and setting business, Its affair* were not such a* to justify the Board of Trustees, if they had an honest purpose to subserve the Interest ol all the legitimate stockholder*. In rustling into another company, especially without consulting the parties bolding that stock. It was shown that toe receipts ot the company for the last three or four month* bad fallen off; but it also appeared 'bat the Western Union Company suffered In tbe >ame way; and it Is easily accounted for on the ►aroe ground that the business of merchants fell off during that time. There was nothing alarming m Ibis, and if the company had been pressed for means, ft confd have been obtained from (he stock holders. Here was the United States Telegraph Comnany with a capital of $8,000,001). covering toe same territory, though not wfth as many wires, as the Western Union Company with a capital ol 000,000. If they were both losing money, it Is very casv to pee that Ihe United mates, with a capital of *8,000,000, was in a belter condition to hold out, competing for business, than the Western Union, with he *13,000,000 invested. And instead of con polidaricg* the United States Into the Western Union, it would have been mom reasonable that tbe Western Union should want to consolidate into thet. If yon would look at ail these points, I think von will come to tbe same conclusion I have arrived at, viz: That Ibis con’ract lor the construction of the Pacific line waa at tbeb Horn of ibis consolidation; that u was an act which the trustees who were con tractors on that line, ran into and urged on. with one regard to tbe interest of toe stockholder* of the Uuu.d State* Telegraph Company proper. Pat now bow do we standi It Is possible we might go into litigation, and rip up this whole thing. 1 be lieve that the California contract is a fraud, nut after we should have ripped It no, and supposing U pos sible to reinstate tbe United State* Telegraph Company, where would, yon be? The company would be in bad repute, and the stock not worth so much a* it may be under this consolidation, and therefore lam disposed to make the most we can out of tbe stock as It now stands. 1 think the / stock "of the Western Union will soon be better a than It I*. | EXPLANATIONS. Mr. George F. Daria explained, in regard! to the contract price for constructing the Pa cific line being reduced 11*001 S (1,500,000 to £3,000,000, that It was • done through the in fluence of the new President, who insisted that the difference between tbe two sums should he taken off the stock of the company proper, and placed npoa the stock of the Pa cific branch. Mr. Davis farther staled that he bad, while in New York, investigated tbe affairs of the company thoroughly, and be come satisfied the state of things could not be remedied. A motion to continue the committee, for the purpose of obtaining further light on tbe subject, was lost, and tbe report was accepted and the committee discharged. Mr. John \V. Kirk remarked that bo regard ed the consolidation a necessity, aa otherwise the stockholders would hare been required In less than thirty doys, to advance consid erable amount of money. After explaining tbe relations of the several telegraph com panies, Mr. Kirk stated that the Western union would be able to moko a dividend of eight per cent on its capital stock of twenty five or twenty-six millions. He was entirely confident that the stock would, before long, come np to par, and probably ranch above par. jfr. Kirk also showed that it was Impracti cable for a telegraph company to succeed un til Its wires touched all points of business and interest. Business men wished to do all tbeir business by one line, and would not di vide their despatches between two companies If they could help it; hence the disadvan tages under which any new rival company suffered. The meeting then adjourned tine die. House Renting la Cincinnati, [From the Cincinnati Gazette. 12ih 1 The scarcity of bouses and rooms for rent perhaps reached Its crisis about a year ago, and' lor many months hardly the sign of a bouse or a room for rent could be seen on the doors or in thenewspapers. People who were anxious to obtain a noose advertised that they would pay large bonuses tor such rooms or buildings astbey wanted. This state of things developed the agency business, bringing out in ruf,gcd prominence the feature of extorting Irom the houseless applicant a large fee lor letting him into another man’s rooms, and very generally, also, charging the landlord a commission for doing the same Job. Last winter, however, the pressure began to ease np a little ; bat still the agents held on to thebusiness by making landlords believe they could obtain better prices for their houses-tbaa they could themselves, and no doubt they have done so. By keeping the old fashioned bills, “ This bouse tor rent, off the doors of houses empty or soon to be empty they made people think there were no tenements for rent in the nUcants called upon them their first oofect wm to Impress thjb idea os a fact upon their minds. Gradually, however, this spring, the demand has not been so press to, Md agents have found it necessary to advertise the houses jft with them for rent, and we occasionally jL the lamtllar label on the doors, “ For R?_t»» j n yesterday’s papers we counted as many as seventy-five bouses and suites of rooms for rent; still, when we called on some of the agents, we found the same high rates ob heretofore, from $5 to 17 per room In boikl logs, and 18 to $lO for single rooms. The agents still required their bonus, amounting in each ease to more than half a month’s rent generally; and each one endeavored to make ns believe that there were no houses tor rent Id the city except the two or three he had on bu books, and solemnly assured us rents were going to be higher before they were lower.