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The Holiness Mission will bold ser
vices a 87 Mala street.
The Christian Scieneo subject will
be Tha -Doctrine of Atonement.
The Gospel Mission meetings are to I
be field morning, afternoon ana even
ins In the Steiner building.
At the Spiritual Academy. Pfcricl
street. Rev. Albert P. BUnn, the pastor.
Kill apeak in the morning. There will
lie no evening service.
At the Preston City Baptist church
Rev. Prank White. D. D. will Breach.
Hia morning subject will be. The
Agony of Jesua For tha Lost.
At tha Mount Calvary Baotlst church
Rev. James Harris, of Norwalk, will
preach at both morning and evening
cervices. Sunday scnool at noon.
At Trinity Episcopal ehureh there
will be holy communion at 9.30 a. m.
Morning service" and sermon at 10.30.
Evening service and address at 7.30
At Grace Memorial Bsotist church I
there will be preaching morning and
evening by Rev. S. R. Harris, of Rich
mond, Va. Sunday school will be held
At Broadway Congregational church
the pastor will preach at the morning
service. A service of scripture and
song, with a sermon, 'Will be held in
Rev. 8. H. Howe, D. D will preach
momlnr and evening at rare: cnurcn.
Vesper service will be held in the aft
ernoon and the Young peoples ser
vice in the evening.
At the First Congregational ehureh,
George H. Bwing, pastor, the morning
topic will be The Triumphal Entry of
the True Man. The Y. P. S. C. B. will
be held at 6.30 p. m.
At Grace church. Yanlio, Rev, J. W.
Areson. rector. In the absence of I
the rector. Mr. C. . Chapman will
preach in the morning. The evening
service will be omitted.
A union holy week service will be
held at the Church of the Good Shep
herd. Monday evening, five churches
uniting. The subject will be, External
Preparation For Easter.
The Associated Bible Students hold
services in W. C. T. U. hall. 5 She-
tucket street. Class meets for Bifcle
study Sunday morning. The topic will
be The Divine Plan of the Ages.
At Trinity M. E. ehureh the pastor.
Rev. K. W. Coleman, will Breach on
The Sacrifice of Christ at the morning
service. The evening sermon will be
delivered by Rev. E. S. Worcester.
At Christ church Palm Sunday there 1
will be holy communion at 9.30, morn
ing; prayer, ante-communion and ser
mon at 10.80, Sunday school at 12, and
evening prayer with address at 7.30.
At St. Andrew's Episcopal church
there will be celebration of holy com
munion at 7.30 a. m. Cooperate com
munion of the Altar chapter. Morning
prayer, litanv and sermon at 10.30,
Sunday school at 12 o'clock. Evening
prayer and sermon at 7.ao p. m.
Bally Sunday will bn held at the
McKinley avenue A. M. E. Zion church,
Rev. E. George Biddle, pastor. There
will be preaching by the pastor morn
ing and evening. The morning subject
will be Fellowship With God, and the
evening subject Divine Holiness.
At the Church of the Good 8hepherd,
Univeraalist, Rev. Joseph F. Cobb, the
pastor, will preach In the morning on
A Joyful Event. Sunday school will
he held at noon. T. P. C. U. service at
15 o'clock. The subject will be The
Charity of Just Retribution for Sin.
At the Second Congregational church
there will be morning worship, with
sermon and hymn for the children;
Sunday school at noon. Young Peo
ple's meeting at 6.15 o'clock and ev
ening service,' with sermon. The min
ister will preach morning and evening.
At the First Baptist Church. George
Henry Strouse, minister. In the
morning the pastor will treach a cpe
cial sermon to th Sunday school on
the theme. The Stately March of a
King. There will be Sunday BChool
at 12 o'clock and B. Y. P. U. meeting
nt R.30. The evening theme will be
A Night in the Garden with Jesus.
The moraine subject at the Norwich
Town Methodist Episoopal ehureh will
be A Day of Tnumpn, ana tne even
ins subject They Made Him a Supper.
Special Lenten services will be held
beginning with Palm Sunday. There
will be services Tuesday, Wednesday,
Thursday and Friday evenings at 7.30
o'clock, with sermons by visiting min
isters. At the Central Baptist church, the
pap tor, Rev. Joel B. Slocum, D. D., will
praeh at both hours. The morning
jnibiect will be. The Comina of His
Feet j evening. Did Jesus Fail? The
Sunday School orchestra will play at
the evening service. Sunday school
and City Bible class for men at noon.
The B. Y. P. V. will meet at 6.30,
leader, J. W. Carlevale.
40.C00 ILLUSTRIOUS KNIGHTS
OF MALTA IN UNITED 8TATES
Founded in Jerusalem in 1048 Aa a I
Military and Religious Order.
noma. April 14. A recent "decree
i UMIu.i1 ont rciviwn1 in n. Tntl-
IIHO irw5""vw . . I
itary sense the Italian members of
the ancient ana juubihoub
J kUk U.aa Airoii in nrut I
Malta, an onier wivu -v,vvw
Founded in Jerusalem In 1048 as a
-a o-h Vi rsn ntirAlv I
lost its military character, lecoTninff
in the unnea dim -y -
ternal order, and in Italy a charitable
and Christian association, intended in
war time to care for the wounded and
. IIM lilt. W.bvw I
tained a grandmaster accredited to I
tha pope at the Vatican, and it was
? " KnTM- of Malta ao-
"..thSte sTriklng red temic.
Marked with a black Cross and carry-
The official order which gave them
... ii,rr character after so I
many nnnareu. r-'7h-
pline. . - .
and Marriages in Tokio.
inrii , The total number
of divorcee last year was 1994. or 164
more than during th year 1914. .Mm
rtagea in the same year sUgUtfy de
creased in number.
L ; N0RW1QH BULLETIN, SATURDAY.' APRIL 15, 1916 . v ' .
waw. ...... i -i-.;'"r4, W i7m
her estates' in Scotland i and. England 11 "t , I A'WAt iV.i C " I'i . , -J. : .T;", ... . 7 J S A'l
and numbers among - her closest 11 r t . " ' , "i " ' A , '' i-' fr - I v a - , f lj,t: I-l
friends. Sir Robert and hU sister. Mrs. I 1 1 Tf. a? 4 V; AT ViV? .4 r J-- . v'a Cw.A ' - I i IT. , .'l V, , ,T7 - t't
Low was impressed with the possibll- ff I t . 4 - f"' 'v ""i " 1 4 if i V jl'-tLU-. - Vi - ' ' V li
ities which their scheme of training l . X 6 S 4-n, r ' ? 4- -j J ' , j f r ' !J . li V-H f . Tr II
held for American, girls. She took the I fV I't W V V f If' f , ' V v fif ' llt J ? t- " ? 't , . fl
first, steamer for "America, after she I H f h ' , V v T , M( ' Vli V? A i t ' " ' " - li : t . --.' . j "V - -f
had planned her course and went dl- r;I.'"-f ",F JL 'X F V.i 1 4 'rljJN V Jr' UA?.!.;... lVt -."., -- H
rectly to Savannah, where she person- ri'V'-ri v t i 1 ! A J -i 2 Jl 1 t i J.-V'.v 1 L.'i'- .itlT ' V !l
ally organized the first Girl Scout troop 1 I f A I V, J 4 V- . - ? t' - - V 5 ' J
in the United States. 1 3A Stf( 'VllM' V . V 'I . ? t . . JT ' , ll.V--"ii ' , t ' t, v - - - ... .. ,
This troop and her Girl Scout-prtncl- I I 'S ' if st f j ' r- ' " V , J ... , 11-- - . ' I ' ' " - t 1 it
pies evoked enthusiasm which spread 1 I , , -f- i i r,- " A, ' ' J r V ' -5. - . : M V'f-'' . ",'" -' ' " . " ,:
beyond the bounds of her native south- I l, t. 5 ' Ji h-cZi f . . , 4 r' J: -V" 4 ' J f ' 1 $ . v -'... '-
ern city. This enthusiasm presaged a II? I Si' ' v: x . 4"', LZK'''. - AW" ' ' -i ' - . " ' '" II
national development and Mrs. Low . if' Tr V(n.V a-l'k4 i ' 1.v' , i -! V1 VA ' " " V .' . 11
was emboldened to establish headquar- It', r il xWlT', V Ji'Y ' ' E ' vjT V . - " T 1 ,UA 1 ' ' V W ' u . .
ters in the National Capital of the I A l A J1 Si-" , Jia rVVo t r MVtV ' 4 - . -Y ?-t.- - ., T "j'J
country to further Girl Scout interests II , i S Z i . ' S i ' 1 1 K .,w-,y",!:- .I-ai? - . J A
and. incidentally, to take charge of a I 1 4 Nl f ' -, w t?' . ' , , k ' V r HKS-i- , ' f "v ' i
work which was growing too great for k''- 'T - - v-X: . , . ..'V-r A r.-"r : IVV.'V . . v i .
any one person to handle. "glfT ' 1 x " ' " ? "rr - - i J- ' nnf "l'1" 1 " 'Pa'' "' """ ' " "J Tli
ks.;v r- .vr' c'M
It Has Members in!
Ten Countries, and in
the United States Ex
tends From Coast to
Coast Its Origin.
First Girl Scout Troop
in This Country.
Headquarters in Wash
ington Other Troops
Throughout the Land.
Its Aims and Its Meth
ods Tests and Re-
At the Federated church. Rev. A. "W. wards Simalinff and
will nntanh in Tk. Sun..-.. I '
Ideal at the morning service. The Pomninff Ollt TrrtrtT
Junior Endc-aorers will meet at three VaiIiLlllg WUL 11UUJ
o'clock, the Christian Endeavorers at f ,
f.3U o'clock. The evening subject Will U0V6m IT1 ST1 1 Oirl
he. Tha Law af Valuaa.
At Greenevilie Congreaational ehureh Scouts in War Their
Sundnv morning the pastor will preach I t 1 v
Tl,id!!!iiiycf.Lt-Bairiv"LS Work in Other Coun-
V 1 I W I I III WHIjri VHIIBI Illy. i II 1. fH.kTOIUII
of the Sunday school will be held at I
12 o'clock, and the second preaching I
service in the afternoon.
PRECOCIOUS Infant is the Girl
Scout organisation; for despite
disparity of its years, which
scarcely number three, it has
stepped its way Into the life of ten
An international movement it Is in
aeeu, witn members In England
r ranee, Germany, Denmark, Australia,
ooutn Africa, Chile, Syria, Scotland and
tho united States. The national or
ganization of this country alone Is al
ready strong with troops scattered
from Washington, 3D. C.,- to California
and from Maine to Georgia.
Liko the morningr dew, which covers
with diamonds ground that yesterday
was barren, the twentieth century scout
movement has arisen for the youth or
the world to endow its pleasures and
pastimes with dignity and purpose.
The Boy Scoutr. as we know them to
day the ubiquitous Boy Scouts, who
command our profound respect if not
our active Interest, were the first fruits
Of this movement. Almost co-existcnt
with them have been the Girl Scouts
their sister orranization in a double
meaning of the term.
When the grand scoutmaster-in
cnier, Lieut. Gen. Sir Robert Baden-
rowell, founded the Boy Scout move'
ment for the Improvement and utiliza
tion of juvenile energy 6,000 English
girls applied for membership. His
project did not include the admission of
girls, so he turned to his sister. Miss
Agnes Baden-Powell, and said: "If you
can form an organisation for girls built
on the plan of the Boy Scouts without
making 'tomboys' out of them, go
ahead and do it."
And Miss Agnes Baden-Powell went
ahead to use Sir Roberts, expression
with these Enelish girls. The result is
tlie existence of an international body
of Girl Scouts, ready to march shoulder
to shoulder with the boys.
The Work of Miss Baden-Powell
' marks the first period in the history of
the Girl Scouts. The second period
brings an American woman to the
scene, Mrs. Juliette Gordon Low of Sa-
Savannah, which began with one troop
of Girl Scouts, now has fifteen troops
of 200 girls. Boston, with the adjoining
cities and small towns of New England,
leads every other section of the. coun
try In the size of Its membership. Mar-
blehead started at the beginning of
last summer wlh one little Girl Scout
a lone pebble on that rock-bound
coast. This little girl a visitor soon
interested other girls, and before the
summer was over, a troop was formed
of fifty members
In Grand Rapids, the Girl Scouts are
established on such a prosperous basis
that they have permanent laKesiao
camns. wnere tnev live auriner meir
vacations, frequently entertaining Boy
Soont troops, scoutmasters ana their
Miss Jane Addams was Impressed with
the value of Girl Scout tralnlnsr. and
the first Chicago troop was organized
at her famous settlement, Hull House.
Tho playground associations of Callfor
nia discovered that scout worK nas i
strong hold on girls, consequently the
heads of the recreation department be
came Interested, and GJrl Scout troops
were organized all over that coast state
under bona fldo official supervision. In
several sections of the country it has
worked in connection with the Y. W. C.
A. and other woman organizations.
The National CaDltal leads the coun
trv in the number of Girl Scouts which
form the Washington troop. Between
2K0 and 300 girls are rallied under the
Washineton Girl Scout banner.
It is doubtless true tnat tne great
reason for the rapid development of
Girl Scouts In America Is due to th
fact that it Is an organization perfectly
attuned to the principles upon which
this country Is founded. The funda
mental principle of the Girl Scouts, as
of the United states, is democracy.
Nothing can prevent a girl from being
n scout. The Girl Scouts is open to all.
just as America is a haven for all. Rich
and poor alike line up for scout disci
pline. Non-sectarian, non-political and
inexpensive, the Girl Scouts appeal 1;
as broad as the land in which it flour
Certain definite alms, however, mark
and underlie its activities. It stands
for positive principles, and among these
It numbers Its greatest to be that of
good citizenship. All of the Girl Scout
training Is directed toward this final
Thus It is apparent that while the
function of the Girl Scouts is some
limitations; the merit badge system
is the same, and the same outfitter who
makes - the Boy Scout uniform also
makes . the girls a fact which im
presses; the children immeasurably
more than the grown-ups understand.
The slogan, "One kind deed every day,"
Belongs to uiri scout training as wen
as to their brothers.
People are constantly writing to Boy
Soout headquarters asking about scout
training for girls; Boy Scouts want to
know if their sisters can be scouts:
churches want some wholesome club
work for their girls, and small towns
want to give their children social ac
tivities which will give them a bond
with the outside world. All of these
queries are turned over to the Girl
Scout headquarters, and from here peo
ple are then informed now girls can
A girl is first placed upon probation
for six months or more. Then she
makes the promise, "On my honor, I
promise that I will try to do my best."
Thereupon, the motto of the Girl
Scouts, "Be Prepared," becomes her in
dividual . possession, and training to
fulfill it starts.
First she qualifies for the tenderfoot
class, and befcre she is given a tender
foot badge must know how to tie four
knots, either reef, sheet-bend, clover
hitch, bowline, fisherman's or sheep
shank; the governor of the state and
mayor of the city in which they live
and the history of the flag and how to
The second-class Girl Scout .-. .
badge on her left arm which Indicates
that she has passed the following
tests: How to make a drawing; or cut
out In clottt or of paper, the flag of the
United States; how to cook one simple
oisn; now to lay a nre in a stove, or
light a fire in the oven with fwn
matches, how to make a bed properly
and know how to make an invalid's
Dea: to Know ner own measurements
' THOUGH.. SgXT- AND. G2.?11LL, TlTIfagSAfig. 3teQlAP, l'S.SXUXK'xO
pass; to know what to do in case of
fire; to know a remedy for poison Ivy
or what to do to prevent frost bite.
When a girl has completed this part
of the training she Is ready to work
for her first class badee. To obtain
- . j-..n 4 v. 4. I this she must know how to lay a table
what different from that of the Boy Uronerlv for brMkf.-it iiinnJ. --3
Scouts, in patriotic spirit they are akin.
Carl Vrooman, assistant secretary of
agriculture, who addressed the girls at
their first national rally in June, com
plimented them on this fact. He said:
"Women are just as patriotic as men;
their functions In the life of the re
public are just as important and funda
mental as those of men, and it is just
as Incumbent upon them to translate
their patriotism Into practical efforts
as It is for men."
Believing this to be true the found
ers of the Girl Scouts have-adhered in
many respects to the program used by
the Boy Scouts. Troops are organized
according to the same system; the Girl
Scout law follows the same general
outline; the training Is similar, only
belner altered to meet the differences
of the girl's requirements and her sex
and give correctly the Girl Scouts'
From this point a Girl Scout's train
ing ranges all the way from the most
practical to the most cultural sub
nt. sh m.i-r compete for a must-
clan's badge or a cook's badge, accord- j
ing to her bent.
At each stage of her progress she
receives an ornamental badge which
Is calculated to appeal to ber femi
nine eye as well as her youthful in
stinct 'for decoration.
The entire course aims to cover the
natural activities of a girl's life, and
i through the spirit of competition and
to know the eight points of the com- I hope of final recognition tne every
day routine duties are uuum
clow which at once removes their dull-
Twenty-one proficiency badges may
be gained. Each one prescribes duties
which will contribute in some degree
to a more efficient wormanhood. As an
example of tnis ine nmirun
supper; bring a shirt waist or aVlrt
sewn by herself; be able to tell how to
get to a place and walk two miles in
one hour: be able to dress and nth a
child of two years or younger; have an
elementary Knowledge or first aid to
the injured; have, an elementary
knowledge of signaling and of the
semaphore code; have 60 cents in the
bank earned by herself; bring a girl
trained by herself In the tenderfoot
tests; know how to distinguish and
name three .trees, three wild flowers.
three wild animals and three wild
birds; be able to pass an examination
upon the first three chapters of the
woman's edition of the, American Red
Cross text book on first aid: swim fifty
yards in her clothes, or show a, list of
twelve satisfactory good deeds; show
points of compass without a compass.
keeper s. badge is : perhaps one of the
n.-atlna: of all. The require
ments of this badge are to know how
to use a vacuum . cleaner, to stain and
polish floors, to', clean wire window
screens, to put away furs and flannols,
to clean glass, kitchen utensils, brass
A knowledge of marketing Is also
necessary, and a girl must know three
different outs of meat and the price of
nnh. tha aeasons for fruits and vege
tables, fish and game, ana Know oy
what measure flour, sugar, rice, cere
als and vegetables are sold.
All of these details are. however,
simply the means which Girl Scouts
follow to reach tnetr nroaa ana ulti
mate, tlm nreoaredness for Intelli
gent service. Any one who was fortu
nate enough to witness 'the physical
culture contests of the girls from
Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Nor
way at tho Olympic games st Stock
holm In 112 will remember how cred
itably thay compiled on equal terms
with the young men, and what an In
spiring aieht it was to see younT wom
en with such well trained bodies and
The Girl Scouts give girls similar dis
cipline and training and extend the
opportunity for outdoor life to a num
ber of girls who might otherwise miss
It. Girls are furthermore given the
same camp and first aid training as
that of the boys, so. If ever a project is
started, as Mrs. Low has suggested, for
displaying their skill in a national
competitive contest the girls will be
ready and able to maintain their
The semaphore signaling which they
are taught Is the same that is used
all over the world, and in first aid work
the examinations are conducted by
sDccIal officer of the Red Cross. '
Camping out is one of the Girl Scout
hobbles. Camp life presents a supreme
test of their ability to matte a nre. cook
set up a tent r.nd make a bed. - Inci
dentally camp life brings them In clos
est contact with nature and emphasizes
the charm of the simplicity of a "close
to nature" life.
All of this training Is listed by the
bureau of education as one of the most
important nieces of work of a direct
educational nature set forth by any or
ganization making no claim Jo a place
In the formal echool system.
Col. Colin Livingstone, the national
president of the Boy Scouts, emphasizes
their good influence from another
standpoint. He thinks that the Girl
Bcouts are bound to exert a great in
fluence upon the Boy Scouts because
girls are endowed by nature with quali
ties that boys must be taught. The nat
ural feminine instinct of sympathy ne
believes to be one of the best proofs ot
the adaptability of the average girl for
scout duties. '
Scout tnlnlnr. It mir be thoocbt. sp
Deals onlv to the voonser set of cirls,
those from ten to eighteen years, for
Instance. Bv no means is tne neia
barred to older girls; the Inducements
of leadership and captaincy are held
out to them. College women, who have
been trained to nil positions which re
autre a rood measure of executive abil
Ity. are being induced to glva thetr at
tention to the Girl Scout a It is pointed
out that all vonncr women who are anx
ious to devote their efforts to help girls
will find It a very congenial nela-
Captains, be It understood, are. the
organisers of troops and have full re
aponslblllty of supervision over the
girls training and activities, just aa the
Boy Scout masters have In their charge
the direction of the Boy Scout compa
nies. Each local troop. In addition to Its
captain. Is under the surveillance of a
local board, of councilors which "keeps
In close touch with national headquar
ters. " This board consists of twelve or
more women representing different
creeds and Intereata who can give a
I breadth of tnfluence to the local or
This great national American, Girl
Scout movement has remarkable cause
for self-congratulation In the opinions
of Its leaders. Mra Low Is desirous of
pointing out the practical demonstra
tions of the uses to which Girl Scout
training can be applied. She -has ob
servedthat girls, because of their
mtii training, have been able to -ren
der Important service to Great' Britain
In Its present crisis, such superior eerv-
ce, in fact, z hr-.s never been Known
before -In the history of the world.
T3-l Bcouts. she lays, "art not asked
to die for their, country. They are
asked to live lor It. The British .Girl
Scouts are proving that they know how
to live Tor their couatry in a most ef
fective manner. - -.
"Do you know what the Girl F.couts
of Lor don are called? The eyes of
Great Britain.' They have offered their
services for regular patrcl duty, which
Keeps tnem on the lookout for Zeppe
lins. Ever since tf.o air raids began
every Girl Scout knows the location of
aoraeteafety cellar, where she can con
duct the people when she snies one of
the huge birds of prey hovering In the
Red Cress work and e!.-rna!!n- are
also proving the Britlr.h Girl Scorts"
usefulness. By this knoTlcdre they
are able to give useful a??l3tinco to the
relief of . wounded soldiers and Belgian
refugees' and to read correctly mes
sages signaled from air craft or shlpa.
: . .,
;- ' " a a
Mra Low's own troop In London fa
serving meals to ammunition workers.
who work eight hours, with ten mm-
utea . every three boura for refresh
ments. Tier girls are cooking simple
food and rushing through the factories
dally, .basket on arm. to -serve it- -The
British Girl Bcouts who are pVeflcSest
cyclists ', have offered their services te
their country as messe-agere. .-"V -.
"All of which proves," says Mra. Lew,
"that ' the girl well ' equipped with
practical training la well disciplined
and knows how to obey ordera, can
make her place in any emergency and
give a- good account of herself.
The American Girl Scouts may be
Interested to know that the British
Girl Scouts print and publish a maga
zine which they call tha Girl Guide Ga
zette. It Is a very creditable little le
ans and contains a mass of material of
interest to the girls.
The British Girl Scouts are not the
only foreign girls who have their hos
tels; ready, for those who are Injure
and ' rendered homeless by bombard
ment, who have their stretchers ready
and who have learned to bandage
wmmria - Tha French clrls are active.
too, and are even going a step farther
by drilling every day outside of Paris
in all of the experiences of camp life
that the Boy Soouto follow.
The Italian girls are not outdone by
these allied sisters. Italian Girl Scouts
were recently delegated by the gov
ernment to bestow honor medals to
Italian soldiers at publio services held
Thoua-h the American Girl Pcout or
ganisation docs not emphasize those
aspects of Its training which have a
military flavor, yet it cannot refrain
from being proud of the practical serv
ice which Its European membera are
able to render to their countries.
T L1E1AEY I
iUBJECT OF FISH
WASHINGTON, D. C,
CAN one imagine a whole library
devoted to fish? There is one
In Washington, which Is the
best fish library in. the world,
and it is among the - most useful in
stitutions of its kind existing, for it is
- one of the most live and up-to-date
scientific libraries with which this
government supplies its scientific in
vestigators. This is the library of the bureau of
fisheries, and the custodian, who has
done the greater part of the work In
building and 'systematizing this one
one of the most active and useful sci
entific aids of its kind, is a woman
Miss Rose MacDonald thoroughly,
competent to care for the special li
brary of which she Is the head,
Bhe is the one woman In the federal
service who has passed the civil serv
ice examination as a fjsh culturist,
having entered 'the office and passed
the . examination as a. specialist eight
years ago. During . the Intervening
years she haa kept up with .the scien
tific progress ot this important bureau
of the Department of Commerce.
Mlsa MacDonald is an enthusiast In
Iter work, coming -naturally by her In
terest la. it. for--she la a daughter of
the late Marshall MacDonald, the third
commissioner of the bureau of fish
eries, who held this position -for nine j
years, giving his division-of the gov-'
ernment's work long and valuable
service and inventing much of the sci
entific apparatus which is used in the 1
Miss MacDonald takes pleasure ana
pride in feeling that In her own do
main she is accomplishing the best
which is In her power to further this
one of the Important divisions of the
Department of Commerce and that she
thus has her share in the advancement
of the country's welfare. Not a mere
custodian or oooks ana papers, sne
keeps herself posted upon literature
relatintr to the bureau's branch ot
science, either acquiring the books and
journals or making references as to
where they may be found.
"The library of the bureau of flatt
eries Is the finest of its kind in the
world." said Miss MacDonald, recently.
"I feel almost certain that i-nowhere
else can there be found so extensive
a collection of literature pertaining to
aauatic ' biology. You serhape know
that the subject ot fish conservation Is
one of the biggest questions before the
commerclial world of today. The fish
food problem Is a great branch of our
work, as are fish diseases. Every
thing done In the work- tends toward
the proiyiem of economy and efficiency
in flali conservation. In which the mat
ters of fish food and fish diseasea bear
a vital Dart.
"A large proportion of the food of
) fish Is other fish, and the scientists
I are ever studying- this chase and its
relation to the decrease ot. increase of
the supply of fish for commerce. Just I
now. for instance, I am working on I
literature- relating , to carbohydrate I
metabolism of fishes. -Ssneciallv In re-
lation to salmon and trout. The bu- 1
reau is desirous of finding out If ' this
class or rood ever serves as a source
of energy In ' these fishes, and I am
seeking tn every available direction
for literature on the subject.
"Then, there Is the subject of migra
tion of fish. Reaction to stimuli ac
counts for many of the habits of fish.
and the bureau Is Investigating along
this line so as to direct their habits In
an advantageous manner. X make it
my duty to keep In touch with all pos
sible phases of the scientific work. of
the bureau, ao that the library may be
useful to its fullest extent. One reads.
for instance, an item to the effect that
the -tar-road dressing In England
seems to be affecting the fish in the
lakee and streams. Our scientists look
into the subject ana find out what in
gredtent in the tar mixture has fatal
efleot. because the same material may
injure the fish in this country if a like
dressing be put upon the roads con
tlguous to our lakes and streams.
"I am now on- the lookout for avail
able literature on this, subject, and
upon finding' anything important bear
ing upon It will place It under the
notice of tne Investigator In that line.
In our laboratories scientists will take
I ,". , ... .
liar aressins: ana try tnem out bv ex
I pertinents . and testa to . learn what
forma are Injurious to fish. If washed
by the rains from, the roadways into
the waters. So, too, with all varieties
of water pollution which may affect
You will be surprised to know tnat
there Is a variety ot fish which Is a
mosquito destroyer, and our scientists
have been for years collecting Informa
tion upon the subject. I nave Dcon ac
cumulating all the. available literature
upon It. Quite a lot of work has been
done in this connection In Bermuda and
In India, and here they are finding out
what fish will eat the DaneiuL nine in
sect. The mosquito larvae eaters are
valuable members of fish society, and
the scientists find that the Kline is a
"The shipworm Is an enemy to the
progress of mankind, and can In time
eat away tne sona pnes or a nri.
Specialists are busy finding out what
will be toxlo In Its effect upon the
troublesome little borers. I have made
a - bibliography upon tne suDject ior
their use, and have also been preparing
nn nn the nearl mussels for the use of
Investigators who are developing this
very useful creature oi commerce.
"These rew examples oi in many
branched eubjecf of flsh culture give a
very- slight Idea of the range of the
work. Like all live libraries, this Is In
a constant state ot development and
n-rowth. St Is changing all the time.
and old books are replaced by new, as
fresh discoveries are made and re
vealed. I speak, of course, of tha ref
erence books, which must he kept up to
date to be of worth. The library Is rich
In old standard works of value. Fish
culture dates from - tha middle ages.
and we have some Interesting old tomes
published long over a century ago.
"I am working constantly upon the
subject catalogue to make It as com
prehensive and as usefully divided and
subdivided as possible to meet the de
mands of the Investigators, as tne ou
reau approaches new problems, the sub
ject catalogue is extenuea m m
them. One of the most Important fea
tures of the work of the libraryhas
been the making of a bibliography ar
ranged by countries, by fish, and In
cluding equipment, transportation of
eggs and fry, ponds, aquatic plants.
physiological effect of temperature, en
vironmental effects, diseases ana pescs.
toxicology, breeding habits, food and
polutlon of waters.
"It has been our aim to make this li
brary as helpful an adjunct to the ecl-
entlsts In their work aa a library can
be. To accomplish this 'we not only
keep the books classified and subclas-
stfled with the utmost care and accu
racy, but also send the titles of all the
new books and references In periodical
literature to the scientists who may be
working at a distance, that they may
either find fox themselves the works
desired, or. If not available, that they
may send to this central library for the
books or periodical referencca. Each
week I go through tho periodicals, do
mestic and foreign, making reference
cards of every article pertinent to tbe
Wa do a great deal of work by cor
respondence." Miss MacDonald contln- I
ued. "and we receive a great many let- I
ters dally from scientists In every part I
of the country. . It Is the object of tbe j
bureau and the library to extend .mo
fullest possible eld to every Investiga
tor. Hero is a letter from a cclentlst
In the New York aquarium, and hero Is
one from Oberlln. Ohio, requesting In
formation on the utilisation ot sea
weed found on American coasts. - Half
a dozen titles of modern treaties on tbe
subject were sent.
"A letter from tbe College of Physi
cians and Surgeons of New "York de
sires 'Information on metabolism, and
here Is one from a bactertologlst in
Quebec, 'who asks if our library can
give him a bibliography bearing upon
the effect of copper on oyster beds.
"To the scientists working at the va
rious biological stations of the bureau
Instructions are sent as to the aae ot
the libraries at the stations. Bib
liographies are made of apecial subjects
as desired, and the books forwarded
from this library if they cannot be
found nearer at hand. In addition to
this central library, the bureau main
tains libraries at the biological sta
tions at Beaufort, N. C'. at Fairport,
Iowa; at Woods Hole. Mass.; on the
Seal Islands. St. Paul and St. George,
aa well as upon Its vessel for scientific
Investigation, tbe Albatross..
"We may not have tbe biggest col
lection of books and we may not pos
sess the moat learned list of foreign
manuals, bat I doubt If there Is any
where a library that Is working as this
Is at all times, and in as many places.
We like to think of this library as a
living, working force, doing Its share
In the Important work of this arrest
scientific bureau of the Department af
Miss MacDonald prepared a valuable
bibliography on fur seal work, which
Is embodied, and accredited to her. In
last .year's report of the bureau of
fisheries. In Its section relating to tbe
fur seals and other Ufa of tbe Prltllof
Islands ot Alaska. The catalogue con
tained 219 titles, and was the first
bibliography of the works appearing
upon this subject since the purchase
Although she Is a hard worker fa
office, and frequently carries her work
to her home, .Mi Macuonaiu un a
keen Interest In the social and philan
thropic life of her home town, Alex
andria. Va. She Is a meir.btr of the
National Society of Colonial Dames,
and - was prominent at tho unveiling
and presentation of the tablet com
memorating the colonial hirtory of the
old city on tho Potomac, cn the occa
sion of the last biennial conference of
tbe society in Washington.
She was also local chairman of he
committee of Colonial Dames which
marked the Braddock trail. This In
teresting memorial, which stands at
the intersection of Mount Vernon ave
nue and Braddock road. Is none ether
than the cannon which was left la
Alexandria by Braddock, and Its
foundation Is a ao.ld base of cobble
stones takes - from the a treats X Ut
I aid. town.