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The hatchet. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1883-19??, May 13, 1900, Image 1

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I J YOIDM V04UMW vol l XY XVllo86 No 86 WASHINGTON D O SUNDAY SUNDAYMAY MAY 13 131900 19OO Price B OEJNTS O NTH NTSI
I
CRIMINOLOGY CRIMINOLOGYShall
i I
I
I Shall Wo Ye Brand and Execute Executthe Exeoutethe Executethe
the Habitual Criminal OriminnlSpecial Criminalt CriminalSpecial
t Special to the hatchet IlntchetSince I1ntchett hatchetSince
Since the dawn of civilization clvlliatloicrlminoloijisla cl1IzntloncrlmlnolOlslS
t
criminologists and penologists have Imviinatlo IlIvomado havemade
made i n deep study of the ways wns am ammeans and andI
I means to succesilully denl with tinhabitual tin thohnbltual thehabitual
habitual criminal and up to date datehave dntlf
f have signally failed in petting their thciideas theirI theirIdeas
I ideas incorporated into laws Not Noibecause Notbecauge Notbecause
because they the have not used duo ex excrtlon exertilln oxortion
crtlon and well directed intelligence intelligencebut
but for the reason tint the people peopledensely plupledensel peopledensely
densely densel and grossly ignorant of tin tinsubject thosuhject tirosubject
subject have hnveln In their nnrrowtnlnded nnrrowtnlndedperverse narrOlvmltlllot1pencrse narrowmindedperverse
perverse way wn hindered and blocked blockeievery blockedocry blockedevery
every effort irison congresses con reRses called colletto calledto
to duvlso Ieathoicdbraincd schemes schemeifor schemesfor
I for the amelioration of the condition conditionof
of the poor prosecuted convict socle socletics socloUS societies
tics formed to reform and recliiin recliiintlio recluhntho reclaimthe
the criminal in prison and after hi hirelease hirelelse his hisrelease
release week headed hendl pardon pardonIng pardonIng pnrdunIng
Ing power and silly slll foolish foolishsentimental foolishsClltlullntnl foolishsentituental
sentimental women are responsible responsiblein rc resousibleIn ponslble ponslbleIn
in a 1 great incnstiro for prevalence o ocrime of ofcrime ofcrime
crime and the startling ratio of Its iUincrease ItsI itsIncrease
increase I ncreMe Why sympatliyorlenlenej Wh 11hysynpaUiyorleniency8uould sympatliyorlenlenejshould SIlIHthy or leniency leniencyshould
should bo extended to a well known kuowohabitual knownhabitual ImowlIhnbltunl
habitual criminal or one known U Uposcss to toposess
poscss criminal tendencies ten encles is If beyond boyommy beyoudI
I my ken A burglar footpad or high highway highmy highway ¬
way robber is a murdjrcr at heart hearliiiul henrtI hearturd
iiiul will not hesitate to commit mur murkder murdcr murer
I dcr er If caught in the act or while re resisting reI resisting ¬
I sisting arrest arrestYet nrrostI arrestYet
I Yet the dear people will insist insistupon Insistupon insistupon
upon protecting aiding nl lng and even evenshowering evenshowering evenshowering
showering blessings upon the heads headsof hendsof headsof
of these worst of all criminals criminalsCourt crlmlnnlsCourt criminalsCourt
Court procedure in the United States Stateshas Statesfins tntes tnteshns
has arrived nrrln at a stage where the thewhole thowhole thiewhole
whole intent appears to lie the pro protectlon proteetion
tectlon and acqnital of the prisoner prisonerThe prisonerI prisonerThe
The entire out n Ire exemption of o tho accused accusedfrom accusel1from accusedfrutii
I I from IhterrrtptrCnTlWuld ilterrgjtr ihter Agattfiffltttnld n rt11lI1 heelect heelectnot he llcct llccti
i not to take the stand the incompe incompetency Ineompef Incompetency
f tency of certain witnesses to testily testifyagainst testilyagainst testilyagainst
against him i the hnposibillty of ofusing ofI ofusing
I using a confession made by h him himsubsequent himsubsequent him himsubsequent
subsequent to the trial should he hepleiul heplcud heplead
plead not guilty i refusing to accept acceptcertain ncceptcertnl acceptcertain
certain evidence i ruling certain certainquestions certainquestions certainquestions
questions to bo misleading JI1lslen lng imma immaterial ImJlmtorlnl immaterial ¬
terial irrevelant ets has enabled enabledmany ennbledJI11ny enabledmany
many a criminal to escape who richly richlydeserved rlchl rlchldeserved richlydeserved
deserved punlshmont punlshmontNor
Nor can we expect to remedy these theseappalling thesoalllJalllng theseappalling
appalling defects until the time shall shallhave shallhave shallhave
have arrived when tho people in insheer Insheer insheer
sheer desperation will demand and andsecure andsecure andsecure
secure a ccsation of such abominable abominablepractices auomlnnblepractices abominablepractices
practices by b the election of men to tooilico toolllce toolico
oilico pledged to correct these abuses abusesEvery nhusesl abusesEvery
Every l er fairmlndid fair mindd person wishes to tosec toseo toSec
sec a fair fight between the prisoner prisonerat
at the bar and tho prosecution an im impartial 1mpartlnl Impartial ¬
partial trial a true verdict and the thebenefit thohenellt timebeueiit
benefit of a doubt given to the accused ac accused nccused ¬
cused cusedWhen cusedWhen cused11lien
When one stops to consider that thatthe thnttho thatthe
the prisoner must be found guilty by bya
a preponderance of evidence by a ajury ajllr ajury
jury jllr of twelve whose verdict must bo bounanimous bounnnlmousi beunanimous
unanimous that he is presumably presumablyinnocent presumnblyInnocent presumablyInnocent
innocent until proven guilty beyond beyondn he oml omla
a reasonable doubt ono cannot help lmclpthinking helpthinking holpthlnkin
thinking thlnkin the accused is getting at atleast ntlenst atleast
least all nllho he Is entitled to What ex expericnce experlence cxperience
pericnce is more horrible than that thatof thntof thatof
of being held up at the point of a arevolver nrevolver arevolver
revolver or being sandbagged by bymurderous b a amurderous I Imurderous
murderous highwayman hlghwn man or footpad footpadOno footpndOne footpadOne
One not only looses ones money mone the thesmallest theslDntlest timesmallest
smallest loss but ones nerves for forall furnil forall
all time and ten or twenty years of ofexistence ofoxlstonco ofexistence
existence Yet Y ct our reformers s visi visiionory vls vlslonar visionary
ionory lonar thcroists ask in u J to 1 vo these thesegentlemen thesegentlemen thesegentlemen
gentlemen gentlemenTho
Tho only good lessons one learns learnsin
in this life are learned by hard lordpractical hardpractical hnrdpruetlcnl
practical actual experience and the theaverage thoaernge theaverage
average individual has to have his hishead hisheal1 hishead
head bumped repeatedly to learn learneach learnench learneach
each separate lesson No ono who who1ms whohns whohas
has not been brought into actual con contact contact contact
tact with criminal dealt with them themgoverned thOlllgoverned thecagoverned
governed them apprehended them themetc themetc themetc
etc can have tho right idea of how howthey howthey howthey
they should be dealt enlt with The en enactment enaetmcnt enactment ¬
actment of laws designed to have a areformatory nreormntor areformatory
reformatory reormntor effect upon criminals criminalshas
has been productive pro ucUve of no good and andthis nm1this andthis
this fact was openly admitted to bo botruo botruo hotrue
truo at the last meeting of the theNational ther timeNational
National r Prison Association But Butastounding Dutastounding Butastounding
astounding as it may seem in the theface thefaee timeface
face of repeated admission of this thisnature thisl1nture thisnature
nature by theoretical reformers of ofthe ofthe ofthe
the criminal and tho further admis admission admission admission ¬
sion that crime instead of being less lessfrequent lessfrcquent lessfrequent
frequent was constantly on tho in increase Incrtase increase ¬
crease the people still insst upon uponthe uponthe upontime
the possibility of reforming the habit habitual habitual habitual ¬
ual criminal You can not reform a acriminal aerlmlnnl acriminal
criminal against his will any more morethan morethan morethan
than you can hypnotize 11 ll1Iotlze or instill re religion reHglon religlon
ligion into an individual against his hiswill hiswill hiswill
will How then can wo reform him himTho him1lIe him himTime
Time most eminent criminologists crlminologistsof
I Iof tof
of the world assert and nu their asser ¬
tions have not been denied < but o otho on ontbo onthe
the contrary co II trnr admitted byassocia byassociatlons byassoclntlons by associa associations
tlons and individuals interested I nteres el1 1 1tho In Intho inthe
tho subject that habitual criminal criminalcan crlmlnnlseRn
can not bo reformed by tho exlstin exlstinlaws existing existinglaws existinglaws
laws moral suasion kindness o origid or orrigId orrigid
rigid prison rules and discipline disciplineNo
No one denies that tho convict con convictcd conlctel1 convicted
victcd lctel1 for tho first time can be re reformed reformel1 reformed ¬
formed In some instances because becausho becnuseho
ho can All convicts are not trim trimhrally crhninally crlmInnlly
inally inclined and those that annot an nrenot arenot
not will as a rule upon their relcasi relcasifrom rolengefrom reieasofrog
from prison go forth to do battle with willthe withtho withthe
the world without one thought o owrong 01 01wrong ofwrong
wrong doing They hey are not looking lookingfor lookingfor
for the help of time reformer becnu becouo becouotire 1 1they e ethey
they tire know mow full well that tho reformatquits reformat roformerqnits reformerquits
quits reforming when ho is asked U Ugo to togo togo
go into his pocket pocketIf
If the habitual criminal can not notbe no nobo IIOtbe
be reformed what are we to do with willhim withhim withhim
him Clearly wo must s alve > lvo this tliiiproblem thisproblem thisproblem
problem and if all the great am amrecognized a amid amidrecognlzed 11I1 11I1recognIzed
recognized criminologists and peno pcnologists penologists penologists ¬
logists nro as a unit In their conclu conclusions conclualunt conciusiuns ¬
sions nvlative to the modus operand operandto
to be pursued surely their idea ideashould Idensshould ideasshould
should outweigh the th visionary itilollnr Im itnpracticable Imprnctlclble imprnctienblo
practicable theories of the well wellui wellIll
ui anlng but mistaken association associationand asmoclntionsand
and Individuals Tho tie crying need needof Medof needof
of the day Is for laws framed on cor corkrect correct correct
rect scientific principles uniform uniful tn so sifar sofar sofar
far as possible Il Issihle in all tho states and andrigorously uldrigoroutlly andrigorously
rigorously enforced It is impossible impossibleto
to lay In too much stress on this matter matterit
it is vital vltnlund and urgent Tho basis of ofcriminal 01crlmlnnl ofcriminal
criminal law as we have It today todayis
is found fuundln In a series of loose defini definitions definitlons delimittions ¬
tions and an descriptions complicated complicatedby
by judicial comments rulings con constructions cons constructions ¬
structions s and interpretations whichmuke which whichmake whichmuke
muke tho definition of individual individualoffences IlIlllldunlofflJnces individualotrences
offences and gradations of penalties penaltiesimposlhlo penaltiesImposlilio penaltiesimposiblo
imposlhlo without scientific system systemntizatlon sytemWith
ntizatlon With a code co o of laws lawsframed lawsframed I
framed on 0 a purely scientific basis basisput bnslslut basisput
put lut Into intoelTectaud effect and nn enforced enl rcc by clean cleanpractical cleal1lrnctlcalmon cleanpractical
practical lrnctlcalmon men men the result will bo all allthat nilthnt allthat
that can bo desired It Is High 1i Igh time timefor timefor timefor
for the people to interest themselves themselvesin
in I this subject and elect men to olllco olllcowho ollicowho officewho
who are pledged to enact and enforce enforcesuitable enforcesullabl enforcesuitable
suitable practical and effective effectivemeasures ellectlvethnt effectivemeasures
measures that will act as a deterrent deterrentiigainbt deterrentagainst L Lugnlnllt
against tho commission of crime crimeNo crlmoNo crimeNo
No milk and nu water legislation will willdo willdo willdo
do wo must adopt drastic severe severeheroic severeherolo severeheroic
heroic measuresOhio measures measuresOhio meusuresOuia
Ohio hits made a stride In tho thoright thoright theright
right direction by b enacting an habit habitual hnbltunl habitual ¬
ual criminals act which provides for forthe fortho fortime
the imprisonment for life of Individ fudividuals Individuais ludlvldunls
uais convicted of crime for tho third thirdtime thirdtime thirdtime
time Time legislature of California Californiawill Californlnwill Californiawill
will bi b called upon at t its coming ses session session session ¬
sion to enact a law providing for time tlioimprisonment thoimprlsonmont timeimprisonment
imprisonment for life 11 fe or extermi extermination extermllInllon oxtermnination ¬
nation of 01 tho habitual and incor incorrigible Incorrigible incurrigible ¬
rigible criminal criminalTho crhlllnniluo criminalThe
The direct cause of this crusado crusadoagainst crusadoagnlnst crusadeagainst
against the habitual criminal is a aprisoner nlIr1soner aprisoner
prisoner named Oppenheiinv > r who whois whois whois
is confined in the Sau Quentin Cal Calprison Cnllrlsun Calprison
prison lrlsun lie Is without doubt ono of oftho ofthe ofthe
the worst criminals with whom tho thoState thoStnto theState
State has ever had to deal lIe is isabsolutely IsIbsolutoJ isabsolutely
IbsolutoJ absolutely vicious and without moral moralsense moralsenso moralsense
sense Three times ho has attempted attemptedto
to murder his keepers Ieepersnnd and they tho must mustbo mnsLbo mustbe
bo constantly con8tnltl on their guard to protect pro protect protect ¬
tect their lives Neither kindness kindnessDr
or prison discipline have any eiractupon effect effectupon cffctupon
upon him To turn him loose upon uponho upontl10 uponthe
the ho community would simply bo to toivo toghe togive
give ivo him another opportunity to corn cornnit commlt cornmit
nit crime Confined in tho same samjrison snm3prison sameprison
prison > rison are several men whose records recordsfor recordsfor recordsfor
for total depravity are almost as asblack asblnclc asblack
black and tho fact that tho timo is isipproachlug Isapprolchlng isapproaching
approaching when these human fiendsmust fiends fiendsnust fieI1smust
must be released is tho cause of ofIread ofrend ofdread
rend to every law abiding citizen citizenf
of f that State There is probably no noenal nopennl nopenal
penal > enal institution of any importance importancein
in in the civilizd clvillz d world where there thereire thereIIro thereare
ire not more incorrigible criminals criminalsvho crhnlnahwho criminalswho
who might well be put to death A Amraan Ahnmnu Ahuman
human mraan fiend absolutely absolutc1 vicious viciousrithout viciouswithout Iolouswithout
without moral sense although in full fulllosession fullposes910n fullposession
poses910n losession of his ordinrry faculties facultiesihould fncultiesshoul facultiesshould
should shoul bo exterminated after carefulexamination careful carefulixamlnatlon carefulcxamlnntlon
examination by a board of experts expertsilipolntcd expertsappointed expertsappointed
appointed for that purpose purposeI
I do not think hanging or electro electromtton clectrocutlon electrocution
mtton tho best methods metho s for executing executinglondemcd executingcondemed executingcondemed
condemed criminals for tho reason reasonhat rensonthnt reasonthat
hat so many mishaps have attended attendedixectitions attendedcxecutlons attendedexecutions
executions by b those methods and too tootrongly toostrongly toostrongly
strongly emphasized the horror of ofho oftho ofthe
the ho scene The lethal chamber a aiell ncell acell
cell iell to which death would come comelulckly comequlcklJ comaquickly
quickly and without pain or pub pubiclty pubHclty pubhicity
iclty through the agency of cloro clorobrm cloroforlu cloroform
form ether or hydrocyanic gas con conlucted conducted conducted
ducted thither by pipes would in inhe Intho inthe
the he opinion of those in a position to tomow toknow toknow
know mow bo tho most humane and satisfactory sat satsfuctory satIsfl1ctory
sfuctory method to adopt rime Thoondemnod Thlcondemno rimecondemued
ondemnod would pass away as aslalnlcssly aspainlessly aspainlessly
painlessly as if ho simply falling fallingsleep fnlllngasleep fallingasleep
asleep All execution la a state stateihould atnCoshoul stateshould
should shoul take place within tho walls wallsif wallsof wallsof
of if tho states prison j this will become
apparent to all without explnnntlo explnnntlohero explanlltlonhere
hero heroIf heroIf
hereH
If one or more states decree that tliahabitual thnthnbltual thathabitual
habitual criminals be put to dent dentor denthor
or Imprisoned for life it becomes becomenecessary becomesneCeSiar becomesnecessary
necessary neCeSiar to devise n plan to post postlively postltlehy pOSItholy
lively Identify criminals convicted convlctoifor convictedfor
for tho third time Tho Uertllloi Uertllloisystem Bertillonsstem Ilortlllonsystem
system of indontlficatlon by b measure measuromeat measuremcnt mensuroment
meat Is Ihfallnblc and has beer beenrecognized beerrecognized beourecogulze
recognized as such and adopted li lialt In Innil Innil
nil parts of the world It Is bascton based IInsedon
on the fact that after ono attains fill fillgrowth full fullgrowth fullgrowth
growth certain measurement of tin tinbody Lhebod timebody
body bod and limbs do not change and andthat nodtint
that in certain particulars no two twcindividuals two111IIIvhlnais twoindividuals
individuals arc alike This system systemtaken s systemtaken stonl stonltaJCn
taken in connection with photogra photography photogralhy photograply
ply marks scars deformities colorof color coloiof colorof
of hair ard eyes height weight con commdltion conditlon condltion
dltion of teeth peculiarities in build buildand buildnnd buildand
and features and the further tnirl tnirlof 111 tnaricof 1 rI rIof < <
of identification I am about to pro propose propose propose ¬
pose makes identification easy ens and andabsolutely nodabsolutely
absolutely certain and Insures In urcs the thepossibility thepossibility thepossibllity
possibility of punishing criminals In Inono Inono
ono stale whoso records in otherstates other oLhcistates otherstntes
states entitle them to the full fuUII 11 limit limitof unit mltof unitof
of tho law I would proposo that thattho
I
tho convict convicted for Iho theeaond the theOLOIH thoe
e eaond OLOIH ond tine of such crimes as murdiT murdiTmanslaughter murlllrI11nnslnu aurlcrntaisiamm
manslaughter I11nnslnu liter attempt to murder murdermurderous murdermurderous murdermurderous
murderous assault highway hl hwny robbery robberyrape robberyrnle robberyrape
rape burglary n mson son or larceny be homnrked bemarked bemnrked
mnrked for life by tattooing upon uponhis uponhis uponhis
his back a sulliulont murk of identi identification IduntiIicntionsay dentlIIcntlonsn ¬
fication Iicntionsay IIcntlonsn say the number of the hurlsun hurl prison prlsun ¬
sun and his prison number in figureslarge figures figureslarge IlguresInrge
large enough to preclude pro hlllo the possi po3slbility possibility 10 JsI JsIIJi1ity ¬
bility of obliteration Should hollltllln an nt nttomut ilLtemvt attempt
tomut tempt bo nude to alter or obliterate obliteratetills obllterntethis obliteratethis
this mark truces discoverable bythe by bytho b btho
tho glass If necessary neccssnr would be left leftsuflleicntly lettsutllolontly leftsupatently
suflleicntly plain to make Identifica Identification hlontlf1catlun idmitilleathou ¬
thou easy oa9 This tntoolng would do domore domore d0snore
more to reform the convict than allthe all allthe 1111tho
the prison associations on earth It Itwould Itwould Itwould
would net as a deterrent against the thecommission thecomullsslon timecommission
commission of crime fur the second secondtime secI1thno secondlimo
time and nu almost possltiyo precntattre pre preventatlre Preye
ventatlre ye ntatlve against ngt l lst the Oe1Rmfh3ono1the 6onTn1sii6no 6onTn1sii6notho OffiniSii n r rtho
tho third offence ofT mince Any An convict con convicted convlcted cond ¬
victed for tho timid time of grave offeruco of offeree offcnco ¬
feree could safely ho put down asan as asan nsan
an habitual hnbltunlnnd and incorrigible criminal criminaland crlmlnnlnlld criminalamid
and given life imprisonment or the thelethal tholetbnl timelethal
lethal chamber without fear of mak making mnk1IIg rusking ¬
ing n mistake it is only onl after the thoprisoner theprisoner timeprisoner
prisoner has been found guilty of the thesubstquont thoBubslquent timesubsequent
subsequent off offence mmco that the question questionwhether questionwhethur questionwhether
whether ho has boon previously con canvicted convicted convlcte ¬
victed vlcte should bo gone into unless hoolTars ho hooflerd heofflr
oflerd evidence of good character In Inthe Intho inthe
the trial for tile oflonce I in n whichcase which whichcase whichcase
case the prosecution may provo the theprevious theprolous timeprevious
previous convlctln Hut after nft r coni con conviction conviction ¬
viction and while in prison his record recordmay recor recordmay < < 1 1mny
may be looked up and if it bo bl found foundthat fuundthnt foundthat
that ho has been convicted before of ofgrave ofgrne ofgrave
grave crime ho must bo talooed as astho nitho astime
tho law In I envy 11111 specify 8pecll 8pecllI
Every I ver prison in the United States Stntesshould Stntosshuuld Statesshould
should furnish every other prison prisonfflth prisonwith prisonwithi
with photographs of Ill its convicts convictsmeasuremints COIICtsmcnSUrl1I1 convictsmaensuremnts
measuremints mcnSUrl1I1 JIlts by b the Uertilllon sys system aystem system ¬
tem marks scats date of commit commitment cummltment eumnuitmoult ¬
ment term of Imprisonment Imprison mont etcIt etc etcIt I
It will be interesting to note not < J the timealacrity thealacrity thoQlncrlt
Qlncrlt alacrity with which habitual crimin criminUs crimninals
als will get oat of 01 California after afterhe nfterthe afterthe
the he passage of the proposed habitual habitualrimiunls hnbltuulcriminals habitualcriniluals
criminals act In n a short time slu sluTill shJwill sii siiwill
will have purged herself of that thatuost thntmost thatmost
most undesirable clement and timeStates tho thostates thotntes
states not having such n law will willlave willhnvc willhave
have lave something to think over Soon Sooner
er T or later they will be compelled in iniolf Inself inself
self defence to enact a similar meas measiro mesure measure
ure 111 May God speed tho day dayC duroC
C 1 McConn McConnCrlminololst McConnC1Imlnologlst McCotmICriminologist
Criminologist CriminologistIIEUIIICIIS CrlminololstHEUHICHS C1ImlnologlstIIEUHICUS
HEUHICHS SENATE SENATEIt < It t is isicer ism ismbeer 1 1bcer
beer icer and tho very er purest and best bestJail best1 best1Cnll bestCall
Jail for it Bottled by the Arming Arllngon
ton on Bottling Co 27 and l K si street streetnorthwest rect rectortuwcst reetnorthwest
northwest
HISTORY HISTORYNova HISTORYNova ttISTORYNova
Nova Scotia having beenceded been beenicded beenceded
ceded to Great Britain by the theTeaty thetreaty thetreaty
treaty of AixlaChapelle Aix la Chapelle Parlinmentvoted Par Pariamentvoted I
iamentvoted 200000 tp paythe pay payhe pa pathe
the he expenses of settling anEnglish an anEnglish nnEnglish
English colony there Nearly Nearlyhirtybight Nearlythirtyeight Nearlythirtyttight
hirtybight hundred adven advenurers adventurers aciventurers
turers urers were sent sen t over in 1749and 1749 j jind
and settled on the borders of oftin ofthe
the tin 13ay lnv rf flliRhnto Chebuto where wherethey where wlioirtlhey wherethey I
they founded the town of Halij Halijax Balijfax Ralijfax
fax ax and fortified it as the seatj seatjif seat seatof
of if the English government governmenthere governmentthere governmentthere
there These colonists were wereccompanied wereuccornpanied I
accompanied by Col EdwardCornwallis Edward EdwardJornwallis EdwardCornwallis
Cornwallis as their governor governorhe governorThe I
Acadians former French l
The he or j jettlers Isettlers 1settlers
settlers were allowed peaceable i jo ito ito
to o remain there and an having Jlu ving vingJj
Jj
sworn never rOVe1 over to take up arm armagainstJtheir a1l1lSaglins armsngains
againstJtheir aglins their countrymen sub submittedlto submittedto subSemitted
emitted mittedlto mittedto to the English govern governmoiit gOVelntllOIit governmerit
merit and mil 1 were tverecalled called Freud FreudNeutrate l FrottchNeutra renchNeutm
Neutrate NeutrateThe NeutmllJe NeutraPiet
The Piet treaty t cntyoC uatyofAix of AixlaOhapel AixlaOhapelsigned AixlaChapelsigned la Chapel Chapelsigned
signed In Ii 1748 between Great GreaiBritainlFrance Greatllritair GreatBritaim
BritainlFrance llritair Prance Holland Ger GermanySpain Germany Germany
manySpain many pain and Greece was wasa
a famoiu s one and was signed signedby signedby signedby
by the flopresontatives of these theserespective theserespoot
respective respoot 0 powers on the eigh eighteenth ¬
teenth of C October of that year yearBy year3y
By 3y it tlfo tl 0treatiesof 0 treaties treatiesoCVestphalia treatiesoCVestphalia1U48 of West IVestplialia phalin
1048 ofhVimegnen of 0 Winmeguen Witnf > gnen 107870 l 7870 of olRyswioft ofHyswia ofRyswio
Ryswioft 1097 of Utrecht 1713 1713of 171Bor 1713of
of Badrti Bad 1 1714 of the Triple TripleAllifintiti tripleAlliana lliple1717
Allifintiti 1717 of the Omul Omulrupie Quad Quadru Quadruple
rupie ru pIe ifilliance IHanco 1718 and of olVienna ofViannn ofVienna
Vienna 1788 7B8 were renewed and andconlirmad nndconfirm andconfirm
conlirmad conlirmadAt confirm c1 c1At t1At
At tiHk tilclose close of the war wa l oJ oJ1812lfijjthe of
1812lfijjthe 181216 tho second war for in indopetidjjmce ink inkdepend
dopetidjjmce depend Ice the real and per personal persoaal
sonal 9 wpitul pitul ital of the people of ofthe oftheUn ofthe
the theUn Unirad Uni dStat dStatQswasasfollows dStatQswasasfollowsHeal State8 swasnsfollws swasnsfollwsHuni was as follows followsHeal
Heal property p perry public lands landsf00000jul0
f00000jul0 0000 00 acres at 2 an acre
1000010000 1000 0000 cultivated lands
800000000 300000 00 acres at 10an acre acreiJ000OOp000 acreBOUOO
iJ000OOp000 BOUOO 000 dwelling houses housesof
of all ldnds inds 1000000000 lOOOOOOOOOVhe 1000000000When 10000000001Vho
When Vhe Mr Lincoln entered enteredupon entereupon enteredupon
upon tile the duties of President Presidentof
of the f Republic March 4 418G
1801 tlio ti o total regular force of ofthe oftho ofthe
the army arri y was sixteen thousand thousandmen thousanmen
men and these were principal principally ¬
ly in th tho Western States and andTerritor anellerrit andlerrit
Territor lerrit thff l r es guarding the fron frontier frontier fromrtaagainst ¬
tier sattursagainsttholndians sattursagainsttholndiansThe so t IJrsllgainst e eThe the Intl Indians Indianslhe ans
The fortk forL and arsenals on the thestabomrtrrepftQinHy thetWU themabotfltlate
mabotfltlate tWU stabomrtrrepftQinHy bO 1 1slave ll epimtllywithin illllywi within tht n the thoslavelabor MIOslae
slavelabor slave labor States were so soweakly soweaklr soweakly
weakly manned or not manned mannedat
at all that they became an aneasy aneasr aneasy
easy prey to the insurgents insurgentsThe
The consequence was that t they theywere theywere theywere
were seized seizedj seized and un when the newadnministation new newadministration newadministmtion
administration came into power powerof powerof
of all the fortifications within withinthe withinthe withinthe
the slavelabor slave labor States only onlyFortress only1ortress onlyFortress
Fortress Monroe in Virginia Virginiaand
an and forts Jefferson Taylor and andPickens andPiokens andPickens
Pickens on the Gulf coast re remained remained remnained ¬
mained in possession of the theGovernment theGovernment theGovernment
Government The siezed forts fortswere fortswere fortswere
were sixteen in number They Theyliad Theyhad lheyhad
had cost the Government about
50000000 000000 and had an aggre aggregate aggregate aggregate ¬
gate 1220 guns All the arsen arsenils arsennls arsenals
ils in the cotton growing growingStates growingStateslad States Statesliad Stuteshad
had been seized seiedTha seizedlha seized1henational
Tha 1henational national society of Sons Sonsf Sonsof Sonsof
of f the American Revolution Revolutionivas
was organized in New York Yorktipril YorkApril YorkApril
April 30 1889 and an chartered charteredin
in Connecticut in 1890 Its Itspurposes Itspurposes Itspurposes
purposes are the same as those thosejf thoseof thoseof
of the older organization the theSons theSons theSons
Sons of the Revolution HeolutionState RevolutionState RevolutionState
State societies exist in thirty thirtylight thirtyeight thirtyeight
eight States the District of ofColumbia ofColumbia ofColumbia
Columbia and Hawaii A Cal Calfornia California California
ifornia sooiety of descendants descendantsf desoen ants antsof
of f Revolutionary patriots en enitled entitled cntitled
titled Sons of Revolutionary RevolutionarySires
Sires organized July 4 1875 1875laving 187 187hn 187having
laving hn ving reorganized and aumlclmanged aumlclmangedits changed changedts
its ts name in 1889 has been beenn beennmitted ad adnitted adwitted
witted to membership A form formtl formal formal
al tl movement by this society societyind societyand societyand
and the II Sons of the Revolt Revoltthou Revoluion Heolutio1
thou ion toward a union was at atempted uttempted attempted
tempted in 1892 and an again in
1807 897 but was successfulGURIOUS successful successfulCURIOUS successfulGURIOUS
GURIOUS FflGTSVomen FflGTS FflGTSWomen ffGTSromen
Women employed emplo e on Japanese Jap Japinese Japanese
anese tea farms work twelve twelveloursand twelvehoursaJll1 twelvehoursand
loursand arepaid fifteen cents centsa
a t day dayThe dayThe dayThe
The baron of beef beeftwo two sir siroins sirloins sirloins
loins joined together r by the theind theend theend
end ind of the backbone backboneis is always alwaysorved alwayssered alwaysserved
served on the royal ro al table at atVindsor atWindsor atWindsor
Windsor Castle Ohristmasday OhristmasdayA
A snails pace was carefully carefullyibserved carefullyobseted carefullyobserved
observed recently in Florence Florencetally FlorenceItally oiorenceHally
tally Several of the mol molnsks mol1I1s1s mollusks
nsks were placed between two twojoints twopoints twopoints
points joints ten feet apart and anditarted IIndstarted andstarted
started It was ascertained ascertainedhat asoertainedthat ascertainedthat
that the fastest snail in the theaco therace themce
race traveled at the rate of a anile amile aimile
nile in fourteen days daysr
r
The number num er of winks in ingiven a agiven agiven
given time is found by Kots i iRussian a aRussian ahussies
Russian physician to furnish furnisha
a fairly fairl V accurate measure o othe of ofthe oftime
the degreeof degree of eyo e eyofatigue e fatigue cansec cansecby caused cnusedby causedby
by various illuminants Thli this thismethod
i method gave the following un tinexpected unexpected
expected results from readings readingsof
of ten minutes with a candle
08 winks a minute city gas
28 sunlight 22 electric electriclight eleotriolight electriclight
light 18 18Russian 18Hussiln 15Russian
Russian soldiers are supplied suppliedwith suppliedwith stlplliedwith
with handkerchiefs at the expense ex expense cxpense ¬
pense of the government governmentEvqry governmentBVQry governumentEvgry
Evqry day there hangs over oveiLondon oerLOtHIon overLoudon
London a avast vast smoke cloud that thatis thatis thudis
is estimated to weigh about aboutthree aboutthree aboutthree
three hundred tons tonsA tonsA tonsA
A newspaper printed on tho thoexcursion thoexcursion timeexcursion
excursion steamer Ophio pub 1111lisped published published ¬
lished one on number in eighty eightydegrees eightylegleos elghtydegrees
degrees north latitude It Itclaims Itclaims Itclaims
claims to be the paper pub published published pltblisped ¬
lished farthest north of any an on onrecord onrecord onrecord
recordSpiders record recordSpiders recordSpiders
Spiders are a serious plague plaguein
in Japan They spin their theirwebs theirwebs theirwebs
webs on the telegraph wires wiresand wiresand wirestimid
and are so numerous as to tocause tocause toca11s0
cause a serious loss of insula insulation insulation imsulation ¬
tion Sweeping the wires does doeslittle doeslittle doeslittle
little good goo as the spiders be begin begin begin ¬
gin all over again againThe againrllC againTime
The only place where black blackdiamonds blackdiamonds blackdiamonds
diamonds are foium I s f in theBrazillian the theBrazillian theBlClzillian
Brazillian province of Balm BalriuThey Bahia111OY Balmriioy
They are usually usuallyfound found in river riverbeds riverbeds riverbeds
beds and brought up by divers diversOtlierja divcrsOUlel5 diversOther
Otlierja Other are L e obtained by tunnel tunnelspecimen tuuncli tunilelfngnibtittnlns
i fngnibtittnlns IlFr1iibn l tn i ihheliirgeit ihheliirgeitspecimen Itle 11 11speoimen
specimen ever found was worth
870000 870000The 20000 20000The 20000rhe
The number of soldiers slain slainbattle sllinbattle slainbattle
battle depends a great on the thejolor thecolor timecolor
color of their uniforms The Themore Themore lhemore
more flashy and conspicuous conspicuousthe
the helmet and an jacket tho bet better better better ¬
ter the target consequently andconseqtientlyilie and conseq consequentlythe uon tly tlythe
the greater the mortality Red Redittracts Hedattrllots Redattracts
attracts the eye most readily readilyuid reallilyand readilyand
and twelve men wearing that thatjolor thatcolor thatcolor
color are killed to seven in rifle rillejreen riflegreen riflegreen
green or six in blue or live in injither ineither ineither
either brown blue or gray grayWater gra graYater grayWater
Water is the hardest of all allsubstances allsubstances allsubstances
substances to heat with thesingle the thesingle thesingle
single exception of hydrogen hydrogenjas h drogen drogengas
gas The easiest two are mer merjury mercury minery
cury and lead which stand in inhis inthis inthis
this respect on on nearly the same sameooting samefooting stonefooting
footing footingHorses footinghorses ootingHorses
Horses giraffes and ostricheshave ostriches ostrichesiiave ostricheshave
have the largest eyes of all tel terestial telrestial terl
restial animals but among inn innine lI1arine marime
rime ine animals there are cephulo cephuloods cephulopods cephalopods
pods ods or ink fishes which have havejyes haoeyes haveeyes
eyes as large as u plate plateAmong plateAmong plateAmong
Among the curiosities indeeds in inleeds indeeds
deeds attention at ten tion is called to one onen onein onein
in n Belfast which gives the thejourse thecourse timecourse
course and distance to a hole holen holein holein
in n the roof of the shed of the theilacksmich theblaoltsmi theblacksmith
blacksmith blaoltsmi th shop This II IIFarrow HP
P 1 Farrow the tlleBelfllstengineer tlleBelfllstengineerSIIYS Belfast engineer engineerays engilmeersays
says should be considered an anindestructible anin anindestructible
indestructible in monument as aslie asthe astime
lie hole still remains although althoughhe
the he shed sbe was burned away awayrears awayears awayyears
years rears ago Another queer deed deeds deedis deedis
is s of a shipyard in Rockport Rockportind Hockortand
and one course is described as asin asclin asin
clin in line with the bow of two twoessels twoessels twovessels
essels now building at said saidihipyard saidship saidshipyard
shipyard ship shipyardITEMS ihipyardITEMS urd urdITEMS
ITEMS OF INTEREST INTERESTAn
An expert chiropodist is as asigned asksigned assigne
signed signe to every regiment of ofJennan ofGerIllun ofGerman
German soldiers soldiersThere soldierslllt soldiersthere
There lllt re are no railroad in Per Peria 11sia Psrsin
sin ia In traveling facilities that thatiountry thatcountry thatcountry
country is acentury behind the theige theage theage
age igeThe
The latest invention is a shoe shoevhich shoewhich shoewhich
which has an electric contri contrivance contlivance coutriVance ¬
vance in the heel from which whichentle whichgentle whichgentle
gentle entle heat is difTusen through throughittle thronghlittle throughlittle
little holes in the sole to keep keepho Iteepthe keeptime
the ho entire foot warm
Duplicates of all the import important ¬
ant bridges in tho empire are arekept arelept arekept
kept in the German War Val De Department Departmcn Dopartmnent ¬
partment t This 1h is is to insure insuretheir insuretheh insuretheir
their rapid rapi < replacement t in case caseof casooC caseof
of their injury i or destruction destructionin
in war warAn WillAn varAm
An invitation to a dinner in inManila inManiln inManila
Manila includes an invitation invitationto
to stay all night This custom customprevails OUStOIllJloCliis customprevails
prevails because nIl persons personsfound personsfound personsfound
found on tilt streets after 830 830p
p in are subject to arrest by bytho bytho bythe
tho military unless they have havepasses havepasses havepasses
passes passesA
A cylindrical pillow of old oldpapers oldpapers oldpapers
papers placen under tho neck neckis neckis
is helpful in inducing slumber slumberThe slumberllIe slumiberlime
The pillow thus th liS used checks checkstte cheolsttlo clmecksthe
tte the How of blood to the head headTlio hend1he imermdlimo
limo Chinese and Japanese use usethis usothis usetlmis
this method to woo tho god of ofslumber ofslumber ofslmunbee
slumber and nearly nearl with suck success suocoss suckcess ¬
cess
Arrangements t3 for forthefuneral forthefuneralof the funeral funeralof
of Miss Lizzie Walsh aged agedeighteen agedeighteon agedeighteon
eighteon wore in progress at ather athel ather
her home in St Paul Minn Minnthe lliunthe Minnthe
the undertaker was about to toembalm toemhulm toembalm
embalm tho body and the rein relatives reintives reIntves ¬
tives were tearfully mourning mourningtheir tIIourningtheir umourningtheir
their bereavment when the theBup theBupposo sup suppose stmppose ¬
pose corpse opened her eyes eyesbounded eyesboundod eyesbounded
bounded from from the bed and andasked an anIIsked andasked
asked an explanation of tho thounusual thounusllll theEm
unusual Em fuss the girl had liadbeen hadbeen hadbeen
been in a trance tranceHcurichs tlanceHcurlchs tranceIleurichs
Hcurichs beer is tho purest in tho thomiirkut thomlrklJt thennuket
miirkut as can bo tested teslcl1ln In time Extra Extra1iile Bxtra1nle Extralnie
1iile Lager bottled by h the Arlington Arlingtonlamtnlin ArlingtonuouuIJI ArlingtonP
uouuIJI P 1UtF fyirw7411 2nlIllIC aliial gtsgetsr gtsgetsrnorthwest r rI1I
I1I northwest northwestBammlings r wost wostHnll1mllngs
lamtnlin Hnll1mllngs s Market is selling tho thobest thobest thebest
best New York Cider at 25 cents per pergallon purgnllon pargallon
gallon Opposite till Vondotuo Ho Hotel Hotd Ilotel ¬
tel 3d street and 111 Pennsylvania ayemutte ave avenue l1entlo ¬
nue Northwest NorthwestEVERY Norlhwestu NorlhwestAMU
u
4 AMU vr7F3n EJM M EUTS EUTSK 39EJTSEEflNWS
K EEflNWS RNAN Ln 6YCEIh rrM TH THE AT EE EEEV E EIlmy
EVERY EV lty AtTBKXOON ulEH OX AND EVEN INd INdMUNDAY INGWeek 1IGRcek
Week COlUlllonclng COlUlllonclngMUXI CmamumuciagMUNDtY
MUNDAY MUXI > AY MATINEE I MAY II IILondon tIROSE ItROs
ROSE ROs = SY SZDELL SZDELLLondon ZLT ZLTLondon
London Bells BellsNext
Next N xt Week WeekMINER NeelMINER VeekMINEH
MINER VANS BOnE BOIIEMIAN BOnEIAN BOIlE1fIAN
IAN BURLESQUERS BURLESQUERSALEXIS BUItLESQUBnSAIJBXIS BUILLESQUl1RSALEXIS
ALEXIS ADJY ADJYWINE AD ADWINE ADTWINE
WINE AND ANDInert EEERLOCAL EEERLOCALIn
Finest Inert In al Stack In InIMPORTED IIIUtlORTED InIMPORTED =
IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC l > COUDIALS COUDIALSG10
610 Louisiana Avenue N W WJM WJ WJr
JM J Jr M Nit KLEIN KLEINSTOCK KLEINSlOOK KLEINSTOCK
STOCK IIIIOKKK IIIIOKKKE
s > E Corner Seventh Street and andPennsylvania amIlennslvanln aidPennsylvania
Pennsylvania Avenue N W WFAST WPAST V VFAS
FAST FAS WIRE mE QUOTATIONS QUOTATIONSFRACTIONAL QUOIAIIONSFRACTIONAL S SFHACTIONAL
FRACTIONAL LOTS LOTSQuickest LOTSQulolost LOTSQuickest
Quickest Service in 11 tho City CityNO CltrNO CityNo
NO WAll TAX CIIA11QB3 CIIA11QB3Karl CJA1l0BSlbone cnauonshone
lbone hone SLOT SLOTKarl 1101Karl
Karl Xander
153032 Seventh St N W WElk WElk WElk
Elk Club Whiskey 0 years yearsold yearsold yearsold
old 75 7 cents perquart perquartOld perquartDIll perquartOld
Old Reserve 8 years ears old 1 qt qtAll qtAllldnds qtAll
All Allldnds kinds of Virginia and Cal California Calif01l1ia CalIforuialines ¬
ifornia Iforuialines Wines

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