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THE BE PUB LIC. WASHINGTON: TUESDAY MORNING, AUGUST 16, 1853. The Whig Party and the Pacific Railroad. The Everting Poti perpetuates a slander against the Whig party in the following paragraph: "The Whig journals seem to expect that the project of a Pacific railway, which has been espoused by several politicians and journals of the Democratic party, will restore the Whig ascon.lui.oi. if tuA nn-j tu VUII^ICH. II Uic UUU1 tau nc ujicutu wide enough to lot that scheme through, they lancy that that whole host of plans of internal improvement which they have been brooding over for the last thirty years will rush through with it." The doctrine of internal improvements and of the protective tariff, as laid down by Mr. Clay, and adopted by the Whig party, was this: The two measures were deemed essen tial to national independence. The want of experience, of foreign credit, of resources, on ihe part of the States and people of the United Slates, rendered it important that Federal aid should be extended in the infancy of these enterprises. It was charged upon the Whig party that their purpose in advocating the protective system was to legislate for monopolists, and that the surplus revenue accruing from this source was to be expended in a splendid system of internal improvements, for the purpose of subsidizing the States to the support of class legislation. These imputations have been indignantly denied by the Whig party, and they have proven their sincerity by abandoning these measures of policy as soon as it became apparent that the States were competent to the con struction of works of improvement within their own limits, and as soon as manufactures by the protection of the past and present tariff, as well as by the transfer of European skill and capital, and by the success of American enterprise, have become an established institution. During the whole period of party conflict, however, there has been scarcely a party division upon the power of the Federal Government to construct certain works ol improvement which were local in their position but national in their employment, or which were undeniably necessary to carry out the obligations of the Federal Government. To this class belong the river and harbor improvements. We say there has been scarcely a party distinction, because politicians have advocated such measures, as they have also voted for duties on coal, iron, or sugar, without regard to party association. While the Whig party has been charged with the unworthy motives above referred to, it is. protected from injustice by the doctrines of honesty, accountability, and economy in the administration and limitation upon the powers of the Federal Government, which haveformec the basis of its published expositions of opinion If we are correct in affirming that the Whig party advocated a system of internal improve ment by the Federal Government for the purpose of promoting the general welfare, and thai it had no purpose of adding to the power or increasing the expenditures of the Federal Gov ernment, itmustfollow that there isa limit with in which Federal appropriation and ownershi[ in this respect is judicious, and that the Whig party is under no obligations to insist upon the construction of all works of internal improve merit by the Federal Government. Exercising this discretion, we have chosen to say that wt do not deem it necessary or expedient that the Federal Government should construct and control a railroad from the Mississippi to the Pacilic ocean, and if we can demonstrate our objections to this work to be well-founded, it will follow that Whigs may, at their discretion, ad vocate or oppose the execution of a work of internal improvement by the Federal Government, and are under no obligation to support all such works which may be constructed, upon the ground that the Federal expenditures will thereby be increased. If however there be any Whig who is of opinion that the Federal Government should have constructed all these works, let him reflect upon their extent. There are within the United Slates perhaps 20,000 miles of railroad under charter, more than 100,000 miles of incorporated dirt, plank, and stone roads, perhaps 3,000 miles of canal. To this let us add a Pacific railroad, with a disbursement equal to that of the Mexican war, an income equal to one-fourth of the national revenue, an army of operatives numbering durinir construction more than one hundred thousand, and requiring for its constant operation and repair of not less than twenty thousand. Let us imagine it the proprietor of a grant of land equal to the area of States. The common carrier and the controller of the productions of thousands of citizens, each community of whom would be as completely dependent upon the rates of fare and freight for the value of their property or products as St. Helena or the rock of Gibraltai upon the facilities of commercial intercourse. Let us suppose the administration of this Toad to enter upon a political contest, or to be bestowed as a reward o( political services. The Hon. Mr. Milldollar having brought material aid to the party at a critical moment, enabling it to secure the services of the Hon. Mr, Smasher, who had been on the point of hiring his invaluable adherents to the opposite party, is an applicant for the Presidency. It is true that he cannot tell a T rail from a trombone, or an "inside connexion" from a dead reckon ing; but he can give bank checks and champagne suppers. This devoted patriot maybe opposed by his protege, Mr. Smasher, who de mands the situation for himself and comrades and who, if appointed, might be found "at al times at his office except when absent," whicl would be seven eighths of his time. This roai being conducted by "Sikeseys," with soaj locks and cigar, craped hats, bright brass but tons and high heeled boots?always animate with a cheerful horn?and always "spiling' for a chance to "lam" an unoffending passer, gor, or fancying themselves sitting bebiiw some 2.40 on the "Harlem Road," would is delighted at the general "muss" of a collision and triumph in the superior mischief committee sewesBMSHHmwBmeweBesamHHeM by hit "muhMn" *pon uy unfortusate com petltor. Now, inasmuch as men have obtained office under several admiaiatraUena for wbuh ! they were aa little itted at the imaginary rep 1 resentative we hare auppawd, ere have a right to auppoae that auch men may be appointed to administer the millions inreated in a Federal rail- i road of two thouaand miles in length, and the property and lives of the people of the Republic may be entrusted to their care, when lamentable experteuee assures us that even short roads, owned and managed by private proprietors, under the eye of the public, are liable to daily accidents of the most appalling description. We return from this detailed exposition of the character of this particular work to the general evils resulting from enlarged patronage. The Executive has scarce time to instruct a minister, dictate a despatch, or comprehend in its details an important incident in our foreign relations for the more imperative duty of receiving deputations, collating and deciding in council upon the comparative services or necessities of claimants whose importunate allegations of merit are sufficient to invalidate their applications. Now, is there any Whig who would desire that the Executive should, in addition to his present official influence, he required to appoint the captains of tens over dirt turnpikes?of twenties over stone and plank roads?of thousands over railroads and canals?and thus indirectly control the armies of employes and operatives, with the collection of tolls, and the penal systems necessary for the enforcement of such a system? Is there a Whig who sincerely believes the patronage of the Federal Government dangerous to the liberties of the people; who would desire a more extensive implication of the Federal Government in the internal communications of the States than at present exists? Nay, is there a Democrat, no matter to what conchological variety of the party he may belong, who does not see that this increase of patronage is a destructive influence, which poisons the popularity, impairs the usefulness, and embitters the peace of the Executive incumbent? Is there a Democrat who does not feel that tkn P.vflAiitiwfl io Qitrrnnnriorl Kv imnlttAokla f*r?_ lion?; amongst whom official appointment is the price of support, or the motive of opposition; that these influences neutralize each other, leaving to the Executive vexation and care, and to the party distraction and excitement? Is there, then, any true Democrat who desires the official patronage of the Federal Government to be increased? We have endeavored to show that no patriotic persons should advocate the increase of Executive power and patronage if it can be avoidedHaving shown that the tendencies of Fedi eral investments in internal improvement tend , to a dangerous increase of Executive patron| age; that it is within the general ability of the . State governments to construct such improvers ments; that the Whig party is not bound to . advocate such works indiscriminately for the . object of increasing public expenditure; we t shall continue our inquiry^ which the length of . this article has postponed, by proving that the Pacific railroad can be constructed under autho. rity of the State governments, with a grant of ) the right of way through the Federal Territories, r by the combined means provided by private ? enterprise, corporate credit, Federal lands, . State appropriations, and an advance of Fedr eral money, for the performance of corporate . services. Relief of the New Orleans SufferersThe several ward committees yesterday commenced the business of collecting from our citizens. Many warm hearts generously responded to the call. Distressing Casualty. Letters were received in the city yesterday from the Rio Grande, bringing the painful intelligence of the death of our valued young fellow-townsman, Thomas Walter Jones, son of General Walter Jones. He was attached to one of the surveying parties of the Mexican Boundary Commission, and was engaged in this duty on the Lower Rio Grande when the sad accident happened which suddenly closed his earthly career. This lamented youth possessed every manly and amiable quality, and the death of no one of his age in our city would have been more deeply lamented by the community or by so large and respected a family circle. The following letter from Mr. Radzirninski, chief of the party with which j Mr. Jones was employed, gives the particulars of the afflicting accident: "It is my most painful duty to have to announce to you that it has pleased the all-wise Providence to terminate the days of my young friend and assistant, Mr. Thomas W alter Jones. He was drowned this evening, on our return from the survey, by the small boat upsetting in a squall "After the boat had almost filled, Mr. Jones handed me the instruments for the purpose of giving his assistance to bail the water; but the attempt to bail was followed by the boat filling completely, and sinking beyond our depth. Not knowing how to swim, and feeling a firm bottom under my foot, I sprang up and came to the surface at the same time with Jones, but lie most unfortu' nately struck for the shore, distant about twenty r yards; and I, by a superhuman elfort, succeeded in reaching my fingers' ends to the Mexican, who being astride on the capsized boat, pulled me on top of it. My poor, young friend sunk half-way between us and the shore to rise no more, while > a few inches of space, and as many seconds of time, saved me."?Intelligencer of yesterday. Mr. Waldo, who has been nominated by the , Whigs as a candidate for Governor in California, was born in Western Virginia?afterwards removed to Missouri?whence, in 1849, ho went by land to California. , Wood-sawing.?The march of improvement and this age of invention have swept away many of the old oiistomu with ivliioli nnr fnlliora in tlinir , clay, and even ourselves in youth, were familiar. We have now to record that perhaps those good old colored gentlemen who ply so industriously j with "horse and saw" at our doors, will have to ! abandon their honorable profession and leave the 1 | field to liorRc or steam-power. Just imagine a A portable engine brought to one's door, and hear p the engineer ask, "Will missus have her wood sawedr" To that we arc tending, if the follow\ ing, from the Cincinnati Gazette, be correct: f "Something ?We yesterday noticed two men '"gaged in sawing wood on 5th street by Horae-power. We are informed that the company 1 intend following this matter of cutting wood as a , fssmiem. They promise to cut wood at one-third price than that charged by those who saw by ' hand. The company anticipate to do a large I amount of work during the coming winter." More a boat Austrian Aggress**. The following letter from a oorrespondbot in Smyrna has bMn placed at our disposal. It in iieatea a general disposition on the part e# the Austrian authorities to oppress all persons within the soope of their power. If the letter gives an authentic picture of the condition of things in Smyrna, it shows a pitiable state of weakness on the pari of the Turkish government: Smyrna, July 16, 1853. Mr Dear H.: The object of these lines is to furnish you some further details upon the oonsequences of the affair of Martin Kossta. The vexations oftho Austrian Consul hereupon tlit* Italians. 1I nnirn rlans. and Poles, who havatha > 1> ? ' ? ' ? ?~ misfortune to be Austrian subjects, as well as upon tbe refugees generally, are of the most provoking character. In order to have them under his immediate grasp, he summoned hero all those who were employed in the neighboring paper manufacture. Among them are men having large families, and who, having been thus deprived of their offices, are compelled to beg for their subsistence. They have been repeatedly summoned to attend at the Austrian Consulate, to be questioned respecting the murder of the Austrian' officer who lost his life by throwing himself into the sea to escape the attack of Kossta's friends in the skirmish of tho 23d of June. A watchmaker, who was only supposed to have some knowledge of the facts in that case, had his shop sealed up and his property confiscated and sold by the Austrian Consul, and he was obliged to fly for hie life. The worst of it is, that most of the watches that were found in the shop belonged to foreigners, and yet the Consul, with an arrogance peculiar to himself, seized them all. All those subject to Austrian power who had the means of quitting the country made their way elsewhere, since they saw the impotence of Turkey to prevent the violation of her territory; and the poorest classes keep themselves concealed to escape oppression, for tho Consul follows them as an enraged wolf runs after the sheep. Those among the number who have at the time placed themselves under the protection of America, England, and France, are the only ones that are safe and unmolested. A few days since the Austrian Consul sent round an address commending his conduct in I Kossta's affair very highly, and forced all the Austrian subjects to sign it, under severe threats. Of course, in presence of a brig and a schooner of war in the harbor, ready to receive them loaded with chains, the poor Austrians were obliged to sign any thing, had it even been their death-warrant. It is reported that the Austrian Consul tries by that address to justiy his conduct in the eyes of his government. Barbarous as the Austrian government is, it will no doubt approve the Consul, and use the address for its own justification before the civilized world. The Neapolitan authorities at Constantinople seem to advance in the way of barbarity shown them by the Austrians. A young Neapolitan, who for political difficulties sought refuge in Constantinople, was arrested last week, loaded with chains, and embarked on board a Neapolitan vessel to be carried to Naples, there to meet probably his death. He preferred dying from starvation, and on their arrival at the Dardanelles he was dying. A Hungarian was on board an Austrian vessel in Bey rout, together with his family. Though he had an American passport, he was arrested by the captain and summoned to surrender himsell to the Austrian Consul in Beyrout. He escaped by jumping into the sea, whence he was rescued and brought before the American Consul. The latter immediately remonstrated and obtained the rescue of the rest of the family and the baggage of this victim of Austrian barbarity. This news came by this morning's steamer from Beyrout. Five I'Jimerique. C. F. Washington, D. C., August 15, 1853. Mr. Editor: In an extract from the Courier and Enquirer, copied into your paper of the 3d instant, speaking of the impropriety of Commodore Stringham's salute to Baron Bruck, the Aus ii inn mi vuy in vAMisuuiujiopie, mssiaiea: * rrmen Brack is the same person who was guilty of the grossest injustice toxcards an American Consul some time back, tearing doxen his flag, S,-c." It is perfectly true that the Amorican Consulate at Constantinople was, in 1851, violated by Austrian forces, led on by the subordinates of the American legation, during the absence of the American Minister; and there is no doubt but, while the honor of this Republic has been thus trampled on, no unnecessary demonstration of courtesy should have been shown by our naval officers to the agents of Austria before a suitable redress had been obtained. At the same time justice requires tiiat the shame and responsibility of the act should bear individually upon those who rendered themselves guilty of the offence, and not upon Baron Bruck, who at that time was not in Constantinople. The unnatural combination of Austrians and Americans, who organized and carried on this unprecedented act of vandalic burglary, was composed of Messrs. de Klezl, JWihanovich, and Baron Baum, of the Austrian party; and John P. Br oxen and H. Jl. Homes, of the American. Brown was the Dragoman of tho absent Minister and officially used the poxcers of the United States legation to achieve the above act. I have the honor to be, &c., r_dainf.se. Extensive Fraud?Successful Swindle of Merchants, Tailors, and Others.?Some time in the latter part of April last, John Millikin, an Englishman, recently from Canada, with two companions, named R. M. Chatterton and D. P. Chatterton, came to Cincinnati with quite an extensive supply of fancy goods, toys, jewelry, &.c., and created some sensation in the streets with the stories of the large establishment they were about to open in this city. Subsequently the parties disposed of this stock, and opened a commission house to supply customers south and west. They took residences for their families, had carriages and servants, and apparently were men of wealth. They bought largely of groceries and other articles, which they regularly snipped to customers, t ins went on tor some time, when the persons from whom they bought presented their bills, and they were not paid. Suspicions that all was not right gained ground, and an agentwas sentto Louisville, where lie found one of the Cliatterton's, who there recci veil the goods shipped by his confederates in Cincinnati, and sold them at any price he could get for cash. The parties have been arrested. f Cincinnati Gazette. James River Raii.road.?We learn from the able and efficient President of the James River and Kanawha Company, Judge Mason, that at a recent, sitting of the board, the canal was put under contract some twenty miles above the town of Buchanan. The contractors were all distinguished for their responsibility and efficiency, and it may lie expected tlint the work will be prosecuted with unusual industry. [Lynchburg Republican. General Paez has taken up his residence permanently in New York. WASHINGTON GOSSIP. Washington, August 15. ISO. v The Cabinet wm in session to-day. Owr rela- d tions with China may Iiave been up fbr consider11ion, but "outside barbarians," news-mongers, Q were unable to aecertain any thing deemed reliable. Captain Gibson, who was deprived of his lib* erty by the Dutcli authorities of Batavia, is, as I ^ have before announced, in the city, and expresses t extreme anxiety to be favored with an interview * with the President. This reasonable wish will, a doubtless, be granted at a suitable time. I The Assistant Secretary of State, A. Dudley , Mann, esq., 1 regret to state', was attacked with f cholera morbus last evening, and continued seri* < ously ill during the night. Upon inquiry this 1 evening I was happy to learn that he was much j m/\i*a IV.*>t l>ln 41. mi?Vt a,4 *11 A/ivtAnorl In Kia ko/l IIIUIU WIUIUIMWIC^ IIIUU^II Bllll VVUIIIIVU W ItIB WW. There is an on dit current that the Speaker of the House of Representatives, during the last Congress, the Hon. Linn Boyd, will not be honored with the suffrages of his party friends in the coming Congress. A lower seat in that political synagogue will be assigned to that veteran Democrat. The gentleman spoken of to preside with ability, impartiality, and dignity, is the young, gifted, and eloquent Representative from the Ashland district, in Kentucky, the Hon. John C. Breckenridge. Mr. Breckenridge is an esteemed member, popular with the members of both the great parties, and, beyond doubt, would make a most acceptable presiding officer. It is gratifying to be able to state that the efr forts making in our city to obtain material aid to be applied to the relief of the people of the scourged city of New Orleans, are being crowned with success. The good work "goes bravely on." The white-haired voteran of the Union, General Robert Armstrong, yesterday contributed a cool hundred. Professor De Bow, Superintendent of the Census Bureau, is industriously engaged in preparing his report to be communicated to the next Congress. The coming report must necessarily be very voluminous, and from the high and widelyspread reputation which the Professor enjoys for talents and statistical skill, I hazard nothing in expressing the opinion that the next report upon the Census will prove an invaluable acquisition to the statistics, and even to the literature of the country. The name of Charles B. Calvert, of Prince George's county, Maryland, is mentioned by many gentlemen of the Whig party in connexion with the Gubernatorial chair of "Mary's Land." I have not tho pleasure of an intimate personal acquaintance with Mr. Calvert, but his friends speak of his virtues in glowing terms, and it was my privilege to hear from the lips of the lamented "Sage of Ashland" a cordial and eloquent tribute to the estimable and shining qualities of Charles B. Calvert. The President is casting about for a suitable man to be associated with Governor Gorman, of Minnesota, in the investigation of tho alleged frauds upon the Indians in that Territory. Doubtless there are patriots willing to serve their country in an emergency, and not much time will lapse before a gentleman will bo selected. It has become fashionable recently, in certain Democratic'circles, to disparage the talents and patriotism of Colonel Thomas Hart Benton. This grates harshly upon some ears. In bygone days those who are now denouncing him were in the habit of speaking of him in adulatory terms. The "Great Statesman"?"Old Bullion"?"Crock of Gold"?"The Hard Senator"?were some of th? narnos given to him by his friends expressive of their admiration of the powers of his mind, and his value as a public servant. A gentleman recently appointed to office, with great temerity, but with apparent sincority, was heard to say, "Hart," in the Colonel's name, should bo render?.l <1 U k.,~. >> .nJ 4k.* 4k. (i.'..If..4...I ..Uk.. cu iiuiliuu^i uuu uiai uio inc??ri?u>ut uuim/i ? of tht veteran statesman teas small." I lore & good joke, and being unselfish in such things, I cannot withhold this one from the public. Thomas Hart Benton's intellectual calibre small! Rich, isn't it' Jndge Campbell, Postmaster General, is still sojourning at Bedford Springs. Branson G. Graham has been appointed Postmaster at Greensboro', North Carolina. George Saunders, late of the Democratic Review, the "George" who is unapproachably politically fast, reached the city in the cars to-night. "George" is destined to grace the London consulate. I learn that Mr. Zantzinger to-day deposited with Corcoran & Riggs the sum which these gentlemen deemed necessary to the proper adjustment of his various accounts. Messrs. C. k. R. are now prepared to meet that dishonored check, and I suppose this last great case of defaulting is at an end ZEKE. The Montreal Pilot of the 12th instant, in copying the notices of the claim sot up by Lord Stirling to the North American fisheries, makes the following comment: "The character of the claims of Lord Selkirk is well known, they having beon discussed in and out of Parliament on various occasions. It is just possible, however, that the American Government may lend themselves?with a view to obtain a favorable adjustment of a question in ; which the United States is deeply interested?to what on the surface bears tlio aspect of a more , Wall street speculation." Thrilling Scene?Two Drowning Bots Rescued.?Alxnit eight o'clock, on Sunday morning, Michael Fitzpatrick, a dyer, employed at one of the factories at Manayunk, was bathing in the _1 1 _ u 4l 4 :.l 4 i uauai ura.mii, auuvc tilt? lUWll, Willi IWO Orplian nephews, aged about seven and ton jeara, when he was suddenly attacked with cramp, and sunk. Being a most excellent swimmer, he had taken his nephews out into deep water for the purpose of learning them to swim. The oldest boy could swim a little, but upon seeing his uncle sink he was paralyzed with terror, and, as well as his brother, were at tho point of perishing. At this moment Joseph Foster, a young man who was in bathing, dashed out to the rescue of the boys, having the presence of mind to push before him a plank that providentially happened to bo in the water. The daring young man, on reaching the drowning boys, was seized by both of them, and it ( was with the greatest difficulty that he prevented , himself from sinking. He finally succeeded in getting the boys upon the plank, when the rest of his task was an easy one. The rescue was a most , gallant deed, and reflects honor upon the actor in ( it. The body of the unfortunate uncle was re- | covered about an hour afterwards. [Philadelphia Ledger, 15fk. In Phii.adei.piiia, on Saturday, the thermome- ] ter stood at 96?, and there were five deaths from \ heat?among whom was General Bennett, (cap- , tain in the Pennsylvania volunteers in the Mexi- , can war,) who was taken sick at the assayer's office of the mint, where he had just received an appointment. He was employed in a room where tho thermometer stood at 160 degrees. ^ Tho Tribune has one of its own peculiar articles, | in which it attempts to bring in tho New Orleans fever as the basis of an arguniont against slavery. What, a godsend for an editor who has genius | enough, with the thermometer between ninety < and one hundred, to find a nut in such a shell. 1 |.V. v. EjtpMii < The CktrlcrtM TWol hi the Charleston AW* of FrifW evsnbrt bet re find the following article h| Delation to the uel which took place in the# e^p OtpOk* inee*and as to the oonee ofwhich* end the sfljibce f the Charleston papers an the Subject, so ngny onunents have been made by the more northern topers: "Tat Latk Dr?l.?The Philadelphia Buil0m ' fives utterance to severe eensure on the Charnson press for having published the late duel here vithout details, and without censure. It must itrike every observer that the very default, with vhich we are charged, in not publishing ths par* ictilars of a fatal quarrsl that originated in a prirate transaction, is an instance of that very reinement for which the Bulletin gives the people >f Charleston crsdit. It is the inquisition and publicity that attach to all private matters in the lorthern press, in gratification of a prurient curiosity, that give a superiority to southern papers. "The quarrels in detail or individuals in their private relations, even when accompanied by ;rimeand a violation of law, is no part of legitimate newspaper record. Such acts of violence, f attended bj legal transgression, is the proper mbject of inquiry by courts. The press invariaily does mischief, by producing false impressions, when it attempts a relation or events which are :he subject of judicial investigation. But, more specially, opinion marks publication as indsli:ate?as an intrusion on the sacredness of private feeling?when such a result of private quarrel as duel terminates fatally, and lacerates family flections. No relation of the circumstances that rould have been published, however impartial, would have satisfied the friends of both parties. Denials and controversy would have resulted. Silence as to details in such circumstances is not snly delicate but proper and politic, looking even to the ends of justice. "The Bulletin has, in common with the northern papers, blundered in mixing up this quarrel with one of a differont character, whieh was political, and which necessarily found its way into the newspapers. The mistake has been corrected, ind it takes off somewhat from the keen edge of the Bulletin's trenchant satire when it is known that a citizen of Charleston has not been 'murdered for a quarrel in which he had no concern,' and the authorities of Charleston will be vindicated from the incisive stroke of the Bulletin, when it learns that the city authorities have nothing to do with the transaction, duelling being an offence punishable under our State laws; and that the offender, so soon as the duel was over, was beyond the jurisdiction even of the State." We omit the article from the Bulletin quoted by the News. The latter then proceeds to say: I'We publish the following as another instance of gross misrepresentation. It appears in the Washington Republic, and is extensively oopied by the press, and commented upon: " 'We learn from a source in which we place confidence that the very recent duel between Messrs. Dunovant and Davidson Legare, occurring in the vicinity of Charleston, grew out of some difficulty about a lady to whom the former is said to be engaged. Legare challenged, and Dunovant accepted the challenge, choosing pistols, distance three paces; the first fire to be determined by tossing up. Dunovant won it, and of course shot his antagonist through the heart, his pistol being within fire or six feet of Legare's breast. It was a cold-blooded murder; the murdered man, however, deserving as little sympathy as his executioner, for assenting to terms whicn placed him, practically disarmed, in such a position. The only reason for regret connected with the affair is, that Dunovant will go scot free of punishment for such a murder under the pretence of fighting a duel.' "That a lady was concerned, and that Legare challedged Dunovant, is strictly correct, but that the distance was three paces, and Dunovant's pisiol five or six feet from Legare's breast, is erroneously stated. The duel was fought at ten paces, and although not present, we are satisfied from the statements made bv those on the ground, and from the characters of the gentlemen engaged in the affair, that the duel was honorably conducted." We suggest to the Aeics that his crediting the "instance of gross misrepresentation" to the Republic, is not correct. The paragraph did not opirvino(a in thia na nnr nnr Iinn it atrar a nnnar?r( in our columns. The Fisheries.?The Boston Advertiser of yesterday says: "Our Kennebunk correspondent writes as follows: " 'Kennrbunkfort, August 8.?Arrived, schr. Signal, Hutchins, from Bay Chaleur, with 43,000 fish; also, Oth, schooner Arunnah, Manuel, from same place, with 94,500 fish. The skipper and crew of this schooner report the intentional collision of her Britannic majesty's steamer Devastation on the 98th July. It was clear sunlight, and the Arunnah was twelve miles from land, near St. John Island. The captain of the Devastation had spoken her the evening previous, and ordered them to keep a light ail niglit, which was not done. On the morning of the S8th the steamer Was seen coming for them, and those on board heart) the order given to 'starboard,' which made her course directly for the schooner; the subsequent order of 'steady, steady,' was given, and the steamer struck the stem of the schooner, taking off the main boom and gaft, and doing other lamage. Not a word was spoken on board the iteauier, which kept on her course. The captain if the schooner has noted a protest, and will make i statement of his case."' The Devastation is an incendiary craft. A shot, not across nor over, but through, her bows is a node of correcting the brutal violence and insolence of her commander towards defenceless veslels which would be effectual, and which, we fear, will yet have to be adopted by Commander Shubrick.?vY>w York Courier and Enquirer, 13th. Naval.?The United States ship Cyane, Commander Hollins, twenty-one days from Pensocola, with eighty-five rocruits for the United States ihip Pennsylvania, arrived in Hampton Roads yestorday morning. Spoke August 3, 1853, off Havana, ship Star Republic, from Galveston to New York, twelve days out. The following is a list of her officers: Commander?George N. Hollins; Lieutenants? T. P. Green, R. Forrest, J. D. Read, C. M. Fauntleroy; Purser?C. C. Uphain; Surgeon? W. A. W. Spotswood; Assistant Surgeon?Geo. H. Peck; Master?William H. Parker; Passed Midshipmen?N. H. Vanzandt, Joseph A. Seawill; Midshipmen?Cary Carter, William E. Fitzhueh; Captain's Clerk?J. 8. Hollins; Purser's Clerk?C. M. Gilberson; Boatswain?F. Hewlett; Gunner?J. A. Lilliston; Carpenter? E. Williams; Sailmaker?D. C. Brayton. We understand that orders are here directing the Cyane to proceed at once to Portsmouth, N. PL [Norfolk Beacon, 13th. Great Peril?Remarkable Escape.?Early thin morning Mr. Ainory Amsden thought he would take a walk, and struck off in the direction t>i Goodman street, to the railroad crossing. Just ui he got there, a woman, with a small child upon the seat with her, drove up, and as the buggy srossed the first rail of the track, both the shafts became detached from the vehicle, leaving it, with the woman and child, standing on the track. At this point of time the lightning train was not more than sixty rods from the vehicle; nevertheless, Mr. Amsden grappled it, and threw it from the track just in time to clear the train. A moment later, and the destruction of the parties would have been inevitable.?Rochester Advertiser. Captain George W. Floyd, formerly commander of the ocean steamer Washington, and >reviously known from his long connexion with he commerce of the western lakes, died at Stockon, California, on the 20th of June. Hon. Wm. II. Seward has boon tendered a jublic dinner as a testimonial of respect by the citizens of Cherry Valley. Governor Seward acknowledges the corn gracefully, but declines accepting the fodder. Incident* ?f tha Wwoester B*ilro*d 1|u4M. Mr. William Bate*, '?# Horthbridge Centre, Massachusetts, who wu on board the train, in a Idler to the Boeton Traveller, firm the following ddipription of the ecene ae it paaeeed under hie obfDltetion: ? waa aeated, with my wife, in about the midIde of the second car. 1 wae firet alarmed for an inetant by a terrible whittle; then came crash upon crash, with a violent collision; all before me in the car seemed to be thrown in a confused mass together; broker! seats flying, and the forward part of our car crushing in like an egg-shell. 1 had time merely to say to my wife keep quiet, don't rise, as the bottom of the ear behind us shot directly over no tiomsl telrmrr oflT mo lisf "Than filliiri<1liiiw>hiirt uniliiii nias.ai companied by.* terrible struggle for life by tire mass of men and women buried beneath the whattered timbers of the car bottom. My wife and myself were for a few moments confined between the floor above us and the broken seats, although wholly uninjured. During those few moments a terrible sense of suffocation oppressed me. By the tearing away of the seat before us, I was enabled to extricate "Mrs. Bates, although a dying man near me was clutehing my hair, crying, 'Mr. Bates, safe me, oh, save me!' "Soon as Mrs* Bates was liberated and passed forward, I lost sight of her amid the ruins, but she called to me that she was sale, and requested me to turn my attention to the wounded around me, and soon after suffered herself to be removed from the window. I immediately broke out the two windows near me, then caught hold of a man whose shoulders were crushed beneath the large limber of the car bottom. lie told me his feet were not fast. "With a desperate effort 1 extricated him, when the floor settled in such a way as would have crushed him had he remained a naif minute more. 1 then broke down with my feet the seat on which I had been sitting, to liberate the poor man, Mr. Thomas Brown, of Whitinsville, who had caught me by the hair, and a lady, (Mrs. Richmond, of Soutlibridge,) whose heads were bent over the beck of the seat, and held by the large timber of the car bottom over them. But although I broke down the seat, the timber was so confined bv connexion with other timbers and by the oil-cloth carpeting of the car, that they could not be removed until a man near me and I had cut the carpet with our knives. "Before we could extricate them they had both ce&Bed to speak. One seemed alive as we put him through the window to those without, but he soon died. Mrs. Richmond was entirely dead. Mr. Brown is also now dead. I continued to strive to relieve the wounded. One man, to whom 1 could not .get, called on me by name, beseeching me to remove a timber that was crushing his leg. He was soon freed by others, his leg horribly crushed. "Our cars hardly stopped at tne depot we passed before the accident, and as we passed, a man, apparently connected with the road, at the depot, remonstrated with the conductor against his proceeding, and, as the cars passed on at a rapid rate, remarked, 'There will be a smash up in two minutes.' The collision did take place in less than that time." , jr ascin ating.? ido louowing, vjucq we nna in the New York Day Book, shows that the use of "tidies," so fashionable in this city last season, may, as well as other fashionable habits, be made extremely ridiculous: "Black and White Wool.?We saw a fat negro wench at the theatre the other night with her own black wool surmounted by one of the gaudiest and most elaborately be-bobbed white woollen tidies we have ever seen. We think this must put a stop to this most absurd and ridiculous fashion." Exports of Spbcir.?The exports of specie from New York last week were? Steamer Merlin, Bermuda, specie.. #50,000 00 Steamer Asia, Liverpool, specie... 498,128 48 Steamer Asia, Liverpool, *420 2,032 80 Barque May Flower, Montevideo, doubloons (190) 1,950 00 Barque May Flower, Montevideo, specie - 1,325 00 I Steamer Washington, Bremen, gold bars 237,469 21 Steamsr Washington, Bremen, American gold 44,500 00 Steamer Washington, Bremen, German gold..... 7,310 00 Total to August 13 #833,709 49 Previously reported....,.., 12,561,311 00 Total for 1853. #13,395,020 49 We learn from a gentleman who recently visited the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, which has a statement showing the temperature since 1798, that this is the warmest summer since that day, and perhaps the warmest ever known in this country. We learn, also, what is somewhat strange, that the average heat, this summer, of Richmond and Lancaster, Pennsylvania, exceeds that of any other localities in the Union. [Richmond Whig. united states revenue u utters. i h# steam-tug Achillea has towed into the harbor this morning the cuttera Caleb Cushing, Robert McClelland, and J. C. Dobbin, from Somerset, Massachusetts. The above cutters have been placed at the navy yard, and complete the fleet of six now being ntted out by Arthur Leary, esq., for the Treasury Department.??\?ic York Courur. Texas Salt.-?The New Orleans Picayune has received from Corpus Christi a sample of salt taken from a salt lake about seven miles from that place. It is clear colored, well crystalized, and of good taste. The editors of the Nueces Valley say that they are informed that the supply of it at the lake is inexhaustible. Small boats can run up to the beds, and ono hundred bushels is the average product to be had per diem. One Hundred and piftt Tons of Pure Coffer in one Mass.?A letter to the New York Tribune from Eagle River, Lake Superior, states that there is a mass of pure copper in the North American mine, which was thrown down on the 8th instant, forty-two feet long, twenty feet high, and two feet thick?the largest mass of copper ever before discovered. A Tiiird Fare.?It will be seen by the ship news that the schooner Ada 1ms completed lier third trip in eleven days, with 300 barrels?making a total of 850 barrels in less than two months. We do not recollect that any vessel from this place has ever done so well before; and, at the present prices of mackerel, she will pay a handsome profit to her owners.?-Nctoburyport Union. Fatal Result.?Charles Linthicum, the engineer who was severely scalded by the running off the traek of the passenger train of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on Thursday last, died from the effects of his injuries on Saturday last. His remains wore taken to his residence near Monrovia for interment. The deceased was about 27 years old, and leaves a wife and one child. [Bait. Patriot. Miss J. M. Davenport, the favorite actress, leaves in the Canada, at Liverpool, for Boston on the 20th instant. She plays an engagement in tho latter city in October. One hundred and forty-two railway trains leavo Boston daily?the same number also daily returning.?Exchange. Bishop, with his floating derric, is about to make another effort to raise from the depths of Lake Erio the ill-fated steamer Atlantic. A book has been published in which the author has traced the ancestry of Nelson and Wellington to a common stock?King Edward I. Since the new divorce bill went into oporation in Ohio, marriages are placed under tho head of "limited partnerships.''