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VOL. I. AUGUSTA, ME., FRIDAY MORNING, JANUARY 7, 1870. XO. 6. # JUnntkt Jmttal. Published on Water, Foot of Court Street, AUGUSTA. MAINE. BY 8PBAGIE, OWEN A NASH. “Oailg $ttnnrircf fcutnaL Is issued every morning, except Sundays. Contains the latest news by telegraph and mail, and gives the proceedings of the Legislature in full, also reports of proceedings of important commit tees and the Agricultural and Educational depart ments. Terms, $7 per annum in advance; $8 if payment Is not made within the year. Single copies 4 cents, to be had at the bookstores end at this office. Advertisements one inch in length, three in sertions or lews, $1.00; 2-* eta. for every subsequent insertion. Longer advertisements, or those inserted for any considerable length of time, will be inserted at favorable t**nn» to the advertiser. Special Notices 23 percent, additional. Amusement Notices, $2 per square per week. Ifilwhlg lienncbrc Journal, Published every Wednesday morning," Is the largest folio paper in the State, containing news, political articles, agricultural and scientific matter, tales, poetry, anecdotes, household recipes, markets, Ac., Ac. Terms $2 per annum in advance * Transient Advertisements, $1.50 per inch for first week; 23 cents per week for each subsequent insertion. Special Notices, $2.00 per inch for first week; 50 cents per week for each sub'equent week. Business Notices, in reading column*. 20 cents per line for fir.-: insertion; 10 cents per line for each subsequent insertion. All transient advertisements to be paid for in advance. DR. A. H. CHAMBERLAIN, DENTAL SURGEON, OFFICE OVER POST OFFICE^ : AUCUSTA, MAIRui DK. CHAMBERLAIN is fully up with the times in ail the be.-t and mo*l practical improve ments, always availing himeclf of such as will be of practical use to his patrons, and being thorough ly coutersunt with Dentistry in all its branches, can promise his patrons that their work shall be done in a manner Which Cannot he Excelled ! THE MOST DIFFICULT CASES ARE SOLICITED I Pure IViti-ous Oxide Or LAUGHING Gas, the best and safest Anaesthetic now extant, constantly on hand and given for the extraction ol Teeth v\ ithout pain. nKFKREXCES BY PERSfISSlOX; J B. Bell M. D. I J.W. Toward, M. D. Geo E Brickett, M D. J. O Webster, M D. W. L. Thompson, M. D. I W. b. Hill, M. D. * Office Hours from 8 A. M. to 0 F. M. tljanTO Fire Medicines and Cieinicals! Brushes, Combs, Soaps and Perfumery; CHOICE TOILET AID FAKY ARTICLES I Physicians' & Apothecaries’ Goods, Part Sprrm, Lard, Errant lad Yeatlfoot Oik Charles K. Partridge, DRUGGIST AND APOTHECARY, Water Street, corner Market Square, (UNDER GRANITE IIALL.) Has on hand a Large Selected Stock kept fresh by constant additions, ASD SELLS AT The Lowest Market Rates ! FOR GENUINE AND RELIABLE GOODS. Partridge's Drag Store, Water Streri. comer Market Square. fljun'/Uly Shooting Tackle. H. W. LONG, Sl'CCESSOR TO L. M. L ELAND, O-TJ 1ST SMITH And Dealer in Shooting Tackle of Every Variety. RIFLE AND SHOT GUNS mede to ORDER end WARRANTED. Particular atteutiun paid to Chunking Shot Guns to make them shoot thick and strong. Alto on hand, thu best lot of Skates in the market, for sale cheap. Odd keys of every pattern. Key tags and rings for Wallets. Powder of the best quality for Masting or Sporting. Re pairing done neatly and promptly. All work warranted. ljsn-Iy CUSHNOC HOUSE. Comer _.A and Winthrop j State Sts., .Augusta, Me. T. B. BALLARD, : : Proprietor. Quests taken to and from the Cars and Boats Free. H0R8E8 AND CARRIAGE8 TO LET. tljan70-0ni DELL SinONDN' Fashionable Hair Dressing Rooms, Oppoaite Parrott A Bradbury’s, Water Htreet, : t : Augusta, Me. Shaving, Shampooing, Hail-Dressing. Cutting, Col nring, Sc., in the most approved stvle of the art. Particular attention paid to cutting uhd curling La dies’ and Children’s hair. All kinds of Italr Work made to order in the latest style. IJsu70-ly iTr EltOSEN'E LAMPS, Lanterns and ChlmiieyT IV bull Buruurs uuu Chimneys, for sale bv ’ May 20, Isuu. BALLARD X GILA SB. GOLD! GOLD! GOLD! I ADAMSON’S BOTANIC COUGH BALSAM! \ IS MORE VALUABLE THAN GOLD. TRY IT! TRY IT! TRY IT IT CURES THE WORST COUGH or COLD IN A SHORT TIME. IN LARGE BOTTLES, at - - - 35 Cents No Cure 2 No Pay 2 FRANK KINSMAN, DRUGGIST, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL AGEN1 FOR THE UNITED STATES AND CANADAS. Cough no more when you can be Cured for 3*5 Cents! TRY IT ! TRY IT ! TRY IT M ANSI O X HOUSE, STATE STREET, : : AUGUSTA, ME r I^ 1113 House is provided with Bath R<x»m L whep* II .t and Cold Baths can be had at i nines. It has also & First-' lass Billiard llall, f lu^ts only. Connected with the House is a lar ind commodious Sample Kootn, on W ater Stre* centrally located, where Sample Agents cau sh< their goods, free of cliarge. Th- Proprietor, thankful for the liberal patrona, which the above House has enjoyed since its ope ing, take* pleasure in informing his patrons that will run Free Carriages to and from trie Cars ai Boats until further notice Connected with the a> ore House is a Liver}' St We, where good teams can be had at reasonab retti s. W*. M. THAYER, Proprietor. O. P. Cocbbanb, Clerk. ( MOSES M. SWAN, Watchmaker and Jeweller, u vO u N > ■3 > 3 > as S His Stock embraces a fine line of American and Swiss Watches, ELGIN WATCHES, in gold and silrer rase, including the celebrated National or Elgin Watch, Waltham. Tremont, Bor* auin. Bennett. Pardcaux, Jacot, Ac., in both La ies’ and gentlemen’s sizes. Flue Gold «T ewelry, Solid Gold Leoniton Vest and Neck Chains, STERLING Jk COIN SILVER GOODS, FINE PLATED WARE. SPECTACLES AND EYE CLASSES, of the most approved kinds. CLOCKS OF ALL KINDS, including the celebrated ITHACA CALENDAR, all of which will be sold at the lowest Prices, and Warranted. Particular attention given to repairing all kinds of Fine Watches. Chronometer Balances applied and adjusted to temperature and position. tl)«*n70-tf C. H. STARBIRD, Photographer and Artist, NEW tiRAAlTE BLOCH, Nearly opposite Post Office, (Up Stairs,) Makes till the best styles of Pictures in the Art. PICTTKIS COPIED & ENLARGED, — AND — Finished in Indin Ink or Colors. At prices that cannot fail to be satisfactory. 4A~ The public are invited to call and examine Specimens made and finish'd at his rooms. AUGUSTA. ME. UianTOd* I. C. I. C. I. c. 7, 8, O. SOMES’ Oyster, Fruit and Confectionery SALOON! Opposite Masonic Block, Gardiner, Me. THE BEST OYSTER COOK in the State. Solid Oysters, ,10 cents per quart. 7, ft, ®. To the people at large. Who tins notice niav read, And yourselves in Gardiner should find: If you want a good stew, Y'ou should know where to go— It’s to Somes’, 7, ft. o. C. T. SOMES, Gardiner, Jan. 1st, 1870. tljau70-tf Cough Candy ! Y\rEXOEYBt'B(i'8 COIGII CANDY cure# \\ COUGHS, COLDS, WHOOPING COUGH and all Throat troubles. 2 Doors south of Granite Block, Market Sq, MUSICAL. INSTRUMENTS, Fancy GoocLa, «*>c., sold by Janl-lyt W. WENDENBURG. Brushes! Brushes! HAIR, CLOTH, DUST, SHOE and Stove Brush es, u full assortment for side low by uallaud a CHASE. May 20,1800. 0 Uuiou Block. 1870. JANUARY. 1870 i _ EXTRA INDUCEMENTS TO BUYERS. We have thin Day Marked Down our Prices SO AS TO REDUCE STOCK. LOOK! LOOK! LOOK THINK AND REFLECT On the following Prices: Overcoats tor $1.} Overcoats lor 6.0 Overcoats for 7.0 Overcoats tor 8.0 Overcoats (warranted all wool) 9.0 Overcoats (heavy Black Beaver) 10.0 . OUR STOCK OF PANTS AND VESTS. MATCHED SUITS -AND GENTS’ FURNISHING 600DS! Of every description we offer for the NEXT THIRTY DAYS, At equally low prices. ♦J-CALL AND SEE US, and we guarantee th you will get your money’s worth at the ONE PRICE CLOTHING STORE S. W. Hl\TI\GT(>\ & CO., 190 Water St., Augusta, Main, tljauTO LAST SENSATION! Great Closing Sale -or Ladies' Furs and Robes, _AT_ Wlieeler’s,-- Crardinci I NOW offer my entire stock of LADIES’ FT1 and ROBES ut leas than cost to manufacture. Parties who wish to buy within the next tv ( years, and who wish to save money should not fj to improve this GREAT CI.OSIXG MALE ! for I am going to SELL regardless of cost. Remember the Place: Opposite the Post Office, GARDINER, ME. M. L. WHEELER, ljan702mdAw Successor to Hathaway A Wheeh MISS M. A. LIBBY A CO., KEEPS constantly on hand a large stock of 31 1LLINE II Y . The best lot of GERMAN WORSTEDS in the elt Also, Worsted Goods, Hoods, Nubias, Breakf. Shawls, Hosiery, Gloves. Ac. M A. LIBBY A CO., , 94 Water Street, Gardiner, Maine. tl)an70-tf i Governor’s Address. Gentlemen or the Senate and House or Representatives : In approaching the duties of another session, it is well to impress upon the mind a due estimate of their importance; and acknowledging and invok ing the Divine favor, seek for wisdom iu their faith ful discharge. It is true that the councils of the nation have more to do with the greater matters of our common weal or woe; but the questions which are within your control, and the duties to which you are now solemnly devoted are worthy of your best thought and conscience and wisdom. While the dark burden of the war rolled its gloom over us, the people were not niggardly in giv ing nor over-critical in receiving whatever promised aid in the great deliverance. \\ ith a patriotism which knew no class or section, with a generosity which counted no cost, and a devotion that shrank from no sacrifice, they poured their choicest treasure and their most precious life into the field where the great issue was joined for the guaranties of liberty j and a government of law. Intent on this they paid little attention to little things; they did not i stop to challenge either men or measures that curao in the guise and color of the common cause. Rut the crisis now is past; the field won. The times are diderent; our duties new. We must challenge both measures and men; cast out the false, displace the weak, entrench the strong. We must look back over the tumultuous track and see where ruin can be repaired and abuses corrected; the false chan nels cut by the wild overflow stopped up; the true currents of prosperity restored. We must look forward, not’ only to see what must bo borne, but what must be doue,—stifled energies to be set free, new powers put in motion. No spiritless or timid reluctance to grapple with the vexed questions which may claim our attention, should be allowed to settle upon us from tho too modest impression that our acts are of little consequence. On the con trary, never was sound judgment and generous toil and the clear sharp scrutiny that runs before and after, more demanded by the exigency of the times and the interests of the people. A government has something more to do than to govern, and levy taxes to pay the governors. It is something more than a police to arrest eril and punish wrong. It must also encourage good, point out improvements, open roads of prosperity and infuse life iDto all right enterprises. It should combine the insight and foresight of the best minds of the State for all the high ends for which society is established and to which man aspires. That gives us much to do. We sit down here to devise things for the public good. Let us be at the work early, and do it both well and quickly. For both are possible. Promptitude and activity will enable us to avoid a protracted ses sion, omitting nothing and at the same time con sidering well. *That there will be conflicts of opin ion and differences of judgment may be expected, and is well. Where men are thoughtful there will seldom be unanimity. Where men are honest there will be sharp individuality. Independence, if it is genuine, is no evil, but a good. The great requisite, indeed, on the part of those who make or administer laws is moral courage. We cannot expect much that ia good from laws enacted under clamor or to meet some crisis, nor from statesmen who are chiefly concerned iu contriving to keep their place and power. One thing we may be sure of,—the virtue in the hearts of the people That in stinct may be deceived but will Dot be defeated It demands honesty, and will pardon us if in that cause we are over bold. One man indeed, we have lost from active partiei- ; pation and influence in our affairs. One voice is > silent that was wont to speak only honest conviction j without favor and without fear. William Pitt j Fessenden is gone. The race of men that dare be ! right has suffered loss. The man who will calmly | resolve and give judgment with understanding, un- • moved by the voice of those who seeing not so clearly feel more violently—the man who aims for ! the ultimate right rather than for the near advan- i tage—tho man who in the tremendous hour of re sponsibility when great issues bang upon his actiou, ' bearing above the tumult of taunting Iocs and sup plicating friends the deeper voices of reason and , conscience, fixes his single eye on duty and stakes his all upon the blow—that man it is hard to find and hard indeed to lose. One by one the great men around whom our hearts rallied in the dark days of the Republic are passing from our view. We feel that we are lost rather than they. Happy will it be if the young men now rising to their places shall learn from their example, and be able when the day of trial comes to do their duty as unselfishly, as boldly, and as well. The deeds of such men live after them. Their words are gone out unto the end of the world. Their light shall shine along the heights of history as the glory lives on tho Alpine peaks when the sun is seen no more. The vacancy in the Uuited States Senate it became my duty to fill for the time, and I accordingly ap pointed Hon. Lot M. Morrill. It now devolves on you to elect a Senator fur tho remainder of the term ending March, 1871. I proceed to lay before you an abstract of tue con dition of the State, with the few suggestions which appear needful to be made: the more complete de tails and cogent reasons will fur the most part appear in the several reports and other documents submitted to your inspection. FINANCIAL. The report of the Treasurer will present a most interesting statement and history of our financies. Our receipts during the past year have been $‘JJJ, 814.50. and our expenditures $919,600 80. Ou the old civil debt we have paid the annual installment of $37,000, leaving abalauee of $384,000. Our war debt December 31, 1869, was $1,632,500. This is amply provided f<»r by the sinking fuud arising from the tax of three-fourths of a mill on the dollar by the valuation of i860. Of this debt $800,000 falls due in lb" 1. The sinking fund, with the collections from the general government applied to extinguish this debt, already amounts to $072,530, so that we are already $172,530 iu advance of our liabilities in 1871, aud at the present rate of increase we shall be $300,800 ahead. Our whole public debt January 1, 18.0, including the civil and the war debt, and the municipal reim bursement loan is $*,100,1*00. Notwithstanding the heavy drain on tho Treasury last year, expenditures have been so economized and cut short that the loan authorized to meet current expenses has not been resorted to, nor have even the appropriations been exhausted. It is estimated that with all that rnay reasonably be contemplated, the rate of taxation this year will fall somewhat short of the last. Still, we should make all reasonable appropriations It would be poor economy to refuse to expend any money till our debts are paid. Tho remarkable feature of our finances this yoar is tho assumption by the State of a portion of the war expenses of towns. This is made at the rate of $100 for every three year's man actually furnished for the war. After a long and thorough examina tion of the most tangled and perplexing matters, the commissioners appointed to adjust the reimburse ment have now made their report, which will be found to contain serious matters of history in regard to the method of furnishing men for tho war. They adjudge the sum of $3,105,183 33. The fractional ; parts of $100 required to be paid in curreuoy in this distribution amount to $20,783.33. For the rest, viz $3,081,400, Bonds of the State are now ready for issue bearing interest from October 1, 1800, at the rate of six per cent., payable semi-annually. To provide for this interest and the rateable poition of the sinking fund required to extinguish this debt, you will need to assess the sum of about $80,000 | It would serve as a protection against loss or rob bery, if you were to provide for tho registration of theso bonds as the h' Idcrs might desire. If a por tion of this loan fiud its way to the market, there is no reason to apprehend a serious depreciation. Under the late stringency which s<» severely tested all bonded securities, ours fell off not more than 2 or 3 per ceut. from par. When we consider also the much higher rates of interest offered by other securities which flood the market, we cannot but congratulate ourselves upon the public confidence in our financial soundness. The liabilities, which, one way or another, grew out of the war, have laid a heavy burden on us. ; Were it not for this, it will be peroeived, our lia bilities would bo trifling. Hut it u*u„t bo bom© ui ! mind that this debt does not represent what is wast ed and lost. It is a heritage,of honor and a patent of nobility; and if that seems too unsubstan tial a consolation to those who dwell the more striking fact that our taxes continue high, they may be reminded that more than half this debt is for money that has been scattered broadcast among oar own citizens. The report of the Examiner of Hanks and Insur ance Companies will suggest matters of unusual im portance. It will be seen that our old banks under the State charter are nearly extinct. The policy of the Government is hostile, and wo shall probably have to abandon tho system. Tho recommendation of a tax to be laid upon foreign Insurance Companies doing business in tho State, seems well supported by argument. Those who are interested in the eoudition of our people, will not be content to estimate the prosper ity'of tho State from the operations of capitalists and the balance of trade. 'They will also look upoa the great masses and see if they can live upon their daily labor; to what use they put their earnings, and to what advantage their small savings. There you can best discover whether you are rightly solv ing the problems of political economy, or realizing the objects of society. There are now 37 savings banks in Maine, several having been recently chartered in what we might call our Country towns; the chief apprehension in regsrl to which is, that they may rut be able to afford suitable security against robbery. The deposits for the past year amount to $10,839,955 by about 40,000 depositors, making an average of something over $250 each. An interesting comparison is shown by the fact that the amount thus laid in store from honest and hard earned gains, is alreudy more than a million and a quarter larger than tho aggregate capital of all our bauk* ot issue, State and National, and nearly two and three-quarter millions larger than the whole of our bouded public debt. It is urged by some that a direct tax should be laid on saving? banks. It is a sound principle that property should share as equally as possible the pub lic burden; and it seem?, at first sight, thai savings banks should no more be exceptions to the rule than any other banks. But it will be seen upon reflec tion that the spirit and intent of deposit? in savings banks differ entirely from the object and operation of deposits in other banks, and it is a grave ques tion whether this difference is not of such a nature and result as to make the savings banks a postive benefit to the State, which might even entitle them to special grace, practically amounting to a bounty, or premium, if you please. These banks are the special depositaries of the poor; treasuries of pittan ce? which could in no other way be so well guarded and made profitable. If not kept hero many of them would not be kept at all. Besides the actual saving of earnings and the positive addition to wealth thence accruing,—itself an object worthy of your thoughtful care,—there are incidental arfd even more valuable advantages. The moment ho has money in the bank, the hqinblest feels a brac ing up of his self-respect and whole moral force. From that moment springs an incentive to industry, frugality, temperance, enterprise; to all, in fact, which constitute good citizenship, and advances J the character and condition of men. Anything, therefore, which tends to discourage deposits in saving? banks should be scrupulously avoided. If i there were any way to reach the large depositors by i requiring the officers of banks to make returns to the | assessors of towns fur purpose of taxation, it would j certainly be well. But first premising that large sums are lets likely than small ones to e-cape tax i ation in the ordinary way, it is to be said that such j depositors might still easily evade the law, and the burden would fall back on those leasable to bear it. Indeed the mere fact itself of publishing Savings ! Banks deposits would intimidate and dishearten ; many whose very struggle and merit it is to keep I this pittance from the willful and wasteful hands which would at the same time destroy it and thern 1 ?elves. By the very confidential relations of these j banks many a poor woman is helped in her heroic ! struggles to bear her unequal burden. Therefore it 1 seems to me better eveu to suffer such evils as we j do, than in the attempt to correct them to subvert a far grenter good What this btate needs is capital—money in mo ! tioo, whether gold or currency. Our material is stagnant, our industry crippled, our enterprise staggered for want of money, which is power. W hat. makes the sinews of war makes also the sin ews of peace. Maine strikes me as quite different in her circumstances from the other New Euglaud States, with their denser population, developed arts and industries, their centralization of forces and ac cumulation of capital. She reminds mo more of the ' Western States iu her condition and needs,—a vir gin soil, undeveloped power?, vast forests, and vig orous men, but no money Like them she is trying to build railroads, invite immigration and develop her resource?, and perhaps is not so much in love with a high tariff as some of her more cultivated sisters. The elements and powers of nature, and the energy and enterprise of men in order to bo turned to account for the great uses of civilization, must wait on capital. Unfortunately we cannot hold our own w« can keep neither our men nor our 'money at home. Higher rates of interest fur the one, and quicker and larger return.? for the other win the game. The result is a double drain which keeps all our channels low. This evil must be i remedied or Maine wiil have to wait a great while | for her coronation. What cau be done it is not ; easy to say specifically. Wc must look to the Na tonal Government to strike oil some of our tetters an«l lighten some of our burdens. To me it seems Aiuwist* to cramp our energies with duties and taxes in trying to do everything in one day. I have no gr©»t pride against letting somebody else help pay the 1 cost o! the war. The great debt of the country is a boon which we uiud iuvite posterity to share, along with the blessings which they will iuberit with it. Wo gave our strength, our blood, our tears; l« t the delivered future bear a part at least in the thank offering. If we cau do anything that will umke labor, skill, talent ani capital remunerative, that , let us do. People will come and will stay; money will be kept and brought, if we can manage to make it pay. What wo can do for money does u»w readily appear. But we can look over the situation. As I have said, higher rates of interest abroad lure our money away. Money will seek the highest level us sure as water. Argument and entreaty will n> t change the course of this iuexorable law. Capital ists are reluctant. Some scruple to receive au ille gal rate aud so refuse. Some stipulating for these rates knowing that they cau only trust the honor of the borrower for the continuance, want a better se curity. But mortgages of real estate, which is about all we have, carry a long right < f redemption, and the lender is liable to be kept three yeais out of the money at merely the low legal rate The result is he will not accept even the mortgage, but demands an outright deed, and then the borrower must trust the honor of the lender, which in turn may not be very valuable seourity. Two things would uudoubtedly tend to make money more plenty. 1 To perfect and make prac ticable our free banking law. 2 To legalize high er rates of interest. Of course the suggestion of i evils growing out of the latter proposal at once arises. But it may be that the example of the Gen ; era! Government whioh compelled us to suspend specie payments, umy also compel us for a time to recognize a rate of interest corresponding with thai general praotice and sanction. The C< miuissionors on the State Valuation will submit the results of their labors for your action, whioh will require your oareful scrutiny aud impar tial judgmuut. INSTITUTIONS, REFORMATORY AND SANIFAKT. The various institutions under the rare of the State are generally in a prosperous condition. The Reform School shows excellent management. The business is conducted with judgment and energy; the discipline and care of the boy* i* wise and kind; and although this is in some sense a prison it is in the best sense a school. Tt is a greater task than we might think to administer the affairs of such an institution with entire success. We have every reasou to be gratified with the present results. I trust we shall not lose sight of the proposition so cordially reoeived two years ago, to establish an Industrial School for girls. Such an institution , would do much good, and save from vast evils. The subject eaunot but command the sympathy ut 1 <m*ry bumaao uouautorata uao. So far as I can judge of the State Prison every i thing about it appears to be well managed. The < sam of $25,000 was placed last year in the hands 1 of the Warden for a working capital. The experi- i ment has proved successful. The books show this year an excess of earnings over expenses of $689.19, which is a marked change in the balance of ac counts. Great care is taken for the welfare and i improvement of the convicts, and every thing is done for their good which the nature of the case will permit. I am constrained to say here, that the jail sys tem in this State is far from being so satisfactory. As I have said before, it is attended by evils which are disastrous in the extreme, and I would respect fully renew my recommendation that you provide some method to reach this matter. The Executive Council have given particular at tention to the condition of the deaf, dumb and blind, who are now sent to institutions out of the Stato. Some matters of detail have been corrected and improved, but upon the whole tho present mode of oaring for those unfortunates is approved as the best provision wo could make. Tho Hospital for the Insane is still crowded with inmates. Applicants are awaiting tho completion of the new wing This it will be necessary to pro vide for. The building will then be arehitectu-1 rally complete, and the institution as large as can bo advautageously managed. The adjacent lauds on the south have been purchased, and the grounds are now convenient and symmetrical. Cor dially conceding ail that is claimed for the i sincere efforts of those who have the manage ment of the institution in charge, l still remain of the opinion that wo are somewhat short of perfec tion in our methods, if not in our system of caring for the insane. Cells and corridors and stone walls are dreary conGnes for minds broken under the weight of real or fancied wrongs. It may be justi Ged on the homoeopathic principle that the proper medicine for a sick man is that which produces the same disease in a well one; for a brief treatment | of a sane man in these crowded corridors would very soon give him a title to stay there. I cannot venture to point out (oven wore [ able) precisely what should be done, but we may reasonably expect that those who are especially charged with this responsibility, instead of troubling themselves too j much to defend what they do, should set them selves to search out and correct the evils which inevitably grow up in such institutions and think it no confession of fault if they strive to improve in every possible way their methods, instrumental* j ties, and even their system. If I were to permit myself a suggestion it would be that we strive to make the Hospital less of a prison and attend more to the healing influences of Nature Let the inmates come in contact as much as possible with that which is calm anil free and natural and sane. I think that the laying out of tho grounds on some artistic plan would afford salu tary employment and recreation to many of the in mates, aud thus without much outlay by the State the I place may be made attractive, and the gloom which ' pervades the atmosphere of such an Institution be i mitigated it not dispelled by the beauty and salu brity of its surroundings. Fur some reason which does not now clearly ap pear the Insane Hospital is largely exempt from that responsibility to the Executive Council which affects other Institutions of the State. The praeti- i cal effects of this appear in many ways, and have not contributed to relieve the doubts which have sometimes arisen in regard to the management of the establishment. I would therefore recommend . that the hospital be placed under the same super vision as other Institutions sustaining a similar relation to | the btate. The Trustees of the Maine General Hospital will ask your aid. It is understood that generous priv ate benefactions are ready to follow an appropriate endowment by the State. This petition is emi nently proper, and should bo received with the must favurabio disposition. EDUCATIONAL. There is probably no branch of our public inter ests where such improveuieut has beeu made as in that of our common schools. Not that any striking changes or*brilliant results have a* yet appeared; but what I mean to say is, that wo are sot upon right ways; that t> e faults, the wastes, and the wants of our former practices have b&bu brought out and appropriate means have been set in inotiou which can scarcely fail to work salutary and jHjrma neut effects. Wo are seeking, not so much to change , the system, as to infuse hie luto it; so that the best appliances, the best methods and the experience of the best miuds, can be extended to remote and hum ble places; so that in an educational sense, we can secure through every nook and corner of the State the equal rights of all. It is moreover no exaggeration to soy, that the present is a new era in teaching. It is not a little singular to tiud novelty in an art so old. llut the spirit of our institutions, the demands of the times have necessitated aims, objects, and methods which render education altt-g* tiler a different business from what it was a generation ago. It no longer seeks to cram the mind with strange forms and aggrega ted facts, without harmony, relation, life, or per manence; it now teaches the miud from the very start to observe, compare, analyze, assimilate—to master and make its own;—in tact it is education— the training, unfolding, leading and fashioning forth of the mind. Teachers must now have something more than a good moral character—that and some thing besides—they must demonstrate that they have character at all. They can’t teach merely what they have borrowed over night; but only that which they have wrought out and made their own. This tells on the young mind; gives it edge and' point, afid in many ways tends to fit nil, both teacher and taught, to enter undismayed the arena of these stirring and eventful times. 1 think the highest good is flowing from our Normal Schools, and Institutes and County Supervisor- , ships. They have caught tho right spirit and transfuse it. They arc the means mainly by which the State is to be reached and brought within the better modes. that the people arc awake in this matter, it is easy to see. They have raised over $800,000, this post year,* by direct taxation, and expended the total Mini of $1,100,000 for the support of schools, It reuiaius for us to take care, by all means in our power, that such means are uot wasted and such in tentions foiled. We want, among other things, to Rce that all have a fair chance; that, for instance, the cost aud changes and variety of books do not put poor parents to distress to keep the means of ; education within their childrens’ reach. 1 feel that these are important matters, and have 1 thus spoken that we may understand the spirit in which we shall be called to act. We have wasted a good deal of time aud money hitherto; but l believe we have now begun better things, and that with the intelligence, good sense aud I vigor now brought to bear on these interests, our people will beture long be satisfied with the re sulted their generosity aud care. As to our College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, although generous devotion to duly has been manifest on the part of All who are charged i with its immediate concerns, it yet fails to at tain to quite the prosperity which we hoped, 1 and which 1 believe is still possible f«*r it — : It is my duty to say that, so far as appears, there are two principal causes of its preseut feeble aud uncertain condition. 1st, The neglect of me chanics and manufacturers and master* of the lu- , dustriiii Arts, to assert thtir rights iu the college. j 2d, The deep-settled feeling on the part of many, that the locatiou is unfavorablo The existence of I those two disadvantage* it is worse than lolly to deny or, pass over with soft words. The truth is, we must oome to an understanding in the matter. It is a pity to WHSte money and mind, even lor the best of motives, without hope of a successful end. The $28,000 voted last winter in condition of a perfect deed of the property to the State, has fallen dead through failure of the town to make the full oon | veyanoo. If we are all in earnest to have the col lege go on where it is, neither the Slate nor the town need insist much upon oonditious. But if it is the intention to remove the college, then it would be best not to expend more money there. 1 am un able to give you the least information or advice on this point. But 1 am ready to assure you that un. less we keep in mind the aOope and generous intent ■ of this institution, it will never greatly thrive. A 1 fitritteiV cvUcjo ii a goo4 ww-hy hub wai alone will not live and move. There are not boj§ enough who mean to go back to a farm after they have got through the college. Fanning is not at present a business of that inviting sort in Maine. But a school embracing all the ma terial industries, teaching our young men skill in the handicrafts which invite them to worthy and profitable employment, training and nerv ing them to strike a *ure and a good blow in the manly rivalries of peace or war—such a school in fact as hundreds of onr young men go out of the State to seek, would not o*>ly live and flourish, but would be a powerful and pre-eminent good. Whether wo can make such a school of ours I do not know; but such an one we must have or our monsy and our efforts will have been spent in vain. The splendid volume published by the Historical Society forming the first in the series of the Docu mentary History of Maine authorized by the Legis lature of 18C7, which traces the discovery of this coast from the Northmen in 990 to the Charter of Gilbert in 1578, has doubtless been laid before you. A volume quite as remarkable containing the first publication of an original manuscript of the celebrated Hakluyt in which he urges upon Queen Elizabeth the vigorous prosecution of colonisation on this coast, is in bourse of preparation Itifepro posed to go on with the history of the actual occu pation of this territory under the influence and efforts of Sir Ferdinand© Gorges. These works are a credit to the liberality of the State and the learn ing of the society, and are attracting much atten tion as valuable contributions to American History. • S1II.ITAKV. The question of an efficient and economies! Militia system has been long agitated, but still unsettled. For the last three years I have given the matter much thought. You will bear me witness that I have not shown a disposition to exult unduly the military ele ment, to incur the expenses or abuse the pow ers which tlie law places in the control of the Executive. It is unsafe however to be with out some military force at cull in ease of need. The moderate suggestion was made and adopted at the last session, of anthorizing ten companies of Infantry to be fully equip ped by the State. The orders of the Depart ment will show with what care and caution the intent of tlie Legislature has been carried out. Applications have been thoroughly con sidered : companies have been accepted only where the several localities appeared fully in earnest to maintain them, and only those men mustered, who upon rigorous examination were found able to do full duty. The result indicates the wisdom of the statute. We have now an incentive to military duty, ami a premium on good soldiership. It will be work and not play, a school of discipline for manli ness. Seven companies with an aggregate of 413 men have been accepted. The appro priation intended to accompany the Act hav ing been overlooked, no uniforms have as yet been issued with the exception of overcoats for the two Portland companies, which are under orders to appear on duty. We can the better afford to expend money judiciously, because we have not expended any foolishly. These companies were not to be organized as a regiment. That especially I wished to avoid. 1st. They extend over too much space to be best handled in that way. 2. The , rank of Colonel would he-too low for the ac tual command of our whole effective force. 3. This office being elective, the personal and local rivalries that would ensue would be harmful to good discipline. 4. It was the pith of the whole plan to have these compan ies independent corps, responsible only to the Commander-in-Chief, and capable by the char acter of the men, their military knowledge, spirit ami discipline, of being expanded into regiments and even brigades at very short notice, with officers all ready competent and understanding. This I am satisfied is the right way ior us, and at a trilling expense we may have a body of soldiers which might well be a pride and examples well as a defence to the State. Our present Militia Law is a good one and sufficient for all exigencies, and need not be touched. A large lot of material accumulated in the Arsenals, and practically worthless to the State, has been very advantageously sold under the direction of a committee of the Council, and the proceeds, §2,504.61, paid into the Treasury. The State Pension Law has been adminis tered witli much care. The whole number of applications for 1809 is 772. Of these 035 have been allowed at various rates. The whole amount expended to date is §24,502. The pension year ends somewhat awkwardly oil the 23d of February, which constantly ren ders a complete report to the Legislature impossible. It would be better to make the pension account end witli the year. It is esti mated that some 50 claims more will be presen ted and allowed, rendering the whole number of pensions some 700, and swelling the amount paid for the full year to about §35,000s These figures we may now regard as about the set tled amounts of our liabilities on the score of pensions. The law and its application is now so well understood that few but meritorious casts will apph, ami these, it may be presumed, are now nearly all in. It w ill be seen that the amounts received by the pensioners fall very far short of the maximum allowed by law, viz. §!»8 each. The average is now very nearly 850. The appropriation being limited, we are. of course, anxious to keep within the amount; while the applicants are so many that to render aid to all, the sum allowed to each must necessarily be small, and some have to be sent away empty, and perhaps rather summarily. You will doubtless continue this aid. It seems indeed pitifully small, com pared with the great gift these widows and orphans and wounded men have made to the nation in her hour of peril. This pittance does not restore health, nor the son, or hus band, or father. The guide of youth and the stay of age is smitten from their sight. The best we can do is poor—the most we can give is little. That at any rate we should do and should give. The cost of the Pension office will be 82,100 for the year. Perhaps some saving might be made and some other advan tages secured liy placing this business in the Adjutant General’s office. The ordinary duties of that office will naturally be les« as we gradually settle up the accounts of the war. One disadvantage would be obviated —the changing of hands each year. In all doubtful or disputed cases as now, appeal might still be had to the Gi^ernor. The Board of Guardians of destitute or phans of foldiers and sailors have used such dilligcnce as they could in fulfilling their trust. The duties of this Board are varied and wide. Besides receiving applications they have to search out eases, visiting distant places for the personal inspection of reported destitution, and sometimes assuming the en tire care of the homeless and unprotected. The result has shown many bereaved families and much suffering. '1 he number of or phans now on our list is 2,270. Of those. 1,200 have more or less been aided. Sixty have been absolutely taken into our care, and most of them placed in those beneficent In stitutions which are well called Homes. The Orphan Asylum, at Bangor, he* received 2J, and the amount paid for their support thus far is §1,000. This Institution Is cot primarily devoted to orphans of this class. But the broad and tender charity that preahis-s over it jus admit tea tswc diUe om *s a •pecmA