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VOL. I. AUGUSTA, ME., SATURDAY MORNING, JANUARY 8, 1870. NO. 7. $tnuukt Jmiral. i Published on Water, Foot of Court Street, i AUGUSTA, MAINE. BT SI’RAGl E, OWEN <fc NASH. Jjailj Junittkt Journal Is issued every morning, except Sundays. Contains the latest news by telegraph and mail, and giveB the proceedings of the Legislature in full, also reports of proceedings of important commit tees and the Agricultural and Educational depart ments. Terms, $7 per annum in advance; *8 if payment Is not made within the year. Single copies 4 cents, to be had at the bookstores and at this office. Advertisements one inch in length, three in sertions or less. $1 00; 25 cts. for every subsequent insertion. Longer advertisements, or those inserted j for any considerable length of time, will be inserted at favorable terms to the advertiser. Special Notices 25 per ceut. additional. Amusement Notices, $2 per square per week. Ttdlcchlij Jtennebft Journal, Published every Wednesday morning, Is the largest folio paper in the State, containing uews, political article*, agricultural and scientific matter, talcs, poetry, anecdotes, household recipes, ; markets, Ac.. Ac. Terms $2 ptr annum in advance Transient Advertisements, $150 per inch for first week; 25 cents per week for cash subsequent insertion. Special Notices, t*2 00 per inch for first week; j 50 cents per week lor each subsequent week. Business Notices, in reading column*, 20 cents per line for first insertion ; 10 cents per line for each subsequent insertion. All transient advertisements to be paid for in advance. DR. A. H. CHAMBERLAIN, DENTAL SURGEON, OFFICE OVER POST OFFICE^ : AUGUSTA, MAINuJ DR CHAMBERLAIN is Ailly up with the times in all the best and most’practical improve ment*. ahvay* availing himself of such as will be of practical use to hi* patron*, and being thorough ly conversant with Dentistry in all iU branches, can promise his patron* that tueirwoik shall be doue in a manner Which Cannot be Excelled ! THE MOST DIFFICULT CASES ARE SOLICITED! X*ni-e ^iti-ons Oxide Or LArcunso Gas, the bent and safest Anaesthetic now extant, constantly on hand and given for the extraction of Teeth w n liotr pai.v. JtKfKItKKCES or rEH.VISSlOX, J B Bell, M. D. | J. tV Toward. M. I>. Geo E Brickett, M D I .T O, Webster, M D, W L. Thompson, M. D. | W. S Hill. M. D. Office Hours from 8 A. M. to 0 F. M. tljau70_ Fore Medicines and -Chemicals! Brushes, Combs, Soaps and Perfumery; CHOICE TOILET i\» FAXCI llflCLES: Physicians’ & Apothecaries’ Goods, Ptrt Xpert*. Lard. Errosev sad Seatsfoot Oil*. Charles K. Partridge, DRUGGIST AND APOTHECARY, Water Street, corner Market Square, (INl)ER GRANITE HAI L,) Has on hand a Large Selected Stock kept fresh by constant additions, AND BULLS AT The Lowest Market Rales ! FOR GENUINE AND RELIABLE GOODS. PartriifM Drnr Stir,, ffatrr Strut, rrarr Market Ji|iurt. tlj*o?01y Shooting Tackle. m. wTlong, SUCCESSOR TO L. M. I, EL AX IK OTJKr SMITH And Dealer In Shooting Tackle of Every Yariely. IUFLB AND SHOT GUNS made to ORDER and WARRANTED. Particular attention paid to Chunking Shot Guns to make them shoot thick and strong. Also on hand, the best lot of Skates in the market, for sale cheap. Odd keys of every pattern. Key tugs ami ..ngs for Wallets Powder of the best quality for 131a*ting or Sporting. Re pairing done neatly and promptly. All work warranted. Ijan-ly CUSHNOC HOUSE. Comer and Winthrop [•’Ijjpl State Sts., .Augusta, IMe. T. B. BALLARD, : : Proprietor. Quests takon to and firom the Cars , and Boats Free. HORSES AND CARRIAGES TO LET. flJunTO-Gm OI'I.I. SI MO NILS' Fashionable Hair Dressing Rooms, Opposite *Jarrotfc A Bradbu^'s, Water Street, s : : Augusta, Me. (Shaving, Shampooing, Uatr-Dreaaing, (Jutting. Col oring, Ar., in the most approved »tvle of tho art. Pairloular attention paid to cutting and curling La die.’ aud Children's hair. All kindaol Hair Work made ttM>rdur in the Utoat atylu. Ijan.O-ly KEROSENE LAMPS, Lantorua and Chimney* Sun Burner* nnd Chimneva, fbr aalo br May 90, 1SU8. ilALLAKP 4 CtlASE. MAN HI ON HOUSE, i STATE STREET, : i AUGUSTA, ME. j r|HIIS House is provided with Bnth Booms, I where Hot and Cold Baths can be had at all times. It has also a First-Class Billiard Hall, f«*r Guests only. Connected with the House is a large and c<immodiou3 Sample Room, on Water Street, centrally located, where Sample Agents can show i their goods, free of charge. The Proprietor, thankful for the liberal patronage which the above House has enjoyed since its open ing, takes pleasure in informing his patrons that he , will run Free Carriages to and from the Cars ami , Boats until further notice # ' Connected with the al>©Ye House is a Livery Sta ? ble, where good toama can 1** had at reaB"nable rates. W. M. THAYER, Proprietor. G. P. Cochrane, Clerk. GOLD! GOLD! GOLD! ADAMSON'S Botanic cough balsam; IS MORE VALUABLE THAN GOLD. TRY IT ! TRY IT ! TRY IT ! IT CURES THE WORST COUGH or COLD IN A SHORT TIME. IN LARGE BOTTLES, at - - - 35 Cents. INTO Cure ! 3Mo Fay ! FRANK KINSMAN, DRUGGIST, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL AGENT FOR THE UNITED STATES AND CANADAS. Cough no more when you can be Cured for 3 £5 Cents! TRY IT! TRY IT! TRY IT! MOSES M SWAN, Watchmaker and Jeweller, I b m S b T. i* 2 v ) His Stock embraces a fine line of American and Swiss Watches, ELGIN WATCHES, in gold and silver cn«e, including the celebrated National or Elgin Watch, Waltham, Tremont. Bor- 1 quin. Bonnett. Pardeaux. Jacot, Ac., in both La dies.’ and gentlemen’s sires. Fine Grold. J owclry, Solid Gold Leoniton Vest and Neck Chains, STERLING A COIN SILVER GOODS, FINE PLATED WAKE, SPECTACLES AND EYE SIASSES, of the most approved kinds. CLOCKS OF ALL KINDS, including the celebrated ITHACA CALENDAR, all of which will be sold at the Lowest Prices, and Warranted. Particular attention given to repairing all kin*’,* of Fine Watches. Chronometer Balances applied and adjusted to temperature and position. tljan? Mf C. H. STARBIRD, Photographer ant! Artist, | A'EW GRANITE III.OCK, Nearly opposite Post Office, (Up Stairs,) Makes all the besd style* of Pictures iu the Art. PICTIRES COPIED <fc ENLARGED, — AND — Finished in India Ink or Colors. At prices that cannot fail to be satisfactory. The public are invited to call ami examine Specimens made and finished at his rooms. AUGUSTA. ME. t4Jan70d« I. C. I. C. I. c. T', <8, O. SOMES’ Oyster, Fruit and Confectionery salooj; Opposite Masonic Block, Gardiner, Me. THE BEST OTSTEK COOK in the State. Solid Oysters, 50 cents per quart. 7, S, o. To the people at large, Who this notice may read, And yourselves in Gardiner should And : If you want a good stew, You should know where to go lfs to Somes’, 7, **, o. C. T SOMES, Gardiner, Jan. 1st, 1870. tI)i»Bktf Cough Candy ! YifE»i»F.3BrRti’s rmrat t t\i)Y cures \\ COUGHS. COLDS, WHOOPING COUGH and * all Throat trouble*. 2 Doors south of Granite Block, Market Sq. | MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, Fancy Goods, die., sold by j janl-lyf W. WENDENBCRG. | Brushes i Brushes! UAIK, CLOTH, DUST, SHOE and Stove Blush es, a lull uesuilu.ent for sale low by BALLAUD & CHASE, J May 30, 1300. « Uuion Block. L870. JANUARY. 1870. EXTRA INDUCEMENTS TO BUYERS. We have this Day Marked Down our Prices! SO AS TO REDUCE STOCK. LOOK! LOOK! LOOK! THINK AND REFLECT On the following Prices: Overcoats tor $1.73 Overcoats for 6.00 Overcoats for 7.00 Overcoats for 8.00 Overcoats (warranted all wool) 9.00 Overcoats (heavy Black Beaver) 10.00 OCR STOCK OF PANTS AND VESTS. MATCHED SUITS, -ash— GENTS’ FURNISHIN6 600DSI Of every description we offer for the NEXT THIRTY DAYS, At equally low prices. AST CALL AND SEE US, and we guarantee that rou will get your money’s worth at the ONE PRICE CLOTHING STORE S. W. HUNTINGTON & CO., 190 Water SI., Augusta, Maine. tljan70 LAST SENSATION! Great Closing Sale -OF Ladies' Furs and Robes, -at Wlioolcr’s, — GrArcliiior. I NOW offer my entire (dock of LaDTES’ FURS and ROBES at less than cost tt> manufacture Parties who wish to buy within the next two years, and who wish to save money should not fail to improve this GREAT EVOKING SALE! for I am going to SELL regardless of cost. Remember the Place: Opposite the Post Offlco, GARDINER, ME. M. L. WHEELER, ljar702mdAw Successor to Hathaway * Wheeler. MISS M. A. LIBBY & CO., KEEPS constantly on hand a large stock of MILLINERY. The bort lot of GERMAN WORSTEDS in the city Also, Worsted Good*, Hoods, Nubias, Breakfast Shawls, Hosiery. Gloves, &c. M. A. LIBBY A CO., 04 Water Street. Gardiner, Maine. *ljau7(Hf Governor’s Address. Gentlemen cp hif. Senate and House op Kedresentatives : In approaching the duties of another session, it is well to impress upon the mind a due estimate of their importance; and acknowledging and invok ing the Divine favor, seek for wisdom in their faith ful discharge. It is true that the councils of the nation have more to do with the greater mutters of our common w».*al or woe; but the questions which are within your control, and the duties to which you are now solemnly devoted are worthy of your best thought and conscience and wisdom. While the dark burden of the war rolled its gloom over us, the people were not niggardly in giv ing nor over-critical in receiving whatever promised aid in the great deliverance. With a patriotism which knew no class or section, with a generosity which counted no cost, and a devotion that shrank from no sacrifice, they poured their choicest treasure and their most precious life Into the field where the great issue was joined for the guaranties of liberty and a government of law. Intent on this they paid little attention to little thing*; they did not ■top to challenge either men r measures that came in the guise and color of the common cause. Hut the crisis now is past; the field won. The times arc different; our duties new. We must challenge b< th measures and men; cast out the false, displace the weak, entrench the strong. We must look back over the tumultuous track and see where ruin can be repaired and abuses corrected; the false chan nels cut by the wild overflow stopped up; the true currents of prospeiity restored. We must look forward, not only to seo what must be borne, but what must be done,—stifled energies to be set free, new powers put in motion. No spiritless or timid reluctance to grapple with the vexed questions which may claim our attention, should be allowed to settle upon us from the too modest impression that our acts are of littlo consequence. On the con trary, never was sound judgment and generous toil and the clear sharp scrutiny that runs before and after, more demanded by the exigency of the times and the interests of the people. A government nan sometning more to uo tnan to govern, and levy taxes to pay the governors. It is something more than a police to arrest evil and punish wrong. It must also encourage good, point out improvements, open rdbds of prosperity and infuse life into all right enterprises. Tt should Combine the insight and foresight of the best minds of the ^tato for all the high ends for which society is established and to which man aspires. That gives us much to do. We sit down here to devise things for tho public good. Let us bo at tho work early, and do it both well and quickly. For both are possible. Promptitude and activity will enable us to avoid a protracted ses sion, omitting nothing and at the same time con sidering well. That there will be conflicts of opin ion and differences of judgment may be expected, and is well. Where men are thoughtful there will seldom be unanimity. Where men are honest there will be sharp individuality. Independence, if it is genuine, is no evil, but a good. The great , requisite, indeed, on the part of those who make j or administer laws is moral courage. We cannot ; expect much that is good from laws enacted under I clamor or to meet some crisis, nor from statesmen' who are chiefly concerned in contriving to keep : their place and power. One thing we may be sure i of,—the virtue in the hearts of the people That in , stinct may be deceived but will not be defeated It demands honesty, and will pardon us if in that cause we are over bold. One man indeed, we have lost from active partici pation and influence in our affairs- One voice is silent, that was wont to speak only honest conviction without favor and without fear. William Pitt Fessenden is gone. The race of men that dare be right has .suffered loss. The man who will calmly resolve and give judgment with understanding, un moved by the voice of those who seeing not so clearly feel more violently—the man who aims for the ultimate right rather than for the near advan tage—the man who in the tremendous hour of re sponsibility when great issues hang upon his action, bearing above the tumult of taunting foes and sup , plieating friends the deeper voices of reason and conscience, fixes bis single eye on duty and stakes his all upon the blow—that man it is hard to find and hard indeed to lose. One by one the great men around whom our hearts rallied in the dark days of the Republic are passing from our. view. We feel j that we are lost rather than they. Happy will it j be if tho young men now rising to their places snail . learn from their example, and be able when the day j of trial c.-mes to do their duty as unselfishly, as | boldly, and as well. Tho deeds cf such meu live after them. Their words are gone out unto the end 1 of the world. Their light shall shine along the heights of history as the glory lives on the Alpine peaks when the sun is seen no more. The vacancy in the I'nited States Senate it became my duty to fill for the time, and I accordingly ap pointed Hon. L«>t M. Morrill. It now devolves on you to elect a Senator for the remainder of the term ending March, 1871. I proceed to lay before you an abstract of tho con dition of the State, with the few suggestions which appear needful to be made: the more complete de tails and cogent reasons will for the most part appear in the several reports and other documents submitted to yuur inspection. FINANCIAL. The report of the Treasurer will present a most interesting statement and history of our financies. Our receipts during the past year have been $933, 814.50, and our expenditures $919,600 60. On the old civil debt we have paid the annual installment of $<7,000, leaving a balanco of $384,000. Our war debt December 31, 1869, was $4,632,500. This is amply provided fur by the sinking fund arising from the tax of three-fourths of a mill on the doliar by the valuation of 1860. Of this debt $>00,000 falls due in 1871. The sinking fund, with the collections from the general government applied to extinguish this debt, already amounts to $972,530, so that we are already $172,530 in advance of our liabilities in 1871, and at the present rate of increase wo shall be $300,800 ahead. uur wnoie puDiieaem January i, ichu, including the civil and tho war debt, and the municipal reiui*» bursement loan is $S, 100,900. Notwithstanding the heavy drain on the Treasury last year, expenditures have been so economized and cut short that the loan authorized to meet current expenses has nut been resorted to, nor have even tho appropriations been exhausted. It is estimated that with all that may reasonably be Contemplated, the rate of taxation this year will fall somewhat short of tho last. Still, we should make all reasonable appropriations. It would be poor economy to relusc to expend any money till our debts are paid. The remarkable feature of our finances this year i is tho assumption by the State of a portion of the war expenses of towns. This is made at tho rate of $100 fur every three year’s man actually furnished for the war. After a long and thorough examina tion of the most tangled and perplexing matters, tho commissioners appointed to adjust the reimburse ment have now made their report, which will be found to contain serious mutters of history in regard to the method of furnishing men for tin* war. They adjudge the sum of $3,105,183 33. The fractional parts of $100 required to bo paid in currency in this distribution amount to $20,783.33. For the rest, viz $3,084,400, Bonds of the State are now ready for issue bearing interest from October 1, 18(19, at tho rate of six per cent., payable semi-annually. To provide for this interest and tho rateable portion of tho sinking fund required to extinguish this debt, you will need to assess tho sum of about $80,000. It would serve as a protection against loss or rob bery, if you were to provide for the registratiou of these bonds as the holders might desire. If a por tion of this loan find its way to the market, there i< no reason to apprehend a serious depreciation. Under the late stringency which so severely tested all bonded securities, ours fell off not more than 2 or 3 per cent, from par. When we consider also the much higher rates uf interest offered by other securities which flood the market, wo cannot but congratulate ourselves upon the public confidence in our financial soundness The liabilities, which, one way cr another, grew rut of the war, have laid a heavy burden on us. Were it not for this, it will bo perceived, our lia bilities would bo trifling. But it must bo borne in mind that this debt does not represent what is wast ed and lost. It is a heritage of honor and a patent of nobility; and if that seems too unsubstan tial a consolation to those who dwell on the more striking fact that our taxes continue high, they may be reminded that more than half this debt is for money that has been scattered broadcast among our own citizens. The report ot the Examiner of Banks and Insur ance Companies will suggest matters of unusual im portance. It will bo seen that our old banks under the State charter are nearly extinct. The policy of the Government is hostile, and we shall probably have to abandon the system. The recommendation of a tax to be laid upon foreign Insurance Companies doing business in the State, seems well supported by argument. Those who are interested in the condition of our people, will not be content to estimate the prosper ity of tho State from the operations of capitalists and the balance of trade. They will also look upon the great masses and sec if they can live upon their daily labor; to what use they put their earnings, I and to what advantage their small savings. There I you can best discover whether you are rightly solv j ing th* problems of political ecouomy, or realising ! the objects of society. There arc now 37 savings ! banks in Maine, several having been recently i chartered in wbut we might call our oountry towns; the chief apprehension in regard to which is, that they may nut be able to atford suitable security against robbery. The deposits for the past year amount to $10,839,953 by about 40,000 depositors, making an average of something over $'230 each. I An interesting comparison is shown by the fact that ! the amount thus laid in store from honest and hard earned gaius, is already more than a million and a | quarter larger than the aggregate capital of all our ! banks of issue. State and National, and nearly two and three-quarter millions larger thau the whole of i our bonded public debt. It la urged by some mat a direct tax snouiu no laid on savings batiks. It is a sound principle that property should share as equally as possible the pub lic burden; aud it seems, at first sight, that savings banks should no more be exceptions to the rule than any other banks. But it will bo seen upon reflec tion that the spirit and intent of deposits in savings banks differ entirely from the object and operation of deposits in other banks, and it is a grave ques tion whether this difference is not of such a nature and result as to make the savings banks a postive benefit to the State, which might even entitle them to special grace, practically amounting to a bounty, or premium, if you please. These banks are the special depositaries of the poor; treasuries of pittan ces which could in no other way bo so well guarded and made profitable. If not kept here many of them would not be kept at all. Besides the actual saving of earnings and the positive addition to wealth thence accruing,—itself an object worthy of your thoughtful care,—there are incidental and even more valuable advantages. The moment ho has money iu the hank, the humblest feels a brac ing up of his sell-respect and whole moral force. From that moment springs an incentive to industry, frugality, temperance, enterprise; to all, in fact, which constitute good citizenship, and advances the character and condition of men. Anything, therefore, which tends to discourage deposits in savings banks should be scrupulously avoided. If there were any way to reach the large depositors by requiring the officers of banks to make returns to the ! assessors of towns for purpose of taxation, it would l certainly be well. But first premising that large j sums are less likely than small ones to escape tax | ation ;n the ordinary way, it is to be said that such j depositors might still easily evade the law, and the I burden would fall back on those less able to bear it. Indeed the mere fact itself of publishing Savings Banks deposits would intimidate and dishearten many whoso very struggle and merit it is to keep this pittance from the willful and wasteful han ls which would at the same time destroy it and them selves. By the very confidential relations of these j banks many a poor woman is helped in her heroic struggles to bear her unequal burden. Therefore it seems to mo better oven to suffer such evils as we do, than in the attempt to correct them to subvert a far greater good What this ^tato needs is capital—money in mo tion, whether gold or currency. Our material is stagnant, our industry crippled, our enterprise staggered for want of money, wnioh is power. What makes the sinews of war makes also the sin ews of peace. Maine strikes mo as quite different ir. her circumstances from the other New England States, with their denser population, developed arts | and industries, their centralization of forces and ac ! cumulation of capital. She reminds me more of the : Western States in her condition and needs,—a vir gin soil, undeveloped powers, vast forests, and vig orous men, but no money Eiko them she is trying to build railroads, invite immigration and develop her resources, and perhaps is not so much in love with a high tariff as some of her more cultivated 'isters. The elements and powers of nature, and the energy and enterprise of men in order to be turned to account for the great uses of civilization, must wait on capital. Unfortunately wo cannot hold our own: we can keep neither our men nor our money at home. Higher rates of interest for the one, and quicker and larger returns for the other win the game. The result is a double drain which keeps all our channels low. This evil must be remedied or Maine will have to wait a great while for her coronation. What can be done it is not easy to say specifically. We must look to the Na tional Government to strike off some of our fetters and lighten some of our burdens. To me it seems unwise to cramp cur energies with duties and taxes in trying to do everything iu one day. I have no great pride against letting somebody elsehelp pay the cost ot the war. The great debt of the country is a boon which we must invite posterity to share, along with the blessings which they will inherit with it. We gave our strength, our blood, our tears; let the delivered future bear a part at least in the thank offering. If wo can do nnvthing that will make labor, skill, talent and capital remunerative, that let us do. People will eouie and will stay; money will be kept and brought, if we can mauago to make it pay. What we can do for money does not readily appear. But we can look over the situation. As I have said, higher rates of interest abroad lure our money away. Money will seek the highest level as sure ns water. Argument and entreaty will not U lilt II IIIO VI'Uire II lUia lll\ A'lllVIV ■ in 14 ists are reluctant. Some scruple to receive no ille gal rate and so refuse. Some stipulating for these rates knowing that they cun only trust the honor of the borrower for the continuance, want a better se curity. But mortgages of real estate, which is about all we have, carry a long right of redemption, and the lender is liable to he kept three years out of the money at merely tho low legal rate The result is he will not accept even the mortgage, but demands an outright deed, and then the borrower must trust the honor of tho lender, which in turn may not ho very valuable security. Two things would undoubtedly tend to make money more plenty. 1 To perfect ami make prac ticable our free hanking law 2 To legalize high er rates of interest. Of course the suggestion of evils growing out of the latter proposal at unco arises. But it may bo that the example of the (len eral Government which compelled us to suspend specie payments, may also compel us for a time to recognize a rate of interest Corresponding with this general practice and sanction. Tho Commissioners on the State Valuation will submit tho results of their labors for your action, which will require y<*ur careful scrutiny and impar tial judgment. IXSTIlt riONS, REFORMATORY AND SANITARY. The various institutions uuder tho earo of tho State arc generally in a prosperous condition. Tho Kef rm School shows excellent management. The business is conducted with judgment and energy; the discipline and care of the boys is wise and kind; and although this is in some sense a prison it is in the best sense a school. It is a greater task than we might think to administer the aifairg of such an institution with ontire success. We ! have every reason to be gratified with the present rosults. I trust we shall not lose sight of the proposition so cordially noeivtd two yoars ago, to e-*tubli.-h an Industrial School for girls. Such an institution i would do much good, and save from vast evils. The subject cannot but oominand tho sympathy of 1 ©rcry hutujtno aud ocusWcuta ma So far as I can judge of the State Prison every thing about it appears to be well managed. The sum of $25,000 was placed last year in tho hands of the Warden for a working capital. The experi ment has proved successful.* The books show this year an excess of earnings over expenses of $G8D.ll>, which is a marked change in the balance of ac counts. (treat circ i9 taken for the welfare and improvement of the Convicts, and every thing is done for tbeir good which the uaturo of the case will permit. I am constrained to say here, that the jail sys tem in this State is far from being so satisfactory. As I have said before, it is attended by evils which are disastrous in the extreme, and I would respect fully renew iny recommendation that you provide some method to reach this matter. The Executive Council have given particular at tention to the condition of the deaf, dumb and blthd, who are now sent to institutions out of the State. Some matters of detail have been corrected and improved, but upoh the whole the present mode of caring for those unfortunates is approved as tho best provision we could make. The Hospital for the Insane is still crowded with inmates. Applicants are awaiting the cm 'plction of the new wing. This it will be necessary to pro vide for. The building will then be architectu rally complete, and tho institution :is large as can be advantjgeously managed. The adjacent lands on the s >uth have been purchased, and the grounds ure now convenient and symmetrical. Cor <juiu y uonucuiug mi uiui i*< ciiiiiiit'u i >r me sincere efforts of these who have the manage ment of the institution in charge, I still remain of the opinion that we are somewhat short of perfec tion in our methods, if not in our system of caring for the insane. Cells and corridors and stone walls I are dreary confines fur minds broken under the i weight of real or fancied wrongs. It may be justi-! fiod on the homoeopathic principle that the proper ; medicine for a sick man is that which produces the i same disease in a well one; for a brief treatment of a sauo man in these crowded corridors would very soon give him a title to stay there. I cannot venture to point out (even were [ able) precisely what should be done, but we inay reasonably expect that those who are especially charged with this responsibility, instead of troubling themselves too much to defend what they do, should set them selves to search out and correct the evils which inevitably grow up in such institutions and think it no confession of fault if they strive to improve in every possible way their methods, instrumentali ties. and even their system. if l were to permit myself a suggestion it would be that wo strive to make the Hospital less of a prison and attend more to the healing influences ot ! Nature Let the inmates oomo in contact as much as possible with that which is calm and free and i ' natural and sane. I think that the laying out of - ! the grounds on some artistic plan would afford salu tary employment and recreation to many of the in- ; i mates, and thus without much outlay by the Stare the i place may be made attractive, and tho gloom which pervades the atmosphere of such an Institution be mitigated if not dispelled by the beauty and salu brity of its surroundings. For some reason which does not now clearly ap pear the Insane Hospital is largely exempt from that responsibility to the Executive Council which affects other Institutions "of the State. The practi cal effects of this appear in many ways, and have not contributed to relieve the doubts which have sometimes arisen in regard to the management of the establishment. I would therefore recommend that the hospital be placed under tjie same supervision as other Institutions sustaining a similar relation to the state. ine trustees ol the Maize ueneral Hospital will ask your aid. It is understood that generous priv ate benefactions are ready to follow an appropriate endowment by the State. This petition is emi nently proper, and should be received with the most favorable disposition. EDUCATIONAL. There is probably no branch of our public inter ests where such improvement has beeu made as in that of our common schools. Not that any striking changes or brilliant results have as yet appeared; but wnat I mean to s»y is, that we are set upou right ways; that the faults, the wastes, and the wants of our former practices have been brought out and appropriate tncan9 have been set in motiou which can scarcely fail to work salutary and perma nent effects. We are seeking, not so much to change the system, as to infuse life into it; so that the best appliances, the best methods and the experience of the best minds, can be extended to remote and hum ble places; so that in an educational sense, we can secure through every uook and corner of the State the equal lights of nil. It is moreover no exaggeration to say, that the present is a new era in teaching. It is not a little 1 singular to find novelty in an art so old. Hut the I spirit of our institutions, the demands of the times , have neeescitatod aims, objects, and methods which ! render education altogether a different business from what it was a generation ag". It no longer seeks ; to cram the mind with strange forms and aggrega ted facts, without harmony, relation, life, or per manence; it trow leaches the mind from the very start to observe, compare, analyze, assimilate—to master aud make its own;—in fact it is education— the training, unfolding, leading and fashioning forth of the mind. Teachers must uow have something more than a good moral character—that and some thing besides—they must demonstrate that they have character at all. They can’t teach merely what they have borrowed over night; but ouly that which they have wrought out and made their own. This tells on the young mind; gives it edge and point, and in many ways tends to lit all, both teacher and taught, to enter undismayed the arena of these stirring and eveutful times. 1 think the highest go»*l is flowing from our Normal I Schools, and Institutes and Couuty Supervisor ; ships. They have caught the right spirit and transfuse it. They are the meaus mainly by which j the State is to bo reached aud brought within the ' better modes. mat me people are uwatte in mis manor, n is easy to see. They have raised over $800,000, this past year, by direct taxation, and expended the : total ciitu of $1,100,000 for the support of schools, It remains for us to lake care, by all means iu our power, tiiat such means are not wasted and such in tentions foiled. We want, among other things, to see that all have a fair chance; tiiat, for instance, the Cost and changes and variety of books do not put poor parents to distress to keep tho tne&us of education within their childrens' reach. 1 feel that these are important matters, and have thus spoken that we may understand the spirit iu which we shall be called to act. We have wasted a good deal of time and money hitherto; but I believe we have now begun better things, and that with the intelligence, good sense and vigor now brought to boar on these interests, our 1 people will before long be satisfied with the re sults of their generosity and oaie. As to our College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, although generous devotion to duty has been manifest on tho part of all who are charged with its immediate concerns, it yet fails to at tain t > -juito the prosperity which we hoped, and which I believe is still possible for it — It is my duty to say that, so far as appears, there are two principal causes of its present feeble uud uncertain condition. 1st, Tho neglect of me chanics and manufacturers and masters of the In dustrial Arts, to assett their rights in the college. ‘2d, The deep-settled feeling on the part of many, that the l cation is unfavorable. Tho existence of theso two disadvantages it is worse than folly to deny or, pass over with soft words. The truth is, we must come to an understanding in the matter. It is a pity to waste money and mind, even for the best of motives, without hope of a successful end. The $28,000 voted la«-t winter iu c. ndith n of a perfect deed of the property to tho State, has fallen dead through failure of the town to make tho full con veyance. If wo arc all in earnest to have the 0ol legc go on where It is, neither the Btate nor tho town need insist much upon conditions. But if it is the intention to remove the college, then it would bo best not to expend more money there. I am un able to give you tho least information or advice on this point. But I am ready to assure you text un less we keep in mind tue scope aui generous intent of this institution, it will never greatly thrive. A iarajeu' College ij a and wurttiy idcft) uui that alone will not live ami move. There pre not boys enough who mean to go hack to a farm after they have got tinough the college. Farming is not at present a business of that inviting sort in Maine. But a school embracing all the ma terial industries, teaching nor yonng men skill in tho handicrafts which invite them to worthy and profitable employment, training and nerv ing them to strike a sure urui a good blow iu tho manly rivalries of peace or war—?uch a school in fact as hundreds of oar young men go out of the State to seek, would not only live and flourish, but would be n powerful and pre-eminent good. Whether wo can make such a school of ours I do not know; but such ad one we must have or out money and our efforts will have been spent in vain. The splendid volume published by the Historical Society forming the first in the series of the Docu mentary History of Maine authorised by the Legis lature of lsf»7, which traces tho discovery of this coast from tho Northmen iu 990 to tho Charter of Gilbert iu l;'»7o, has doubtless been laid before you. A volume quite as remarkable containing the first publication of ;»n original maouscript of tho ci-lchratcd Hakluyt in which he urges upon Queen Elizabeth the vigorous prosecution of colonization on this coast, is in course of preparation It is pro posed to go • n with the history of tho actual occu pation of this territory under the iufluei.ee and efforts of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. These works are a credit to the liberality of the State and the learn ing of the society, and are attracting much atten tion as valuable contributions to American History. MILITARY. Tlie question of an efficient anil economical Militia system has been long agitated, but still unsettled. For the last three years I have given the matter much thought. You will bear me witness that I have not shown a disposition to exalt unduly the military cle ment. to incur the expenses or abuse the pow ers which the law places in the control of the Executive. It is unsafe however to he with out some military force at call in case of need. The moderate suggestion was made and adopted at the last session, of authorizing ten companies of Infantry to he fully equip ped by the State. The orders of the Depart ment will show with what care and caution the intent of the Legislature has been carried out. Applications have been thoroughly con sidered : companies have been accepted only where the several localities appeared fully in earnest to maintain them, and only those men mustered, who upon rigorous examination were found able to do full duty. The result indicates the Wisdom of the statute. We have now an incentive to military duty, and a premium on good soldiership. It will be work and not play, a school of discipline for manli ness. Seven companies with an aggregate of 113 men have been accepted. The appro priation intended to accompany the Act hav ing been overlooked, no uniforms have as yet been issued with the exception of overcoats for the two Portland companies, which are under orders to appear on duty. We can the better afford to expend money judiciously, because we have not expended any foolishly. These companies were not to be organized as a regiment. That especially I wished to avoid. 1st. They extend over too much space to be best handled in that way. 2. The rank of Colonel would be too low for the ac tual command of our whole effective force. 6. I Ins owin' being elective, the personal and local rivalries that would ensue would be harmful to good discipline. 4. It was the pith of the whole plan to have these compan ies independent corps, responsible only to the Commander-in-Chiof, and capable by the char acter of the men. their military knowledge, spirit and discipline, of being expanded into regiments and even brigades at very short notice, with officers all ready competent and understanding. This l am satisfied is the right way tor us, and at a trifling expense we may have a body of soldiers which might well be a pride and example as well as a defence to the State. Our present Militia I.aw is a good one and sufficient for all exigencies, and need not be touched. A large lot of material accumulated in the Arsenals, and practically worthless to tho State, has been very advantageously sold under the direction of a committee of the Council, and the proceeds, $2,364.61, paid into the Treasury. The State Pension Law has been adminis tered with much care. The whole number of applications tor I8C9 is 772. Of these 635 have been allowed at various rates. The whole amount expended to date is #24,562. The pension year ends somewhat awkwardly on the 23d of February, which constantly ren ders a complete report to the Legislature impossible. It would be better to make the pension account end with the year. It is esti mated that some 50 claims more will be presen ted and allowed, rendering the whole number of pensions some 700, and swelling the amount paid for the full year to about $35,000. These figures we may now regard as about the set tled amounts of our liabilities on the score of pensions. The law and its application is now so well understood that few but meritorious eases will apply, and these, it may lie presumed, are now nearly all in. It will he seen that the amounts received by the pensioners fall very far short of the maximum allowed by law, viz. $96 each. The average is now very nearly $50. The appropriation being limited, we are. of course, anxious to keep within the amount ; wmie tne applicants are so many that to render aid to all. the sum allowed to each must necessarily he small, and some have to be sent away empty, and perhaps rather summarily. You will doubtless continue this aid. It seems indeed pitifully small, com pared with the great gift these widows and orphans and wounded men have made to the nation in her hour of peril. This pittance does not restore health, nor the son, or hus band, or father. The guide of youth and the stay of age is smitten from their sight. The best we can do is poor—the most we t an give is little. That at any rate we should do and should give. The cost of the Pension office will be 82.100 for the year. Perhaps some saving might he made and some other advan tages secured by placing this business in the Adjutant General’s office. The ordinary duties of that office will naturally be less as we gradually settle up the accounts of the war. One disadvantage would be obviated —the changing of hands each year. In all doubtful or disputed eases as now, appeal might still be had to the Governor. The Hoard of Guardians of destitute or phans of soldiers and sailors have used such dilligence as they could in fulfilling their trust. The dunes of this Hoard are varied and wide. Be-hles receiving applications they have to se arch out eases, visiting distant places for the personal inspection of reported destitution, and sometimes assuming the en tire care of the homeless and unprotected. The result has shown many bereaved families and much suffering. . The number of or phans now on jttr list is 2,270. Of these, 1,200 have more or less been aided. Sixty have been absolutely taken into our care, and most of them placed in those beneficent In stitutions which arc well called Homes. Tbo Orphan Asylum, at Bangor, has received 25. and the amount paid for their support thns far is 81.000. This Institution is not primarily devoted to orphans of this class. But the i broad and tender charity that preside* <mu (Oom'yiUml on Fourth frim.}