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PUBLISHED EVERY MORNING (SUNDAYS EXCEPTED), BY SPRAGUE, OWEN & NASH. TERMS: SEVEN DOLLARS PER ANNUM. SINGLE COPIES, FOUR CENTS.
VOL. 1. AUGUSTA, ME., WEDNESDAY MORNING, NOVEMBER 9, 1870. NO. 26G JUitiukt Jmmtal. Published ou Water Stioet, Foot of Court, AUGUSTA, MAINE. BY SPKAUIE, OWEN ii NASH. Sailg funnel)ct Journal. Is issued every morning, except Sundays. Contains the latest news by telegraph and mail, gives reports of the Markets, and lias carefully pre pared political and local articles, and a generous amount of farming, home and miscellancdi- read ing with a full compilation of Slate news. Terms, $7 per annum in advance ; il payment is not made within the year. Single copies 1 « cuts, to he had at the bookstores aiyl at this ollirc. Advertisements one inch in length, three in sertions or less, $1.00; 25 cts. for every subsequent insertion. Longer advertisements, or those inserted for any considerable length <d time, will be inserted At favorable terms to the advertiser. Special Notices 25 per cent, additional. Amusement Notices, $2 per square per week. MIeehtu 'Jienncbcc Journal Published every Wednesday morning, Is the largest folio paper In the State, containing news, political articles, agricultural and scientilit matter, tales, poetry, anecdotes, household recipes, markets, Ac., Ac. Terms $2 per annum in tulvance. Transient Advertisements, $1.50 per inch ioi first week; 25 cents per week lor each subsequent insertion. Special Notices, $2.00 per inch f*»r lir-t week; 60 cents per week for each subsequent week. Business Notices, in reading columns, 20 cents per line for first insertion ; 10 ceius per line lor each subsequent insertion. All transient advertisements to be paid f»»r in Advance. See, See ! JONES & CO. Bored, Bored, Bored, Tubular, Tubular, Tubular Well, Well, Well. A Great Improvement over the uM drive Well 3 WELLS BORED AND WARRANTED AT SHORT NOTICE. Territorial Rights for sale. All orders left at A. VV. SCOTT’S Offlee, Meonlait Balhllngi Water street, Alovsta, me. C. C. JONES & CO., 3 Cahoon Block, Portland, Maine, jgg- Dealers iu Now luventions. sepi-.-’u 'VVlij' do l’oopU’ PURCHASE THEIR KISH at BIKER’S FISH M.tKHKT! Because they g.-i«lnl they call for. -uppo-v they get poor il.li.'wny, they don’t often I but if Uiey do their money is re lauded. Fish. Lobsters, anil tiaras, Fresh and nice, delivered In any part of the eilv. J. S. BI KER, «iar(llner. Gardiner, Sept. 15,1870. i^ept 17-t^rn_ PATENT ROOFING! at HE SUBSCRIBERS would most respectfully inform the oitlrens of Augusta, Hallowed ana Dresden that they have purchased the Exclusive Bight to manufacture, apply and sell Hutchins’ Celebrated Patent Hair Fabric Roofing In the above named towns. We claim many advan tages lor this roofing over any other invention. It Does not Overload the Koof. It will form a perfect sheet over any shingled roof and make it tight. It is equally applicable for all kinds <>t fiat <>r sUep tinned roofs. The Fabric Rooting is prouounced by all who are acquainted with its merits i«» he Sl’PKRIOR to any Hooting ever before ottered to the public. J. S. BtJKER, S. K. & ROBERT LITTLE*'!GI 1>. GAKDINER, ME. All orders for Hoofing lelt at J. S. Buju.rVs Fish Market, - doors below Johnson House. Orders may be left with C. W. JONES. AlGlIbrA. H'W30.t3m Shooting Tackle. n. W. LOH«, SUCCESSOR TO L. 31. L EL AND, G-TX JXT SMITH And Dealer in Shooting Tackle of Every \ aricty Killes ami Shot Guns mnde to ouler ami war ranted. Old shot Guns rimmed out smooth uml luude to shoot thick and strong. Also, Ammunition of the nicest quality. ItepairiiiK doit* Aratly and Promptly. BlaeUngr Powder. The best quality and largest stock ever kept in this market. For sale at Factory prices. Country Dealers supplied in any quantity or quaint at dis count. V»an-ly FIRST OF. ASS EATING HOUSE! mUE subscriber would inform the travelling l>ub jL lie that ho has opened A First Class Eating House, — AT - NO. Ill W ATE It ST It 13 KT Gardiner, fiiaine, formerly known a.i Somes' Saloon. "Theroems have all been refiimisliod in the best Iioasible manner. The J.aili.w’ Boom, up stairs, is argo and elegantly arranged. Meals will be lur nislied at all hours. Table Boarders Ae«oiiiinodale«r By the week at reasonable rates. And by strict attention to business, the Proprie tor hopes to merit a liberal share nt *bo lmtiltc patronage. v- V . S.0' V Gardiner July 18, lS7n. fSm-intylS M ANSION STATE STREET, ! HO USE, AUGUSTA, M 'pui 1. wl Wr' where Hot and Cold Baths can be had at nil 1 times. It has also a First-Class Billiard llall, for r Guests only. Connected with the House is a largo f and commodious Sample Hoorn, on Water Street \ centrally located, where Sample Agents can show 1 their goods, free of charge. The Proprietor, thankful for the liberal patronage which the above House has enjoyed since its ojien* takes pleasure in informing his patrons that he will run Free Carriages to ami from the C.iisatid , Boats until further notice Connected with the above House is a Livery Sta hie, where good teams can be bad nt reasonable rates. W. M. THAYER, Proprietor. O. P. Cochrane. Clerk. Jk/L C3r E3 3K2 9 S INGE ! ! THE LATEST AND BEST. Combining the A dvantnges of* .A. 11 Others ! M idi iiiun.v \EW anil I'ATKSTEM Fealurcft. BEAiJTii’rrxj tint design : phhfuct X3\r opehationt : OWXjXj AND SDEX3 IT ! Every Range Warranted in Every Particular !! For Sale by .v. l>. ciOULO, One Door ftortli Kailcoiid Bridge, Al Oi STV. Alho lor Halo ilie X<? w and Improved “PEKItI^I]N8MC'o»k Wl<»vef For Coal and Wood—'] he Best Stove in the Market. The “(ioldeii Eagle Fnrnace,*’ For Coal, constantly for sale. ang*25*ttf FRANK KINSMAN'S DRUG STORE, Is the place to buy Pure and Reliable Drugs and Medicines, Toilet and Fancy Articles, and Apothe caries’ Goods generally. t >i\ e him n call at 142 Water St., Avyusta, maim:, OPPOSITE MARSHALL WHmiKIVK Red 1'iioxt Stoke. F.W. KINSMAN. - T “ “T ■ p - V ....J. Trunks 2 Trunk.s! THIS I'LACK TO HUY Proncli, Sugcuo, Solo Iicatlxor, And nil kinds of common TR A CELLING TRUNKS! Also Ladies* and Gents’ TRAVELLING A SHOPPING BAGS, is at HAMILTON 81 TURNER’S, 135 Mater Street. Tim lUghi Pluce to buy your HARNESSES, nud get tlm celebrated PUN'S HAUXESS, is at ilinil/rON A TURNER'S, 1*5 WATER STREET. The cheapest place to buy WHIPS, CUURVCOMIts, HKUSHES, iU.AXKUT.S, SUHCINUI.ES, IIAT. TERS AC. is at HAMILTON A TURNER'S, 135 WATER STREET. HARNESSES! Tor Uissiiicss, I'leiisure, Tunming, Trucking, t ai ling A iaitrrssing. Manufactured front GOOD OAK STOCK, and by the best ot workmen. We would remind the public that our Harness took all the premiums offered at the last state lair— four in number. Also tlu? tin* premium at the late New England Fair. . As our customers are daily informed that our Harnesses are Machine Stitched—we would invite hem and the public generally*to call and examine the largc-t stork of ready-math* Harnesses ever ob cred in this eitv. and we will couvinee them that we make the bebt HANl> SiTIClILl) work to be had dr the same amount of money, and if we don’t have on hand what is wanted, can make it at short notice. Samples of Gold Gilt) Oroide silver, Covered, and Japanned Trimmed Harness inav be seen at our salesroom, NO. 172 MIDDLE STREET. HENIIY DUNN & SON. For Mule by Hamilton cfc Turner, 135 WATER STREET, - - AUGUSTA, MAINE tllfeb-tf OPPOSITE DEERING & HOLWAY’S. Cutlery and Plated Ware! A lull assortment of Table ami Parke! Callery, Seittort TIC.I Tit.I I**, »'e. Also Plated Ten Sets, lee Pitchers, Goblets, Knives, Spoons, Porks and Castors ol the best quality, at riERCE’8 CROCKERY STORE, Ho. ISO IVnter Street - - Augustaf ivuiy¥«ttf wanted ! AUMFUSand Hunters having prime Min* skins 1 on hand will llnd a caO' customer at highest market price by bcuding ilium to J. If. WEIXN A VO., FOR SALE. LACK SALK in Halhnvell, about Thirty acres oi tillage ami Sixty acres of wood land and pas ture. For particulars inquire in Hallowell of •epfW fly THOMAS 11. HIBBARD I S_A_ WHEAT &c DOE, TAILORS, Have the Largest and Best Selected Stock of Clotlis, Olotliing, — AM) — FURM1SHIHG GOODS 'X’o Ixo )o.i iicl in tlxo City. \ Their Stock of Cloths oinhiv.eo* all the FOUEIGN and DOMESTIC 3NTovelties Iel Trowserings, SUITINGS & COATINGS. Ready IVlade Clothing' & Furnishing Goods in *V re at g ariely and I; a test Styles ! Give um n enll. liook fit our Goocis; micl X*riccs, AM) DON'T lTItCIIASE UNLESS YOU WISH. < >m* Store is No. BRIDGE’S BLOCK, .Water Street, Augusta. octlT-tlm y BOS "W O IR, T ZE3I fs oin:i<n<. I G-rea^t Inducements to nrvF.us of | WOOLLEN GOODS, Sternly Made Clothing, SHIRTS, DRAWERS, AND EVERY DESCRIPTION OF My Stoclt is tlio TlAitGrBST over offorecl ill tills City ! Large Sales and Small Profits! Those wishing Garments MADE TO ORDER will find it for their interest to call. Cutting Done at Short Notice. R. T. BOSWORTH. 174 Water Street, Augusta. eept!7*ttf New Goods ! New Goods ! Wo are now opening our stock ol K 17 31 31 E II Dress Goods Comprising all the NOVELTIES of the SEASON! We call special attention to our stock «»t TBT^YCIv SILKS ! For Ladies’ Suits and Out 'side Garments. Also to our JAPANESE SILKS, In Plain, l’laitl*, and Slri|t<'S N. It. - Always on hand, Androscoggin Ucimi.mls OP BItOWN COTTONS. ltarton & Russell. June Id, 1870. tn LAWN VASES! Wishing to close out our stock of H.uivm ami Uai'drn Vuscs, We offer them at •REPUCED PRICES. y. I>. PIKltCE ^ NO A, aug.Vftf .\o, 150 Water Street. Picture Frames! CHROMOS, BRACKETS, ALBUMS! &«., Arc., Ac., In Larue Variety. Picture FvaniC' of any td7.e made to order; | nhorf notice at Hendee’s Photograph Rooms, ’Opposite Post Office, Augusta. tjunei-tf MOSES M. SWAN, Watchmaker and Jeweller, His Stock embraces a fine line ol American and Swiss Watches, in gold and sliver case, including- the celebrated National or Elgin Watch, Wailhuin, Trenumt, Bor* oiiin, Bounell. Durdeaux, .Jacoi. Ac., in both La* die*’ andgentlemen's size-*. Pino Gold Jewelry, Solid Gold Leon it on Vest and Neck Chains, STEKI.IXU A; COIN SIL.YUK GOODS, FINK FLATKI) IV A HE, SPECTACLES AND EYE GLASSES, of the most approved kinds. CLOCKS or ALL KIXDS, including the celebrated ITHACA CALENDAR all ol wliich w ill be sold at the Lowest Prices, and Warranted. Particular attention given to repairing all kinds ol Fine Watches. Chronometer Balance.- applied and adjusted to temperature and position ? Ijan70-ll 0, C. WHITEHOUSE & CO., -DK \ 1.15Ilf* IN Foreign and Domestic DRY GOODS And Carpetings, >•<>. 1JJ WATKIt KTHKKT, ACGCSTA, Me. O. C. Win ri not sf D.nmv.l WiiiTK.uousr. tmavJi-tt' UFO. E. BRICKETTf M. 1)., PHYSICIAN & SURGEON, At «rm, ME. Office over Hunt’s Cap Store. West End ol the Kennebec Bridge. Uenidence on Spring Street. mytfO’fig LIGIITl.Mi THE FIliE Millions of housewives light millions o'' fires every day; yet how few could ex plain the reasons of the operations they perform, or the appearances they perceive in stove, grate, or fireplace. A very sim ple yet interesting little lecture could be made about lighting the fire. Let us see, madam, whether we can tell you some things you will be glad to know. You "have before you in the grate a newspaper, loosely, crumpled, upon which are a few splinters of pine, and upon these some larger sticks, lu your hand is a In citer match. You mean to ignite the end of the match, and set lire to the paper, which will set fire to the splinters, which will set fire to the wood. Then you will put' on the blower, and when the whole is in a roaring llame, you will add coal, which will form the other end of the series of combustibles begun by the chemical substance forming a little knob on the end of your match. Quite a complex matter, isn't it ? It reminds one ot the nursery legend, in which “the rope began to hang the butcher, the butcher began to kill the ox,” etc., etc., until finally “the kid began to <;o 1 which wasall the old woman want ed.” (No otfense to you, madam, by this comparison !) When your little girl asked you the other day why you needed to use matches, and kindling, and blower, and all that, you told her not to he silly, but to use her eyes, and she would find out; but you felt a little ashamed to reflect that you didn't know yourself. Now, in this private manner, so as not to wound your feelings, we propose to tell you that, and more too. Burning is a chemical process; that is, it changes not merely the forms hut the elements of the substances involved. One oi muse are m\ artauiy me oxygen <>i me air. This in\ isildc atmosphere which wc breathe consists principally of two gases, mixer! together. One is oxygen, and the other nitrogen. If you eouhl separate them, and measure them in quart dippers, you would | fuul about a quart of oxygen lor every gal : Ion of nitrogen. This oxygen unites with : a great many elements, forming what we call oxides acids. The other substance necessary to com bustion is called the fuel, and must con tain one or more of tiio.se elements with which oxygen can unite. Ordinary fuels contain two such substances—hydrogen and carbon—at lca-t, paper and wood and soft coal do. Charcoal and anthracite are nearly pure carbon, all but the ashes. A gooil many other things will burn, how ever. Iron, for instance, burns like tinder, if it is ignited in pure oxygen ; though in this diluted oxygen of the atmosphere, it burns quite slowly. Still, your grate bars do burn up, you know, in the course ol time, and would do so much faster, if you did not keep up a supply of other fuel which the oxygen prefers, it is lucky for us all that there is so little oxygen in the air, and that it will not readily unite with the most substances, except at higher than ordinary temperatures, otherwise we should all be carried oti by that ugly and incurable disease, spontaneous combustion. Now, every substance lias its own par ticular temperature at which it will unite rapidly with oxygen. Phosphorus isn’t long about it, 1 tell you. Just the little heat you get up by lriction on the end of your match wakes up tho phosphorus. As for paper and wood, they are composed ol the same substances, and one would think they ought to burn equally well. But here another point must be considered. Paper burns more easily than wood, because it is more fragile iir texture, and hence its com ponent parts are more easily heated to the required point. For the same reason, splinters and shavings lmrn better than sticks; and, indeed, thin shavings better than paper, if the latter has had printing ink and other substances spread over it. Solid lumps of coal arc still harder to heat to the burning point. If you should try to get one a-burnitig by applying to the cor ner of it one match alter another, you would liml the rest of the lump drawing away the heat as fast as you could supply it. You therefore put paper or shavings at the bottom, to catch lire readily. Then you lay wood above them, because, being more substantial, it will burn longer, and therefore atl'ord a longer contact of Maine to heat the coal. As you know very well, the paper would not do without the wood, nor the solid wood without paper or shav lint this union of oxygen and fuel which we call combustion, although it requires heat before it will take place, produces more heat when it does take place Olh ertvise, you see, your ingenious little ar rangement ot material would not work, j You get up a small amount of heat by friction, which starts the combustion of the phosphorus on your match. That combus tion produces an amount of heat sullicient to set the hotly of the match on lire. This amount in turn suffices to ignite the paper, ami each burning portion ol the paper has plenty of heat to set the adjacent portion on lire. So it goes on, until the cold, black coal is glowing and blazing; and all this has been done by the scratching ot the match. Y ou remember the story of the liltlo mabh-girl, who scratched all her matches just to watch them flame and to warm her hands for an instant over tlit1 blaze, and then died in the cold winter night Yet every one of those matches might have lit a great hie like yours. Where does the heat come from wliieh enables a substance once heated by you to a certain point to pay you beck a thousand-fold on your investment? It is as though you em ployed one man to unlock a prison door, and out jumped a crowd of liberated cap tives to do your bidding. It is as though this heat were imprisoned or hidden in the silent fuel, and sprang forth the moment its kindred llame drew back the bolt. In fact, these figures arc nearer the truth than ton can, at this stage of our pleasant con versation, perfectly understand. But it is now time lor you to talk ; and as it would not he polite to print, like a vulgar inter viewer, what you say, we will continue to j report our own wise remarks in another | number. We have not yet begun to tell you all the curious and practically useful hting the I tilings that may be learned iu lig * tire.—Manufacturer and Builder. NOVEMBER. “Lon the leaves lie m the forest, on the damp earth brown and chill; < iather near the evening shadows: Hark! the wind is sorrowing still. Vanished are the pinc-crownerl mountains, hid den in a dusky cloud; see the rain, it lalloth even from the wan and dreary sky; Iiusheth on the swollen streamlet, wildly whirling, foaming by; And the branches, leafless, waving in t e Kali wind, low and bowed.” November! the month of Thanksgiving Days; the season of thanksgiving hearts. The erops are harvested and secured; and though drought, or other causes, may have cut some of them short, an abundance for all, man and beast, is left. The terrible famines which occasionally cut oft' the people of other lands, will not probably be felt here. Our country is so widely extended, that some portion of it will always be blessed with abundant harvests. If drought, insects or storms prevent crops It om maturing in this re gion, some other in the wide domain of our sister States will have a surplus to spare. lu earlier times, (Ids might not have availed us much ; but now that the country is threaded with railroads aud canals, transportation is so rapid and cheap, that one portion of the country can supply another and distant one with the necessi ties of life in a very short period. In this we are highly favored. It is one of the great securities against those terrible ca lamities which have occasionally taken place in other portions of the world. Three or four hundred years ago, the most griev ous famines occurred iu England, because the land was wretchedly cultivated. Men, women and children perished of actual hunger by thousands; and those who sur vived kept themselves alive by eating the uaiK vi in.'!.'*, acorns, aim pig-nuis. A deficiency in a staple article here, has more than once been made up from the abundance of the West, and this change is always going on in this country. The November work of nature is now going on. Heavy rains usually saturate the earth, fill up the ponds and streams, carrying with them not only moisture for the roots of plants, but treasuring 141 warmth for winter use. The observing farmer says:—“It will be a cold winter.” Why? it is asked. Because little rain has fallen, the ponds and streams are low, and the winter will be a cold one. And so it would prove if the rain were with held. The lull streams and ponds con tain a certain amount of heat which is given off in the winter, and the weather is considerably modified by it. lint the rains not only do this ; they also carry warmth to the soil, and various ele ments of fertility, which feed and stimu late the roots of plants, and prepare them for a vigorous spring growth. November frosts are also as useful as the dews ol June or the showers of July. They have their time of coming and their part to perform, and will not postpone them to another season. All these operations in nature ought to be suggestive to the farmer, that he, too, has various labors to perform in Novem ber, that ought not to be left for Decem ber. The permanent improvements of the farm, the care of the animals which serve him, preservation of the fruits and other crops, which have been harvested, the se curity of buildings and cellars agaiust storms and frosts, and the social inter changes between neighbors and relatives, all require the attention of the farmer in November.—New England Farmer. PROTECT VOIR EYESIGHT. Milton’s blindness was the result of o\ er work and dyspepsia. < hie of the most em inent American divines, having for some time been compelled to forego the pleas ure of reading, spent thousands of dollars in value, and lost years ol time, in conse quence of getting up several hours before clay and studying bv artificial light. His eyes never got well. Multitudes of men and women have made their eyes weak for life by the too free use of the eyesight, reading small print and doing fine sewing. In view of these things it is well to observe the fol lowing rules in the use of the eyes: Avoid all sudden changes between light and darkness. .Never routl by twilight, or moonlight, or on a very cloudy day. Never sleep so that oil waking, the eyes shall open on the light of a window. l)o not use the eyesight by light so scant that it requires an effort to diseriniitate. Never read or sew directly in front of the light, or window or door. It is best to have the light fall from above, obliquely over the lelt shoulder. Too much light creates a glare and pains, and confuses the sight. The mo ment you are sensible of an effort to dis tinguish, that moment ceases, and talk, walk, or ride. As the sky is blue and the earth green, it would seem that the ceiling should be a a bluish tinge, the carpet green, and the walls of some mellow tinge. The moment you are instinctively pro moted to rub the eyes, that moment ease using them. If the eyelids are glued together on waking tip, do not forcibly open them, but apply the saliva with the finger—it is the speediest diulent in the world—and then wash your eyes and face in warm | water. WORK AXD WAIT. There tire two things that always par, even in this not over-remunerative exist - j ence. They are working atid waiting. | Either is useless without tne other. Both I united are evincible, and inevitably trium phant. lit* wiio waits without working is simply a man yielding to sloth and des 1 pair. ' He who works without waiting is fitful in his strivings, and misses results i by impatience. Ho who works steadily and waits patiently may have a long jour ney before him, but at its close be will find : its reward.