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Indiana State sentinel. [volume] (Indianapolis [Ind.]) 1845-1851, December 26, 1848, Image 2

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3nftiaiiQ State Sentinel.
e? eukal viGturrr. t tiic rmer. or liberty.
iNi i iaai'oims, ni:ri:,iutt:it so. ists.
Tin i lubblii S)Min.
The du' tir g j trni introduced b the undersigned ha not inet
our eipcfatloni. W Ute piven It fair trial : but the citra
out lay I at not Win met ly corrmpon hu effort on the rurt of
our friend, ith. few exception. It t!or nnt.and cannot, under
fiUtin circumstance, a!rrd us fair re munrration. Whiln we
olunnrily nn tSe then present sacrifice, e did hoje thai the
Induce ment m mihrimt to Inrrmaeour lii to at If at several
ll juiin It over our former su rrlptioti" CJiing rr.ore readinr;
ti otwr lor the pr.ee than can le obtained in any part of the West
country , we had hoped our frieodi would take n Wattige of
tte liberality , an.l exert themselves eccor.1in.jlv. This ha nut
kern tone to a t'egree commensurate with the plan projoiril.
lUnre, after what ha been a fair trial on our part, we ahail aban
don the ay tem r.f etuMdng ; art. I shAll, hereafter, eJopt the follow.
Inirt Hhit h will n invr.rlut.le ati.l perminrr.t :
FOR OIJK WEEKLY PAPEHS, Two I ollnra a year, J tht
money mutt alwayt ar company tht vrdtr or no utlfnticn mil bt firm if.
JOHN I). DKt'RF.Ki. Ldttor JvHtnal
48-tDecl CHAPMAN &. S PA N N , I'ditort Statt Smttntl
Mute :on'eiitioii !
Are our friends alive to the importance of our next
State Convention 1 Are they prepared 1 Are the del
tjates selected, und uch as will atlend ! These aro
important queries, and every democrat in the State is
interested to sec that they aro attended to. No time
i to bo lost. We have a wily foe, and consequently
it behooves us not to sleep on our arms, because we
feci flushed with victory !
QjT Sundry communications and other articles, were
necessarily deferred, to nable the workmen to parti
cipate in the festivities of Christmas.
0OMr. Webster will deliver a lecture on Wed
nesday evening, in the basement of the first Presby
terian Church, on the subject of iErial and Oceanic
currents, and will, we understand, in connection with
this subject, demonstrate the importance of the bay
,f San Francisco, as connected with its position in
relation to these currents.
OCT A company has been formed in the city of New
York, of which (Jen. Scott heads the list of Trustees,
for building a railway from the Atlantic to the Paci
fic, across the Isthmus of Panama. A grant has
been secured from the Government of New Grenadi,
which secures the following advantages :
1st. An exclusive right of way across the Isthmus,
with a right to use gratuitously all the public lands
lying on the route of the road.
2J. An absolute gift of 300,000 acres of public
lauds to be selected by tne company.
3d. All the materials used for the road, as well as
effects of persons employed thereon, are declared free
of duty.
4th. Two ports, viz : one on tho Atlantic and one
on the Pacific Oceans, which shall be made the termi
ni of the road, are declired free ports.
The preliminary surveys will be undertaken, it is
aid, immediately, and it is supposed by the sanguine
friends of the undertaking that it can be finished and
ready for operation within two yeara from this date.
Tin yirs would be a clost-r guess, we think.
Who's Risht? Tho Free Territory) Sentinel,
io an article o.i the subject of the difficulties in the
Chi Legislature, says,
"The two organizations "big an Democrat
ic were still kept up, neither hiving a quorum. The
Free S ülers who side with neither party made a
vory fiir proposition far a compromise, which was ac
cepted by the IVA li,' j but r?fusJ by the Democrats."
The Day an (Ohio) Journal on the same subject
"We are g!ad to learn by a private dispatch from j
Columbus, that the proposition of Dr. Townsend tcasl
njrcled by the Whig members of the jus?."
(7-The "Sentinel" will perceive that in its extreme I
anxiety to place the democratic party of Ohio in a
f Je position, it has stated that which is notoriously J
untrue. Let the responsibility of the anarchy which
exists at Columbus rest where it properly belongs
upon the Whigs.
07-The Cincinnati Gazette tells of an establish- j
ment in that city for the rendering of lard by 6tcam. j
Formerly the heads, feet, and n large number of oth-j
?r parts of the hog and of beef cattle were thrown '
away, in oar, by the operations 01 a high pressure ot
steam, and an ingenious patented method the lard or
tallow from the hog or beef is extracted and made as j
pure as that rendered from any other part. The head, '
feet and other parts are placed in a large tank, separ
ated by steam, purified and drawn off, so as to com
mand on this article as high, if not a higher, price a
that obtained from other parts. That this contrivance
has proved a saving of a large amount of money, in
as muco as whilst heretofore, of the vast number of
hogs slaughtered, the parts above mentioned were of
no value and thrown away tioit, the heads alone
command a price of 11 cents, and other parts in pro
portion. The Gold Dollar. The great increase which may
be expected in the circulation of gold, should induce
Congress to authorize the coinage of gold dollars. In
Spain and South America we believe they have gold
coins as low as ninety cents. Gold dollars should be
introduced to tike the place of the filthy shin-plasters
that have flooded our country for years, and banks not
be permitted to issue notes of a les3 denominatiou than
five or ten dollars. Harrisburgh Union.
Q-Members cf C ngres know very well that a
gold dollar coin would be universally popular and con
venient; but they; will not authorize it, because the
Bank influence is opposed to it. We must therefore
continue to use the filthy rags by which we are defiled
as well as cheated, and make the best of it.
"The Protest' is a small sheet published at Low
ell, by the operatives, against reducing wages. Here
is its list cf deaths and marriages:
"Married, in Dosten, Massachusetts, 20th instant,
by Rev. Abbott Tariff, Pauper Labor, of Europe, to
Miss Free Industry, of Massachusetts.
"Died, in Lowell, Massachusetts, about the 20th
instant, of a lingering corporation, American W ages,
aged nearly 75."
Matrimonial Collisions. Some fifteen years ago, i
Pierce Butler, of Philadelphia, a gpntleman of for-i
tune, married Fanny Kemble, a lady distinguished for '
tahnts tnd genh:3. Eat "hcotrpilibility of temper" j
B'on destroyed their dornntic peaco. Their quarrels j
led to separation. Mr. Lutler finally applied to the j
cojrts for a divorce. The New York papers are full '
of the documents which the investigation brought to !
(7-We !earn from tho Salem News, of the 19th
inst., that Spencer Lee, of that place, about twenty j
years of age, was drowned on Saturday night, theüth
inst., in attempting to cross Silver creek on horseback.
Jle was the son of a widowed mother, whose husband,
Michael Lee, fell in the battle of Buena VisU.
Cheap Postage. The French Assembly has pass
ed a bill for the reduction of postage on all inland
letters, to four sous or four cents. The eame will go
intJ effect on the first tf January next. Russia has
also established a penny postage throughout her great
James C. Picket, Esq., bte U. S. Charge d A flairs
to Peru, and t gentleman of fine literary attainments,
is an associate editor of the Washington Globe.
r7"A plcnk ri-ad is ab ut being commenced from
Fort Wayne to B'uffton, Wells county, Indiana.
The South Boston Gazette ways that Daniel Webster
voted for Cass. It's no wonder Cass was beaten !
Tree School System.
The bill I had the honor to present to the Commit
toe on education, propose to change the school age
from 5 and iil to f and 10 This change will not so
nnivh nff'Cl the nmoni.t of funds required, as it will
toe educational reputation of tho Stute. According
toth report of the Into Treasurer f State, out of
iJT0.000 scholars only l'.),500 were attending school ;
cons qu r.tly, 2"J0,r(;0 children in Indiana wert; grow
U'g lip without the benefits of common school inntruc
t on, about 0:3 per r nt. If the school nge had been
r and 10, the rejort would have shown nearly CO per
cent, in rhool.
There nro comparatively few that atlend Fchool
over 10 years of nn. The report of tin? Superinten
dent of Common Schools of Connecticut f r 1S-W, be
fore mi', shows 87.5P2 children between 4 nml 10
years of nir and attending school of nil ages, 7ii..r(U,
of which H'-'O only were over 10. The report shows
about til per rent, of tho? of school nge attending
school. There wero at the name time, 'A'), 11)0 be
tween 10 and 21 not attending wchool, which would
reduce the number at school to about 00 per cent.
The reports of Mnnachunettn, New Vork, Rhode
Mam! and other States, do not vary materially from
Connecticut. If we estublish the school uie at f and
10. we fhall have to provide tor nearly 'JO.OOO schol
ars. The number stated in the last Sentinel was an
error, of ntt ftctt, and not the publishers.
Allowing the averagu to each district to b.40
scholars, we have 0,00 districts. Connerticut ave
nges f3 scholars to a district, Massachusetts .")!, N.
York (Y2, Rhode- Island 57, and Michigan 50. I sup.
pose -10 f )r Indiana to bo a fair average. In 1H10,
New Vork had 5703 school districts, and WJiOU
children between 5 and 10 years of nge.
Tho school funds belonging to the State that can bo
equally distributed nnnually, amount to JIit,liOO 87.
If two mills on the dollar b? levied on property taxa
ble tor State purposes, with the fund now nt the dis
posal of the State, the whole would amount to $!U1),
1)00 87, averaging to each child 1 07 nearly, and
to each district 19 17. This sum, if tho proportion
of female teachers employed were equal to other
States, would keep open a school in each district of
the State, four months at least, without a dollar of
the congressional township fund.
Any law that des not give each township the right
to tnanngc its own educationul interests, cannot either
be equal or efficient in its operation. The difference
in the condition and ability to sustain freo schools in
the respective townships cf ibis State, varies just in
proportion to the value of the sixteenth section, and
the prudent management of the money nriing there
from. Let us apply the bill I have submitted, in its
practical workings, to a single county. Suppose a
county has 10 townships, and each towhship 53 school
districts ; the present law provides 1 school commis
sioner, 'SO township trustees, nnd 210 district trus
tees, making 271 school officers in one county, beside
the Examiners, County Auditor, and Treasurer. I
propose to dispense with 271 of thc?e officers, by sub
stituting a Board of Education for each township, of
three persons, to be elected by the qualified voters of
the township, who shall have the entire coi.tol, guar
dianship and supervision, of all the school interests
in the township. If there cannot be found in each
township three persons qualified to take charge of its
educational interests, nnd act efficiently, it would bo
useless to look f r twenty-seven.
Supposing one township in the county has 100
annual income front its sixteenth section, another
S2K), ano'her $100, five others .$75 each, and two
that have not a dollar. The two townships that have
no funds pay an equal amount of taxes, nnd have an
equal number of ehildren to educate. Their sixteenth
sections may be unsaleable, or their funds may have
been squandered. The tax proposed would give to
tho first township, with its fund, double the means,
fr school purjx'scs, that the lat enjoys, and so in pro
portion. This we cannot help; and hence the neces
sity lor each township controlling its own school mat
ters, oting how much it will tax ibself to sustain tin
school, after the public money shall have been ex
pended, and adapt its own means to its own necessi
ties. Another reason why townships should regulate
their own school matters by a Board of Education,
is, the districts in some cases might be so changed
as to equalize the number of scholars, and better ac
commodate a greater number of the inhabitants. An
other reason is, it may bo absolutely necessary there
should be a school district in a part of the township
that has but 25 scholars, and thnt district may pay
one-sixth of the taxes of the township; and there
may be another district that has 75 scholars, that
does not pay one-twelfth of the taxes of the town
ship. Now, is it just, that one of these schools
should at the expense of the State be kept open six
months, ond the other but two )
to be continued. W.
0Thc New York Express in a very sensible ar
ticle on the subject of the Difficulties of obtaining
Employment, observes
The main thing, for a voting man of talent to look
for, is not so much wages at first, or position at first
but opportunity ; and when opportunity is given, it
is altogether the aspirant's fault if he does not make
himself indispensable to his employers, or to show
him that he is far better fitted for a place above that
which he fills, than the place which he is filling.
Opportunity, indeed, is all the man of true talent
seeks for in this world, in any sphere. Give him op
portunity, and he will create the necessity for him
self that no man can disregard. Opportunity, in
short, is the tide that rolls all men to prosperity or
fame. The mechanical genius that slumbers in the
farmer's chimney corner, often needs but the opportu
nity in some large work-shop to strike out in him the
latent sparks that may inspire matter with new facil
ities of motion, and so crown himself with glory, as
well as with gold. But if that genius comes from the
chimney corner and aspires to bo foreman in the
work-shop, where hundreds are employed before him,
there will probably be no work for him. True geni
us however, is always humble in its aspirations. It
is so sure of the strong impulse within, that it will
descend to the humblest position to obtain the oppor
tunity to show its power. In the work-shop it will
condescend to begin with duties that arc servilo. It
will build the fires, or sweep the rooms, if necessary
for it feels and knows that there is that within it
self which no occupation can smother, and that waits
only for the opportunity to shine. Humility is the
characteristic of rising greatness.
OrMarictta Smith, the missing school mistress a
beautiful and interes'ing young girl who, it will be
recollected, mysteriously disappeared from her homo
and friends some time ago, has been discovered. It
appears that she. on leaving borne, first made her way
to the State of Maine, and after rcmainin" there for
some time returned to Boston.
Sue next sought a mantua maker, and upon disclo
sing her plans and desires, agreed with her to learn
the business, and accordingly set in for a regular ap
prenticeship. She continued in this vocation for some
timp, unobtrusive and unobserved, assiduously attend
ing to her duties. Her almost distracted mother, af
ter many days of painful suspense and anxiety, final
ly obtained a clue to her location. Without delay she
Sta.ted in pursuit and arrived in Boston to-day, where
she fund her long knt child.
The recognition of eich other was instantaneous,
and the feeling of joy and frladr.es manifested on
the occasion were, it is paid, indiscrih.ably exciting.
After congratulating and embracing each other, the
mother asked the daughter if she would return home
with her, to which she willingly assented.
It 19 a pleasing part of this little wild romance to
relate that the truant young lady has, while absent
from home, and supposed by her friends to have been
either dead or ruined, behaved herself in the most ex
emplary and prudent manner, preserving a character
untainted by the rude world through which she passed
alone and unprotected.
A Tamc Wolf in Cincinnati. A Mr. Harwood
having succeeded in domesticating a wolf, kept him
for a watchdog, nnd he had proved to be perfectly
obedient to him in most things. While he was en
gaged a few days ago with one of his workmen, the
animal became excited at the man and seizing him by
one leg nearly tore the fl-sh off, paying no attention
whatever to Mr. Harwood's effuts to stop him. The
ferocious creature was finally killed by him and the men
present with pick-axes, and the wounded man taken
care of.
The whig papers say that luck is ngainst any man
for prosident, whose name begins with the let-rr C,
poor Tom Corwin, hois in f r it, bad luck to him;
How will Jo Line do? no C. in that name! A.
Lnndnn Pionter.
The President's McftMigc.
J We ore a little amused by the variety of editorial
' comment upon this document. Some journals pro
! nounce it the ablest message of our national records.
Others regard it a silly clV- rt of u weak mind. Oth
ers omit the Presiil-iit argument t pn the " Ameri
can sMeni," r.s nothing now. We tl not always
legard 0;e !rtl Presidential message ns the best. Nor
do we attempt to stultify a President because we do
; not nyree with him in all tilings. Neither do we take
, for granted that, because an nigument in a Pretiden
j tit 1 message may be too much or too litlle for our ow n
opinions, it will not be interesting in the public. The
message is an important and interesting dKMiment, in
I .I:.-;.... ........ ..1 :u... i n i .CM.. ...
imuniiL' irie'ii uoiuiy. nntl Will V tea m i uiiny uni-
sideretl by all intelligent mind. Those who attempt j
to ridicule it, merely stultify themselves.
As every render will perceive, it exhibits n favora
ble account of our finances, of the national prosperity
and prospects; nnd it exhibits a contrast between our
own and other countries, in which every American
should rejoice, both proudly and thankfully. But the
President's views upon national banks, protective
tariffs, tho veto power, and tho extension of slavery
to the territories, are worthy of serious couHiderution,
as those of a man whose opportunities have enabled
him to give an enlightened opinion; nnd intelligent
readers will admit that he has treated euch of these
subjects with ability, whether they agree with him or
not. To his opinions upon tho extension of slavery,
we do not subscribe. The whole Southern doctrine
upon this subject is erroneous, and without warrant
in the constitution, or the example of the convention
which devised, and the generation which adapted that
instrument. The President refers to the compromises
of the constitution, nnd advises tho extension of these
compromises to new territory, as a constitutional right
of the slave States ; and he advices this, as necessary
to the perpetuation of the Federal Union. We admit
neither the premises nor the conclusions. The con
stitution contains no compromises for the extension of
slavery, and those who made and adopted contempla
ted no such extension. The revolutionary generation
found slavery in certain portions of tho Union, nnd
after a hard and protracted struggle between abolition
and sustentatian, ngrecd to leave it as they found it,
a domestic right of the States then existing, and in
Kentucky, then a separate State, though nt a mem
ber of the confederacy, but expected soon to enter the
Union. But they invested Congresn under the new
constitution, with ample power to prevent the exten
sion of slavery ; and through their representatives in
tho Continental Congress, they abolished and forever
prohibited slavery in all the territory then belonging
to the Union. All the addition to American slavery
since 17?U, have been made through Congressional
permission, and not constitutional right ; and while
this permission has been expressly granted by Con
gress, to Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana,
Texas, Arkansas, Missouri anil Tennessee, it has been
expressly withheld from Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michi
gan, Wisconsin and Iowa. We may add that, the
constitution gives to Congress the plenary power to
I prohibit all slave tratle, foreign and domestic, which
power it exercised over both foreign and domestic
slave trade in Louisiana, in 10-1, and over all foreign
slave trade in lH. Therefore we totally deny any
constitutional right of existing slave States, old or
new, to carry slavery over their borders. We say
nothing ut present about Free Soil," Wilmot Pro
viso," or 44 Missouri Compromise." Congress and
the ptirtizan journals will have enough to say on each.
Our only object is to protest against the President's
constitutional law for the alleged rights of the South.
We denv the right of any State, slave or free, to cf r-
rv any of its institutions bevond its own limits, into
! national territory, without Congressional permission.
j And if thecousiitutiornl provisions against slavery
not suthcient to sustain our doctrine, though we urge
that they are ample, we will plant it upon the ex-
! pressed Congressional po ver "to make all needful
rules and regulations for the government of tho terri
tory belonging to the Union."
To the President's impelled apprehensions about a
dissolution of the Union, very few will subscribe.
Tho whole number of slaveholders in the Union, is
less than 300,t 00, and with their families, less than
1,000,000. These arc a small portion of the 0,000,000
of whites in the slave States, and the 5,000,000 not
interested in slavery will not incur the burdens and
dangers of a separate confederacy, for the sole benefit
of 1.000,000. We regard the question of dissolution
as we do the old question of tho eurth's collision with
a comet. The chances are a thousand millions to one
j against such occurrence, and if it should happen, tho
Jury body would have the worst of it, and be glad to
get off again.
Dismissing this point, we proceed to the Ameri
can system," or the policy which comprehends a na
tional bank, a protective tariff, internal improvements
by the Federal Government, nnd the distribution of
the proceeds of the public lands among the States.
At a time when the European monarchies, founded up
on this very system of partial legislation in favor of
monarchy, are tumbling in ruins, after having so long
and grievously oppressed the people, the ruin being
the necessary result of the system, the remarks of the
President upon it are quite applicable, and will bo re
spectfully regarded in Europe, if they ore not at home.
The emancipated masses of France and Germany, nnd
the struggling nnd still enslaved masses of the British
empire, see the source of their own suffering in aris
tocracy, that creation of partial legislation ; nnd they
will commend our wisdom and energy in successfully
resisting the mischief. Il does exist to some extent
among us, in the institution of slavery. But while
we leave it where it is, to Slate policy, we lind in the
history of Europe, and of our own country, and in the
President's views, conclusive arguments against the
extension of this monopoly, or the creation of equally
mischievous monopolies in the really European, but
miscalled American bvstem. Pa. Ltdiier.
Candidate fok Govkknok. In the excitement of
the Presidential campaign, every body forgot that we
were to have a Gubernatorial election in nnd
now we are on the eve of the State convention, and
public opinion has not even begun to settle down on
any individual.
The Democracy have plenty of eminent names to
choose from in every portion of the JState. We may
mention Robert Dale Owen, T. J. Henley, Col. J. II.
Lane, John Law, Joseph A. Wright. Senator Ilanne
gan, and Judge Chamberlain, oil of whom have been
spoken of in connexion with the office. The office is
of vastly more importance to the people than to the in
dividual who may be selected to fill it, the Legislature,
in a streak of economy, having made it about as pro
fitable as to be a boot blick. It matters therefore
little, who that man is, so that he is capable, honest,
and a good Democrat. Any such man shall have our
hearty support. (inshen Demncrat.
The Im tofitancf. of a Single Vote. In Forster's
Lives of British Statesmen, occurs the following pas
sage : " Cromwell had offered himself as member for
Cambridge; his opponent was John Cleaveland. The
contest was obstinately fierce, and ended in Cromwell's
return at last, by a single vote." That vole cost
Charles I. his head, and established Cromwell at the
head of the Commonweal h.
Slave Labor in Faciocies. The proprietor of the
factory nt Tuscaloosa, Ala., makes- a calculation in
one of the Southern papers to .-how that, if the east
ern factories can make cloth at ten cents per yard, he
ran make it at Rj cents. This factory i worked by
slave labor, and another is in progress in Tuscaloosa I
county, also to be worked entirely by slaves, which
will run a thousand spindles.
Lake Surenion Mini:.". The North American
mine will be worked by 50 men during the coming
winter. An engine and stamps have arrived there.
The Cliff mine still improves. It is expected to ship
1200 tons the coming season. The Copper Falls Co.
have shipped 10 tons of copper to Paris of about 70
per cent.
A Strict Constructionist. One of the members
of the New York Electoral College did not attend the
meeting, and his place was supplied by the election'
of another. Tho reason of his non-nttendnnce was j
that be had p amised his wife hn would never hold an
njTic and she being a strict constructionist, would not !
let him off. i
Unanimots The Western Texan stntes that the1
people in the neighborhood of the missions of San Ju-1
nn, Sun Jose and Espatlo, composed almost entirely efi
Mexican citizens, voted unanimously for Taylor, who
received 101 votes Cass none.
TRUTH AND Kindness. In the midst of tho best of
men, there is, always has been, and always will be,
some difference of opinion ns to what is true; but
every body knows and feels what is kind.
Ctipltal riiiiUhmentN.
In England, as in this country, great efforts are
made to create a public sentiment against enpitnl pun
ishments. Formerly, the criminal code of England
was a bloody one, but of late years it has been great
ly mitigated by the abolition of the deatli punish- j
ment for minor offences. 1
Our reformers, in udvoenting the abolition of the j
gallows, seem to rely more upon abstract reasoning,
than appeals to facts; they display much ingenuity inj
discussing the theological view, and the question j
whether Human Government has a right to tko life;
in any case. Our transatlantic friends are more!
practical. They investigate w ith great can the sta
tistics ol crime, and dwell upon the comparative
effects upon its prevention, or abatement, observable
under the successive changes in the criminal code.
The London Helvetic contains numerous interesting;
facts and figures upon this subject, some of which it
will be instructive to notice.
It is admitted that tne number of the crimes for
which the punishment by death has been removed, in
creased from 1820 to 19-10, 70 per cent., but the force
of the inference that might be drawn in favor of
capital punishment from this, is destroyed by several
considerations. For example, when the penalty fr
rape wns death, prosecutors would often indict only
for tho minor offrnce, "assault with intent." Tim
penalty being changed, prosecutions were vigorously j
urged for the real crime, so that the criminal tables
showed an increase, which, however, was only appa
rent. So, when burglary ceased to be a capital offence,
the law defined tho crime anew, embracing offences
committed between certain hours of the evening and j
morning, a much larger portion of the twenty-lour!
hours, nnd not, ns formerly, those alone committed !
during darkness. I ho tables of commitment and:
conviction would of course s.how nn increased number
of cases, without their being therefore a real increase
of crime. Again: when forgery was capital, it was
customary to include under one head only the capital
Commitments ; but hanging for this crime having been
abolished, commitments are classed under the same
head, which were never capital offences, constituting
a very large proportion of the entire number of for
geries. (In passing we may remark, that thes examples
demonstrate what mischievous errors mere tables of
statistics, without accompanying references to explan
atory circumstances, may lead to.)
In George the Third's time, loo, when 200 offences
were punishable with death, crime increased 150 per
cent, in four years.
Finally, if tho crimes on which the death penalty
has been removed, have increased 70 per cent, since
the removal, the crime on which it has been retained,
has increased in the same time 125 per cent. !
The following official table is relied on to prove the
cJl'.vt of a diminution of executions on the number of
murders :
In tho 7 year ending
In r.ngland and Wales. 1Ü20. 1527. ltiol.
Total executed for all crime - 019 101 :i.V
Number of murderers convicted 1 11 113 105 1
"We will next show that the fewest executions, j
in proportion to the number of murders, produces the !
fewest murders in future years. We select, from uj
great mass of evidence, the following return.
In tho six years ending
1SIH. 1524. 1Ö30. 1B3G. Icl2
Executed for murder - 122 01 75 71 59
Committed for murder - 411 ll7 411 413 351
But the .V.VWr, anticipating the objection that I
these cycles are too short to furnish materials for a
correct judgment, ays
"We will take the thirty-two years ending 1912,
l!U'!W u " iUl" ""7 'V " !
t 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 . . 1 .1:. . : .1 : .. . i , ......
ln'i TtitrlruU rtt jvTi.nn iiiitir nnt)i Hri ifitf Ih. Tm i'liliff
' I. f A - . . ll .--I.
striking result: In tin? first sixteen years, all who
were convicted of murder, thirty-four in number, were
executed. The rulers of the time proclaimed that no
mercy whatever should be shown to the murderer; that,
if convicted, he should inevitably be hanged. Well
notwithstanding this inexorable rigor, 189 murders
were committed during this period. In the second pe
riod, clemency began to prevail; and daring sixteen
years of the experiment, out of twenty-seven persons
convicted, only seventeen were hanged ; and yet there
were but ninety persons committed for murder during
the whole period. With only G2 per cent, of execu
tions, instead of 100 per cent., the crime decreased
more than one-half!"
Fhese are interesting statements. After all, the
w . v. i
question concerning the proper punishments tor crime;
must be decided by their relations to th? prevention of.
crime and weli-ueing 01 society, wnic.i are 10 ue
determined as much by a careful observations ofj
fads as theoretical reasonings concerning human,
natuic. Xitional Era. !
Stnoui.au Affair. Some two weeks since a mer- !
chant in Bangor, Maine, in emptying a tea chest.
fotnul in the bottom a snuff box containing a five dollar produced in the following word, which were in-j Lamaktinc. A paragraph in so-ue of the Paris
bill on the Dover (N. H.) bank, and attached to it the ! scribed on a tea chest: Tu daces, which is the sec- papers, intimating that I. do Lamaitine had refused
following epistle, written on a piece of paper of the ond person singular of the verb doa-n, to teach; and - to be a candidate for the Presidency is thus epecifi
quality generally used by the Chinese in putting up , when literally translated, becomes thou teachtsi. j colly contradicted by the gcntleman htuiself in a let
lea in pound packages: I a irtntPBif itics hon fAftinlff nfi it io iM..-w,n tor to the Journal des Ih bats :
r-...v i ".-. it:
Dear Mather: I am a prisoner
have been for six years. I
Washington nnd get our government
obtain rnv release. 1 enclose
it was presented to me by nn
it is of no use to mo but it may bo to yon.
Directed to Miss Nancy Lovell, Boston, Must.
To Smokf.t.s. By the last number of the Journal
of the Franklin Institute, we perceive that somebody j
has taken out a patent for an improvement in making j
cigars. This improvement consists in making the j
end of the cigar impervious to the moisture of the;
lips, by a composition of gum shellac and alcohol.!
Pempernnce should hold up both hands for this, inas
much as if the cigar will not moisten the lips will not
dry, and those who will drink will be forced to ex
cuse themselves therefor as did the old toper: ho was
going to have salt fish for dinner.
How Men should tkeat Women. A Persian poet
gives the following instruction on the important point,
"When thou art married, peek to please thy wife;
but listen not to all that she says. From Man's right
side a rib was taken to form the woman, and never
was there seen a rib quite straight. It breaks but
bends not. Since, then, it is plain that crooked is wo- j
man's temper, forgive her faults, and blame her not,
nor let her anger thee, nor correction use, as it is in
vain to straighten what is crooked."
Something Neu. A new article of boots and
shoes has just come up in England. It is called the
Patinas Conum, or leather cloth, and was invented
by a person named Hall. The material is cotton,
but has the mass and rroneral appearance of leather,
and receives a polish from ordinary blacking and in
the same v ay. It is used only for the upper, the sole
being leather. It said to be as durable as leather,
never cracks or splits, and possesses the adv antage of
not drawing the foot.
Omr.iN of the Cholera. Mr. Rcill, an old and
respectable resident of New York, states that in 1832,
he discovered that the origin of the Cholera is the in
halation of nn ineoct so minute as to be scarcely visi
ble to the naked eye. He says that when the Chole
ra is in a place, the existence of those injects may b?
proved by greasing a cloth or a person's arm, and
waiving it in the air, when the insects will stick
to it, and may then b examined.
Mort! more mort !' Mr.
a mason by
trade, having worked hard all the week, was disposed I
while at church on Sunday, to refresh himself by a
snooze. He had kept awake till the preacher had
progressed some way in his sermon, when he fell into
a sound sleep, and dreaming in his soporific oblivi
ousness that he was about his work, he cried out, in a
stentorian voice, mnrt! more mort.' The effect upon
the congregation may be imagined.
Former Grandeur. The Roman Empire, at its
inoi brilliant period, contained about 1,000,000 square
miles, according to Gibbon. The territory of the
United Slates comprises about, 2,000,000. When the
vast territory shall be peopled by a race claiming a
common origin, and all united under the same laws,
and having the same patriotic pride in their country
and its -freedom, the former greatness of Rome will
but faintly compare with that of this republic.
Military Monument in Kentucky. A monu
ment is now in process of erection in Frakforf, Ivy., to
the memory of the officers of the volunteers of the State
who fell in Mexico, the design is appropriate and
exceedingly beautiful. The monument is to be 02
fett high, step 20 feet square, material best Italian
marble, cost .$lf,(X 0.
Tir Rev. Mr. Gurley has been re-elected Chaplain
to the U. S. Home of Representatives.
Tito Queen of England has purchased n French pi
ano, which is constructed entirely of ivory.
More than twelve hundred girls have deserted the
Lowell fictories since the reduction of wages.
A French electioneering pamphlet endeavors to
prove that prince Louis Nap deoti is not tho son of
the ex-King of Hollund.
rho inhabitants of Maiden, Mass
.ttlYlWl I . .1 ........
nua 10 ceienraie mo ''uuih anniversary
tlement of the town.
Oi'K National Ii:iit. The National debt, aeror-;
ding to the annual report of the Secretary of tho Treas-
ury is $00,905, 1( 1.50. I
rPl.z ..c A ..(..... 1... t. f
iiv r.,M..a...-.i w. ainaiiMK, uy inu vi ovcruor füll- ;
mate, is .500,0(11), which will give it three in dace of
, n ... : '
one member of Congress, in the next appointment.
' 1
A litany and prayer br penitents attacked by the -
cholera, has been published in England, anJ meets
with ready sale.
Charcoal ground to powder is one of the best things
ever discovered to clean knives. This is a late and
valuably discovery.
A ukaso of the Emperor Nicholas, which has just
been published, accords some extension to the rights
which the Jews enjoyed in Poland.
Noah says that an invoice rf segars has arrived in
New York which sell nt .$1000 per thousanda dol
lar a piece.
So anxious aro seamen to touch the gold soil, they
are now shipping at New Vork for California at one
dollar per month.
Txas, tho ''Star" State, has twenty newspapers
published in it, eight of which are Democratic, four
Whigs, six neutral, and three religious.
Tho walls of the sn loons of M. Lamartine, in Pa
ris, are hung round with pictures of a pleasing char
acter, painted by his wife.
The debt of North Carolina, on account rf the
Roanoke and Gaston Railroad Company, is $500,000.
The Governor recommends its payment in ten years.
Good ! We have no right to bring in debt the unborn.
The Legislature of Vermont lias authorized the
Governor of the State to appoint a Board of C rnmis
sioners to devise and draft a general Railroad law for
that State.
South Carolina. Bills have been introduced into
both branches of the Legislature of the Palmetto
Slate, to give the election of Presidential Electors to
tho people. This is a good move.
More Got.n IIuntekk. a company of doctors.
printers, tailors, and lawyers, is organizing in
Greensborough, Mississippi, to emigrate to Call
If rich, it is easy to hide our wealth ; but if poor,
it is not quite so easy to conceal our poverty,
shall find it less difficult to hide a thousand gui
I than one hole in our coat.
A solemn philosopher announced, ns the result of
his deliberate reflections, that it was remarkable evi
i', "e goodness ot rrovuience thai great
rivers always run by great towns.
Mr. Secretary Buchnnan has purchased the beauti
ful residence of Williarn II. .Meredith, Esq., near
Lancaster, Pa., to which he designs moving next
. . . - .1 c. . 1 .
k-Prn,S on curing irom tue a;aie ocpanmeni.
Fatal Blunpek. Mrs. Nixon, of Medina, N. Y.,
while riding, called at an apothecary's shop for mor
phine to relieve toothake ; the boy in attendance gave
her (strychnine, which caused her death immediately.
Biiutal Oi'Tr.AOF.. A young lady went to a fortune
teller, a negro in Cincinnati, to have her fortune told,
when he locked her in a room, and perpetrated a bru
tal act of violence upon her person.
The Mormons are about to issue a newspaper from
their camp in the wilderness. "One of the twelve
apostles" has purchased the printing materials at St.
Another President's Message. TIic President, Hünajrp l)kes, and above all a Rusll-should per
n dispatch from W nshington says, has received such furill tlls; fading duties. But Lord Charles seems
r . c t ti r y c mi
;.".. i. va. 9 ....
authorize Ihm to send a special message to Congress,
A visit to the tomb of the late Mrs. Mahlt, has led rd John, and rather better looking. Jle has a d?
to the horrible conception that she was ircmalurdy icided talent for walking, or rather moving bickwards
Luritd. The body, according to the New York Sun, ! and forwards, with his heels close together. And
was turned on its face, and "tho ehroud and hair dis-, should his commiserating relatives start a dancing
ordered. academy under the anatrory act, the d ances are that
n,, , . . . . P ,. he'll be made pn-idei,t of the lift!i p 'sitiop.
ih'- l-wmjiMJlVl pull Ml 1111' lUtMUO liLMUlUli; JJ1 j
1 l.i;ilLI UV.L 1 1 ! il t-M.lll l'4J'LSlkV.VJ b 1U nu lli k U L 11 '
... . . ' - ' . I
Journal, which leads us to believe that steam prairie
cars" win ne running between tins place anu t mm
iicav 3uauu uiahiug uuny inpa uciweeii me iwu
Young Beach, the absconding clerk of the Bridge
port (Ct.) Rank, was traced to Southampton, England,
and $0.000 of the money recovered at his lodgings,
wuiie ne nimsen was anseni ai honaon ana Liver
pool. He got nhirmed and kept out of the way.
The personal property r.f the late John Jacob Astor,
according to a paragraph in the Globe, is ascertained
to amount t the immense sum of four millions nnd
ninety five thousand dollars! This is exclusive of the
houses, lands, &c., constituting his real estate.
11 I I . Ii' I . .T I t t
"Mysterious disappearances' has become a stand
ing phrase in the papers of the North. Men, women,
cashiers, tellers, clerks, and individuals of every de
scription daily disappear. The mysteries of New
York are getting to be as notorious as those of Lon
don and Paris.
The Cause of the Difficulty. It came out on
Thursday, at Philadelphia, during Mr. Dallas's speech
in the Butler divorce case, that the first cause of the
difficulties between the husband and wife was the
abolition question" one which threatens to sever oth
er "Unions" than those of a matrimonial character.
Lieut. Hardy, who explored a part of California and
that portion of northern Mexico bordering our newly
acquired empire of El Dorado, states that he never
knew a gold hunter who became rich; and that even
a productive mine was good for nothing except to a
rich man, who could furnish capital to wurk it.
A correspondent of the Boston Journal, complains
that copper plate printing nnd engraving is carried on
to a considerable extent in its various departments in
the State Prison, thus perfecting the convicts in a pro
fession that will ultimately be dangerous to the com
munity. A collection of "Poems" by the late John Quincy
Adams has been published. The New York Tribune
Fava the volume is worth having, if only to see what
extremely middling verses a great man may write.
Mr. Adams did a great many things well. Poetry
was not among them.
Prize Awarded. We understand that a Mr. Miles
of Baltimore, has obtained the premium of $10(10, of
fered by Mr. Forrest for the best tragedy. The Bal
timore Patriot says Mr. Miles has received a check
for the amount, and a complimentary letter from Mr.
F. There were fifty competitors for the prize.
A Wcdditl took place at Albany a few evenings
since, and just as tho marriatrc service was concluded
by the benediction, the 11 jor gave way and precipita
ting the entire party in one mingled inas-s into the
cellar. The distance was not preat and the pleasure
of the. evening wns not at 11 marred by it.
The threat Cathedral in Montreal is the largest edi
fice in America devoted to religious purposes. The,
depth t f the interior is 350 feet. A crowd of
persons looks like a thin audience in this vast area.
It has seven bells and covers one acre and seven rods
of ground.
The only female Free Mason we ever heard of, was
the Hon. Miss St. Leger, who, having been detected
in the act of overlooking the proceedings of a lodge
in her father's house, was forced to tako the degrees.
She used afterwards to walk in the Masonic proces
sions, and her portrait is to be seen in almost every
lodge in Ireland.
Pf.kiv, Dec. 1810. ! ! Sir I have seen in the Journal des Debats an ar-
. - iiwuiiv.iii vuftvuuoi-j uuu tiiw iiitiwiwic yi Uli; luuvj) IUI i -
ill (l tea house, and j tl1(. romnletion of the East Tennessee and Georgia ! hcle copied from tho Oourrier de la Cironde, which I
wish you would go to j vniir0ful to Knoxville. The completion and renin-! nk permission to rectify.
to interfere and j . : . i j . . nc ol (0 (00. W'Unl I wrote to a correspondent at Bordeaux was
you a five dollar note ; to this e fleet :
Americnn ircnt eman : ! N nave iniorm&uon, bays mo opringneia mi.j j T do n .t otTer mixi- f no n rrm l f. , th TW
Origin of siitiiiiartile.
The manner in which infusoria obtained admit
tance into vnrioiis tlu.ds ha been a subject of dcVntt
lor some years. The startling idea of spontaneous
generation has been broach I. Wnsburg thought
they wore formed from minute pnrticles in the Hind
which gradually begun to move, and obtained life by
degrees, (iruithisen fancied they proceeded from ex
tractive ma Iter, acted on bv the infus- rv medium.
The most gcneruUy received opinion i. that theso
animals, or their germs, fl.nt about ns atoms in tho
fltlllf INfllirrO. fllkil lurvifni 1-i 1 1. I i , ...I ... Iiof
lass., have vote.i 1(posilM, m ft ,MllI1 f3voral,! to ,))f.ir develop-,-ersarv
of the set- ........ r
Instances of nnimiU, more highly organized. BP-
pirrntly living when the fluid ha Um dried up for
a length of time, and again resuming the ctateof nc-
live life on being furni-he.I With a drop of water, are
familinr to the uiicroseojiit. It tnsy be observed in
1 .;.... , t 1
. V ; , ,
nnd in the 1 ilrir tnti, nn eel-like r.nunal, tniiKiciir
. , . irn, ,;.. ...1 , 1. ,1 r 1
the enr-cocklo or blight in wheat. Ioth of ,hese an-
imnls may be brought back from appirent d. ath to
active lite alter iiavmg oeen Kepi in a pcrlectJy dry
s ate Mr several venrs.
What fiivors the supposition of animalcules being
deposited either in the g'.-neral state, or from their
bodies being dried up and lloiting in the air, is the
fact, that in a series of well-conducted experiments
performed by Schulz some years ago, where water
was distihed and well boiled, in order to tb s'roy any
animal life it might occasion, and vegetables f r the
same rens in, expo-d to the beat of an oven, and the
nir admitted U the vr.-sel, which was hermetically
sealed, through strong suluSuric acid ; on the vessel
being placed ill the sun, after the lapse of some time.
not a single ainmnli-ule could he detected, though a
jar by its side, made of the same materials, but open
to t lie atmosphere, was found to swarm with living
LvMCkor.s 1 'a it 1. 1 a m n n r a h y Fokm. The following
passage occurs in a late London letter to the New
Vork Evening Mirror :
The process of receiving bills in the Commons from
the Lords will bear alluding to, for the purpose of
showing the rapacity in which the brother of the Pre
mier of England figures in respect to it. An old
man, (sometimes two,) with u wig thne times as
large and six times as hideous, if that be possible,
as judges' w igs, ami a lawyer's gown, presents him
self at the bar, and makes a profound salaam, a reg
ular stage Bluebeard s rt of an affair. The eye of
the Speaker catches the movement he can't help it
and he calls oul, " What have yo i got there V An
swer "Such and such a bill from the Lords." Tht:
Speaker then inquires, but without wailing for a re
sponse, which is never given, if it be the pleasure of
the House to receive the communication ! Where
upon the Sergoant-at-Arms, Lord Charles Russell,
hops out of his little pigeon hole cf a seat at the en
trance of the House, and walks up to the table, ma
king obeisances to the chair witha most oriental HMp
pleness of back ell the way, he being accoutred in
court costume knee-breeches, silk stockings, buck
led shoes, and small sword. On arriving at the table
he takes hold of the immense niac, (Cromwell's
44 bauble,") and back he marches backward, fronting
the Speaker all the time, to the bar. Here he acts
as convoy to the Peers' messenger, and up tho centre
of the floor the pair strut, stopping every four or live
paces to go through a particularly emphatic cringe.
Tho bill being laid on the table, the pair creep back
wards, back again and this is the part of the per
formance which must disturbs the gravity of the
gravest beholder; and assuredly nothing so profound
ly grotesque did mortal eyes ever be!ndd in the serious
business of life, ns two full grown m n thus sham
bling about on the tips of their heels, like a brace of
elderly crabs. Well, Lord Charles having deposited
his fellow tomnoddy at the bar, struts back ngaiu to
depositc the mace on the table, and again retreats as
bef re thus making s;x journies up and down the
House, and occasionally six different times in the
course of a night.
Foreigners wh come into the Speaker's and stran
gers' galleries, and inquire all about the forms of our
popular assembly, can't understand the thing at all,
(n r indeed, for the matter of that, can natives either)
for it is an incomprehensible enigma, that the brother
of the Premier the brother alo of one of our mil.
, , n.ive n jrtIlIUs ftir the p-.st. He 1 ok- uncommon.)'
j j;ko a b(Jlkr irl ;i n.ui:ct.(i ramily a lit U- taller than
idency. I pray (iod und my friends to spare tne a
. burden so di-proportioned to my strength.
But if the
country thinks it expedient to designate me for this
magistracy, I do not hold myself nt liberty to refuse,
any more than I did on the 2 Ith of February to repel
the overture of the people and leave Paris without a
j government."
I do not now believe myself exp sed to any such
danger, and if I correct the mistake of the C ourrier
de la Gironde, it is merely t prevent any subsequent
misunderstandings. To seek the Presidency would
be absurd, to doire it would be rab, to refuse it
would be a wanting in duty to the republic and tho
nation. . I am incapable cither of that ambition or of
this cowardice. LAMARTINE.
If there is a man who can eat his bread in peaco
with God and man, it is the man who hns brought
that bread out of the earth. It is ennkered by no
fraud; it is wet by no tears; it is stained by no blood.
A Wauoner's Toast. The Fair Sex : The jack
screw of the United State, and the wheel-horse of
all creation.
An Irish rrentleman the other day, in the excess of
connubial aiFeetion, exclaimed Heaven forbid, my
dear, thvt 1 should ever live to see you a widow!"
What is harder thn:i earning money! Collecting t.
An O rd iu:i iic-c in Itclution to flic (Ton
nt'clion of Kail Ho:iis through the
City nl lnli;iii;iolis.
Section 1. He it urdainid ly the City C uncil cf Indi
anapolis, That bcfoie any tiact for a railioad hall be allow
ed t be laid down, or maintained ahig er acioss the stiff t
of this city, which lie within the strret named Kat, Scuta,
North and West, it shall Lc irqui?itp fr the CooimisMOüer,
or other peisons deiioui of locating such tuck, to file their
petition io wiiting wiih ttie City Council, ctliu fotth di$
tinctly the route of such proposed uilaaJ, and the Lied o(
motive power designed to be ut-d.
Sec 2. At the first nu-ctinjj of the Council after inch
petition shall have been received by the Pre Metit er Secre
tary, a day hall te leaignated for tlie enn.it ration of the
tame, of which the Secretary shall forthwith five at leat
thirty days' notice in two public iiewjpajvcts, publuhed iu the
city, staling the muei embiared in urh petition.
sec. 3. At the meeting of the Council for the consiJera
tiou of uch pt-liliom, icmunsti Jticf , if ; resented iu wri
ting, wiil al. lc received an J coni!eied, fiuni owners ot
leal eiate en any tfeet tt the city, within the lirniti men
tioned in the first section of this oidinance, along or acruts
which any puch railioad n pipoed to te heated or inain
taired, each peti'ionei i'atirg theiein of how much rropeity
on laid slieet he is the owt.tr : An J if it hall appear that
a m;j Jiity of ownei of real estate on uch treet, witrüti the
limit i'i'.t . e .... .... l ... . i
......... iiamvu, mc OJ',VUq lO IICII WIM l Oflilg O UH'U I Ol &
I lailroaj Hack, then, in cae the motive power applied foi, be
j Uo.rlfe' "r uU'tr l,'JQ sUa n; suic Potation f,.r men
mlroad I Ute hall not be raided: L-ut if the ai.n'iciti m h
lor the ue of team power on auch poped ri'td, the re
monMrince of the owner of t ne-teiitli of the teal titale ua
luch Mteet hall picvtn? the giant ef such application.
Src. 4. In eise such lern it rai.ee hliall uot be pi sent
rd in either manner a above ie.uiiedLi ptevent such ue
of any of taiJ tittt, and if the Cny Council deem it ex
pedient and judicious, and for the interests of the city, that
fcuch applicant fhall te giauled, it shall be lawful to graut
the same: Provided, That toch route hall not be permit
ted along Washing, n meet, iter iu any nne to inteifeie
with oi vary from the iitihlisl.ed gtade of any etr-et of the
city. liKO. A. CHAPMAN,
Present of the Cny Council.
Attest, Jake 11. Joan.!??, Sec'y.
Approved December 20, lb4S.
On the 17th inHmt, by Thornai Morrow, Ekj., Mr. Ezr.
viel Dill to Miis Elizabeth. daughter of Simoa and Either
Siealstaith, bulb t f thii county.

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