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3uMaim State gcntincL
ETERNAL VIGILANCE IS THE PKICE OF LIBERTT. F..MIAAI'I.IS, J i. UAItV 1, IK-IS. Tin? 1 1: lib in;: System. Tli clu'Mrg yntein introduced by tlie undersigned lm not nut our expectation. We Lave given it a fair trial; but the extra i ut-l.iy l a not beer, met by corresponding clforts on the p;irt of our friends, with a few excr-j lions. It dors not, and cannot, under csi.tinz circumstances, rtiord us a fair remuneration. vYhi! we rolunlrrily trade the then recnt sacrifice, we did hope that the mdncrrnert wa suthrient to ii.rres.re our to ?t Itaxt several thousand over our former su sr rption. Giving more reading - att.r for the pr.ee than can be obtained in any part of the W in tra country, we bad hop"i our friends wnu!J lake advantage of tlie lihrility . and rxeit themselves accordingly. Thi ha not een Jone to a .egre rommen'maie with the plan projiosel. Ilenre, ufier what ha lern a fair trial on our part, we sbail al.an i'.on t' TMm of en' I intr ; and ha'l,l'ereaher, adopt the follow iagt ,r- whi'h will be invnnatde. and permanent : FOR OUK WHKKLY PATKH. Two I ollars a )enr, and the virmey nil always accompany the cnltr or no it'ttution vtll bt given it. JOHN D. HF.FRF.ES, Kditvr Journal 4MDecl ("H APMANS SPA N N. FJitors State Sentinel Adjournment. Tuesday, the lOili in?t., lias been fxn upon as the day for the adjournment of the Le gislature, sine die. Mule Convention. The Whij; State Convention, for the nomination of Governor and Lieut. Governor, assembled in this city on Wednesday, (yesterday.) It was not very generally attended by delegate?, though, including the members of tlie legislature, tin; assemblage was respectable. The forenoon was childly occupied by a discussion as to the constitution cf a nominating com mit lee, the chief dilr.culty being tho want of dele gates from some counties. Finally, at V2 o'clock, a committee of three fron each congressional clittlrict was appointed, and the convention adjourned. In tbe afternoon, a few gentlemen attempted to make speech's, but without much success. Mr. Tro.rell, of Madison, having evidently prepared him self, did the best of the lot. The nominating committee then reported the fol lowing candidates : For Governor, Klisha Emeuee, of Gibson Ca. For Lieut. Governor, Thomas S. Stanfielp, of St. Joseph Co. These we should think are by no means the strongest men which could have been selected, and ran be easily beaten by the democrat, if their con vention shall select better men. Indeed Home of the whigs already admit that they arc beaten with such men as cand;dates. Ex-Gov. Wallace was president of the Convention, j and I). P. IloJIoway, Esq., principal secretary. C-We publish the School bill, as reported by the Education Committee to the House. One of its most important features is that it proposes to keep the funds generally in the several counties where they are raised, instead of first sending them to the State Treasury to be afterwards divided. It makes the Treasurer of State the General Super intendent, which is wrong. These duties should be' vested in the Secretary of State. He has more time ! to attend to them ; and something of the kind is ! reeded to make the office ot Secretary of Slate a lit tle more important than a mere clerkship, which is all it now is. An attempt ha? already been mide in the House to amend the bill b as to concentrate the fu ds in the State Treasury ; but we think this will not be done. In consequence of the crowded state of our col umns, we must refer the reader to the reports of pro ceedings for further information. Cholera. For some days print the town has been atTt-cteri by anxious inquiries about the cholera, and j there have been rumors of death occasioned bv the ! disease as introduced by infected persons arriving l.y ' railroad. We have no authentic information of any ' death by the disease; if we had, we should h'tve no j hesitation in stating it. I'eople should n I become! alarmed by reports which they may hear. Fear is ' the very wor-t premonitory symptom of this or uny j other disease. A clear conscience, cnrefnl habit, j and benevolent filing- ure the best antidotes to this or any other disease. fjrSeveral "runaways" have occurred during the j past few days : one a five horse team ; another a horse and buggy: smashing every thing to pieces. I On Tuesday, a pair of horses in harness, scared by j an omnibus, broke loose from a waggon to which ' they were hitched and ran at full speed over the north ' side-walk of Washington street. Opposite Weaver's cabinet shop they run over a .Mr. Chrk, who was badly bruised, and escaped death, as it were, by a miracle. i fj-Mre. B-dton's lines on the death of the Ilev. Mr. Johnson, wh'ph we recently published, are very ; highly spoken of by every one, arid justly so. We happen to know that the lines wen; written within a few hours after the deceased breathed his lust, though : their publication was delayed a day or two; but we ( do not think they could be improved by revision. Is J not good poetry the offspring of the feelings as much us the intellect ; and must it not necessarily partake j of both qualities to be really good ! fjr-Maj. A. W. Gaines, paymaster, U. S. A., re quests us to state that all claimants fur extra pay un der act of Congress, July 19th, 1813, in the State of Indiana, will be attended to at Washington city after the Oth of January next. Up to that date they will be attended to at New Albany, Indiana. The papers throughout the State will please inufrt this notice for the benefit of claimants. There lias lately been strolling round this city, an abortion of humanity, in the shape of a hunchbacked biped," with legs like tongs, calling himself John McMullin, and soliciting aid from our citizens, from whom he has succeeded in swindling a considerable amount. He is about five feet high, fluent in speech, lies to a charm, get drunk, and spends his money freely after he has obtained it. He pretends to be in search of a brother. Our cotemporarics would do well to notice the scamp. P. S. He had better become honest, and run for an off.ee. The Popular Vote in the Presidemial Elec tiun. Various tables, says the Pa. Ledger, are giv en a the complete popular vote of the States for the Presidency, but no two of which agree, the diflerence amounting to thousands. There is enough certain, however, to show that the full vote is about two mil lions eight bundled thousand, being an increase of about two hundred thousand over the vote for Presi dent in 1811. The plurality of Taylor over Cass is about one hundred and forty thousand. The free soil ote ij three hundred thousand, and Taylor is in a mi nority of the whole vote cast ubout one hundred and sixty thousand. We have nn otficial table which, as soon as Texan nnd Wisconsin are known officially, wo Phall publish. For LinEiUA. The American C donization Society will send about four hundred negr-ns, 1. berated slaves, to Liberia, in the present mouth. The vessels will sail from New Orleans. Rev. Mr. McLaio, S.-cretnry of the Am. Colon'ua tinn Society, has been appointed by the government of Liberia, to act ai the Minister to the U. S. govern ment. TfTe appointment will no doubt bo recognized. 0-A corresjsindcnt of the Newcastle Courier nominates D. P. Holloway of Wayne county ai a! candidate for Congress in the 4th District. Lntc Foreign Kcws Ily 'SYlcgrnpIi. FOURTEEN' DAYS LATER. Arrival of the stenmsr Europa htuis Xapolcon elected President of France Emperor of Austria abdicated Pope. Pin (shaped from ltd' Lite from Irtl.m I Prussian VaiUumml disst.lvid. J'jiiLAUKi.i'iiiA, Jar 1. The steamer Europa arriwd at New Vurk yester day. The news is again highly important. Louis Na poleon has been elected President t f France. The Emperor of Austria abdicated in favor of his son. Pope Pius fled from Rome, nnd escaped to Italy. Cotton advanced one qr. penny per pound at Liv erpool, and there is also an improvement in bread stuff. PRUSSIA. The King I;as dissolved his parliament, and pro mulgated a new constitution. AUSTRIA. The Emperor of Austria has abdicated in favor of his nephew, Francis Joseph, son of Archduke Charles, a youth of eighteen, who bus formerly taken upon himself the duties of a high ollice. FRANCE. Letters from Paris of Saturday evening, Dec. 9th, describes tlie state of that city, as alarming in the highest degree. Military preparations wen; made in every quarter, and the police force was doubled. There was some rioting, nnd Nablet ns friends met and organized to suppress outbreaks in case of his election. Ghangarnier officially resigned the candidateship. Lamartine friends made great exertions, nnd nil Paris looked like one electoral meeting. Tue Bona pirtist were a censed of an intention to assassinate Cavaignac. M. Thiers, one of those who lied with Louis Blanc and Causidicre, arrived in Paris on Fri day. Letters received in Paris from the provinces, state that Louis Napoleon's election would be thesis nil for a great monarchical rising. A large body of the National Guards were ordered under irir.3 for Sunday. Letters from Paris of Tuesday, say that the elec tion lor President had definitely closed nil over France. Enough was known to secure Louis Napoleon a lar ger vote than wis expected by his most sanguine friends. He received considerably more than a ma jority over all others in every department heard from. IRELAND. The fjrat.d jury of Dublin returned true bills ngiinst Mr. Dulfv f r felonious articles in the Nation, and tor the letter to Smith O'Brien, urging him to rebellion, found m that unfortunate man's porlmen teau. The Southern and Midland papers are filled with heart-rending accounts of deatli by starvation, exten sive enactions of tenantry, the flight of tenants to wards the emierant ships, and violent outrages in all their disgraceful variety. A Cji:i:ection. A few days ago we published a letter of F. L. Claiborne relative to an alleged con versation of Gtn. Taylor upon the subject of the slave question in the territories. We now find in the Nnt chez Cotrier of the 16th inst., another letter of Mr. Claiborne which amounts to a full retraction of the first. It is as follows : Natchez, Dec. PJ. ISiS. Hon. A. G. Brown Dear Sir: I have noticed a brief extract from a letter of mine to you going the rounds of the press. The extract purports to be a re mark of Gen. Taylor to S. S. Loyd, Esq., on the slavery question. I fear the meaning of my letter is misconstrued, and indeed I may have used stronger language thnn I should have done, in the haste in which I generally write. (leneral Taylor in his conversation uith Judge Iiord did not mention the irord territory, and spoke cniinl'j of our rights, under thi constitution, in the slave States. He expressed no opinion as to the pro priety of extending slavery into the new territories, or of restricting it to its present limits. It is well understood here that the General studiously avoids in dicating his views on this exciting point. I know Judge Boyd would not misrepresent General Taylor, and I nm viire 1 would not knowingly misrepresent Jinlge Bo d. In justice to all parties, may I ask you to give pub licity to this letter, and oblige, vonrs t rulv, f; l. cla'iborne. We beg ptrdoti of tlie "Indiana State Journal" for crediting to it some vicious attacks upon Gen. Tay lor that came from the State Sentinel. The 'Jour nal" never thus duhornrcd itself. X. Y. Express. The Journal never dishonored itself" by "vicious attacks upon Gen. Taylor," eh ! Some of the Gen eral's friends hereabout thought the following para graph from that print rather vicious at tho time it was put forth, if we recollect aright : "A regird to whig principles forbids the nomina tion of (,en. Taylor." Indian Stale Journal, April, IS IS. Indiana U. S. Senat or. A dispatch from Indi anapolis to the Tribune, stntes that Gov. Junes Whit coinb, Loco, has been elected by the Indiana Legisla ture a Senator in Congress, tor the term of six years from the 4th of March next, in place of Hon. Edward A. Hannegan. The Whigs generally voted for Mr. Lir'e. Ail. mr 'r. Jour tut!. The above is going the rounds rjf the eastern pa pers. It is occasioned by a blunder of the Telegraph. No such man ns Etrle was voted for at all. But Mius lAgfrtry given to a shadow, while real flesh nnd blood is cheated out of it. Sic. transit, etc. Retorted Defalcation. Mr. Jus. W. Matthews, ex-Auditor to the State of Mississippi, is rep orted to be a defaulter of the State. He had been held to bail in $1000 to await an examination. Mr. .Mat thews says: MI think I will show that I do not owe tho State a single dime, but on the contrary, that the State is in debted to me ; and that the prosecution against me is founded in a total misapprehension of the merits of the case." Connecticut. The whigs of Connecticut held a State Convention at Hartford on the 29th ult., Hon. Charles W.j Rockwell, of Norwich, presiding. The following State ticket was nominated: Governor, Joseph Trumbull, Hartford; Lieutenant Governor, Thomas Backus, Killingly ; Secretary of State, Roger M. .Mills, New Hartford; Treasurer, Stephen Taylor, Middletown ; Controller, AbijahCat lin, Harwintown The Postmaster General advertises the following rates of postage for the Pacific ; half ounce letters, Pii cts. to Havana, 20 cts. to Chagrcs, lit) cts. to Panama, and 10 cts. to any ports north. No inlmd postage is charged on them. Newspapers and pam phlets pay three tents, sea postage and inland postage. (7- Gerrit Smith, Esq., contributed 2'J() for the defence of the persons indicted at Washington City, for stealing slaves. This donation is in addition to one of sfjOO, previously made by him. The General Assembly of South Carolina have de termined, after a heated debate of a week's duration, 'that it is inexpedient to re-charter the Bank of the State." The Yincennes Sun bus stt, us wo learn from the Gazette. An Oii Fei low Misinu. Ihvid Hall, member of Myrtle Idge No, 11) 1, I.O. 0. F., in Brooklyn, New York, myttenoinly disappeared fro in Milwaukie some two or three months sime. It is feared he was mur dered. Odd Fellow ar-' requeued t: communicate any information tint may be elicited by inquiring in the difiercnt lodges of the United Stn ten ; the same to be directed to the Secretary of the above lodge. Mis Dix i petitioning tlie North Cirolina Legisla ture to endow a Lunatic Asylum, and with to much success that a joint committee has reported a bill np- prujTiuting 100,000 tor the purpose. The Vnion states that Mes-trs. Aspinwall Sc Co. have deposited with the Government of Xuw (Jrenida, tlie sum of six hundred thousand francs, as a guaran tee that they will construct the Pun ami railroad within a given period. ' ;Thc It'ctv Year's Xight of mi C nluippy 1 One. FROM THE HERMAN OF JEAN TAUE RICHTER. J In New Year's night an old man stofnl at the win dow, but cast a look of deep despair tip to the un changing, ever-blooming ky, and down upon the still, pure, snowy earth, on which now no one was : o ben ft of joy and sleep, as I.e. For his grave stood close before him. It was covered only by the ! ! snow of nge, not by the verdure of youth, and ho j took nothing with him from this whole, rich life i nothing but errors, sins and d. sense, nit emaciated I body, n desolate soil his bosom, full of poison and nn age full of repentance. The benutiful days of Iii youth were changed to-day into ghriKts, ami trans ported him back to thnt bright morning, where his father had first placed him on the cross-roads of life, which to the right, upon the sunny road of virtue, leads into a w ide, peaceful land, full of light and har vest of angels, and which on the left drags down in to the mole-hills of vice, into a black cave, full of dropping poison, full of biasing snakes, and black, hot vapors. Alas, the serpents clung around his breast, and the drops of poison were upon his tongue, and he knew not where he was. Unconscious, and with inexpressible grief, he lift ed up his hands townrds heaven, and exclaimed: "Oh, give me back my youth ! Oh father, place, place me once more upon the eross-roads, that I may choose otherw ise !" Rut his father and his youth had long passed away. He saw ignus fatni dancing upon swamps and extinguished iu church ynrds, ond he said : "They are my days of folly !" He saw a star fly from heaven, it glittered in its fall, and vanished on the earth. "Thatis I !" said his bleeding heart, and the serpent teeth buried themselves deeper into his wounds. ILs glowing imagination showed him stealthy sleep walkers on the roof ; nnd the windmill lifted up its arm, ready to crush hirn, and a skull in the emp ty chnmel house by degrees assumed his features. In the midst of this convulsion the New Year's music suddenly floated down from the steeple, like distant church songs. His emotions became more tender; he looked around the horizon and over the wido earth, and he thought on the friends of his youth, who now, happier and better than he, were fathers of happy children nnd blessed men, and In; said, "Alas, I too might like you have been bleeping with tearless eyes through this New Year's night, if I hnd chosen. A Jas, 1 might have betn happy, dear par ents, if I had fulfilled your New Year's wishes and admonitions." In the feverish recollection of his youth, it appear ed to him as if the skull with his features was aris ing iu the charnel-house; finally, through the super stition, which in the New Year's night beholds spir its and futurity, it was converted into a living youth, like the beautiful youth on the cnpitol, extracting a thorn from his foot, and bitterly his fancy showed him h;s blooming figure. He could view it no more: he covered his eyes ; a thousand hot tears vanished in the snow : disconso late and despairing he sighed lowly "Return, O ! youth, return !" And it did return ; for he had only dreamed so hor ribly in the New Year's night, he was still a youth. His sins alone, hnd not been a dream ; but he thank ed (red that he, still young, had it still in his power to withdraw from the filthy wavs of vice, and to re- ! turn to the sunny paths which leads to the pure land ! of harvest.1. I Turn back with him, young reader, if you nre I standing on the path of error! This horrible dream j will by and by become your ju !ge, but if you should j once cry out in misery, "return, beautiful youth !" it would never return. "This statue is preserved on the capital of Rome, nnd is nexl to the Appullo of Belvidere ; it i considered one of the most perltet pieces of workmanship which anti quity produced. The Old Year :m the New. 1S13 (spaKs.) I faint upon December's lap of tmow, I watch my lees of life drop 0110 by one J Young forty-eight is on the wntch below, To till my hoes, nliuoft ere. breiith be gonu. But listen, greedy heir, lhe;igh faint nnd old, .My heart id hig with work, not worked in vain ; Tfiis hnnd, now palsied, forced Protection's hold And loosed the giant Commerce from his chain. And nil thu night, the hint night of my life, Er I go hffice In join the hosü of Tune, I Imo InuJ glorious vision-. W'nr ami Strif Lay dead, und by them Hunger, Hate nnd ('rime. Ami INiace nnd Plsnly, Knowledge, Hope and Love. Shotn? round my bed like angels, und bowed down To my dim eyes ; and then liier came a dovo That placed on my fore hair an olive crown. Who will crown thee, young upstart? What remain Of glory f.ue!i as mine beneath the stnm ? The year thnt sho k from Industry her chains, Tlie year that ppoko tlie doom ot huuinn warn. 1 3 11) (znsictrs.) Kcowl not in death, old n'tre, nor think my hand Would break one leaf from off thy crow n : In thee I bow to a great year ; but through the land Achievement huge enough i left for inc. Tliv boon u incomplete ; what hast thou given, Matt-rial hleNRing to material man Who wnila what 1 mut du, ere he have striven L'p 10 the compile ot his huniou vp-in. Thou gavest wealth I'll teach him how to use it ; Thou g ivt st peace it arts I most beMow ; War, thanks tu tliee, is hucIi that they who choose it Choose isolation, btgg.iry nnd wo. Bui Ig'-orance i left, nnd where thnt is li war 'twill li?hl nnd ilarkriifs ; be it mine To chase, that darkne bark to tho abyn, To lift that light, wide n nge, sex or clime. What school mut I not build ? What priimna purgo ? What self-content d loulut n clear nway ? Oli, there M work for me and in my dirg Deeds may be told, great in in thine, to-day -Punch. South Carolina. The Committee on Federal Relations in the Senate of South Carolina have pre sented resolutions declaring "That this General Assembly cordially approves and adopts, ns its own, the resolutions passed by the Legislature of Virginia in the year 147, wherein it is asserted that under no circumstances will that body recognize any enactment of the federal government which has for its object the prohibition of slavery in any territory acquired either by conquest or treaty atid that the passage of the Wilmot Proviso by Con gress, makes it the duty of every slave-holding State and all citizens thereof, as they value their dearest privileges, their sovereignties their independence their rights of property to taxo firm, united, and concerted action in this emergency." In the House the same commute.) reported that they agreed with the governor, but that the present mo ment is not propitious to decisive action. Governor Seabrook, iu his inaugural address, urges tho citizens of South Cirolina to discharge all the ir constitutional obligations, but bo prepared for every emergency, and "all to redouble their vigilance in guarding from pollution the precious heritage of a common ancestry." He say 'Wheneve tho citizens of the Slave States shall firmly believ '.hat the compact to which their fathers subscribed, secures neither liberty nor property to them or their posterity, it will be idle to waste time in conjectures concerning tho future. The result is already known. The head nnd heart of the patriot proclaim it. That period, in the solemn judgment of him who addresses you, is rapidly approaching. lo be reNidy to meet it, is u dutv you owe to the State, the Union, nnd the cause of Constitutional liberty." G Hiera I Owens subsequently reviewed the Fiflh re'giment eif cavalry, addressing them iu a spirit htirring speech of twenty minutes long, iilluding "to the gallant achievements of our officers and privates in tho Mexican wur, and warning the troop to be prepared for nny issue, wen one of power that may grow out f our present relations with the Federal Government.' OT" The following significant prediction occurs in a recent British Mngazine: Men will not always circumnavigate the earth to convey merchandise from one point to another. They w ill not take goods around Cape Horn, or tho Cape of Good Hope, on the way from Canlon to New York. The oriental trade of America, will, infallibly, some day find its way across the Ann ncan continent. The straits of Juan de Fuca, will be the funnel through which it will be poured into the New World. The Government of Territories. In l'-2-$, Criief Justice Marshall gave nn opinion in a Florida case (I. Peters) which bears on this ques tion, and nlsoon the da very queetioti. The court took into view the relation in which ! Florida, as a territory stood to the United States, "The Constitution," says Chief Ju-ti-e Marshall, "confers absolutely on the Government of the United States tho power of making war and treaties ; c nv- quently that Government possesses the power of ac quiring territory, cither bv conquest or by treaty." The usage of the world is, if a nation be not en tirely subdued, to consider the holding of conquered territ.-ry as a mere military occupation until its fate be determined at the ttraty of pence. If it be ceded by the treaty, the ncquinion is confirmed, nnd the ce ded territory becomes a part ef the nation to which it is nnnoxed, either on the terms stipulated in the trea ty of cession or on such as its new master shall im pose. On such transfer of territory it has never been field that the relations of the inhabitants with each other undergo any change. Their relations with their former Sovereign are dissolved, and new relations are created between them and the government which has acquired the ir territory. The mere net which trans fers the allegiance of those who remain in it; and the law which may be denominated ol iticnl, is ne cessarily changed, although that whi- h regulates the intercourse and general conduct ef individuals, re main in force, until altered by the newly created pow er of the State." 'The tieaty by which Florida was ced-d is the law of the land, and admits the inhabitants of Flori da to the enjoyments of the privileges, right3 and im munities eif the citizens of the United State. It is unnecessary to inquire, whether this is not their con dition, independent of stipulation. They do not, ho w ever, participate in political power; they do not share in the government, till Florida shall become n State. In the mean time Florida continues to be a territory of the United States, governed by virtue of that clause of the Constitution, which empowers Congress "to make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or ether property belonging to tlie United States." Perhaps the power of governing a territory belong ing to the United States, which has not, by becoming a State, acquired the means of self-government, may result necessarily from the fact, that it is not within the jurisdiction of nny particular State, and Is within the power and jurisdiction of the United States. The right to govern may be the inevitable consequence of the right to acquire territory. Whichever may be the source whence the power is derived, the possession of it is unquestioned. In execution of it. Congress in lt"22, passed 'an act for the establishment of a terri torial government in Florida." The people will administer these laws through such agents ns they may appoint, and they may, undoubt edly, provide any law suitable to them nnd not con flicting with the dominion of the United States. The treaty by which Florida, was ceded, was con cluded on the 2d February, 1810. But the Act for the establishment of a Territorial Government did not pass till 1622. In the samo time, however, an net was passed under which General Jackson directed the temporary government with the power of tho Captain Genera! of Cuba. The territorial legislature, established under the Act of 1122, passed a Salvage Act, which it was attempt ed to set nsideas inconsistent with the laws and Con stitution (d the United States, and the Act establish ing tho Territorial Government. The Supreme Court decided that the Act was valid, and 0:1 the ground "'i'h'tt aH Itiir which were in force ia E'ori la whVe a Province oj Sp'iin, those excepted which were politi cal in their character, which concerned the relations between the people and their sovereign, remained in ! force until altered Inj the (ioccrnwnl of the Failed States. No laws could then have been iu force, but tlewe enacted by the Spanish Government." The Oth Art. of the treaty with .Mexico stipulates that the Mexicans in the "territories which remain from the? future within the limi's of tho United States as defined by the present treaty," who shall preserve the characters of citizens of the Mexican Republic, 'shall In' incorporated into the Fnion of t'i" Fuittd St, des, and be admitted at the proper time (to be judg ed of by the Congress of the United States,) to the enjoyment of aH the rights of citizens of the United States, nccording to the principles of the Constitution, and in the mean time shall be maintained and protec ted in the free enjoyment of their liberty and proper ty, and secured in theexere:se ol their religion with out restriction. This and the fifth article, which defines the boun dary line between the United States nnd Mexico, are the only provisions of the treaty which rel ite to the future government and laws of California and New Mexico. It appears, therefore thnt the Mexican laws-, except thoHO of a political character, which were in force while California was a province of Mexico, will re main in force, until altered bv the government of the United States. Who are lo administer these laws? Not the com mander of the military district. Not on liicer op pointed by the President. The people have the un questionable right, iu the absence of legislation by Congress, to appoint their magistrates, and even to enact such laws as they wish, provided that they do not conllict with the sovereignty of the United States. The Tuhlic L'.iihIs, A':iiii. The question of making free the public lands to 11c tunl settlers, is comparatively a new one in the politi cal circles, yet so obviously just nnd humane is the doctrine, that it has gained favor among the masses of the people', nnd we look ahead to the triumph of this doctrine at in distant day. The legislation of this country has too long been directed to tl. upbuild ing of capital nt the exp-'iisu of lauor, to the protec tion of mtmeif instead of the natural rights if 711. The great end ef government should be the protec tion of man in the enjoyment of his natural rights, and not in the conferring on the possessors of wealth, of money, the power to wring from the ha rely to.lers the production of their labor. It should he tlie object of legislation to protect the weak against tlie oppres sions eif the strong and the intrigues of the designing. Among the first of man's natural rights, is 1 hut of life ami the natural elements to sus'ain it, land, air, water, and the free light of heaven; and each one of these is as necessary to his subsistence ns another, they are the natural, and the only natural nnd necessa ry means of his subsistence, and they are all the free gift of the Creator to the creatures he has made. De prive a man of either of those natural e lements, and ho becomes a pensioner upon tho bounty of his fellows and a trespasser upon tin? enrth. N dl.ing can ndd more to the prosperity of the country, nothing can better serve to perpetuate e-ur free institutions than to secure to tho people their natural right to a portion ef land. There is land enough upon this continent for a home for every one of its inhabitants, but the enger grasps of the avaricious speculators are fast fasten ing upon it their ravenous clutches, nnd unlessa time ly remedy is applied, it will he in this country ns it is in the countries e f the Old World, that the land will be monopolized by a few, while the mass ef the peo ple will be mere tenantry, compelled to pay the land lord for the God-given right to life and the means for its support. Tiuly, the public lands are tho properly eif the peo ple, ond as they are so, nnd ns man has an inaliena ble right to life nnd to the henven-hestowed mentis fir its support, let Congress and State Legislatures detote more of their time to securing and "prolcting" these rights of the whole people, and less to granting to enpitnl nnd associations of capitalists the power to ride the people booted nnd spurred. The lands nre the people's, nnd t heir's is the powe-r to put a check upon their being the subject e.f ucnopoly, nnd will they not do itl" The arguments of our friend of the Sentinel can not be successfully cemtroviTte'd. They ore; self-evident Truths, which no sophistry enn overthrow. Our National Congp'ss, instead of being the agents or sen ants id' llie lVoph, nssumo to be principals nnd masters; nnd entirely eiverlook the rights and inter ests e;f the People. A sound Public Opinion, is the corrective eif rill Evils ; nnd tho time is not far distant when the Rights of the Masses must and shall be respected. Pittsburgh Post. Eor's Win: (Jone. This well known mass of rock, situated on the Singapore? side of the western cut m nre to New Harbor, railed by thu natives Hutu Rclayir, nnd by Europeans Lot's Wife, recently dis nppeured. This rock which wns composed of a mass of very hard conglomerate, partially christ ilied, Iimh been known to navigators in thoSirui'.s for many hun dred year.", und, we believe, figures upon old charts enslaved upwards of LM'O years ngo. California. Tn;: Goi.p Region. After a careful examination of the accun's from the "Gold Region," by C d. Mason, Mr. Larkiu, Mr. C i!tn and others, we ascribe three fourths to exaggeration, produced by excitement. Each of the narrators seems to have been dazzled, and in no oiidition to consider s ber realities. Col. Mit- son, wh . trav. lh d up the American Fork, a branch ! . 1' ,i , 11 . ' 1 , I ol the Sacramento, saw gold em its banks, and on r, . 1 b,, ... . . i- those r the tributaries. But nil Ins statements of , (piantities rest i;jon the authority of others. VV..v j person tld vie this, and that person told me th-d. j Now as all these person, were oceu:ied in their own i 11:11. -.i.t 1 ' digging, anil highly excited, they gave themselves no t " . .1 . time lor inspecting the operations of each other; and hence neither -f them was the best authority for the success of his neighbors. And under such excitement, we must take for gran'.ed that great stories would readily start up from triues, n,,d grow rapidly in trav- ... J T, '. . ., , , -,,', 3 ' ellmg. hut taking the wnole e,t Col. Mason 3 est,. mate, founded upon w hat be was told, we find an ng- U1V9 Ol llJ VCII I tlH.ll JUIIVIU l i ,t" IM1IJ Hl. Jlj...:- j gate produce will be emly $1,2 IS. 01)0. If the dig-1 .1 rt riP l.s aamIi lFi.iMllif 41M.b..tlT tint a.ri... gers be 50,000, the annual produce will be only $12,500.0' (). If then 4OO.000 men dig gold annua l' lv f.r ten years, at this ratio of produce, the quantity eibtained will be $1 ,2. i0, 000 ,000. And considering that the pre.-ent circulating coin of the world is $.",0t '0,000. 000, nnd that the consumption ef gold in the arts, since the pr cess of magnetic gilding was eliseovered, has mutually increased, we do not appre hend any monetary disturbance, e)r enormous augment ation of prices or depreciation of the previous metals, even should 400,000 men dig gold in California during every working day of the next ten years, at a produce of SlO, by each. 1'ut nobody can dig gold in C ilifor nia during the rainy season of three months; and 400.000 men will not be thus employed there; and the diluvial deposits on these branches of the Sacra mento will not endure for ten years. If the o!d en- e'ures for five yeurs, und 40,000 men dig during 1210 days of each year, each gathering $10 daily, the whole produce will be only $00.(10' 1,01 hi annually, or $-150.000,000 iu five years. The coin now iu the United Stntes amounts to $00,000,000, and the paper to twice as much. If then the whole of this paper be extinguished, nnd its place be supplied by gold, the amount of "circulating medium" among us would be precisely equal to the present. And if the remain der f this gold, $2SS,000,000, should go abroad, ns it would, we see nothing very alarming, to our own country or the world. The account of Mr. Colton, formerly a chaplain in the Navy, now alcalde, or mayor of Monterey, a town of a dozen rnwd huts, is amusing. At all times a pleasing nnd fanciful writer, he has become moro fanciful than ever, through his inoculation with the "yellow fever." After describing tho gold region, like Col. Mason, in glowing terms, he says that one man employs fifty "wild Indians" to dig gold, who are astonished at the nvidity of the "pale fares" for this "yellow dirt," of which the "wild Indians" aforesaid cannot comprehend the value!! That is enough, Mr. Colton ! Itstamps all the rest ! "Wild" Indians in California ! And ignorant eif gold! Cali fornia has b(?cn governed by the Spaniards for three hundred years, who have partially civilized the In dians in all their colonies. r or two centuries at least, these wild" Indians of Calif irnia have lived bv pasturage and agriculture, and not bv hunting; and ever since the region has been known i:i Aineri can trade, hidts, from cattle raised and owned by men, under Spanish laws, have been its staple com modity. And if .Mr. Colton will strny beyond Cali fornia, and find an Indian ;ii the whole North Aincr- scan continent, wi'd or fame, ignorant of gold, and astonished at the avidity of the "pale faces" for "yellow dirt," he will find something that does i.ot exist. This is a little too strong. Make your hum bugs credible, Messrs. Californians ! Do not tax cre dulity too heavily. Another account tells us that, as a party were travelling up the valley of the Sacramento, and stop ped beside a stream to kindle a fire to cook their breakfast, one of them dipped a tin cup full of sand from the stream, washed it and found nt the bottom Fcveral lumps of gold, of considerable size. And this is in a region which these keen gold hunters, the Spaniards, have occupied for three hundred years, without discovering these riches! We repeat our belief, that, tips gold region will prove to be merely the valley of the American Fork, and of its blanches, Feather River and others, that all this gold has been washed from some mine in the mountains, that this deposit will soon be exhausted, nnd that working of the granite ridge will he expensive. Thcn'what means all this exaggeration ? First, it means that the discovery ef diluvial gold, confined to a sinall region, has intoxicated the whole popula tion of California, ns a similar discovery intoxicated the North Carolinians nbout twenty ye-ars ago. Se condly, it means that extensive grantees of land in California want settlers, nnd know that a gold fever will bring them there by tens of thousands. And when they arrive, they will find that digging fir gold, while paying ten dollar for a shirt, and fiftv dollars for a barrel of flour, is unprofitable. Having crowded into the gold region, and not finding enough for all, thi'y will quarrel and fight ; and we shall soon receive deplorable acceumts. The last accounts tell us that some of the squatters already begin to talk ed choaUng the Mormons, those standing objects of lawless and cruel aggression, out of tho gold which they have already gathered. Rut the climate and soil are good, the country has the elements of prosperity, nod will flourish after the "yellow fever" subsides. Pa. Ledger. Concessional Pi.L'mhik. The vote in the House of Representatives, granting to each new member ef this Congre-ss, a library of books for his envn private use and benefit, deserves especial attention and cen sure. Among the additions to the list eif books for this session, is the whole edition of the laws of fhe United States, as published by Little it Rrown, of Roston, in seven royal octavo volumes, at a cost ef $23 per set. The total cost to the treasury ef the liooks this day voted to each new member, is only $022 5-1, and not $10l'0, as I had supposed. The number ed'new membe rs is one hundred and nineteen. and the sum verted in their pockets is $71,082 20. Rut each of the remaining one hundred and eleven, receive the seven vedutnes eif statistics, and sundry other works under the description of" all other books furnished to the members of the Senate last year." Suppose these either works, which se?em to be " too nu merous too mention," cost no more than $72 a set, this sum added to the odd $23 for the laws, will make up the even hundred for each member. This multi plied by one hundred and eleven, will give the aggre gate of $11,100, nnd present a tidal fur book plunder by the members of the House of Representative's for this year, tf $,lb2 20. Does this transaction de serve any either niime than nn net of shnme-ful ro! bery 1 Rut I give you only the means of approxima ting the result. This immense sum would by no means pay the bill. The plunder must be packed carefully lip, in boxes pre pared with great strength and nont. ness, itud these boxes must be marke'd and bhippedolT to the fortunate man's residence. The expense of all this must be defrayed, not out of the member' pocket, but out of tlie public treasury. Upon the w inde, I know tif no either abuse, tinder this government, so utterly barefaced and indefensible, as this annual stealing eif the books. Tho name of every man w ho votes for it, or who takes advnntnge of the wrong by receiving tho books, should be exposed in letters of scarlet before the people tif his district. X. V. Pott' Rr.V. ANtntF.U' RuoAhUs, a distinguished divine of Virginia, died at Newtown, Va.,on the 1st. iti.-t. He was remarkable for his edoquenco, nnd for being total ly destitute of ambition, lie refused the elegrees eif A. M., and D. D., which were conferred upon him by the several colleges. Among his admirer were Chief Justice lUurshall and many of his famous con temporaries. A lump of gold was found in North Carolina, some vears ig , that was worth $-0,000. A Ne.v Volk company bought the land w here it was found at a bioh t.ri.e. Tbc v soent forty thousand ddlirs in . . sinking; a rhnlt, nnd never obtained but three penny weights e.f gold. The place was abandoned, and has ncvci been worked un-e. . t?ATinr.ic Ihsiiois. We hc! i; stnted in the St. I.ouia New hra, that the Rev. M. Vandevehh', lae l'rivmeial of the Society of J emu, iu Missouri, hat been nppointed llishop of Chicago, and the Very Rev. de St. I'ulais, (ftdministrator ol the Dioces?,) ih!iop d Viucenncs. gregatc not very nstonisfiing. rour thousand men ann ay tiiey w bei -fade, but i.-ie uf Hm,- coulJ not bc-Bre"en"ao-ed in di'gin", nnd obtained sVdl U 00 or hi ve H.n t,e mu-i ,!i.-. Mir ai o d.ar tu them, they $00,100 daily. Assuming? 10,000 as the daily aver- J:,"UK!'; !; "' '"v xl'm't ,h VVC , f v ,J . . . ('"J Hot wih hei lt bieath, Sie told ll rm, lo! b. lean on age. we fir. d only $10 d uly lor each man. If tUn ea.u.iy f,,end, but nun ... u,e e mi.i,.otcit a...l denial 4000 men dig incessantly during the JH2 working , Fiifuü. Ci ueaii. a hke the linking ot an infant lo it CO.U 31 UM i : AT I o s. For tie InJian i t:tate 8?ntintl. Tribute ( fhe .lleiiioiy Of Mrs. J- ei'jiim: J. C ;sk, ic 'to depart' dihis life o:i Wrdnt dnj mm niitg, I)C. Ü7. 11. It i fearful in ce a humin m amMi-J sullenly, arnj trudle, taithd an I um.i;icd in th m,. . f dejih. 1'ut tu ee a Chnstiau fade awav foitneaith !ovvly i Calmly, , , , , . ,, , ,'! . , ai a S ,lJe" cl 'u,t " tlie cvrnititr. sVy, lb .uh oleum, 11 Il0, $lk For a the tfauty ..f pnh depru m.t by lint, inj ray bv iav, a h ly, hcav.ntv beauty tA f place a 1'ifht fitb i in tlie eye, müe ef iei aij n on the li: , toi.e t)f n ace and h pe in l!.e low v ice tint i se terfar tli;i the li ijrti'isl iMi:icc, llie vi t mile. the m tt rnuncal t f . . -n ....:,,, r ti note id ttttirr 04 1 I lie ut ji ct id tin n iiie.ua i unir beautiful, and the id d ..f m.n ua.it. si. i,a tWyii.i.lg ti fill tue present wi h hariai , ul the fu'.iie wtia hope, Hut in ihr caily sunnier f the year iu the ;..inn of he r daJr"' he wa anc-t-1 I y disease. Slowly it t.,le u n !,e; rJ ,iralr 'V' ?h V'' TV JTo ! ' ullnir., whufi was t te tier lud of death; ct he i.eter mu,mUltrj St,e formed . b. foei bendf ,. n it t cmde il.c auxi m him sorrow 0 fin iul aim;.d he?r. Dy sleep; nol a ti uüle, ot a .oan, n -l a ih. It wa a passMiig from ca:t!i to Heaven, a vvct and gcu'.le as Ihe pome UP "f ii.e. 1. Pc- Oir.iOjit. the tue z. Ie air Hi r only c liii l a babe on u h te denplc.J cbt ek ihe hii pitAvf J t mother's Wi- f . nii.e months, died a few weeks btfoie her. I'eiba; be pu-ad the ofi wm i.f a chtrob over ber in those UM h oui, and fanned away pun from tier pill w,aiid fear from lu r tieatt. They are re-umted now in a holier, f.zppier hou-c. May they be ihe Kiaidi4ii angels of tlioc Ii1, survive lo m imi ! Aid rtiay (lo.l ivc iu every hrait that blecos t ci eath thi ttioke, that patient and u: trititroui iog faith, which tTUuC her list bents o Uvtly 10 the ight, and tj picci iu? 111 .i. rn tnory ! l"m; Soil .llccitiii;;-- Blurtholoinew Co. At a meeting (f (lie Ficp Soil voti isof lUiihoIomcw coun ty, Ik bl at C lim.bu. on S .tuiday, the 3Jih ult., Iluh Tet iy, Kj , w a p liutcJ C'hau niau , and Dr. May, cIiomu Sec Ktiry. The f.illowi. u-o!uMin w ie adopted : Jifg'j'ret, I Int the vtfi of is iiiliiiomew county, fivora- j ble t) FiCt' Soil j,rii ri !e, be eipnste-J to med in County C ei.tien, at Colombo. "ll Sa(uidy, the 23d int., Ii ap point dt li ates to Ihe C oavt nti hi to be lie! 1 at Itutanapolis, on the lGiti hot , foi the no mnution - f Mate oUVeis. itetolxet. That believu jj us we I , in Ihe itiT'it arid policy of the piiuciples i f the Free S. it paity, we aie ur.wi itm u turp nt any candidate fr a political (dlice, who is uvi known and ph-dd dvot-ate f it oe piinriples. Hi sol ted, 1 hat we ate willing to act and co-operste for success, with all tho-c who will ht.ct!y aid im, and whose practice and puccpU aice with u. Hut to auie in f ihee fsrls, we w.tilj piefer something m.ie than vromtset for Ihr future, and especially, tun such ptomies t.iiy seem to risuie the success of party, i r of private ambition. I'tSoiveJ, That alavciy i an c il every whtie. and there fjie we can nevei countenance its exteiiMon. That we will ajfiee to no cj;npn mie line, tut exclude it, if uc can, from all the Teiiitüiies i f the coiintiy, anj fro'n all the States l.c-teafter t be admitted into the Union, and we cannot sup put aar man fT office, win will not in all lawful ways, la bor for tins en I Jlt solved, That an omiisiun t legislate upon the sutjeel by Cm. nies, becaase the tcr:itory it iww free, is a Uanetou policy, and may pennit initious rteult; and those who ad vorate this cooisc, ca; not be Hue fiuti's of fired. m. and aie not entitled to oar confidence k Kite Soil men. That honerty and candor, as well 1 truth and safety, demand uf us to speak, anl tu legislate w-v, fulty and decisively iu fa vor f Kiec Teintoiies evciy where, and Fice States to be foirned em of them. Jiesolved, That these ptoeeedini be f orwaidcd to the In dianapolis papcis, weh a request that tbey will publish tin m. IILT.II Ti:iU;Y, Chairman. D. May, Sec'y. C:tsS 2 ei u nty. A meeting of the IVmnci a? of Cats County, was held in LeansiHii t, en Saturday. Occ 23. W. Z. Soj1;tf was called to li e Chair, and M. II. Know! in, appointed S.creiaiy. The object f Ihe met -sit the appointment of delei'cs to the State Convention havei: been stated, a commiHec was appointed to ri p nt the nanus ef delegates f t the differ ent town:.ips. On motion, Messi. (Jiovc. Halt, aod Hiin, wre up pointed lo lepoil icsol'itioiH, which wt-ie amended and adopted at follows : Jiesulvrd, Ttiat we have undiminished confidence in tlie coirectucss of ear ( ulitical j iincip.es, a laid down in the Balti noic pta f :m, am! Out tn their C itithni ji.ee alone, cau our countiy find peimanvut piiisj.eiity, and op n those prin ciples alui.e dj we iely bt succcx. ItttdvcJ, That in t he defeat t f oui patty at the täte can vas, we stv no caose f t d.cmn:.. rnent ; be evil will wok its Dwn ruic at d the ie ilt w ill he eie h t a iiturn to thti true principle of our fedeiate uov ei ntnei.t, viz: rion-intei-ferei.ee with the tu'ht and ui!u f the peoj le of the State and Teriitoiies so far as their local laws an I institutions ate in tpuslion, and equal nhi and cal law, lo all pits of our happy and rapidly cxtendiiig irpuMic. Resulted, Thai wc fio.t cuidialty appiove and et. dots P.esiderit Polk's sound and t teminli We view, S to tho faul it suits to ii'ii count i y, which nut t i mc from a tevi- val of tbe tn. called Ainrrtc.ii Sjsietii with tW i'a odi ous deti.ls, co..fcriit' special puvi'ee- on thcric, i-f which the mviy arc deprived, ami iiidir ct taxes wiuiii from the hand of la'or, to bloil with wraOh 'lie fa i ond rUse. lltmlved, 'Ihm weicitt Ok existei le f a paity hacd on a H'ctu'tial qucsti-ui, and d pi cate Ihe c iiie -f such men a are endeavoring to Mir up ani'i.o.ity and .'.life between ditrient pott ions if emr icpubor. UesolvtJ, That we ate in fior of a gradual tcfuin from th evil of the piper curiency afT ided by ibe h.r.kt, lo tt.c cunenry guamit e l by our ghi ions Ceuntitu'i n ; and ate decidedly f the opinion that any attempt to rt-cluiter a Hank of the United Mate, or ic-emct the tanff tf '42, will te aifut the test inttreMi uf the people. The committee to rep -tt the name i f delegates to the Stat Con ventioti, submitted Oie following, which wcic Bgietd to : llootie John lleckley, U t't Mch. hVy. Harrison M I i.ckei, Sjiu'I Ytl..u. lnlhlthtm pivi I L'.i u!, J tines Ibichanin. Adamt Dato I tV.biwn. Mmti Al tiedje. Clay Ashfotd Caitei, NOnn Julian. Aofcf Kli Coltiei. ( Wh Meim. JrJJ'er$"ti Jo' n Kithi,.l hu U'i .on. film mi K W Itu-h. Ia v iJ Miih-r. Clinton John Shiny, 1) McN'.- l. U'uthirigtoii Jam. Came) , A li Kii caHjii. 7'iptun Noah Vandever, Mutes Hauet. DcrrCieek W 21 Pa'teiMt., ltut louglit. J.irkian 0 Kemp, fill llowsid. y.el If Kcifx.jder, I h Keyts, Jee Kiloe, Peter Punkte, W II Juhnswii, C, K ACams, W 7. stuait. S A Hall, J V. Hones, N (J Sco.t.C Taber, A M Hims, Jolm Iluim, J M Keep. tin motion tdil. N. Titrh, it was Jletolved, That each deiette be autb 'iind to appoint a substitute, should tie be uoab'.e lo attend, (in moil in, it was lUt dud. That the proceeding uf this meetinc be p.tb lidud in Ihe lcm cratic Pharos, and the Indiana Sirte Sen tinel be requeued t Copy. W. Z STUART, Chn. M. II. Kwuwltcn, Sec'y. It is proposed in Snith Carolina to erect a monu ment in memory of the dead of the l'almetto Regi ment. Its bnso w ill be of Hough natural rtn-k of pyr- ninidical rhape, My feet t-quire at the base, thirty five feet high, hi this block will be formed a cham ber wherein will be erected three tombs, one of w hich will contain the remains of Col. 1'ut 1 r. another those of Id. Col. Dickinson, nnd the third those of the com missioned tdlicers killed iu Mexico, (hi two Kides eif the chamber will be runted niches wherein will Im pla:e'd the remains of the non-commissioned otlicer nnd private, and the Regimental and Company Hags ure to be bung upon the walls. Suitab'e inscriptions are to be placed upon the doors, etc. L'pon the pyra mids is to be placed a funeral urn of great size, sur mounted by an lvtgle, and tbe entire height of tho monument will be seventy fet. At the base of tho urn lire to be deposited several emblematic devices. Gerrit Smith' Colored Settlement in Florence, New Ve:rk, is now in full pn-gre-sa. A building to bold 70 families w ill be finished I y the first of January. Tho property has plenty f writer hwt. nnd grift and saw-miils have been piojected. Mr. Smith has given a number of farm to enterprising co..re-d persons, and the Florence Assoziation intend to purchase nev eral hundred acres mound them. Iu the settlement, the village? lots nre selling for thrze dollars per lot, the lots contain a quarter e f an acre each which will enabk each person to have thirty acres, with the ad vantage d the timber. Messrs Fillmore. Fish Morgan, Spencer, and other prominent mzn of New Vork have contributed to promote the object. The cause t)'' the ntVray in winch Dr. l'dward Skill mill was killed at lUton" Rogue by Dr Dyrd, appears to have been the seduction by M. e.f a female of the fjmily of S. S. v.;is the attacking parly, and, after he was moitaliv wou ided himself, was in the act f stubbing ltvrd wben sonn person pulled htm citl". P.yrd e scaped to Mobile. Skillunii wa u young man, and Ihe prop of I. is family, rcsidmi; in Ouehita. 'Tun Hack- Tiuck." Tin National Intelligencer ..1- .i nv a eeiitlenom, w hotn Ihe dazzling pronpevi early j induced In Mutt lor lip? gold digging, by the Chagrin toule, hns just returned, after getting as far a Panama, finding there two thousand persons entit'ed to precedence in the ves-els from thence; aijJ it in t.0,pUt,.u t.rü nre -ix thousand there now togcr for ft cjalt.u lt) Sin pT!lliet . ; The soil in Kiighn d. whicit n century ngo win ow ned by three hundred thousand peinr., is at tin time owned by '; ty-ln W'riJ indivi mi..