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Indiana State sentinel. (Indianapolis, Ind.) 1861-1865, January 04, 1864, Image 1

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VOL. XXIII, -NO. 31.
WHOLE NO. 1,277
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A Ureal Catholic Prelate on Maverj
Letter of the late Itlght Her Dr.
England, liilpof ( barleslsn.
To the Hon. John f-orsy'A, Stcrttartj of Stair,
United Slatri:
Sin I proceed to examine the titles whicb tli
Tines and c.n o.iirts h ie consi'iertd to be good
and valid lor the posc.'Miou or a slave.
. In their definitions ami remarks they alrny
restrict that domiiiioti to what is called service of
the body, not of the s-juI, which I at tor was not
he! 1 in bondtge.
" The slave accoimtuble lo GikI ur his mor-
litj, and hence the m tster could not require him
to lay aside the practice kI religion, or to do ait
immural act, but he could commacJ his labor,
and was bound, to give the necefs-tries of life.
' Bergier very pruptrlv lemarks. (Diet. Theot
yy- Art. Etelav,) ih l in the w.-tiideritig state of
e-trij tribes and families!, where civil society had
jet been scarcely, and in oidy few places estab
lished, gerviirit could rot change his master
without expatriation, nor could master tend
away his servant without destnying Iiis family,
and in this state of things domestic slavery be
came inevitable It was, however, he remarks,
very greatly mitigated under the patriarchal gov
ertimeut, and he instances one great benefit
which would accrue, though .certainly very sel
dom t the servant. Genifis i v. 2: "And A bra m
tid. Lord (Jod, what wilt thou give me? I shall
go without children: and th bjm of the steward
of my house is this Dannscus Eliezer. J-And
Abrain added: but to me thou ha.-t not given
seed; and lo my servant born iti my house shall
be my heir."
lie adds, that civil liberty became a benefit
only after the establishment of civil society, when
man hid the protection ol I
. and mnllirdietl
f.ilii; for aiitwwtonf- that mi.ii. tn ti.i- K- i
obit frolom mihi x an i.,inr t rwr.,. I
bereft "ol Hocks, herds, lan is and servants; bence
that Abraham and the other patriarchs held great
numbers of shtves. whom they treated with pa
rental care, and governed by wholesome discip
line, and whose services weie absolutely the
property of their m isters
Job possessed slave, and he treated them with
kindness, xxxi 13: "If 1 have despised to abide
judgment with my man servant, or my maid ser
vant, when they had controversy agaiust mi.
14. For what shall I do. when God will rise to
judgef And when he shall examine, w hat shall
I ausver bitu? . 15 Did i.ot he that made m in
Iti 9 womb make Iiitn also, and did not one and
the same form us iu the wombT" .
Uo came tho?e patriarchs lo have property
in those slaves? Many of them were bom in
their houses, that is, of their servants, and this
was acknowledged to be a good title, not only by
the law of nations, but clearly, iu the case be due
us, by the law of God. But how were their pa
xeut3 slaves? Perhaps originally they voluntari
ly became so They might jUo have been
bouuht ftofn others, who bad acquired a just do
minion, by that or by some other good title. I
am now otdy treating of the title which rests on
birth, the rati lity of which the p itrt irehs thus i
testified. In Gene-is xiv. 14. we bud Abraham
arming three hundred and eighteen of his trained
servants b rn in his hou-e, to accompany hiin to
the rescue of Lot. In ch tpter xv. we tiud Ehrzcr
Damascus, bis servant Ixun in li s hou.-e. In
chapter xvi. we find Agar, the Egyptian, a maid
or slave of Sarai, whom she introduced as a wife
of an inferior rank to Abraham. In chapter xxi.
we Mud liiis bondswoman, or sltve o( Sarai, to
gether with her son I-hm ie', who was the slave
equally as he was the sou of Abraham, scntaway
by the direction of her mistress Sarai, as in chap
ter xvi we find that Abraham declared to Sarai,
"ßeho'd thy handmaid is in thy own hand, use
her as it pieaseth thee." Gro:ius says it was a
concession of power even to put her to death, aud
St. John Clin so' tor;), Horn. 37, describes it as an
uiilimitcd power of punishment for petulance and
insuthordiiiation; which Calmet.in his remarks ou
this place, says every master had over his slave,
'aud every husband had over thelave of his wile.
In chapter xvii , when God is m iking a covenant
with Abraham, he recognizes the validity of this
title to servitude by birth. 12. "He that i? born
in the house, as weil as the bought servant, shall
be c-ircumcised."' . 23. "Then Alrahaiu took
Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his
home, and all w hom he had bought, every male
among the men of Lis house, and be circuiuciiMal
the Meh of their foreskin, forthwith the very
same dar, as Ojd had comm.ttidel him." 27.
"And all the men of his house, aa well as they that
were born in bis hou-ea the bought servants and
Btraoers, wtre circunwised with him." -.
Thus God himself recognized the validity of
tiw) t'tle to a slave founded upon purchases, as
-well asapeni birth.. . ,
The title bj donation or gilt U equally plain
as is tkvt by purchase. Gencsi xx 14: "And
Abimeleth took sheep, and oxen, ' and hervanls.
fn-i hand maids, and gave to Abraham." They
accompanied their mistress upon m irriite.
(Genesis xxir. til.) . We may observe the same
in Genesis xxx. 43; xxxi. 21.
The titles thus seen are, fair purchase, or gift,
and birth.
When" Mose led the people from Egypt, the
Lord himself gave to him. in the deert, I iw not
only for morality, but also for the ritual service
of religion, and a civil or political code.
- I sli til dweil very brietly upon this latter: but
.1 shall previously remark that, iu the great moral
code known as the Decalogue, the Almighty
. reeosrnize the legitimate existence ot sUvety.
Exodus xx. 10: "But on the seventh day is the
d abbat h of the Lord thy GoJ; thowshalt do no
work on jt, t&oa ir thy n, nor thy daughter,
nor thy roan servant, nor thy maid servant, nor
thy beast, nor the arranger that is within thy
gates." 17: "Thon bah not covet thy neigh
bor's louse; neither shall th'Mi deire his wife,
nor his servant, nor his h n duuid; iror his ot.nor
Li.- as, nor nny thin that m hi." - - s
In the political or civil legwlatiow, of which
. iod himself ia the author, we find provUioo made
for -, - - :
. :: 1. The temporary slavery of a Heorew. Ex
, Oda xxi. 2: "If iböii buy a Hebrew eervapt. six
years shall he serve thee; nd in tha seventh
";yearh shall go free, for nothing." Leviticus
xxv. 3U: ."If thy brother, constraiued by pof eriy,
sell himself tr thee, thou shalt not oppres him
w-iU tb serric of boo. J tervaats. 40. Bat ha
shall be with thee as a hireling and a sojourner;
he shall work with thee until the year of the
jubilee. 41. And afterwards- he shall go out
with his children, and shall return to his kindred
and the possession of his fathers. : 42. For they
are my servants, and I brought them out of the
land of Egypt; let them not be sold as bonds
men. 43. A 111 .c t him ut) t by might, but fear thy
God." -!'.
. 2. Provision warf made for his clothing aod his
fmily. Exodus xxi. 3: "With what raiment he
came in, with the like let him go out, if haviog a
wife, his wife Jiall go out with him." Leviticus
axv. 41: "He shall go out with his children."
Thus the Hebrew could sell only his labor until
ibe rear of the jubilee, because God bestowed on
him a special right.. 42 Iiis wife and children
were free; and Ca I met, quoting Seiden, (Ii. 6. c
i. de jure uat. et gent ,) states that the master
was obliged to support the family.
3. Provision was made for his relief at the time
of completing his servitude Deuteronomy xv.
1: "In the seventh jenr thou shall make a re
mission." 12 "When thy brother, a Hebrew
toan, or a Hebrew woman is sold to thee, and
Unh served thee six years, in the seventh tbou
ahalt let him go free. 13. And when thou send
est him out free, thou ehalt not let him go away
empty. 14. But halt give him for his way. out
of tby Hock, and out of thy barn floor, and thy
wine press, wherewith the Lord thy Uod shall
bless thee. 15. Remember that tbou also wast
a bond servant in the laud of Evpt, and the Loid
thy Uod made thee free: and therefore I now
command thee this." 18. "Turn Dot aay thy
eyes from them, when thou makest them free;
because he hath served thee six years, according
to the wages of a hireling: that the Lord thy God
may bless thee in all the works thou dost.
4. Provision wa mde for the case of his mar
rjing a slave. Exodus xxi. 4: "But if his master
give him a wife, and she hath borne him sons and
daughters, the woman and her children ?hll be
her master's; but he hiuuclf shall go out with his
3. Provision was made for the man's continu
ance in eervitude should he prefer it to his liberty,
in onler to remain with Iii enslaved wife and
children. Exodus xxi. 5: "And if the servant
shall say: I love my master, and my wife and
childreu. I will not go out tree. G. His master
shall briu bim to the gods (judges), and he shall
be set to the door and the posts, and he shall bore
his ear through with an awl. and he shall be his
servHnt forever." Deuterouomy xv. 16: "But
if he shall sat: 1 will not depart; because rre
loveth thee aud lltv house, and findeth thit he is
well with thee 17. T1k.u shall take an awl, and
bore through his ear in the door of thy house;
and he shall serve thee lrver; thou shaltdo iu
like manner to thr. woman servant l"."
6 Provision was made for the case of a Hebrew
who sold himself in servitude to a stränget. The
de-ire oJ the great legislator of this people was,
to keep them separate from the other n.uion.. and
especially to preserve their cligion, by prevent
ing their falling under :he dominiou of the idola
trous people by whom they, wet e surrounded.
Hence the gie.ttesl care w;is taken to prevent
servitude to strangers, and to facilitate, without
injustice, the redemption of those who became its
subjects Thus it was regulated. Leviticus
xxv. 47: ''If the hand ot a stranger or a sojourn
er grow strong among you. and thy brother,
being impoverished, sell himself to him or to any
of his race. 43. Aller the sale, he may be re
deemed. lie that will of his brethren may redeem
him." Tlie lol!owinj verses show the power the
servant had of redeeming himself, by paying at
the rate of the hire of a servant, in the ratio of
the time to the jubilee. And an injunction was
given not to permit the strange' to treat him with
cruelty; at all events he was to be free in the
year of the jubilee
7 Provision was made for fugitive slaves un
der peculiar circumstances. (Deuteronomy xxiii.
8. Hebrew parents were permitted, tinder cer
tain circumstances, to sell their children to their
own brethren Sj ccial provisions arc made for
the treatment of young females thus sold. Exo
dus xi 7. She was to be treated differently from
a bondwoman. 8. The buyer could sell her, but
not to a foreigner. 9. If his son marries her, she
shall be treated as his daughter. 10. If she be
set aside for another wife, she must be fully pro
vided for. II. Should there be a neclect of any
' "e-'e conotttous, sne uecame tree
'J The Hebrews were allowed to have foreign
ers and their descendants in perpetual slavery.
Leviticus xxv. 41: "Let your bondmen 'and bond
women be of the same nations that are round
about you. 43. And of the strangers that o
journ among you, or those that were born of them
in your land, these you shall have for servants "
59: "And by right of inheritance, shall leave
them to your posterity, and shall possess them
ID. Where slavery did not exist, there could
not be the crime which is made capital in Exo
dus xxi. IG: "He that shall steal a man and
sell him. being convicted of the giilt, shall be
put to death; and in Deut. xiv. 7: "If any man
be found soliciting his brother of the children of
Israel, and selling him, shall take a price, he
shall le put to de.ih,and thou shalt takeaway
the evil from the mid-tot thee."
II. The excesses of masters in the punishment
of j-livea were provided against by the law in
Exodus xxi 20 and 21: "lie that striketh his
bouduuii or bondwoman with a rod. und they
die under his hands, shall be guilty of the crime.
But if the party remain alive a. day or two, he
shall not be subject to the puUhnieut. because it
is his in nev " And again in v. 26 and 27:
"If uti.v moii .-trike the eye of his oitti servant
or maid servunt.und leave them but one eve, he
shall let them go fiee for the eye which fie put
out. Also, it lie strike a tooth out of his man
servant or maid servant, he shall in like maiintr
make them free."
12 Compensation was provided for the mas
ters wnse slaves had been injured. (Exodus
xxi ) Of a wicked ox that was known to be dan
gerous, 52: "If he asault a bondsman or a
bondswoman, the owner of the ox shall give thirty
sicUs of silver (the usual price of an ordinary
slave.) to their m is er, aud the ox shall be
13. In the precepts relating to the observance
of religious ceremonies, as well as respecting the
Sabbath, the eternal Law giver draws the dis
tinction between the free and the slave, Deuter
onomy xii. 1): "In the place which the Lord
your God shall choos, that his name may be
therein. Thither shall you bring all the things
that I command you. holocausts, and victims,
and tithes, and the first fruits of your hands, and
whatsoever is the choicest in the gifu which you
shall vow to the Lord. 12. There shall you
(east before the Lord your God, you and vour
sons and daughters, your men servants and your
maid servants, and the Levite tint dwelleth In
jour cities" The same distinction is repeated
in v. IS, and iu Deut. xxi. 1114
I may now enumerate several ti'.les of domin
Ion pj iiiilv expressed, or manifestly adverted to
in this code emulating from U I himeir.
1. A m tu 'dispose of his own liberty. (Ex
odui xxi 5; Lvit. xxv. SU; Deut. xv. 15 ) I
am aar ire ts it Judge Blackstone and Montes
quieu appear to contend against the right of anv
man- to sacrifice his liberty. It Is by assuming
the existence of a parallelism which does not ex-
it. viz: that liberty is an equal good with lile,
and because man has not the power of disposing
of the latter, he h s, therefore, no power to dis
pose of the former . '
The divine legislation of the Hebrews, is how
ever, ouitc decisive.
2. A person is boni in servitude. (Exodus
xxi. 4; Levit. xxv 4., 47 )
3. Children sold by their parents. f,Exodus
xvi 7; Isaiah I. I.)
4. Thieves unable to make restitution and
pay the penalty legally inflicted. (Exodus
xxi. 3)
5. We End that a creditor could also take h
debtor or his children to serve for the redemption
of the debt. (4 or 2 King, chap iv.)
ü Purchase i recognized throughout as
good title to the services oi one already e;t-
1 ivei
7. blaves were wide in war. (Ueut. xx. r.
II) .'
I bas, sir, all the divines of the Komm C alio
lie Church acknowlelge that they find, in the
dirine legislation, for the Hebrew people, Ihe re
cognition of slavery, aud the enactment of pro
visions for it regulation
It was not contra rr to the law of nature, or
else the God of nature could not have permitted
Its sine ion in thtt code which he gave lo his
eliosen people It was not incompatible with the
practice of pore aud undetiled religion because
it was, at ieist, permitted by Hi ta who is the
jrreat and sole object of the highest religious
bom ire. It was. In many cases, rather a source
of Drotectioa than of evil tu it unfortunate
subjects. . . -j ''. ' , - ?i::3:r?
St. Augustine, stated that slavery was s. con
sequence of sin, (lib. xix. De civitate Dei. cap.
15 ,) not that the sinful individual Is always the
slave, but tUat this evil was inflicted upon a sin
ful world, as werj sickness, war,' famine, ie.,
whereby It often happens that the less sinful are
afll'cted, that they may, by such chastisement,
be turned more to the service of God, and brought
to bis enjoyment. He refers to the example of
Daniel and his companions in the Babylonian
captivity, whereby Israel wa brought to repent
ance. And he shows from the etymology of the
name Sercu$, that, according to be law of na
tions at the time, the conqueror had at his dis
posal the lives of hii' captives, foae of whom
were tervati or serri that is kept from destruction,
and their lives ppired npon the condition of
doing works of laborious drudgery for their mas
ters. In his chapter 16. he shows the distinctions in
bodily employment and labor between the son
and the servant; but as regards the soul, ach
was equally under the master's care, and de
served a like protection Hence, the masters
were called Patret Fmilia$, or "Fathers of the
Household," to show that they should consult
for the eternal welfare of their slaves as a father
for that of his children. And he insists npon the
right and obligation of the master to restrain his
slaves from v"n:e, to preserve due discipline, to
govern with firmness and yet with affection. And
liofonlvbr verbal correction, but if, unfortu
nately, it should be requisite, with moderate cor
pore tl chastisement; not merely for the punish
ment of delinquency, but also for a sanitary mo
nition to others. He proceeds still further to
show that it is a public duty, because the peace
of the vicinage depends upon the good order of
its families; and the safety of a State depends
upon peace and discipline "of all the vicinages
within its precincts
Thus he exhibits the principles that pervaded
the code giren by God himself" to the Hebrew
I shall continue, sir, to treit the progress of
legitimate slavery in its subsequent history.
I have the honor to be, s r.
Hespert f till v, &o .
fj.mx, H:shop of Charleston. -Charleston,
S. C , October 13, 1840.
Sis: The Divine sanction for the existence ol
fclavery, and for the various titles by wjiich prop
erly in slaves maybe acquited, being shown, it
would rest ujou those who deny its religious le
gality to day to prove di-ahictta that this sanction
bad been withdrawn. or would it uns wer their
purpose to p.eid lint the political and civil code
of J udea was not to be obligatory upon Christians,
because we do not assert their obligation upon us;
but we declare that they contained no sanction
incompatible with the natural law, or the princi
ples ot sound morality; and they did contain the
sanction of slavery, and of the titles of ucaui
siiioti. w hich, we sir. cannot therefore be im
roorl. utiles they be incompatible with laws
subsequently enacted. This enactment is io be
pruved bj those who oppose us, nd must be,
at leat, ns tla:o as what we have exhibited).
The view which I have taketi was confined to
J udea because it was only there I could procure
oisuutt and direct evidence of the Divine sauc
tion. Nor was this a privilege of that people, be
cause we tiud it in existence previous to the for
mation of the Hebrew natiou. Abi melee, the
colemporary of their great progenitor, gave slaves
to Abraham; and as he could not convey a better
title than existed iu himself, if be did not law
fully own the slaves, Abraham could not lawfully
accept them. Bathuel was not a Hebrew, and he
had slaves, some of whom accompanied his
daughter Rebecci. Laban was not a Hebrew,
nor was Job. It was not then a privilege granted
to the Hebrew people, nor to Abraham and his
progeuy, but it was a common right, and subject
to tue legisjicive regulation ol nations.
Its existence was very extensive, it not univer
sal and the regulations couceruing it varied iu
the several' States and nations. The exhibition
of their difference would be an idle and useless
display of references to the various codes and
customs of the Gentile world. The number of
slaves are v great. In Attica, at one period,
when the ciliaeus did not amount to thirty thou
sand, the slaves w ere four hundreJ thousand: this
disparity iu numbers was not, however, a fair
representation of the world, uor even of Greece
itsell. The generally acknowledged titles, bv
the law of nations, wete purchase, birth, legal
conviction, or capture in a just war.
It will be well to observe it' this place, and
the principle will be ol ecutiel importance in
examining the apostolic letters of the Holy See,
that war wasred lor that mere pretext of making
slaves jr under oiner pretexts.but lor th it par
pose was always considered to be as notorious
ly piratical as would be incursions made for the
purpose of obtaining uiiv m re lootv; nay, in
this case it was worse than any other kind of rob
bery. 1 he steilinx of Ireemcti and selling thcui
into slavei-y, or iu trading a people for the purpose
ot reducing them t i si i very, were considered
great crimes; the individuals who were thus
gui.ty, were, in almost every p!a-e, liable to cap
ital punishment; and if a nation committed the
crime, it was considered to have lost its rank of
civilizifloti. The capture should havo been
made in war properly waged, and carried on ac
cording to the usageof civilize unions; and in
most cases the captive could, if he had property,
redeem himself, or be ransomed by his friends.
aud thus 6aveu from slavery.
Any person con vers nit with the history of the
Gentile nations previous to the Christian epoch,
will immediately pcrcieve the striking contrast
between the comparatively happy titttaiion of the
slaves of the Hebrews, aud the oppression uuder
whic'i those of the most olis!iel among the other
nations labored. Yet the writings of some of
these latter servants form no iucousiderable share
of our classical collections.
I shtll, then, pass over anv view of the slave
system of the Gentiles further than to remark
mat, at the period wneu the otvior came, it was
exceedingly oppressive; and that, in many in
st nice-, the master could put his slave to deitlt
without the interference of any leal tribunals,
and that the instances of its Iu diction were by no
ma ins rare. I shall not stop to inquire into the
validity of the claim to the exercise of this power,
nor into the moral criminality of those who
use it '
lator of Christianity has dune upon this subject
lie has made no special law, either to repea
or to niodilv the former aud still subsisting riht
but He enforced principles that, by their neces
sary operation and gradual influence, produced
an extensive amelioration. In the words of the
apostolic letter of Pope Gregorr XVI, "Verilr
heu the tiht of the Go-pel tirst bean to diffuse
itelf, those unfortunate men, who, by occasion
of so tnauy wars, h d I ille i into Cruel servitule,
lelt the'r condition imiin- Cnri-tuna verv much
alleviated. Irspired, int'eed, by the Divine
Spirit, the Apostles taught servants . to ' render
i.bedience to their mtsteis in the n?sh, as unto
Cnnst, atid to do the will of God with a cheerful
nund; yet they commanded also unto masters
' tli.t they should u?c their seivants kindly, that
they should render unto them what t just and
rix lit, aud ..hat they should not employ threats, '
. reuiemheii ig that the God of both is in heaven,
' an I that with Him there is no respect ol per-
; sons." .
Bergier says, "Diet. Theol. Art. Esclavage,
III :" "When our Lord Jesus Christ appeared
upon earth, the rights of humanity wer e not bet
ter known than they were in the Urne of Moses.
.The philosophers, in place of rendering them
more clear, had made them more obscure. ; The
Greeks had decided that amongst men some na
tions wer born for liberty aud others for slavery;
"that everything was lawful against barbarians,
that is, against everv one that was not a Greek.
r li: tho State of Alliens a louc, there were Jour
hundred thousand alive f-r twenty thousand
citizens. ''In Rome the condition of slaves was
tiot better than that of beasts of burden. One
' shudders at reading the treatment of those un
fortunates. See 'Memoire. of the Academy of
Inscriptions,' torn. 63, iu 12mo , p. 102 Such
was tha common law of all nations in the ages of
philosophy, If Jesus Christ had by his laws at
- tacked, face to face, this assumed right, He
would have given weight, to the oppsiiion of the
' emperors and other sovereigns to the promulga
tion of the Gospel; and our philosophers of the
present day would have accused Ilira for bavicg
: assailed the public law ot all natiou. '
"The Divine Legislator did better: Ha disposed
: the minds of people by Hi maxims of charity, ol
. meekness, of fraternal lore between men, to per
ceira that slavery in its then character waa got
ting into opposition to the natural law- It way
; be perceived by the letter of St. Paul to Phile
mon, what was the testing of theQoapel moral
ity on this essential point, and how eloquent waa
the lanjuage of humanity proceeding from the
ipsof Christian chanty. 1 be baptized slave be
came of right the brother of his master. '
1 he right which Bergier in this place alludes
to as his entire article shows was not a civil,
but a religious riht: the right of brotherhood in
Christ Jesus, as redeemed by Him. and an heir
to the same glorious inheritance, as the Apostle
St. Paul describes it In his Epistle to the Gala-
fians, chapter wit, 2b: "For you are all children
of God. by faith in Jesus Chrit. 27. For as many
of you as have been baptized in Christ hare put
on Christ. ' 2. There ia neither Jew nor Greek;
there is neither bond nor free; there is neither
male nor female. For vou are all one in Christ
Jesu. 29. And if you be Christ's, then you are
the seed of Abraham, heirs according to the
pro mis ."
In the New Testament, we find instances of
pious and rood men having slaves, and in no case
do we find the Sariour imputing it to them as a
crime, or requiring their servants emancipation.
In chapter viii of St Matthew, we read of a cen
turion who addressing the Lord Jesus, said, v. 9:
For I also am a man of authority, having
soldiers under me; and I say to this man, Go,
ud he coeth; and to another, Come, and he
cometh; and to rat servant. Do this, andhe .doth
it. lo. And Jesus bearing this, wondered, and
Süd to those thut followed him. Amen, I say to
you, I have not found so great faith In Israel."
13 "And Jesus said to the centurion,
Go. and as thou hast believed, so be it done to
thee. And the servant was. healed at the same
hour." St. Luke in chapter vil relates also the
testimony which the ancients of Israel gave of
this stranger's virtue, and how he loved their na
tion and built a synagogue for them.
In many of Iiis parables, the c-aviour describes
the master and his servants in a variety of ways,
without any condemnation or censure of slavery.
Id Luke, xvn. He describes the usual mode of
acting towards slaves as the very basis upon
which He teaches one of the most useful leasoos
of Christian virtue. V. 7. "But which of you,
having a servant ploughing or deeding cattle,
will sar to him. when he is come from the field.
immediately, Go sit down. 8. And will not
rather say to him, Make ready my supper, and
gild thyself, and serve me while I eat aud drink.
and afterwards thou shalt eat and drink? 9.
D th he thank tha; servant because he did the
things thitwere commanded him? 10. I think
not. So vou also, when you shall have done all
the things that are commnnded you, say, We are
unprofitable servants, we have done thit which
we ought to do."
Alter the promulgation of the Cnnstian re
ligion by the Apostles, the slave was nut told by
them that he was in a state of unchristian du
rance. I Cor. vn.ZU: ".Let every may abide in
the same calling in whHi he was Called. 21.
Art thou called, being a bondman; care not for
it; hut if thou may est be made free, use it rather.
22. For he that ia called in the Lord, beinc a
bondman, is the freeman of the Lord. Likewise
he tint is called beinir free, is the bondman of
Christ. 23. You are bought with a price, be not
made the boud slaves of men. 24 Brethren, let
every man. wherein he was called, therein abide
with God Thus a man by becom:ng a Christiaiu
was not either made free or to'd that be was
free, but be was advised, if he could lawfully
procure his freedom, to prefer it to slavery. The
23d verse has exactly that meaning, which we
bnd expressed also in chap, vi 20: "tor you are
bought with a great price; glorify and bear God
in vour bodv. which is addie-sed to the free as
well as to the slave; all are the servants of God,
and should not be drawn from his service by the
devices of men, but should walk worthy of the
vocation in which they are called " Enh. iv. 1,
and the price bv which their souls (not their bod
ies) were redeemed, is also described by St.
Peter, l,e i. 10: "Knowihg that you were not
redeemed with corruptible gold or silver from
your vain conversation of the tradition of your
fathers," 19 "But thri precious blood of Chris,
as a lamb unspotted and undetiled. 1 bat it
was a spirituai redemption aud a spiritual service,
St. Paul again shows, Heb. ix 14. "How much
more shall the blood of Christ, who through the
Holy Ghost offered Himself without spot to God,
cleanse our sonscience from dead works to servo
the living God?" It is then a spiritual equality,
as we be'lore rem irked, in the words of St. Paul,
1 Cor. xii. 13: " For iu one spirit we are baptised
Into one body, w hether Jews or Gentiles, whether
bond or free " And iu the same chapter he ex
patiates to show that though all members of the
one mystical body, their places, their duties, their
gifts are various and different. And in his epistle
to the Galatians, chap, iv., he exhibits the great
truth w hich ho desires to inculcate by an illustra
tion taken from the iustitution of slavery, and
without a single expression of their censure
Nor did the Apostles consider the Christian
master obliged to liberate his Christian servant.
St. Paul, iu his Epistle to Philemon, acknowl
edge? the right of the mister to the services of
his slave, for whom, however, he asks, as a
special favor, pardon for hiving deserted his
owner 10 "I beseech thee for my son Ouesi-
mu, who-n I have begottou in my chains. , 11.
Who was heretofore unprofitable to thee, but
now profitable both to thee aud me 12 Whom
I hat e sent back to thee. Aud do thou receive
him as my own bowels." Thus, a runaway slave
still belonged to bis master, and though having
liecotne a Christian, so far from being thereby
liberated from service, he w as bound to return
thereto end submit himself to his owner. In the
same manner that St Paul sent Onesimus, did
the nisei send A?;ar. Gen. xiv. 6: "And when
Sarai afll'cted her, she ran awav. 7. And the
angel of the LopI having found her by a fount
ain of water in the wilderness, whicb is in the
w ty to Uur in the desert, t. He said to her:
Agar, haudtpaid of Sarai, whence comest thouT
and whither go est thou? Aud she auswered: I
flee from the face of Sarai, my mistress. 9. And
the angel of the Lord stid to her: Return to thy
mistress and humble thyself under her hand."
St. Paul, indeed, in v. 8, says. "Though" I
tniiiht have much confidence in Chrwt Jesus to
command thee that which is to the purpose." It
was the command of friendship, and upon the
plea of gratitude, as he exhibits in r. IS: "rot
to say to me that thou owest me thv owu self
also," because of the conversion and instruction
of Philemou by the Apostle, and the friendship is
exhibited in r.22: "But withal prepare me also
a lodging; for I hope through your Dray ers I
shall be given unto you." Still the Apostle felt
that even notwithstanding all those grounds, the
right of Philemon subsisted unimpaired 13.
"Whom I would have detained with me, that he
might hire ministered to me in the bonds of the
Gospel. ' 14. But without thy counsel I would do
nothing, that thy good deed might not be as it
were of necessity, but voluntary." It is true that
iu v. 16 the Apostle requests his manumission.
but in v. 18 be exhibits his readiuess to pay his
ransom if required. "And if he hath wrouged
thee in anything, or is in thy debt, put it to my
account. , And he makes himself legally re
sponsible. 19. "I, Paul, have written with my
own hand, I w'll repay it." Philemon acceded
to the request of St. Paul, forgave Oncsimua,
and sent him to Home to serve the Apo6tIe,
from whom be received his freedom, and was one
of the bearers of the letter to the Collossians.
(Col. lv. 9 ) . , .......
Again, it is manifest from the Epistle of St,
Paul to Timothy, that the title of the master
continued good to bis slave, though both should
be Christians, chapter viu "VV hosoever are sery
ants under the yoke, let them count their masters
worthy of all honor, lest the name and doctrine
cf our Lord be blasphemed. 2. But they who
hare believing masters ,let them not despise tbeni,
because they are brethren; but serve them the
rather, because they are faithful and beloved who
are partakers of the beoent. 1 bese things ex
hort and teach." And in the subsequent part he
declares the contrary teaching to be against the
sound words of Jesus Christ, and to spring from
ignorant pride,
Slava are still further urged by the Apostle to
due obedience, in his Epistle to the Ephesians, vi.
5: "Servants, obey your carnal masters with fear
trembling, in the simplicity of your heart, ns
Christ. 6, Not serving to the eye, aa it wete
pleatong men, but as the servants of Christ, doing
the will of God from the heart, i. With a good
will doing service lo the Lord a U'i not to men
8 Knowing, that whatsoever good everyone
shall do, tha sauie shall he receive from the Lord
whether he boud or frea " And again in bia
Epistle to the Colossians, cb- in, 22. "Servants
obey in ail things your masters, according to the
flesh, not serving with the ere, as pleasing men
but ia simplicity of heart, fearing God. 22
Whatever you do, do it from the heart, as to the
a x-k S I
ixmi, ana not to men.- H4. n.nowing mat you
aball receive of the Lord the reward of Inherit
ance.. '.Serve ye tha Lord Jesus Christ- 25. For
he that doth an injury, thall rcceire for that
which he hath done unjustly, and there is no re
spect of persons with God."
The Apostle of St. Peter quite aware of tha
great temptation to impatience and obstinacy
which the misconduct of the master, not seldom,
threw in the way of the servant, enters at con
siderable length and urges the most powerful mo
tives to the Christian slave to induce bim by the
example and grace cf the Savior to be patient.
1 Peter ii.-18: "Servants, be subject to yovr
masters with all fear, not only to the good and
gentle, but also to the fro ward. 19. For this is
thankworthy, if for conscience towards God, a
man endure sorrows, suffering wrongfully. 20.
For what fSkrj is it, if sinning and being buffeted
you suffer it. But if doing well you suffer pa
tiently, this is thankworthy before God. 21.
For unto this you have been called, because
Christaiso suffered for us. leaving you an exam
ple that you should follow His steps. 22. Who
did no ain, neither was guile found in His mouth.
23. Who when He was reviled did not revile;
when He suffered. He threatened not; but deliv
ered Himself to him that judged Him unjustly.
24. Who himself bore our sins in His own body
upon the tree: that we, being dead to sins, should
lire to justice; by whose stripes you were healed.
25. For you were as sheep going astray; but you
are now converted to the pastor and bishop of
of your souls.". '
Erasmus says that Cicero never wrote with
greater eloquence than did St. Paul in the Epistle
to Philemon. And we may ooth add, that never
was there a more touching appeal to worried ser
rants than this address of the Prince of the
Apostles. Thus each Apostle besought one
class, recommending mercy and kindness to the
master: obedience, fidelity, and affection to the
It will now fully establish what will be neces
sary to perfect the view which I desire to give,
if I can show that masters who were Christians
were not require I to emancipate their slaves, but
had pointed out the duties which they were bound
as masters to perform, because this will show
under the Christian dispensation the legal, moral
and religious existn re cf the slave and master.
The A post!es, as we have previously seen, (1
Tim, vi. 2.) wrote of slaves who h id believing
or Christian misters. The inspired penman did
not address his instructions and exhortations to
men who were not of the household of the faith.
1 Cor. r. 11: "For what hive I to do, to judge
them that are without? 13. For them that are
without, God will judge; take away the evil one
from amongst yourselves." Thus when he ad
dresses masters, Iher are " Christian misters.
Ephes. vi 9: "And you. masters, do the same
things to them (servants), forbearing threaten
Ings, knowing tint the Lord both of them and
you is in heaven: and there is no respect of per
sons with Him;" and again, Col a. iv. 1: "Mas
ters, do to your servants that which is just and
equal: knowing that you also have a master in
We have then in the teaching of the Apostles
nothing which contradicts the law of Moses, but
we have much which corrects the cruelty of the
Pagan practice. The exhibition which is pre
sented to us U oue of a cheering and of an ele
vated character. It is true that the state of
slavery is continued under the legal sanction, but
the slave is taught from the most powerful mo
tives to be faithful, patient, obedient and con
tented, and the maater taught that though des
potism may pass unpunished on earth, it will be
examined into at the bar of heaven; and though
the slave owes Mm bodily service, yet the soul
of this drudge, having been purchased at the same
price as his own, and sanctified by the same lc.ver
of regeneration, he who is slave according to the
flesh, is his brother according to the spirit. . His
humanity, his charity, his affection, are enlisted
and interested, and he feels that his own father
is also the father of the slave, hence, though the
servant must readily and clieen'olly pay him
homage and perform his behest on earth, yet they
mir be on an equality in heaven.
' How striking, sir, is the contrast between the
slave under Paganism and the slave under
Christianity? The one dreads only him who can
kill the body aud then baa no more power; the
other fears him who having slain the body, can
ca?t both body and soul into hell fire.
The fear ol the Lord becomes the saleguard of
society, the shield of the owner, and the support
of the owned. The example of the Saviour is
the best monition td him who governs to do so
with tenderness, affection, and charity, blendid
with wholesome discipline and necessary re
straint; whilst to the governed it is the most im
pressive lesson of resignation to the Divine will,
the most effectual exhortation to patient obedi
ence, and the best direction to the attainment of
lasting peace and high happiness.
The unfortunate Pagan saw no prospect be
yond the grave of a recompense for humility, for
submission and for obedience. or did his mas
ter understand the value of a soul, the nature of
beatitude, or the merit of men-v; he saw t stern
despotism, reckless ambition, aud proud and un
feeling oppression deified, and in the treatment or
his slaves he emulates his gods; whilst bis unfor
tunate servant crouched before a tyrant whom he
hated, and desired the ruin of oue from whom he
received little kindness.
To the Christian slave was exhibited the hu
miliation of an incarnate God. the suffering of an
unoffending victim, the invitatiou of this model
of perfection to that meekness, thafhumil:ty, that
peaceful spirit, that charity and forgiveuess of
injuries which constitute the glorious beatitudes.
He was shown the advantage of suffeitrg. there
ward of patience, and the narrow road along
whose rugged ascents he was to bear the cross,
walking in the footsteps ol his Saviour. The
curtains which divide both worlds were raised as
he advanced, and he beheld Lazirusin the bosom
of Abraham, whilst the rich man vainly cried to
have this once miserable beggar allowed to dip
the tip of his finger in water, and touch it to his
tongue, for he was tormented in thit fltme.
Thus, sir, did the Legislator of Christianity,
whilst he admitted the legality of slavery, render
master merciful, and the slave faithful, obedient,
and religious, looking for his freedom in that re
gion where alone true and lasting enjoyment cau
b found.
I shall proceed, sir, to select a few of the
many evidences which the intermediate ages fur
bishes to show the continued legality of domes
tic slavery, and to exhibit its perfect compatibil
ity with the sound principles of the Christian
moral code, adducing the evidence from the rec
ords of that Church over which Pope Gregory
XVI, so happily presides, and thus conclusively
showing that fn his apostolic " letter he does not
"Condemn it immoral or illegal; because the Pope
is the divinely constituted and authorized witness
of the doctrine and morality of the unchanging
Church, and not a despot who can alter that
teaching at his mere will; either to add to the
'despot of faith, or to change the principles of that
morality for w;iose promulgation she is divinely
I hive the honor tobe. Sir,
, Respectfully, ic ,
tJou.v, Bishop Vf Charleston.
Charleston, S. C , Oct. 21, 1840.
Administering the Constitution.
Mr. Madidou snil that the difference between
, Hamilton and Jeffersou consisted in this that
tbe former sought to mdminittrmlion the Consti
tution into what, he thought it ought to have
been, and the latter sought to administer it as it
. was intended by its f ramer, and understood by
. tbe States which ratified it. Such is the exact
difference, after seventy five years, between the
Republican and Democratic party. History re
peats itself iu political as it does in all . other re
spects, man familiar with the history of his
government can fail to discover the analogies be
tween that political theory which eaiae uear pro-
. ducing a civil war, and that which has produced
, a civil war. The difference is due primarily to
the poverty of the United States iu 1790, its re
ceut experience of war, and the infinitely
. smaller, interests affected; but, secondarily aud
principally, to the spirit of self sacrifice of the
great Democratic leader, aud the patriotism
which made bim willing to endure a wrong for
' tbe sake of the Union. Our renders may possi
bly bate forgotten or neglected to note the oc-
, currence to which- we lallude. The Estern
States at that time owned the largest share of the
State claims for expenses incurred during the
war for independence., They sought the as
sumption of those debts by the Ui.ited States.
. Iu other words, they proposed that other States
should be taxed for their special benefit. -
Such an assumption was clearly not coustitu-
. tional. Congress had aa much delegated right
. to pay the debt of Massachusetts aa to pay the
. debt ol Great Britain. The project was defeated
In the House by a small majority.
So high were the feuds excited on the subject
. thtt.on-ils rejection business waa suspended;
Luugre met aud adjourned Irutu tuy to day
without doing anything. The eattern member$
threatened $ecetsion nd dUtolution. Hamilton,
in despair, appealed to Jefferson. That great
man used bia influence, and procured the change
of some votes from Virginia and saved the Union.
The location of the seat of government on the
rotoraac was used as the reason of the change
This was the first of the great series of compro
mises, in all of which the Eastern Stales always
made the exchange of Diomedes, giving an old
suit of iron armor and receiving one of gold.
It is perhaps not a little remarkable that
neither Hamilton nor Jefferson seemed to bare
had the notion : that the threats of dis
solution and secession should be met by
an announcement of coercion. That the phisical
power to coerce was not in the hands of the gov
ernment may possibly be the reason the idea
never presented itself to their minds. States
men are always practical; they deal with materi
als aa they are, and never fall into the foolish
notion, of rhetoricians like Sumner, that you can
act with human passion and prejudices aa the
Flat head Indians do with their papooses.
This administration, from the President to the
humblest official, from tbe Senator to the scribe,
through every ramification of impolicy, ia satura
ted with the idea that tbe Constitution of tbe
United Sutes is a piece of dough or a band of in
dja rubber; that it can be moulded, streatched
shortened, flattened, fashioned to the
purpose - of assumed philantbrophy, of
assured stock-brokering, of . enrich
ing individuals, of impoverishing individuals, of
damming one channel of trade, of opening an
other, of regulating interest on money and moral
sentiments, of creating banks, of destroying
banks, of settling political opinions, of punishing
political opinions, of expounding law, and of
constructing constitutions. To it tbe decisions ot
that court expressly created to define and protect
rights are nothing, the laws of trade are nothing,
the laws which govern the human mind are tooth
ing, the laws which control morals ate nothing.
It has used the Constitution, "l'ke a wotnau of
the town plying her vocation. (If. Y- World.
Proposed Amendment to ibe Con
aeriptlon Bill and their Probable
t-'ate Grown Injuotire of tit e Presens
Ac Confederate Flans for (lie Next
Campaign. ' ..
' SpcUl Correrpond nee of the Chicago Times J
Washington, December üä.
One of the most curious features iu the pro
ceedings of Congress thus far is that which re
lates to the manner in w hielt the members, ot dif
ferent parties, treat the conscription act. 1 be
conservative members would de.-ire to repeal the
act altogether, asunwise, unjust, and w holly un
necessary. But that at present is out of the
question. The radical members are endeavoring
to graft upon it several amendments, which, if
passed, would tend lo uiuke it Iii I more odious
and oppressive than it now is; and they are en-
dearoring, too, to lotce these amendments
through instanter. The majority of the mem
bers of the House, however, stem disposed to
obtain all the light I her can upon the practical
working of the act, and to amend it in such a
manner as will make it as little oppressive as pos
sible. The notorious Scheuck has commenced
bis Congressional career at this session bv an at
tempt to force upon the bill an amendment that
would make it a thousand times more oppresive
than it is now, namely, to abolish the two classes
of those enrolled, and to throw both into one
class. His persistent attempt to force this ex
ceediugly unjust measure attracted to bim some
remarks more emphatic than complimentary, and
the proposal was promptly voted down. It is
stated, however, that Schenck acted in this affair
in accordance with the wishes ot the administra
tion, and that tho whole power of the Utter will
be exerted to procure the passage of Schenck's
amendment at aa early day. It seems, to judge
Irotn the present temper of the House, that the
exemption clause will be retained, bat the
amouut will probablv be raised to $3O0; and in
that case it will be distinctly stated that the Day
ment of that amount secures exemption for three
An amendmeut wiil be proposed in a day or
two, changing somewhat 'he composition of the
two classes ot enrolled men, so as to make them
correspond with the French svstem, which is, con
fessedly, the nvst ju-t and the least oppressive
system of conscription in the world (if that can
be called more just which at the best is bad at
Shakspeare stvs of murder.) In accordance
with this amendment the first class will comprise
II unmarried men and widowers without children,
between the age ol twenty and forty five years;
aod married men, and widowers with children,
between the same ages, will constitute the ecoud
class. The first class is to be exhausted belore
the second class is called upon. The justice of
this amendmeut is obvious ut once. 1 he experi
ence of every member of Congtes has brought
to bis notice during the last tew months, the
cases of many un tori unite men, who, merely be
cause they were between the ages of twentv aud
thirty-five, were drafted, and were compelled to
enter the army because they were too poor to
raise the $300. These men were married and
had families.. 1 know of several instances my
self, aud have heard of a great imny more.
These unfortunate men were from 30 to 32 years
of age. Trei wives were young women of from
24 to 5i8 years of age, many of them io delicate
health. As long as their husbands -remained
with tbeui they were spared the
necessity of labor. Iteyond their strength, and
were enabled to provide the necessary comforts
for their families. They had, son) one, some
two, and some three childreu eaet none of the
children over seven years of age, trdt all healthy
and stroDg. Xow -mark the result of the opera
tion of oue single fecture of the conscription act
as it Iii Of the families of this kii.d coming un
der my own observation, one nrnn only was able
to raise the requisite $.'HXI, ami so got exempt.
But this debt of $30(1 hanging over him keeps
him, and will keep, him and his family all this
winter, in a state of great destitution and suffer
ing. , Yet his is a happy case compared to the
others. The w ife of another poor man who had
to go aud leave her.endearored heroically tolabor
for tha support of her little family. But the la
bor was beyond her strength aud she fell sick and
died, leaving three orphan children, without a
relativ in the world. What will become of them?
The wife -of knother man, who has been thus
forced into the army, was already in delicate
health, and needed all her husband's care. She
is now on her death bed, and will die in a few
days, leaving an infant to the cold charity of the
WOt hl. The wife of another conscript has be
come deranged in consequence of i Ins loss of her
busband and companion, and is now the inmate
of a lunatic asylum, while her two children, both
beautiful little girls, are in the poor-house. 1
mention these cases, because they are not isolated
instances, but are the types ot hundreds of others
of the same kind. It is in onler to avert suffer
ing and injustice of this kind that the amendment
last allnded to will be introduced - '
- The statement in my Jat letter, in regard to
the movements of (en. Longs:rett, are eon
firmed by the facts hielt came to' lixht yes
terday , und whicb aro tardily published this morn
ing. - ; ; "
' There is a rumor prevalent here to the effect
that tbe Confederates are ja-eparing for a grand
assault on Washington and an invasion of the
North, to take place next spring'-' Quite a num
ber of gentlemen lute at rived here front' Rich
mond recently, and from them anil from other
and even better sources of information, I tin in
possession of certain facts which enable me to
say that no such design is entertained at Rich
mond at present, but that Mich n expedition may
be undertaken in the spring, in the event of a
certain contingency; that is. if the Army of the
Potomac either remains w here it is now, or occu
pies any other position between Washington and
the Kapjdan River, or undertakes another over
land campaign to Richmond. In either one of
these cases, it is pretty certain that we may look
out about next May for atr attack vn the capital
or an invasion of the North. On the othr band,
if the Cosfederatew ascertain that a Peninsular
campaign is tobe onderlaken, or that Richmond
is to be attacked front the direction of Petersburg,
no attack on Washington and no invasion of the
North sieed be feared, because io that case the
Confederates-will have all they can do to defend
Richmond. If the Administration really wished
to end ibe war, that would be the way to do it.
The best way to defend Washington, Indeed the
only way In which Washington can be perfectly
secure, U by attacking Richmond either from the
east or fron the south. : Richmond could be taken
by auch an expedition, properly organized and
led.- And wbcu Ulchmotid falls, Charleston,
Savannah and Wilmington would quickly follow.
Th military part of the rebellion would then be
pretty well crushed. The armies of the South
would then have been conquerf d. What would
thru remain to be done would L to hbji catx
the cooTar But by that time the next Presi
dential election would hare taken place, and thtt
work could be left for the next Administration.
' X.
.nr. Haben Dale Uwn n Historical
If the Hon Robert Dale Oweu has bot woo
the eternal gratitude of this Administration, then
are we sure that gratitude can enter into no part
of the compositions of President Lincoln andhia
advisers. Mr. Owen is 4 plausible writer, in
w hatever cause he may employ hi pen whether
as an ndrocateof agrarianism, of free love as
displayed in his works entitled "Moral Physiol
ogy," of woman's rights, of abolitionism, and
other measure of Mr. Lincoln's Administration.
As an imaginative w riter he probably has no su
perior, as wituess his book of ghost stories, is
sued from the press soon after his return front
When Mr. Lincoln, abandonii j the posit iou be
took in the early part of his Administration, that
he had no power, under the Constitution, to in
terfere with slavery in the several Stages, deter
mined to make an attempt at wholesale emanci
pation, Mr. Owen, with the alacrity of an attor
ney or a lackey boy, went to wt rk, through the
columnt of the New York Tribune, to Fhow that
the President could abolish slavery in the States
without at all violating tbe Constitution. So
also, on several subsequent occasions, he has
rushed into print for tbe double purpose of air
ing bis learning and serving the cause ot the
Mr. Owen's lajt effort In his occupation of
apologist snd defender of the art of the Admin
istration we fiud in tbe Tribune of a late date,
bearing the caption "The Pardoning Power
.Historical Precedents." Tbe article is inteude;
as an apology for the so called "Proclamation of
Amnesty" appended ta the President's Message.
Mr. Owen, however. In this production, labors
under one difficulty, which some people might
consider a serious one, to wit, tiiat with all the
historical lore' at his command, be can find no
precedent for the proclamation iu question. Had
it been possible to produce a precedent, undoubt
edly Mr. Owen would have brought it forth with
all the particularity and cirenmstantiality of a
young lawyer iu preparing Ms first brief, because,
Mr. Owen being vetsed in all history, ancient
and mod err, , sac-red and profane, it would be at
his fingers' ends, ready for this great emergency.
We now come to Mr. Owen's "Historical Pre
cedents." They are three in number. First, tbe
case of Charles the Second, when preparing to
ascend the throne of bis decapitated father, after
he deposition of Richard Cromwell; second, the
pardon granted by George the Second lo tbe
Scottish rebels who had taken np arms in behalf
of the Pretender. The third case is that of tbe
pardon or amnesty granted by President Wash
ington to tbe men some fifteen thousand in
number who had been engaged in tbe Whislr
Insurrection in Western Pennsylvania Bat
neither of these cases furnishes a precedent for
the proclamation of amnesty issued by Mr. Liu
coin. In neither of tbe proclamations issued by
the English Kings is the pardoned rebel require!
to take sn oath to support tbe royal edicts that
bad been or might be issued. We quote from the
proclamation of King Charles, following Mr.
I "We do graut a fiee and genervl pardon, which
we are ready, upon demand, to pass under our
Great Seal of England, to all our subjects, of
what degree or quality soever, who, within forty
days after the publishing thereof, shall lay bold
upon this our grace and favor, and shall by any
public act declare their doing so, and that they
return to their loyaltj or obedience of pood sub
jects, excepting only such persons aa shall here
after be accepted by Parliament." Parliamen
tary History of England, Vol. IV., p. 15.
It will We seen that the implicated parties wete
merely required to 6how their return to loyalty by
"any public act." All that was necessary waa
that they should declare in the presence of the -Mayor
of a town, or a J ustice of the Peace, or iu
the presence of witness, that they owed allegiance
to the King instead of the Commonwealth. No
oath was required that tbey would support all the
edicts that King Charles had issued or might
issue ou certain subjects.
In the case of the amnesty granted by George
II to tbe insurgents who had fought for the Pre
tendtr in 1747, a full and free pardon was granted
to all except about eighty, who were bauisjed
from the kingdom, but most of whom were sub
sequently pardoned and permitted to return. The
only condition to this amnesty was th t those
who accepted it should make their public declara
tion of the fact within forty dayt.
. We should think Mr. Owen would be ashtned
to cite the proclamation of amnesty hued by
President Washington to tbe Whisky Insurrec
tionists as a "precedent" for Mr. Lincoln's Proc
lamation. What are the facts? . Although am
ple powers were vested in him to suppress the re
bellion by force of arms, he chose to adopt a
more conciliatory policy, and therefore appointed
three commissioners to treat with the insurgents
and their leaders, aud by this means, followed by
' a free pardon, he put an end to tbe rebellion. Mr.
Lincoln, acting directly contrary to the exi tuple
set by the illustrious lather of hiscountry.has uni
formly refused to have any comaiuuicati on with
the rebels.oi to ascertain whether by conciliatory
measures, the war cannot be ended and the Uuiou
restored. Geu. Washington did not ask the in
surrectionists to swear that they w ould abjure the
use of whisky, as Mr. Liucoln demands that the
rebels of our day shall abjure tbe possession of
slaves. And yet there would have been just aa
much logic iu tieu. Washington proclaiming that,
. whisky being the cau.-eof the rebellion of I7i)j,
. no more w hisky should bo made or drank, a: in
Mr. Lincoln declaring that slavery being the can-
of tbe rebellion of 1?61, slavery, should no longer
exist. f N. A. Ledger '
. IIa rbar ism in Boston
The following is from the Boston Post:
A photograph of the young girl's shoulders
whipped in the House of Reformation ts request
ed aa a companion for that photograph of the
back of a whipped southern slave, much exhibit
ed of late by teslbetic Leaguers.
This allusion will be understood by those who
' win read the following statement from the Bos-
ton Bulletin: - .
Edwiu Wright, J oho O. Hogers, Isaac Ames and
Scbeus C. Maine, the judges ol the Police Court,
and the judge of Probate who are the inspectors
. of prisons for Suffolk county, and whom we have
reason to believe are meu of veracity have just
made a report of their last inFpection to the Board
of Aldermen, in which they expose a brutality
which we trust will not be suffered to pass bv
lightly. .... .
"To be brief, according to their report, the
prisoners are half starved in the house of correc
tion, and in tho house of reformation (reforma
tion, indeed!) a girl seventeen years of age bad
been flogged by the superintendent, wbo said. 'I
struck her with all my might; she would not
yield. I sent for a longer stick, and the she
held out ber baud.' After this beating and this
submission she waa committed to the ce'i and the
food of the solitary, where she remained several
days. The welts from tbe blows were distinctly
risible on her shoulders when the inspectors vis
ited the institution seven daya after. Iu the
course ot tbe investigation they were iu formed
that in the boys' departrueut tbe punishments are
sometimes inflicted with an ordinary wagon whip
by tho superintendent in person.
"Besides this barbarity, the inspector state
that, with the exception "of the House of Refor
mation lor jovenile offenders, where oue spacious
'bathing tub is used, "all the prisons are provided
with the ordinary bathing tuba, from three to
seven in number, placed sk'e by side, at distances
of from 12 to 24 inches .-part, in open rooms,
with iio screen or protection whatever; and in"
lhee publicly exposed tubs, the prisoners, men.
women aud girls,' in their respectite departments,
iu groups of from three to seven, are required to
perform, their ablutions. Old offenders, young;
ofl'eoders. girl of nine and ten rears of age.a'.ike
must disrobe themselves, aud in full observation
of their fellows and officers, in a state of utter
nudity, euler the bath, perform iu duty, and par
take of iu refresh ment."
In the name of humanity are bot the "Greeks
at our doors," aud would it not be as well for us
to turn our attention to some of the (loggers of
white woBicti at the North as well aa their broth
' er brutes further south who have had the screen
of law and the poor excuso of a difference of
coW and tho right of owucrshipof thair victims?

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