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A Journal of Political and General News—An Advocate of Equal Rights.
VOL. VI._BATH, MAINE, THURSDAY MORNING, JANUARY 1, 1852._NO. 28. SUot £$0feirm M PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY MORNING BY GEO. E. NEWMAN. OAce in North end of Pierce’s Block, third story, cor ner of Broad and Front Sta. TERM3—One dollar and fifty cents per annum, if paid strictly in advance ; one dollar seventy-five cents within aiv months ; two dollars, if payment is dela>*u to the end of the year. IT Any nerson who will send us five good subscribers, • hall be entitled to a copy of the paper for one year. O* -Vo vaper will be d scontinued until allarrearages art paid, uulcaa at the option of the publisher. XT All letters and communications to be addressed, post paid, to the Publisher, Bath, Me. XT Single co des, four cents—for sale at the odlce, and at Stearns’ Periodical Depot, Centre St. Advertisement* inserted at the usual rates. 8. M. Pkttenoill * Co., Newspaper Advertising Agents, No. 10 State Street, and V. B. Palmer, Scollav’s Building, Court Street, Boston, are Agents Tor this paper, and are authorized to receive Adv rtisements and Subscriptions for us at the same rates as require 1 at this efflee. Their receipts are regarded as payments. HP E. B. Simonton, the General Newspaper Collect ing Agent for this State, is authorized to collect our hills. O Ice in Augusta, over the store of Messrs. Caldwell A On., with A. R. Nichols, Esq.—residence at Brown’s Corner, Me. MISCELLANY. Sketch of the Life of Kossuth. Now that Kossuth is actually in the United States, it will be interesting to our readers to have before them a sketch of the chief events in his life previous to the Hungarian revolution, by which the source and progress of his influ ence with his countrymen may be understood. The following details, (the most complete that have yet appeared) are deiived from original and authentic sources .— In the County of Thuroez, in Hungary, is the small town of Kossnth-Falva, that is, Kos suth-ville. This is the old seat of Kossuth's family, and still in the possession of a branch of it. The arms of the family bear a ram ram pant, the ram being in the Hungarian language “ Kos.” This is mentioned as an answer to the freqoent allegations that Kossuth is not a true Hungarian. The family of Kossuth has been long protestant, and has often adhered to the prince of Transylvania, in opposition to the revolutionary attempts ot Austria. The father of Louis Kossuth was proprietor of a small es tate in the county of Zemplin. Louis Kossuth was born at Monok, that county, in the year 1802, and was the only son, having, however, several sisters. He was educated at the Cal vinistic college of Patak. He subsequently entered on the usual practical course of study for the profession of the law, attended for that purpose, first, the districtoral court at Eperies, afterwards the royal court at Pesth. Return ing home on the completion of these studies, he was appointed honorary attorney to his na tive county. He was at this time, however, more of a sportsman than a lawyer; hut joined early that party of politics which was opposed to the centralising policy of Austria. He first distinguished himself in 1831, during the prev alence of the cholera, w hen the Slovack peas ants—imagining themselves poisoned by the upper classes—murdered their landlords, the clergy and the Jews. Every one lost his pres ence of mind. Kossuth almost alone exerted himself to quell the fearful disturbances. He went wherever the danger most threatened, and by his eloquence and the prudent measures he adopted, succeeded in slaying the disorders and the panic. In 1832 he attended the diet as prnry, (ac cording to the custom of Hungary) for several peeresses—a position which gave the power to speak but not to vote. In this capacity he sat in the diet, and was not present (as has been represented in order to excite a vulgar preju dice) as mere attendant clerk to a silting mem ber. He only spoke once in the diet, and not in a manner to attract particular attention.— Though the sittings of the diet were open, the hall having extensive galleries fur public ac commodation, the publication of its proceedings was not then allowed. An official record, pre pared by a parliamentary committee, was put forth, indeed ; but so meagre and so late, as to have little value or interest. Ivussuih saw the evil, and determined to remedy it. He began this by a manuscript letter, seut to certain sub scribers, giving extracts from speeches, togeth er with the most important documents. After some lime in 1831, he sought to make this troublesome and costly news-letter more avail able to the public by means of a lithographic press. The Austrian government eudeavored to prevent this. Kossuth advised with his friends in the opposition, and it was determin ed that it would lie unwise, at that moment, to divert attention from the other highly tnifxir tant questions then before the diet, by raising the new question of the liberty of the press.— The printing-press was abandoned, but the manuscript news-letter was continued astiefore. It had between sixty and eighty subscribers, but it had a far-wider influence than this might seem to indicate, inasmuch as a copy was tak en in every one of the fifty-two counties of Hungary, for the use of a club in each, where all the must active men frequently met. In 1836 the diet closed, and a reactionary movement took place in the government of Vi enna. Baron Wesselenyi was impeached, and several distinguished young men were impris oned on charge of being concerned in a conspi racy which really never had any existence. On their trial all judicial forms were violated, and Kossuth took up the affair on constitution all grounds but without a successful issue._ After the close of the diet Kossuth continued to issue his news-letter, devoting it to even more important purposes than before, namely, as the means of communication between the different counties, by recording the proceedings taken at all the periodical meetings held regu larly for the purposes of local self-government in each, and which constituted the sole safe guard* of the liberties of the country. The salue of such a work it is impossible to over estimate. For the first time the real direction of public opinion in every part was known in every other. Every question raised in one part met with sympathies elsewhere. Slum bering energies were thus awakened, and com bined action became possible. Kossuth was felt as a new power in the state. The govern ment began to fear him, and in 1837 he was imprisoned on the pretext of treason. The agitation was great. Ujhazy and many others were impeached. Kossuth lay long in prison before trial. In 1838 he was sentenced to four years imprisonment. The agitation only in creased. Even the Austrian government saw )hxt things could not go on thus. The Hun garian chancellor and the chief justice were at once removed, and their places filled by more liberal men. In 1839 the diet met again. Its first pro ceedings were bitter complaints of the illegal proceedings against Wesselenyi and Kossuth, and against the enoroachmenta made on liberty of speech. Votes of supplies to the govern, went were long refused. After a struggle of a whole year they were granted, and next day an amnesty was published for Kossuth and all political prisoners. This occurred in May, 1840, and shortly afterwards Kossuth mar ried. On the first of January, 1841, was published the Pesti Her fop, a journal of which Kossuth was editor. This paper had an enormous cir culation, and made Kossuth the leading man on every important subject. It went on till the middle of 1844. In that year the semi liberal men of '38 were replaced by tools of Austrian centralization. By intrigues Kos suth was ousted from the editorship of the Pcsti Herfop, after having held that post for three and a half years. He then devoted his attention principally to the reform of the town municipalities, which Austrian intrigues had contrived to make into little better than sub servient tools; to the emancipation of the peasants from the remains of feudalism; and to economical questions. He took an active part in practical measures to resist the narrow system of the Austrian tariff, by which it was sought to benefit Austria and injure Hungary, through the prohibition of the importation into Hungary of any foreign wares, except those of Austria, and forbidding at the same time the exportation of any wares from Hungary into Austria. The object of the “ Vedegylet” was to unite in the determination to use and wear no Aus trian goods, and so to compel the adoption of a more liberal system. This association was formed in 1844. As many as 80,000 members joined it, and the results were of great impor tance. Austrian manufacturers were obliged in self defence, to establish works in Hungary, and the government of Austria became greatly alarmed. In 1840, it sought to take effectual measures for destroying that spirit uf independence in Hungary, which had so long and successfully resisted Austrian encroachments. Steps were therefore taken to undermine the county muni cipalities by the appointment of paid royal commissioners instead of the old and constitu tional system of lord-lieutenant. But such at tempts only roused the whole country the more. The opposition leaders, from all parts of the country, held public meetings at Pesth, under the chairmanship of Count Louis Batihyani, during the time of all the great quarterly fairs through 46 and ’47, till the next Diet met.— At these meetings all important questions were fully discussed by the ablest men in Hungary, as it was at these meetings that Kossuth deliv ered several of his ablest speeches. They were not inass meetings, hut meetings of the choice men from all pans ; io fact, rather del egate meetings than anything else. The speeches, therefore, were not popular appeals, but closely argumentative expositions. In the beginning of 1847, the old palatine, Joseph, died, 'lowards the close of the year, Nov., the Diet met. Meantime the program me of the opposition had been drawn op and published—a fact of much importance to he re membered, inasmuch as all the main objects afterwards insisted on were included in this programme, and were in nowise dependent either for the idea of them or their being car ried out, as has been industriously represented, on the events of the French revolution of the following year. To the Diet which met in Nov., 1847, Kossuth was tor the first time ad mitted a member. Count Louis Baiihyani knew and recognized his exiraordinajy merits, and used all his efforts to secure Itis election for the comity of Pesth. The government of \ ienna, on the other hand, employed every means to prevent his election, but in vain. At the suggestion of Kossuth, the Archduke Ste phen was elected palatine. And now began ill the Diet a hard struggle—the first matter of complaint being the encroachments of the court of Vienna on the county municipalities. The opposition parly strengthened bv the feeling thus raised. Several of the measures of this programme were carried before the French revolution w as dreamed of. Among these was a hill abolish ing the immunity of the nobles from taxation, and a resolution abolishing the remaining feu dal services of the peasants. Both these pass ed very much through the able advocacy of Kossuth. The details of both remained to lie carried out when the news ot the Paris revolu tion arrived. Both were then before the up per house, having already passed the lower.— On the 4th of March, Kossuth made the great and statesmanlike speech in which he declared that despotism in Austria and constitutionalism in Hungary could not exist side by side ; and lhat the only security for Hungary against fur ther encroachments of the kind she had suffer ed so much from, lay in the restoration to the provinces of Austria of the constitutions which they had lost during the 30 years’ war. The revolution in Vienna took place on the 13lh of March. Melternich fled, and a consti tution was promised for Austria. Hungary could no longer be made the victim of central boards influenced from Vienna. A constitn tiunaj,.ministry was named for Austria; and, of course, an independent ministry was neces sary for Hungary. It whs intrusted to Count Louis Balthyani to form that ministry. Kos suth was named by him minister of finance.-^ The appointment was confirmed by the empe ror, and Kossuth's acceptance of it was entreat ed by the Palatine Archduke Stephen himself, as Baiihyani expressly declared that without Kossuth it would be impossible to furm a min istry. The rest—beginning with the treacherous insurrection of the Serbs and invasion by the Croats (alikeat the instigation of Austria) and ending with the invasion of Russia, and the treason of Georgey, and the surrender at Vil* lagos—is too well known to need repetition here.” The McDonough Will. The Baltimore American learns from an authentic source, lhat the will of the late John McDonough, of New Orleans, has boen submitted to M. Rose lins, the chairman of his Executors, to Giraod, Marcade, Coin Delisle, Moulton, and Delan gle, perhaps the five ablest jurisconsults of Paris, who have unanimously pronounced an unreserved opinion in favor of the validity of the will, and also expressed an unequivocal opinion against the suits brought by the States of Maryland and Louisiana. This is of the first moment in this important oase, ax the suite to text the validity of ihe testament, must be decided according to the civil law. The opinion will seen arrive in this oountry in printed feint. Tragical Encounter with Wolves. For the purpose of entrapping his nocturnal visitors, a farmer placed the dead body of a horse in the middle of his court-yard, and hav ing fastened weights to its neck and legs, to prevent the wolves from dragging it away, he set the principal gale open, hut so arranged with cords and pulleys that it could be closed at any required moment. Night came on ; the bouse was shut up, the candles extinguished, the stables barricaded, the dogs brought in doors and muzzled to prevent them from bark ing, and in the bright starlight, on 3ome clean straw, the better to attract attention, lay the dead body of the colt, the gate, as we have said, being open. All was ready, all within on the watch, when about ten o'clock the wolves were heard in the distance, they ap proached, smelt, looked, listened, grumbled, and distrusting the open gale, paused ; not ; one would enter. Profound was the silence and excitement in the house. Hunger at last | overcame prudence and mistrust. Their sav j age cries were renewed ; they became more and more impatient and exasperated ; how was it possible to resist a piece of young horse j flesh I The most forward, probably the cap j lain of the band, could hold out no longer, and I to show his fellows he was worthy to be their I leader, he advanced alone, passed the Rubicon, went up to the colt, tore away a large piece of his chest, and proud of his achievement, set off at full speed with his booty between his teeth. The other wolves, seeing him escape in safe ty, regained their confidence, and one, two, three, six, eight wolves were soon gathered round the animal, but though eating as fast as they could, they remained with ears erect, and each eye still on the gate. Eight wolves! — The farmer thought it a respectable number, and whistled, when the four men at the ropes hauling instantly, the large folding gates rolled to, and closed in the stillness with the voice of thunder; the wolves were prisoners.— Startled and terrified at finding themselves caught, they at once deserted the small re- j mains of the colt, creeping about in all direc- ! lions in search of some outlet by which they might escape, or some hole to lade in, w hile the farmer, having secured them, sent his household to bed. miltimr off their destruction till sunrise. The morning dawned, and with the first rays of light, master and man, for whom the event was a perfect fete, set some ladders against the walls of the court, and from them, as well as the windows, fired volleys on the entrapped wolves. Unable to resist, the animals for some time hurried hither and thither, crouching in ; every nook and corner of the yard ; but the 1 wounds from balls which reached them behind i the stones, or under the carts, soon turned j their fear into rage. They began to make alarming leaps, and the most dreadful yells.— ! The work of destruction went on but slowly, I the men were but indifferent shots, (lie wolves never an instant at rest; and the rapidity and | perseverance with which they continued to gal- j lop around, or leap from side to side of the yard, as if in a cage, essentially baffled the en deavors of their enemies. The affair was in i this way becoming tedious, when an unlooked for misfortune threw a dreadful gloom over the whole scene. The ladJer used by one of the parly being too short, the young man placed himself tin the wall, as if in a saddle, to have a better opportunity of taking aim ; when one ; of the wolves, the largest, strongest and most ; exasperated, suddenly hounded at the wall, as [ if to clear it, but failed; subsequently, the animal attempted to climb up by means of the unhewn stones, like a cat, and though lie again failed, reached high enough almost to seize' with his sharp teeth the foot of the unfortunate lad. Terrified at this he raised his leg to avoid the brute, lost bis balance, and the same moment fell with a heart-rending scream into the court below. Each and all the wolves turned like lightning on llteir helpless victim, and a cry ot horror was heard on every side. The storm of leaden hail ceased ; no man dared fire again, and yet something must he done, for the monsters were devouring their unhappy fellow servant. Listening only to the dictates of humanity, the noble-hearted farmer, gun in hand, leaped at once in'o the yard, and his men all followed his heroic ex ample. A general and frightful conflict en sued. The scene which then took place defies every attempt at description. No pen could adequately place before the reader the awful incidents that succeeded. He must, if he can, imagine the how ling of the wolves, the piteous cries of the lacerated and dying youth, the im precations of the men, the neighing of the horses and roaring of the hulls in the stables; and more than all, the crying and lamenta tions of the women and children in the house, a fearful chorus, such as happily few, very few persons were ever doomed to hear. At last the farmer's wife, a powerful and resolute woman, with great presence of mind, unmuz zled the dogs, and threw them from a window into the yard. Thia most useful reinforcement | with their vigorous attacks and loud harking, completed the tumult and the tragedy. In twenty minutes the eight wolves were dead ; ■ and with them half the faithful dogs. The poor unfortunate lad, his throat lorn open, was dead ; his courageous though successful de fenders were all more or less wounded, and the gallant farmer's left hand so injured, that at soon as surgical assistance could be pro cured for hint, amputation was found to he necessary. The monsters, stretched side by side in the yard, were also dead, every one of them ; but not a voice on the farm raised the heart-stirring shout of victory. Consternation and gloom reigned over it, and it was long in^ deed, ere the voice of mourning deserted its walla. Wolf hunting with traps has its dangers and its inconveniences, and the Tranquenard must be used with great caution. Every morning it should be visited and shut; otherwise a man, a horse, a dog, or some other animal, may fall i into it and be taken. In order, therefore, as much as possible to prevent accidents, our peasants, farmers and poachers, when using this kind of trap, always tie stones, or littls I pisggs pf destj wqod tp thd and brsnsh es of the trees near the spot in which it is set; I they likewise place the same kind of signal at the extremity of the pathway, which leads to the trap, as a warning to those who may walk that way ; and the peasants who know what these signals dancing in the air with every puff of wind mean, turn aside, and take very good care how they proceed on their road. In spite of all these precautions, however, very ead oc currences will sometimes happen in our for ests. Some years ago a trap was placed in a deserted fool way, and the usual precautions were taken of hanging stones and bits of wood in the approach to the path of either end.— The same day a young man of the neighbor hood, full of love and imprudence, upon the eve in fact, of being entangled in the conjugal ‘I will,’ anxious to present to his fiance, some tur tle-doves and pigeons with rosy beaks, with whose whereabouts he was acquainted, left his home a little before sunset to surprise the birds on their nest; but he was late, the night closed in rapidly, and with the intention of shortening the road, instead of following the beaten one, he took his way across the forest. Without in the least heeding the brambles and bushes, which caught his legs, or the. ditches and streams he was obliged to cross, he pressed on ; and after a continued and sanguinary bat tle with the thorns, the stumps, the roots, and the long wild roses came exactly on the path where the trap was set. The night was now nearly dark, and in his agitation and hurry, thinking only of his doves and the loved one, he failed to observe that several little pieces of string were swinging to and fro in the breeze from the branches of a thicket near him.— Dreadful indeed was it for him that he did not; for suddenly he felt a terrible shock, accom panied by most intense pain, the bones of his leg being apparently crushed to pieces—he was caught in the wolf trap ! The first few moments of pain and suffering over, comprehending at once the danger of his position, he with great presence of mind col lected all the strength lie had, and by a deter mined effort endeavored to open the serated ( jaws which held him fast; hut though despair is said to double the strength of a man, the trap refused to give up its prey; and as at the least movement the iron teeth buried them selves deeper and deeper with agonizing pain into his leg, and grated nearly on the hone, his sufferings became so intense that in a very few nO..............I f_ _1.:. . _ attempts to release himself. Keeling this to he the case, he began to shout for help, but no one replied ; and as the night drew on he was silent, fearing that his cries would attract the notice of some of the wclves that might he prowling in the neighborhood, and resolved to wait patiently and with fortitude what fate w illed—what he could not avert. Jle had un der his coat a little hatchet, a weapon which the Morviniati3 constantly carry about with them, and thus in the event of his being at tacked by the dreaded animals, he trusted to it to defend himself; but he was still not without hope that the wolves would not make their appearance. The night lengthened ; the moon rose, and shed her pale light over the forest.— Immovable, with eyes and ears on the <[VI rice, his body jo the most dreadful agony, be lis ened and wailed ; when all at once, far, very far off a confused murmur of indistinct sound was beard. Approaching with rapidity these murmurs became cries and yells; they were llmse of wolves, and not only wolves, but wolves on the track, which must, ere a few minutes cuiild elapse, be upon him. A pang ol horror, and a cold perspiration poured from bis face ; hut fear was nut a part of his nature, and by almost superhuman efforts, and in such an awful mument forgetting all pain, be dragged himself and the trap tow ards an oak tree, against w hich he placed his back. Here, leaning with his left hand upon a stout staff lie had with him when he fell, and having in iiis right It is hatchet ready to strike, the young man, lull of courage, after having of fered up a short prayer to bis God, and em braced, as it were, in his mind his poor old mother and his bride, awaited the horrible re sult determined to show himself a true child of I the forest, and meet his fate like a tnan. A few minutes more and he was as if surrounded by a cordon of yellow flames which like so many \\ ill-'u-the-whisps, danced about in all directions, i liese were the eyes of the mon sters; the animals themselves, which he could not see, sent forth their horrible yells, full in his face, and the smell of their horrid carcasses was borne to him on the wind. Alas! the de nouement of the tragedy approached. The wolves had hit upon the scenled lino of earth, and billowing it, hungry and enraged, were bounding here and there, and exciting each other. They had arrived at the baited spot. * * * * What passed after this no one can tell; no eye shiv hut Hia above ; bur on the following illuming when the Pere Seguin, for he wns the ilufurtuuale person who set tlie Trani/ue nard, came to examine it, lie found tlie trap at tlie foot of the oak, deluged with blond, tiie bone of a liuntan leg upright between the iron,teeth, and all around scattered itlioin the turf and the path, a quantity of human re mains; lii's of Imir, holies, red and moist, ns if the flesh had been but recently torn from them ; shreds of n coat, and other articles of clothing were also discovered near ttie spot. With the atsistance of some dogs that were put on the scent, three wolves, their beads and liodtrs cut open with a hatchet, were found tiding in the adjacent thickets. The bones of their victim Were carried to the nearest church ; and on the following day, these mournful fragments, which bad only a few hours before been full of life and youth, were Committed to the earth.—from Henri de Cngndle's Lt MorvOn. Ravages of the Cholera.—Accounts from Ja maica to Nov. 20, received by the steamer Merlin, at Halifax from Bermuda, report that the cholera was again raging in that ill-fated island with great severity. In some planta tions the deaths were from thirty to forty per day, and in consequence mercantile business was materially interrupted. The English gov ernor of Jamaica and the assembly were at va riance, and the message of the former to the latter was received with murmurs of disappro bation. Abstract of the Report of the War Department. The Secretary of Wnr, in his mount re port of the affairs of that Department, makes the entire number of men home on the army rolls amount to 10,533; which,after making the usual deductions, will give an effective force of 8,500 men, whn have to defend a frontlet ol seven thousand miles in extent. ! From statements carefully prepared by the different bureaus of the Department, it ap pears that the in reased expenditures in the army resulting from our newly acquired ter ritory. (including Texas.) amounted to $4, 550709.75. The expenditures for the support of the army lor the fiscal year ending 30'h June Iasi, were $9,060,268 53 The estimates for the next year, ure 7,898,775 83 Showing a reduction of $1,161,492 75 The hulk of our army force is stationed on the frontiers of Texas anil New Mexico, with small forces in Oregon, Caltlnmin, ice., to keep in stdjertiou the Indian tribes. The Secretary snys that experience has shown that the most effectual way to protect our settlements is to overawe the Indians by a constant display of military force in their immediate neighborhood. With ibis view the tumps have been ordered to advance as near as circumstances would permit. A chain of military posts on the frontiers of I’exas anil New Mexico has been established with the view of protecting the route to Cal ifornia in that quarter. The Secretary adverts to the enormous expenses of supporting the army, and the causes which produce those expenses.— Among the more prominent of the causes, is the circumstance that more than otic Itali of the army is stationed on our remote fron tiers, and so far as expenses are conreineed may he ronstderetl as an active service in time ol war;—and the heavy cost of trans portation ol supplies to distant wilderness regions. A number of arsenals, once needed, nre now entirely useless, and authority is asked to enable die Executive to abolish the.e es tablishments. The Secretary presses a previous recom mendation, Ibal the Department be atidioi \z il to enlist teamsters. The removal ol obstructions to ihe navi gation of Red river and the Rio Grande would greatly reduce the expense, he says, of supplying ninny of the posts in Texas and New Mexico, by diminishing the amount of land transportations. lie says the expenditures of the army will always be ennrmiiu*, so long as a large por tion of it is stationed oil the frontier; anil to ibis end be recommends dint every facility anil encouragement be afforded to tltelor itMiiuu of a local militia in our new settle ments, ami that arms be distributed among rlie iiilialmsints In regard to our future policy for die pre vention of Indian hostilities, the Secretary remarks that, policy and humanity require tha; we should employ some oilier means of pitting n stop to these depredations ttinn the terror of our arms; und to this effort he re commends conciliatory measures. Despair and hunger frequently operate on the Indi ans. The lands that afford nourishment to cattle and gaum are the first to tempt the settler; so that the Indians are frequently driven into the arid plums and frrniittaiiis ihat afford no sustenance, with (lie circle of white population rapidly closing around them — and particularly is (his the case in Texas, since the right of occupancy by the Indians is not recognized hy tip State.— This policy it is that alarms and exasperates the Indians, and brings on collisions between them and ihe whites. The Secretary sug gests that it is to the advantage of Texas herself, ns well as (lie United States, that these Indians should he Icll in possession of a small part ol tier territory; and he recom mends that food and other necessaries be furnished them for a seiies of years. The Florida Indians hate heen placed un der the charge ot the Secretary of the Inte rior. The Military Academy, the Armories ai Springfield and Harpers’ Ferry, the opera lions of the Bureau of Topographical Engi neers, the Survey of the Northern Lakes, ill it of the Creek boundary, and that 01 the Delta of the Mississippi, and the expeditious to Salt Lake and to S into Fe, are briefly no ticed and favorably commented on. The Seciemry announces that the Board appointed tor that purpose have determined on a she in the vicinity of Washington for an asylum for disabled and destitute soldiers, that the terms of the purchase have heen agreed on ; and that, as soon ns the titles shall have heen examined and approved, the agreement will he carried into effect. He suggests tl e expediency of creating a retired list of di-nhled officers. lie recommends that the act which allows a small additional p«y to officers and soldiers in California and Oregon, he continue I in lorre. ami that it include also New Mexico. He conclude* hy recommending u system of equalizing the distribution of arms to the rmli'ia of ilie several St »tes, on a basis de rived from the latest census returns. Report of the Sec. of Interior. From til's report we learn that the whole number of pensioners, now on I lie rolls at Pension olfiee, is 19,611, ami that lire nnioimi expended for pensions, exclusive ol naval pensions, was ahnoi $1,439,848; up 10 ihe lsi of Ocioiier. Under liie revolutionary pension act rtf March, 1819, 1 383 remain on the rolls, under lire act ol June, 1832, 4 S13 now remain. Willi regard to ihe pensions of willows of revolutionary soldiers, only 2,774 remain on the rolls. The Secretary says lhat time is fast removing llic-e venera ble objects ol* oaiionul gratitude and uiitnil icenre. Tbe number of invalid pensioners is 5.359, and 1,750 persons are drawing in Conse quence of the loss of relmives, during ihe Mexican war. The nasiregaie amnion re quired to pay the various navy pensioners now no the roll is $147,364,96. lliere nre still 450 suspended claims ol soldiers of the war nl 1312 to be examined. There have heen 90,146 applications for laud or scrip un der the Mexican Bounty act, of which 83, 955 rlniins have heen allowed, mid 6,191 eases remnin suspended. The quantity of hind sold during the fiscal year was 1.846, 847 49-100 acres, for which $2 370.947 45 wns received. He esiitriates lliui ihe ex penses of appropriations for Ihe rtd men of the forest will be $1,068,198 30 less lor tbe next than this year. The census returns have been received from all the States and Territories except California. The Secie tary aguin recoin mends the establishment of an Agricultural Bureau, and likewi-e stntes that it would be impossible to complete the running of the Mexican Boundary line with in the time specified by law. Tbe estimates of appropriations for the expenditure ol the Department for the next year nre less than those for tbe present year by $1,536,695 43. • I* your name registered ?* ssked an elec» tioneer of a gentlemen whom be met the other day. * No, my name ia Smith, air,’ waa the an swer. Aunt Hetty’s Idea of Matrimony. Now, girls, said Aunt Hetty, put down yuur embroidery and worsted work, do something sensible, and stop building air castles, and talking of lovers and liotiey moons; it mako me sick, it makes me taint, it's peifectlv antintonial. Love is a larce — matrimony is a humbug, husbands are do mestic Napoleons, Neios, Alexanders, sigh ing Icr oilier hearts to conquer niter they ..re sure of yours. The honey-moon is as short lived as a Lucifer match ; after that, you mny wear your wedding dress at ihe wash mb, and your night cap (o meeting, and your husband wouldn’t know it. You may pick up yuur own pocket handkerchief, help your self 10 a chair, and spin your gown across the hack, reaching over ltie table to get a piece of butter, while he is laying in Ins breakfast ns if n was the Inst meal he should eat tins side ul Jordan ; when lie gels through lie will aid your digestion—( Wide you are sipping your first cup of coffee,) by enquir ing' wlmt you’ll have for dinner, whether ihe cold lamb was all ale yesterday, il the char coal is oin, and what you gave for the last green ten you bought. 'I lien he gets up from llie table, lights his cigar with the last evening’s paper lliut you have not had a chance to rend; gives two or three whiffs ul smoke, Mire lo give you a headache lor the lorenoon, and jusi as his coin tail is vanish ing through the door, apologizes lor not do ing‘dial errand for you yesterday — dunks ii doiihdtd if he can to-dny—‘so pleased wuh business.’ Hear of him at 11 o’clock taking an ice cream with some ladies at Viuiuu’s, while you are at home new lining Ins coal sleeves. Children by dm ears nil day, can’t get oui to take die air, feel ns crazy as a H in a drum ; husband comes home al night, nods a ‘how d'ye do Fan,' boxes Charley's ears, stands III lie Funny up in dm corner, ails down in the easiest chair, ill die warm est corner, puis Ins feet up over die grate, shutting out all the fire, while die baby’s little pug nose grows blue wnh the cold: reads the newspapers all to himself, soLces die in ner limn with n hot cup of ten. and just as you are laboring tinder the hi llueinalnm that he will ask you to take a inondi ul of Ireali air with him, he pots on his dressing gown nod slippers and begins to reckon up the family expenses, after which he lies down on the sofa, and yott keep tune with your nee -le while he snores till nine o'clock. Next morning, ask him 10 leave yon a little money, he looks nt y ou an if to he sure you are in your right timid, draws a sigh long enough and strong enough to inflate a pair of hel l..ns, and asks you what you want of h. am) il half a dollar won't do. Gracious king ! as if those little shoes and stockings, and pina fores ami petticoats, could he had for half a dollar! Oh, girls! set your affections on cats, poodles, parrots or lap dogs—hut let : matrimony alone. It's the hardest way on earth of gelling a living —you never know when your work is done up. Think of car rying eight or nine children through the measles, chicken pox, rash, mumps and scar let fever, some of ’em twice over; it makes my sides ache to think of it. Oh, you may scrimp, and save, and twist and turn, and dig mid delve, and economize anil die. and your husband will marry again, take wliai you’ve saved, to dress Ins second wile with, and she’ll take yuur portrait for a fiie hoanl, and—hut whin's the use of talking! I’ll warrant every one of you'll try it, the first chance you get; there’s a sor: cl be witchment about ii, somehow. I wish one half of the world warn’t fools, nod t’other half idiots, I do, Oh, dear! Fas.xy Fhes. Playfulness of Animals. Sm.iil bird? chase each oilier about in play, but perhaps the conduct of the crane and trumpeter (l*aopbir crepitans) is the mosi extraordinary. The latter stands on one leg, hups nriotit in the most eccentiic ruannei, anti thrown somersets. The Americans cal. it the mad bird, on accotmt of tliete singu larities. The crane expands Ins wings, runs round in circles, leaps, and, throwing hide stones and pieces of wood hi tlie air. endea vors to catch them nsum, or pretends to avoid them, ns if afraid. Water birds, Midi as ducks and geese, dive alter each oilier, and cleave the surface of the water with outstretched neck and flapping wings,throw ing mi abundant spray arouurti Deer often engage in a sham brittle on a trial of strength, by twisting their horns to gether and pushing lor the mastery. All an nuals t>>ai pretend violence in their play s*op short of exercising it; the dog takes great precaution not to injure by hi" hue; and tbr ourang outang. in wrestling with his keeper attempts to throw him and makes feints of biting Inin. Some animals curry «»ut in the.r play the semblance of catching their prey ;— voting cats, for instance, leap after every small and moving object, even to the leaves strewed by the atittiniii wind; they crouch and steal forward realty lor the spring; the body quivering and the fail vibrating with emotion, they bound on the moving leal,amt again spring forward at aimiber Rengger saw young jnguars and cti.imrs playing with round stili"iauces like kiitens. Young lambs collect together on the little hillocks and eminences in their pastures rn* eiug and sporting with each other in tbe most iu erestmg manner. Rods ot the pie kind are the analogues td monkeys, full of mischief. play and mimicry. Theie is a story told of a tame magpie, who was seen busily employed m n garden gath ering pebbles, and with iiiudi solemnity and a s'udied air dropping them in h bide about e:ghleen inches deep, made to receive a po-t. Alter dropping each stone, it cried currack ! triumphantly and set oft tor another. On examining the spot, n poor toad .was found in ihe hole, which the magpie was stoning lor his amusement. Hon. Shepard Cary upon his Farm. The editor of tbe Maine Farmer, in his jottings of a tour to Aroostook county, des cribes a visit to Hon. Shepard Cury, ol Houl ton, as follows :— “ We cnlled a few moments on the Hon. Shepard Cary. Everybody in Maine knows friend Cary, not only as an active, enterpris ing business man, hut as an ardent politi cian. Some think him ‘ultra' on some sub jects_he that as it may, there is this redeem ing merit in his composition: you always know whereto find, him, as lie is frank and free in avowing his prinrip es and ilefendiiig them ‘ to the hat's end,’ hit or iniss. One thing is certain, he goes tlie 'whole hog' in pork raising. He invited us to take h snort ride with him in order to meet a lot of live lard in ihe shape of between twenty and thirty enormously fat hogs, that some of Ins men were driving from liie neighborhood of his mill to the slaughter house. They were fully equal in size and tamess lothe herd we described not lung ago, ihal we examined in Saco, belonging to Mr. E. A. Beach, which Were so fill he couldn’t move them, lest they should ‘Isrd the lean earth,1 ss they wvni along. Indeed, s. m* ol these were so fat that s gentle snsil pace of a walk of i mile or two heat them out, and they had to be left on (he way to rest till next day, and thus meet thoir fate by ‘easy stages.’ These wete nlf fattened on buckwheat meal. Mr. C. having a large amount of this specie* of gram, taken hy way of toll in his mill, ob tained some sixty or seventy hogs, and was dots turning it in into a cash article, in the form of extra clear pork. . '11 tuiiituoii to extensive Irrmbering opera tions, which |ie conducts in connection with partners, he also carries on farming pretty largely, the produce of which affords a portion of the supplies used by bis men in the forest. In regard to the cultivation of whent he re marked to us that he could raise the crop of an aero of that grain wiih less Mmr, mid of course cheaper, (ban be coiilil raise lhe crop ol an acre of potatoes. His reasoning is this: it costs no more time nud labor to plough the ground—it is lees labor 10 sow and harrow 11—it does not need one or iwo hoeiags as potatoes do—it is less labor to harvest and ihrasli it than it is to dig and house ilie potatoes.” Hints to Public Speakers. It is a curious fact in the history of sound (hat the loudest noisos always perish on the spot where they are produced, whereas mu sical notes will lie heard ai a great distance. Thus, if we approach within a mile or two ol n town or village in which a fair is field, we may hear very Inintly the clamor of the iiiHl.iimle, Inn more distinctly the organs and other musical iiiatriimeuts which are playod for tlieir amusement. If a Cremona violin, a real Amali, lie played ny the side of a mod ern fiddle, the latter will sound much louder than the former; but the sweet, brilliant tune ol the Amali will lie heard nl a distance the other cannot reach. Dr. Young, on ilia authority ul Durham, states that at Gihraller the humnn voice may be heard at a greater distance than that of any other animal.— Tims when the cottager in the woods or the open plain wishes to call her hits’ and who is working at a distance, she dors nol shout, hm pitches her voice ton musical key, which she knows from liatiil, and hy that means reaches Ins ear. The loudest runr of tlie large-t lion could nut penetrate »o far. Loud speakers are seldom heard 10 advantage.— Burke’s voice is said to have been a sort of lofty cry, wlucli tended ns much as the for mality of Ins diwouise lit ihe House ol Com mons In vend lire rneiiilrers to their dinner. Chatham * lowest whisper was distinctly heard. * Mix mildest tones were sweet, rich and beaniil'ully varied,’ lays a writer, de« crihi.,g the orator ; ‘when lie raises Ids voice to the highest pitch the house was complete ly filled wiih ihe volume of sound; and the effect was awful, except when he wished to cheer or nnimaie—and then he had spirit stirring notes which were perlectly irresisti ble. The terrible, however, was bis pecu liar power. Then the house sank belore him; still lie was dignified, anil wonderful as was his eloquence, it was aileaded vviili this important effect, that it possessed every one with a conviction that there was some thing in him finer than Ins words ; that thu man was greater, infinitely greater, than the orator.’ American Ship Building; The foHowing is the acknowledgement' made by Wilson Green, Esq., at the dinner on hoard I lie packet ship Griat Western, giv en on Tuesday, July 29, 1S51, in answer to the toast:—• The Liverpool Shipbuilders.’— After spraking of ship bin ding generally, and what could be done in America, Mr. Green said;— That the Americans had advantages that he did not possess in England, and it must lie acknowledged that their ships arc amongst ihe noblest specimens of naval architecture, and cotiiil not lie rivalled. He ihimglit, how ever, that it in Liverpool ive had the ad van tages which ihev have in America, we miglit compete wiili them ; lie would not sayt iB it they could not beat us, but we should first have a trial, lie would sav this, that'ill al most everything connected with ships-, the Americans were leading us. [Hear.] They had a class of steamers which came here from the United Slates. Now, as a ship builder, and one acquainted with building large steamers, he did not hesiinte 10 say tilers were not finer or better Imili vessels ilmu tbe American steamers. [Hear, hear.] The Atlantic had sustained a succession of severe gales which few ships could have withstood, and when she was examined in the dry dock at this port, there was not the slightest appearance of any strain. She ex tiilmed wliai tin never saw before. It is well known that ships of war invariably set'led about five inches; but ilie Aihinlic did not vary an-inch ami a half. [Hear, hear.] — There wa- not a frigate in the English navy tlmi would nut sink five inches. The sink ing was shown by the copper, hut there was ooi :he sligliest abrasion in the All lime.— lie Imped we should go on with America in j spirii of liuoeai rivalry, and he begged to pro* j pose a* a toast, ‘The Shipbuilders ot the j United Stales of America. [Cheers.] | The Great Telegraph Case.—The Wash ■ ington Telegraph states that the great tele j graph case between the Haiti and Morse par i ties, it is said, has been finally ami amicably i adjusted by compromise, which will prevent j its being carired to the Supreme Court. It ; adds— ‘ The Bain party have agreed to amalgamate interests with the Morse or magnetic line, ex tending from Washington to New York.— Thay have consented to allow a per rentage on their profits and receipts for the use of ihe Morse patent, thus substantially giving up fur ther contention, ami acknowledging their in vention to be an infringement. The interests of both lines will henceforth he as one though they will he kept separaie and distinct lines, as heretofore. This w ill have rather a dispiriting effe-’t on the owners of other lines ot telegraph in the United States constructed upon the Bain patent.” How the Bushman obtains Ostriches. A favorite method adopted by the wild bush man for approaching the ostrich and otnar varieties of game, is 10 clothe liiiu-ell In the skin of one of the lords, in winch, taking care of the wind, he stalks about the plain, cunningly imiiniing the gau and nituititis of tbe ostrich iiiuil within range When, with a well directed poisoned airow from his liny linw, he ran generally senl the line of any ol I the ordinary vaiietirs of game. These in significant looking arrows nre about two leet six inches in length; they consist of a slrn d r reed, with n sharp hone head, thorough ly poisoned willi a composition,of winch the principal ingredients are obtained sometimes from a succulent herb having thick leaves yielding u poisonous milkv juice, and some times Ironi ihe jaws of snakes. The bow rarely exceeds three feet in lengtli ; its siring! are of twisted sinews. When a hiisiiinnn finds an osnicli’s nest, he ensconc es himself in it, and there awniis the return of the old birds, by which menns he general ly secures the pair. It is by ineHiis of these little srrows that the majority of the fine plumes are obtained which grace the heads of the fair ihiougbout the civilized world. Black Noses.—A resolution has been in troduced imo die Kentucky Legislature, which provides ‘ that the keeper of the Peni tentiary shall procure a suitable chemical dye, such ns will slain the cuticle or outer surface of the skin perlecily black, so ihut it cannot he washed olf or in any way lie re moved, until time shall wear it away, aod nature furnish a new cuticle or surface; and that with this dye lie shill have the nose of each male convict pninted thoroughly black, ami renew the application ss often as may he necessary to keep it so, until within one month of ihe expiration of his sentence, when it shall lie discontinued, for the pur pose of permitting nature to restore the feature to its original bus, preparatory tq the second sdvept oj itf pwger tllS world/ 0