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Bath, Thursday, Mar. 11,1852.
Democratic Nominations. FOR GO VERS OR, JOHN HUBBARD. FOR ELECTORS, RUFUS, McLVHRE, of York. JOHN C. TALBOT, Sen., of Washington. Law Reform — Re-organization of the Judiciary System. The i.aw reform which has been going on in England and in our own country, for several years.past, has had a good effect in bringing about a rc-organizeton of the Judiciary sys tem, in several of our States, thereby freeing the Judiciary from some of the rubbish of an tiquity, with which it has been cumbered.— Our own State has not been insensible to this movement, for it will be recollected that a 1 Committee of legal and learned gentlemen con sisting of Messrs. John Appleton of Bangor, i George F. fchepley of Portland, and George ; M. Chase of Calais, was appointed by the lust Legislature to take into consideration the re organization of the Judiciary system of the fetale. We understand that they are about to report several radical changes to the Legisla ture—but our present object is not to antici pate their report, for the purpose of comment ing upon any of their recommendations, but to •- submit a few' reflections upon one branch of Law reform w hich we consider to be of great importance and interest to the community— that of restoring the competency of parties, as toil- j tirsses in their oten behalf. And first, we 6hall take it for granted that the consideration of this subject will be of suf ficient interest to the general reader to warrant our devoting a portion of our columns to it.— The Judiciary department of a government like ours, may be considered as nearer to the mass es than even the Legislative department—it set tles the rights of the people, by the people— consequently all arc brought in contact, and connected directly or indirectly, with it. The ground upon which parties are excluded as witnesses, is not simply because they arc parties, as w'as formerly held, but on account of their interest as parties. Interest, therefore, 13 the disqualifying principle, as was well set tled almost twenty years ago, in England, ac- j cording to Bingham’s reports. Chief Justice J Tindalthen laid down the law on this point— ! that a party having no interest, is competent * *is a witness, both when callod for himself, and j when called by his adversary’. It is hardly ! necessary to say that the philosophy of the principle of law objected to, is based upon a ; very low but strongly impelling motive in hu- ' man nature, selfishness. It is the bias arising from self-interest that is sought to be counter acted. liut we must keep in mind that justice is the great end uimed at—the only thing to be attained, in all judicious investigations. If, then, any principle of law or rule of evidence j is now in vogue which tends to thw art the ends ; of justice, rather than promote them, we take l it for granted that it should be repealed. This j conceded, let us proceed to the direct consider- j ation of the subject of our enquiry— which we will do by glancing, first, at the evils of this ! rule of evidence, or prinicple of law—or what- : ever it may be termed. By excluding the testimony of parties, you frequently shut out the account of those who must needs know' more of the matter in dis pute than all the rest of the world—thereby leading to the manifest failure of justice. Cir cumstantial and indirect testimony, consequent ly, is resorted to and tortured into use—always involving more or less uncertainty as to the ; corrcctsiess of the conclusion arrived at. The present system operates to the prejudice of justice, also, in many eases where one of the parties, from the nature of his situation, al ways has witnesses enough to prove what is ! desired, as in the case of traders, manufactu- ; rers, and others, who have clerks in their cm- , ploy who have more or less knowledge of the j business of their employers, and arc consn- . quently available witnesses for them, while the other party, having his own mouth closed, and ; no witnesses to offer, may be entirely preolud- I ed from rebutting or explaining what is brought j against him. Again, under this system, one party is able, under certain circumstances, to deprive his op ponent of witnesses by joining them in the suit with the principal defendant, and thereby clos ing their mouths. These arc some of the evils that may be rem edied—but let us see if any objections can be urged against a change. And here the ques-' tion as to the nature of the change mest desira ble to be made, may arise. Our own view of this, is to make clean work of it—open the door ; wide, and let interest go to a person’s credit ill- j stead of his competence. In other words, ad mit all the testimony of the parties, and then give it its proper weight—gauging it by the in- ' tcrest of the witness, the plausibility of the story, and other circumstances bearing upon the matter. Now for the objections—and the most serious one is, that a doing away of the present system would open the door to perjury. The force of this objection, docs not weigh much, in our mind—for it is by no means clear to us, that the great bulk of perjury is owing to direct in terest, operating on the mind of the witness — There are motives springing from zeal, favor, and affection, hatred and spite, partizanship, perverted notions of obligation towards em ployers and others, influencing witnesses, if not to commit direct peijurv, to color their state- i uicnts, suppress a part, exaggerate the rest, ' producing the same effect as direct falsehood. ( resides, the testimony of such individuals, ! third persons as they arc, is more likely to un dergo the test of cross-examination, lhan would the testimony of the parties—for while the one could plead ignorance, and thus avoid being drawn out into a long story, the other, know ing all the facts in the case, would be com- | polled to state them—and the longer and more i minute a story is, the more exposed it is to de tection, if groundless —the more materials does it furnish for detection, by cross-examination, by comparison of its parts, and by contrast with other evidence. Again, by admitting both par ties to testify, the one will act as a check on the other, and their compared and contrasted • testimony cannot fail to furnish a safe criterion for the Court to decide upon. Another objection raised to admitting parlies to testify, is, that it would give advantage to the able, over the dull, the self-possessed over the nervous. Possibly this is true; it is an objection, however, that can weigh but slight ly—for it would be folly to attempt to over come or counteract weaknesses such as these, which must have their due operation. Physi cal or mental imbecilities will ever be attended with disadvantages, hut the disparity in testi mony produced thereby, could be very easily ' regulated by Counsel, or the Court. Uut ihe change for which w^are contending, is not anew and entirely speculativeArbject of investigation. It was a favorite doctrin£ of .that fnmieaMew reformer of England, Jeremy - --: Bentham—through whose influence, we be lieve, it was introduced into English jurispru j deuce, to apply to cases of a certain amount— | £6** and under. Experience speaks strongly ; in its favor, and it has an eloquent champion, | for its universal adoption, in the distinguished | Lord Brougham, lie gives it as his opinion, founded upon the experience of many practi tioners, that thousands of cases which run i through the whole course of litigation, with : all its chances of miscarriage or misdecision, i would have been settled out of Court had the 1 parties been examined. Many cases are 1 brought into Court, we have redson to believe, : that never would be, if each party were sure J that bis adversary could be heard. Many a j plaintiff persists in his attack, and many a dc ! fendant perseveres in his resistance, merely be cause each knows that the other's mouth is closed. Would it not be well to have more of an equity practice • Augusta Correspondence. i Legislative business—Appoi tionment—Discussion in the two branches, Ac., etc. Augusta, March 6th, 1852. ' The two branches of the Legislature were ! pretty well thinned out the first of the week, ! owing to the occurrence of the March meetings ! in so many of the towns. This has retarded the ordinary legislation, however, but a very little. Notwithstanding over two months of • th^ session have elapsed, business continues to j pour in, in a steady current. Old legislators agree that the mass of business already in, is ! unprecedented in the annals of our State leg j islation—a long session is looked upon as an j inevitable result, consequently. The Apportionment Committees are making ; due progress. The Senatorial Committee | agreed, at its Thursday afternoon session, upon j their report, and we should judge that it is a | very fair and equitable apportionment, and ] will generally be acceptable. It preserves County lines almost entirely—the exception being in classing three towns from Kennebec, (Clinton, Benton and Clinton Gore) with Som erset County. The Counties are apportioned ns follows :—York, 3—Lincoln 4—Kennebec 3 —Waldo 3 —Hancock 5—Washington 2— Aroostook 1—Fenobscot 3--Piscataquis 1 — Somerset 2—Franklin 1 —Oxford 2. It will be perceived that Oxford loses one, and that the East gains it. The Congressional apportionment will not be so easily agreed upon. Walker's bill (to which we have before alluded) is quite as like , ly to be accepted as any, we should judge. A j more equitable or appropriate apportionment, we believe, cannot be made, and this is pretty i generally conceded. Still, it is uncertain what | interests may combine against it, and what its ! fate may be. The State Representative Apportionment j Committee have, also, a considerable compli | catcd piece of business to manage. They are | making good progress, however, j In the Senate, on Thursday, Mr. Cary spoke at length in opposition to the Resolves memo rializing Congress for a grant of land in aid of the European and North American Railroad. To show the peculiarities of Mr. Cary’s mind, ! and modes of reasoning, we copy a slight j sketch of his remarks, as reported for one of the | legislative papers:— Mr. Cury ridiculed tiio Report and die re solves, denouncing (hem as containing an I endorsement of the treaty of Washington, which, lie said, this Stale lias never en dorsed. He Fa id the report was like a Thomsonian pedlar’s cart. lie had looked it over, and it was lobelia and cayenne throughout, lie could find nothing else.— it was Thompsonian No. 1, No. 2, No. G, No. 7, and so on. Me rend portions of the report, and commented on them. If he should undertake to amend it, arid strike out ! everything he objected to, what was left would resemble ilio carcass of a dead crow, j It would be bare and bluck. Mr. C. saitl Ills constituents would be as much interested in the N. A. Railway as any section. It would cross a railway in New Brunswick that comes within six miles ot Moulton, and would open to them the double market of St. John and Boston. But lie would not sacri ! (ice Ins principles and ilie honor ot the State. Me denounced railroad corporations as build ing up a money power similar to that built I tip by the U. S. Bank. Me could not suy but j Mr. Webster drew up the report himself.— | It granted more than he asked in 1843, when I lie had Elder Case here the whole session, ! paid by seciet service money. The report was signed 'll. Carter, per order. It may have come from Neal Dow. Mr. Carter is j in liivor of the liquor law anil also in favor of digging Gov. Ilubhnnl out of the temper ance bed. Mr. C. was lur returning it back whence it came. He would propose to strike out the lust part of the report. The Report and Resolves pass.d, however. Defeated in preventing the passage of these Resolves, Mr. Cary originated some himself, under the title of '•Resolves in relation to British and French intervention in the affairs of Cuba.” This served to draw out the Sena tor again, in another of his peculiar speeches, and when he got through, the Senate indefi nitely postponed the whole matter. Whatever may be said of Mr. Cary, he is a faithful guar ' dian of the interests of his constituents. He has had his hands full, lately, in taking care of a matter which affects bis County, pecuni arily. The Belfast Academy procured the Re porting of a Resolve in their favor, abating and remitting taxes alleged to have been ille gally assessed by the State and County of Aroostook, (in which the Grant is situated.) Cary attacked the Resolves, contending that the Academy had sold the Grant to specula tors, but has retained the fee of the land to avoid taxation, and that it was a fraud upon the State and County. Notwithstanding the denial of this by the Chairman of the Commit tee of Judicialr, (Mr. Bell) before which the matter was investigated, Mr. Cary succeeded in carrying the Senate with him in indefinitely postponing the Resolves. The next day, how ! ever, the vote was reconsidered, and contrary action had. Mr. Cary, however, as active ns j as the friends of the Resolve, increased his ef j f°rta lor its defeat, until, a day or two after, he 1 reversed the vote again. What the next move l will be, is uncertain; it requires a good deal of manoeuvring to "head off’the indefatiga i blc Aroostook Senator when his County inter i ests are at stake. i v In the House, the principal discussion lias been on Railroad matters. Several excellent speeches on the Somerset and Kennebec amendment, have been made besides those of last week, and instead of taking the question on the day assigned, (Thursday) it will proba bly occupy the attention of the House most of . a"ot*‘cr week. The opinion prevails here, that the House will non-concur the Senate in their action on the Bill, and that it will tend to more favorable action for the measure in that branch. The Lyceum goers here have had a rich treat the past week. Rev. Mr. Chapin, and Ralph W aldo Emerson, Lsq., have favored them with a toilfch of their spirit. The subject of the for mer, was Joitx Hampden, the latter gave a somewhat indescribable discourse on matters in general, which wns characterized by his pe culiar genius, originality and vigor of thought. Park Benjamin delivers two lectures next week. n iy Hun Parker Sheldon has been re-elected Mayor of Gardiner. . .—. 1__J—.. .. Abuse of California Passengers. Our readers are aware that Senator Brad bury, of this Slate, recently introduced into Congress a resolution of inquiry whether any legislation was necessary to prevent abuse of passengers on board the California steamers. I This subject has already elicited some discus i sion Irom that body, and we are glad to per ceive, has aroused a corresponding spirit of en quiry among the people, and drawn nut from ; the victims themselves, details of privation and 1 suffering too heart-rending and sickening to ! dwell apen. | By later advices from Washington, we per ’ ceive that the Committee on Commerce, to i whom this snhject was referred, have asked \ for and received a discharge from its further consideration. We cannot believe, however, ' that action will stop here. Humanity demands that measures be immediately taken to prevent further disregard of life and health on hoard those steamers, and we hope our delegation in Congress will press the subject until such measures are adopted. The following communication, which we copy from the Sacramento Union of Jan. 15, discloses some of the abuses practised upon California passengers. Appended to it are the names of gentlemen of the highest credibility, i some of whom are from this Slate. Two are I ! from Brunswick. Notice to the 1 ravelling ruuLic.— I Deeming it a duly we owe to all those who j know us, and may be travelling to and from California, we, the signers of this card, wish to give publicity to the extortions and imposi tions practised upon passengers by those who ! have the management of Vanderbilt's Nicara ! goa Line of Steamers. On arriving at N. \urk : from the country, we found that we were ! obliged to pay 15 cents per pound freight on all our baggage, instead of allowing ns each 250 lbs., as advertised. Finding remonstrance unavailing, we consented to this, the first im position. Proceeding on board the Daniel Webster, we found everything contrary to what bad been represented; the sleeping apart ments and conveniences were insufficient, and our food miserable in 'lie extreme, and entire ly unfit for human beings to partake of. In consequence of the officers being unfit fur duty from the effects of drunkenness, we ran forty miles out of the way, passing San Juan del Norte, before the mistake was discovered, when we returned. On arriving there, and before getting into the small boats, our" bag gage was weighed and 15 cents charged upon every pound, and even then they refused re ceipts fur the safe delivery of the same. On board the boats which carried us up the river, we understood that no meals would be fur nished us, but were not prepared for the avari cious grasp of the officers, who took advantage charging us 30 cents apiece for biscuit that did not weigh three ounces, and $25 for a supper for nine persons, four being small children.— There were no sleeping apartments of any de scription, and men, women and children were all compelled to huddle together like so manv criminals for four days (the whole lime from ocean lo ocean, occupying five days instead of twelve hours, as was represented lo us) until we were all worn out and exhausted. At Vir gin Bay we took mules, and instead of the delightful plank road we were to travel on, we found it a perfect slough of despond ; we were compelled to ford creeks, wetting us through and through, and our baggage being in the rear, we were obliged to remain in our wet clothing, children arid all. After encoun tering more vexations, delays, and impositions than we can enumerate, we arrived at San Juan del Stir, where, to our dismay, we found that the steamer Independence, which had been promised to us by the agents in New York, was not there, but in her place, a small and en tirely unfit craft in every way, less than 500 tons, called the Gold Hunter. On board of her we were again subjected to another neglect for the necessaries of life. At least one hun dred out of our 300 passengers were down with the fever of the country, and another extortion was practised upon us, in charging SI per head and 50 cents per trunk to convey us on board the steamer, which, when there, we found, (as was the case with the Daniel Webster) was inadequate lo accommodate our number.— What berths we found were quickly taken up, and a species of cot, called a standee, were se cured by a moiety of the unprovided for, and the rest of the unfortunates were compelled to lay around on deck, or wherever they could find a place large enough for a man to measure his length, exposed to the deleterious effects of the night dews and change of climate. Of the provisions prepared for our use, no language is sufficient to express our condemnation of tiie , same. Had the Gold Hunter been crowded with Irish emigrants of the lowest class, they could not have been treated worse. Remon strauce was in vain ; on appealing to the cap lain, we were referred to the purser, by him we were sent lo the doctor, and from him to the mate, all shifting the responsibility, and when our backs were turned the whole affair would be thrown into ridicule. Finding this to be the case, we quietly settled down into an apathy, and did not care whether we lived or died. On the whole of the passage up, the treatment we received never varied, but we were subjected to the most infamous and inhu man treatment that one could possibly conceive of. We were not alone threatened with death Irom starvation and exposure, but also, through the criminal and reckless conduct of the offi cers, our ship was several times during the passage, on fire, and in one instance, on the morning of the 31st December, had it not been lor ihe daring of a passenger by the name of R. Dunning, we should have been inevitably destroyed. He, notwithstanding the opposi tion and threats of the officers to the contrary, searched the vessel from stem to slGrn, and to the imminent peril of his own life. Taking with him the watchman of the ship as a guide, he explored the hidden depths of the ship, in sinuating himself between the boilers and the bottom of the vessel, he at length found a burn ing mass of timber, which, after some difficul ty, was extinguished. And now, thanking God that we are out of the jaws of death, in conclusion, we are compelled frankly to de clare, that so far Irom any redeeming points, we cannot find words strong enough to express our indignation at the impositions, duplicity and extortions, practised by the agents of Van derbilt's ^Nicaragua Line of Steamers upon their passengers, who have thus far been so unfor tunate as to travel with them. If those who are about to come to California, or about to proceed home, will take warning from this, the results of our sad experience, our object is ac complished, and we have performed that which we consider a simple act of duty. We there fore come lo the conclusion that, for the benefit of our friends at home and abroad, to publish this with our signatures attached, iu one of the leading papers of California, and to forward copies of the same to different sections of the Union, in order that our object may be more fully accomplished. San Francisco, Jan. 6th, ISj'J. Signed, Charles Brown Wm. R. Lincoln James C. Bigelow N. II. Joroleman James A. Pritchard W. W. Keen James W. Ballou Wm. Cheyne Peter Sharid Henry Anstcr | W. Dunning Samuel Toombs I Robert Pike Lyman J. Burrell ! Charles B. Avery Even Rogers George Avery Ephraim Cone Charles Pike Erastus Mathewson C. G. Mason Hanson P. Willard Thomas Baldwin George O. Field John Caine Lawrence Laded VV. II. Van Dyke Thomas W. Lilly J. P. Hunt A. M. Mix C. 1 honapson Wm. H. Curtis H. II. Rowell Joseph Miller Edwiu Coggins Charles McRamsey Robert Johnson John Sherwood. Pardon S. Bowen G. G. Bull George II. Trumblin II. W. Veaey Thomas Bulhwell Ed. Faucher Josiah Heywood _ Thomas Kirkman VVm. Prince George Potter T homas CL.Bonnea George Burchard John A. Potter (k Ik Roger* Charles W. Latchy Jews filair C. Cobb J. E. White D. L. J nelson James Blair Richard Nalem Lowrey B. White Win. H. Weeks A. G. Clarke Manin Schneider A. B. Burgess Myron Renolda Geo. Derbeysluce S. R. Hunt James Walsten Wm. Vosbiirgh Wm. Scully P. \V. Lake, Jr. C. S. Curtis E. S. Davis T. Derbpshire Wm. Wallace Albert Averill George Green George A. Davis De Forest Sperry « Thomas C. French John McLaughlin Charles Hunt W. Middleton D. J. McKenzie Wm. II. Treat J. K. Sawyer John L. Dudney A. L. Whelan L. M. Field O. II. Santuli S. Hopkins George H. Faucher Richard Dunning D. Perry L. G. Green Otis Eddy Wm. Cliace W. Royal Levi Bartlett G. B. Kittredge G. II. Chapman A. Paza Ed. Spaulding J. D. White John Muller, Jr. C. Weeks Joseph Robinson Joseph Weeks Charles A Latimer John Marks C. C. Piper E. A. Stalkens G. Carmichael Charles Hopps Wm. A. Merrill D. II. Colemou J. M. Simons E. R. Bowman Van Rans. Rouse J. C. Breslau John G. Groves G. G. Clark, j The New York Evening Post publishes a ! letter from a respectable physician in Stockton, Cal., dated Jan. 14, 1852, whose statements are perfectly appalling. The following ex tracts we commend not only to the notice of the public, but to the members of Congress :— In performing this voyage, few die or suf fer much on the Atlantic. The hurry ami excitement of crossing the Isthmus allow few to realize that anything seriously wrong < is going on in their systems. And almost | without au enquiry with regard to accomino j tlulions on the steamers, they buy tickets mill pirih.'irk. Often from lour to six hundred persons nre crammed together within the narrow limits of a steamboat. On calling for the berth allotted on the ticker, it cannot be found, or lias been sold 10 hall a dozen dif ferent men, or, at best, is but a miserable shelf, situated in that part of the ship where it i ? impossible to ventilate or purify the air. Then ensue jangles anil quarrels for berths, and food with occasional apportions of stink ing beef, wormy bread, scanty water, Jcc.— There is, however, no reprieve, and passen gers, particularly in the steerage, are under ihe necessity of taking such accommoda tions as they cau got, or none at all. The effect of all tbi* is, that of those leav ing Panama, a fenrfui' per centage die and are buried in the sea. Of iJ'Ose sufficiently fortunnie to arrive in San Francisco, nearly one-half are in an exhausted cachectic state, which, with the occurrence of the ordinary exciting enuses of disease, rarely fads to ; prostrate the most robust frames. Many into the hospitals at San Francisco, only to be carried thence to the grave yard. Of llio passengers who left Panama in (lie steamer Northerner in her last trip, sixteen were thrown overboard. Of the remainder, some twenty have since died, in San Francisco, Sacramento and Siockton. And there ure plenty more to he seen crawling about the streets, having more the appearance of dead than living men. The following extract of a letter from the son of Mr. Zebulou Norton of Phillips, in this Slate, we copy from the Argus: Auburn, Placer Co., Cal., Jan. 11, 1852. Dear Father:—I arrived safe in San Francisco, Jan 1, 1852. We sailed from Panama the lGlh of Dec. last, in the steam ship “Northerner” nntl alter a pnasnge of 16 days arrived at San Francisco. She was a ship of only 1200 Ions. They crowded on hoard 750 passengers. It was very sickly on hoard ; about 25 died before we landed, and about 50 more were enrried ashore sick ofllie Panama, Chngres or ship fever. We almost starved to death before we could get ashore. We had nothing to eat Inn luimed meat, nod ship-bread full of worms—and pari of the time on an allowance of waier.— I had rather he in the State Prison three months than suffer what 1 had to in coming here. The last arrival announces that the Steamer Golden Gate was about leaving Panama with nine hundred passengers! Now no steamer on the route can accommodate half that num ber comfortably. Maine has a large interest in this matter.— Our young men—the flower of the State—are leaving us by hundreds for California. We suppose about all of them take steerage pas sages on these steamers. It becomes, there fore, the duty not only of the people, hut of the people’s representatives in Congress, to secure some remedy for the great evil of which there is so much complaint. “ Woolwich Rippings.” An excitement quite unusual in our quiet city, has recently been produced inconsequence of the alleged self-ripping of various articles of clothing in the house of Mr. John Hanson of Woolwich. This operation is said to have commenced about three weelt3 since, and has been confined principally to the clothes of a young woman in the family,—a niece, we be lieve, of Mr. Hanson’s,—some of which ex hibited conclusive marks of the distructive character of the spirits who ha*e handled them, being torn literally to shreds. Wonderful stories are reported of the tearing of new cloth, even before the eyes of members of the family ; but when visitors have wished to see the per formance, they are told that “ things won't tear while they are watched.” In this particular, the spiritual rippers of Woolwich seem very ob stinate ; differing entirely from their sisters at Rochester. Books, cards, &c., have also been similarly affected, daguerreotypes turn, face down, without hands; and it said, that during a temporary absence of the young wo man, affairs were worse than ever. But we are not about to rehearse half the marvellous stories in the mouths of all, but will simply state that we have seen books, cards and paper torn, upon whose surface the finger marks were not half so easily discerned, and daguerreotypes turned which fitted to the case much closer than those we saw at this house ; and to our own mind the proof is con clusive of one of the most palpable humbugs ever started. Mr. Hanson has ever sustained a high reputation for integrity of character, and we do not pretend to implicate him,—in deed we think him sincere in his belief,—but that any other than mortal hands have been at work in his house, destroying the clothes, &c., of the family, we have not the first reason to Relieve. Hundreds of people have visited the place, but we have seen none who are believers in the “ spiritual rippings.” The proprietois of the ferry are not alarmed at all. OCT” In a lotter from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting to Congress a copy of a communication front that department, furnish ing information in reference to the new custom houses now being orected, it is stated that11 the appropriation for a Custom House in this city is limited to $25,000. The site has cost $11, 000, leaving only $14,000 for the building, which is insufficient for a suitable structure.— No progress has been made towards erecting this structure, and it is respectfully recommend ed that an appropriation should be made for the cost of the site, leaving the original sum of $25,000 as exclusively applicable to the huil diog.” Unknown Reef of Rocks in the Java Seas. The following extract from the log of the ship George Brown, of Baltimore, has been officially cxmitiiutiicated to the Navy Department. It furnishes important infor mation of the existence of an unknown reef of rocks not far from Tiger Island. The George Brown was totally lost on this reef, while on hei passage from San Francisco to Calculta: “ Friday, Avgust 15,1851. Lat. fit noon, 6 deg. 44 min. S., long. 121 deg. 30 min. E.; winds. E., moderate. A 6 b. 30 min. (Pi M.) struck on a reef of rocks lying S. E. front ‘Tiger Island,’ about 15 miles from the island. The islands were just in sight from the deck. The next day the rocks went ihtongli her bottom, and she filled with wa ter. By the mean of several observations taken the preceding day, the shoal is in lat. 0 deg. 44 min. S, long. 121 deg. E. We left the wreck in our boats oil the 17th, and landed on the island of ‘Salayer,’ alter a sev en days’ passage.” Free Navigation of the St. Lawrence.— The Montreal Herald of Saturday contains the following paragraph : We have good reason for believing that this concession will be shortly made to American ship owners by our Government. We learn al so, that the American Government are expected to abolish their late regulation, by which goods entered at inland ports are charged advalorem duties upon their value at the places of impor tation in the United States, and that hereafter they will be charged only upon the invoice at the place of shipment. This charge, it will be seen, will be very advantageous to the trade by the St. Lawrence. For, at present, goods passing by that route, say to Detroit, pay duty on their original value, on the sea freight and on the Inland freight, whereas entered at New York or Boston they only pay duty on their value at Liverpool. Russia.—Tlie whole disposable force of Russia for a foreign campaign, does not much exceed 200,000 men ; and even lhi3 may be rendering necessary at home by the attack of a powerful maritime nation, made through the Baltic or the Black Sea. Russia, on both of these lines of frontier is probably more vulner able than is commonly supposed. The death of the present very able Sovereign of Russia will not improbably be followed by internal convulsions in that country, which will affurd another opportunity to Poland and Hungary to strike for freedom. The immediate prospect is not favorable to the liberation of continental Europe. Debt of France.—The annual revenues of France fall far short of the expenses of the gov ernment, and the national debt is rolling up w.:th fearful rapidity. It now amounts to one thu'us.'nd millions of dollars, or about one fourth of the debt of England. Launched —in this city on Saturday last, from the yard of l.be late John Henry, a fine ship of 900 tons, called Elvira Owen. She is owned by J. P. Morse, Mr. Purringion, and Capt. Chas. Owen. The last named gentleman will command her. She is intended fur the cotton trade. Also, on Monday, the 8th inst., from the yard of Trufant, Drummond & Co., a t’hip of about 1200 Ions, called Benjamin Adams. Maine Reoister.—A copy of this work, from the press of Masters, Smith & Co,—to which we alluded in our last,—has been ban ded us by Mr. Henry Hyde, who has it for sale. Harper’s Magazine.—The March Ko. of this interesting work is received. The con tents are unusually rich. Arrangements have been made for the publication of a new novel by Dickens, entitled “ Bleak House or the East Wind," the first of which will appear in the April number of this Magazine. Oy* There seems to be some misapprehen sion as to the political platform occupied by several of the officers chosen at the recent city election. Our Whig coteinporary placed the names of Johnson Rideout, Esq., Edmund French and Wm. B. Taylor as whigs. They are all democrats, and no doubt feel properly 11 indignant” at the false view given of their position. Pei ctions.—That writer who aspires to iinmortality should imitate the sculptor, if lie would make the labors of the pen ns durable as those of the chisel. Like the sculptor, he should arrive at ultimate perfection, not hy what he adds, hut hy what he takes nivny ; otherwise, all his energy may he hidden in the snperahimdent mass of his matter, as the finished form of nil Apollo, in ihe mi worked soliJity of the block. A friend called on Mi chael Angelo, who was finishing a statue; some time afterwards he called again ; the sculptor was still at his work ; his friend, look ing at the figure, exclaimed, * You have been idle since I saw you last.’ By no means,’ te plietl the sculptor ;* I have retouched this part aud polished that; 1 hare softened this feature, anil brought out this muscle ; 1 have given more expression to this lip, and more energy to this limb.’ 1 Well,’ well.’ said his friend. 1 but all these are trifles.’ * It may he so,’ replied Angelo ; ‘but recollect trifles make perfection, und that perfection is no trifle.’ Seasonable Advice.—The following ‘re ceipe’ commends itself to every reader : Of all the means of curing colds, says an exchange, fasting is the most effectual. Let whoever has a cold eat nothing whatever for two days, and his cold will he gone, provided he is not confined in his bed, because by ta king carbon into the system by food, but con suming that .surplus which caused that dis - ease hy breath, he soon carries off his disease by removing the cause. This will be found more effectual if he adds copious water drinking to protracted lasting. By the time a person has fasted one day and night, he ex periences a freedom from pain and clearness of mind, in delightful contract with mental stupor nnd physical pain caused by colds.— Aud how infinitely better is this method of breaking up colds than medicines ! Sympathy fop. Criminals.—The Oswego, N. Y. Journal complains that the unfortunate individuals who are at present sojourning in the Auburn State Prison are not treated with the kindness and consideration which is due to the spirit of the age. It speaks of ‘ feroci ous, vindictive keeper*,’ but is all gentleness towards the persecuted inmates who are call ed ‘convicts.’ And as the Journal of Com merce says, to crown the whole, a petition is actually in circulation, asking the Legisla ture to pay the prisoners wages for thicr ser vices in prison ! Norway'.—At the annual meeting for the choice of officers, holden on Monday last, the town voted to instruct the Selectmen that no Agent should be appointed for the sale of al coholic liquors the coming year in that town. Father Taylor.—In the Seamen’s chapel in Bnston, Father Taylor, wns speaking of the groat facilities of Massachusetts; the op portunities for social and moral improvement and happiness which she presented. Said he, ‘ Why, shipmates, if a man went to hell from New England, he ought to be ashamed to look a decent devil in ibe fuce !’ Thirty-one newspapers nttd periodicals are published in the Turkish Empire; and the ‘good oUl Mussulmans’ oompfaiti that tins small number are costing too-much light into the public inind. ...-... MAINE LEGISLATURE. O T1 Tuesday, March. 2. ■ssvsrjrssa,--r'd, * the Judiciary Committee. lo Mr. Bell call up the resolve* respectinii the European ami North American Railway Co Mr. Cary withdrew his amendment; The resolves were passed to he engrossed. Mr. Cary, by leave, introduced n resolve respecting the imputations on our govern ment, of upholding the Cuban invaders, which was read and assigned. House resolve read and assigned—Authori zing the settlement of the accounts of Benj. Carr, late warden al the State Prison. Passed to be engrossed—Resolve for the purchase of Maine Register; in favor of Jew ett anil Marsh; Bills to innorporala City Bank, Bath ; concerning mortgages of per sonal property; additional concerning the in spection of hops ; to incorporate West Lin coln Agricultural Society; Resolve in favor of Lefro Neiitl. House. Passed Finally—Resolve authori zing the land agent to settle certain claims ; to amend act authorizing the citizens of Blue hill and others interested to build a free bridge across the waters of Salt River near Hlueliill Falls ; granting to Benj. Reed leave to ex tend Itis wharf; to authorize County Coin missiotteres of Lincoln County to lay out roatl across tide waters in Dttmariscottn; to make valid certain writs; relating to the Grent Fulls nod Conway Railroad. Mr. Buzzell of Limerick called up his or tier respecting the cases of the Portland, Saco & Portsmouth R. R. Co. Mr. Main spoke thereon at length. Wednesday, March 3. Senate. Lenve to withdraw on petition of Geo. W. Lawrence et als for alteration in draw of Warren bridge, now constructed across tide-waters of George's river. Passed lo be enacted—Bills to build a free bridge across the waters of‘Salt Pond near Bltieliill Falls; to authorize the County Com missioners of Lincoln countv to lay out a road across tide waters in Ihe Datnariscotta ; to incorporate the City Bank, Bath ; to amend chapter 58, section 5, of revised statutes. Finally passed—Resolve in fnvor of Samuel Wauali; lor the purchase and distribution of the Maine Register. House. Finally passed—Bills to incorpor nte West Lincoln Agriculturnl nml Ilorucul lupil Society ; lo incorporate City Bank, Bath; to amend chapter 58, section 5, revised stat utes. Thursday, March 4. Senate. Mr. Hobbs, from [lie committee on railroads reported leave lo withdraw on petition ol George Williamson and others for a ferry. Accepted. Mr. Boynton moved n reconsideration of : the vote indefinitely postponing bill authori zing the city of Bangor to lo in its credit lo Penobscot & Kennebec R. R. Co. Motion laid on the table. Passed to be engrossed—Resolve in favor ot certain p'antation*—(granting those having 150 inhabitants the same books distributed to towns.) House. The bill to amend the charter of the Somerset nml Kennebec Railroad, which the House bail under consideration when it adjourned, was laid upon the table. Mr. Farley of Newcastle, presented the petition ol Scolfield and a Is., ship builders and ship carpenters, residing in the towns of H ; rpswell, Brunswick and Georgetown, in favor of tli« petition of the Somerset and Kennebec Railroad Co., lor an amendment to their charier. The petition, on motion ol Mr. Farley, was laid on the table. Friday, March 5. Senate. Mr. Boyn'on, from tlie committee ,-*n hanking, reported leave lo withdraw on ill ' petition of YV. II. Smith et a!s, of Group, tor file revival of a bank charter. Accepted. Mr. Boynton also reported a bill to incor porate i he City Bank, Bangor, which was read and assigned. Passed lo engrossed—Resolve respecting [lie education of the deufainl dumb House. On tiK'tion of Mr. Hancock of Bangor, the bill to a 'lend the charier of the Somerset and Kennebt.'t railroad company at the Inst adjournment, was laid ou the table. Petitions referred—Ol F. \V. Pendleton and 318 others ol Rockland, that the power of justices in that town may he restored ; of Henry Reed ami ills, for the passage of a law authorizing die appoinunciit ofa Sur veyor General of lumber; of John Neptune and ids, for a law to prevent the destriirlion of moose; referred to the committee ou ag riculture in concurrence. On motion ol Mr. Smart of Troy, Ordered, That the resolutions received from tile Governot of the Slate of Alabama, and transmitted to the Legislature, and prin ted by their order, be now taken up and re ferred to n joint select committee. The order was passed unanimously. Mr. Dean ot Portland presented the fol low iug order : Ordered, That the vote on the act amend ing the charter of the Somerset and Kenne bec Railroad shall he taken on Thursday, March 11, at 12 o’clock. The order passed by unanimous consent. Saturday, March C. Senate. Mr. Leavitt, from the committee on claims, reported leave 10 withdraw on the petition of Benj. Hewed and others, for com pensation to J. Libby for injuries received at the Insane Hospital. Accepted. Mr. Cary, by leave, introduced resolutions animadverting on the abuses reported to ex exist in the steamers and oilier vessels con veying passengers from Panama to Califor nia, and calling for legislation by Congress to prevent suqIi abuses. Mr. C. made some statements as to those abuses. Resolves read and Monday assigned. Passed to be engrossed—Bill to incorporate the City Bunk, Bangor. House. On motion of Mr. Chase of Wood stock, the committee on the Judiciary was directed to inquire into the expediency of enacting a law by which persons adopting children may constitute them heirs to their cstn leg, Passed finally—hill to incorpoiate the Old town and Lincoln Railroad Co. Passed to be engrossed. Bill to incorporate the Cobbosee Contee Bank; bill to establish a draw in the VV'ettnoie Island Bridge. Mondat, March 8. Senate. Passed to be engrossed—Resolve relative to the abuse of passengers in Cal ifornia steamers. Finally Passed—Resolve in relation to cer tain papers on file in the office of the Secre tary of State ; relative to the education of the deaf and dumb of the State of Maine. Read and to-morrotc-assigned—Bill to in corporate the Cobbosseconte Bank, Gardiner. Power or the Press. ‘Newspaper cir culations are infinitely more efficacious aod extensive than ever they were. And they are a more important instrument than gen erally is imagined. They are part of the reading of all; they are the whole of the far greater number. There are thirty of them in Paris alone. The language diffuses them more widely than the English; though the English too are much read. The writers of these papers are like a battery, in which the stroke of any one ball produces no great eflect, but the nmounl of continual repetition is decisive. Let us only suffer any person to tell us his story, morning and evening, but for one twelve month, and he will be come our master.’—Burke. Murder in Jail. One of three prisoners occupying a single cell in the Jail at Three Rivers, Canada, employed a few days since in making nxe-handles, obtained n small axe as a pattern, which another of the prisoners concealed under his head. After the three men had laid down for the night, he who had concealed the axe, (without any previous quarrel or notice of bis intentions.) struck the other two with the axe, cutting one of them open in the side, anti wounding the other se verely in the shoulder. The former died io a few minutes. --. CONGRESS. 1 ' ' ■■ ■ J Wednesday, March 3. Senate.—Mr. Brodhead presented a memo rial from merchants, ship-owners and other* in Philadelphia, praying lor additional aid to the Collins line of steamers; also a petition ngninst the importation of foreign convicts telons and pttupers. Mr. Davis reported a hill amending the acts regulating the carriage of passengers in merchant vessels, anil the limitation aa to ie number of passenger*. He briefly ex shn'i'iM n.r h'11, w|,ich provides that a law Th stgnability of land warrants, „hich been received from the Senate,and proposed to insist on the.r amendments; also that , Committee of Conference be appointed * Pending the motion, Mr. Andrews moved to reconsider the vote committing the Mi» sottri Land bill. Pending further consideration of the sub ject, the House adjourned. Tiiorsdat, March 4. Senate.—Mr. Shield presented a petition from a number of citizens of New York (or nid to the Galway line of stenmera, and ex plained how the line would bo a gainer in time and distance in forwarding the mails to Great Britain. Mr. Davis of Mass., submitted a memorial from numerous merchants, manufacturers and ship owners in Boston and New York, ngninst the appropriation cfnny further mon ies hy this government to mail steamers.— House.—Mr. Stephens of Georgia, intro duced a series of resolutions from the Geor gia Legislature, against the intervention of this country in the affair* of Europe. Fridat, March 5. Senate. — In the Senate, on Friday, Mr. Hunter moved to take up for consideration the bill amendatory to the act of 1849 for the settlement of accounts of public officers who receive money from miliiary contributions in Mexico, and it passed to be engrossed. Mr. Sewnrd presented a memorial from ihi common council of New York, asking the government m interfere for the liberty of the Irish patriots. Mr. Shields moved n committee of litres to confer with the liuuse committee for ag sigimhiliiy of laud warrants. Agreed to. Mr. Bradbury notified the senate that he j should on Monday coll up the French spoli : nlion bill. 'I he Senate then udjourned until Monday. House.— After some preliminary business, Mr. Houston, of Alabama, moved that the bouse go into committee of the whole on the homestead hill. The committee resumed its consideration. Mr. Campbell, ol Ohio, resumed his Speech, other speeches were mnrle; the House ad i journed without taking any question. Saturday, March 6. The Senate was not in session. House.— 1 he Senare hil.s were nil referred to committees, and the Speaker’s table was cleared. Mr. Nabers moved that the bill be com. : mitted with instructions to inquire into the j expediency ol abolishing duties on the rail road iron. Monday, March 8. Senate. — Several petitions against flog : ging in the Navy were presented. Mr. Siockiun notified the Senate of his in tention to introduce a hill giving to the snil 1 or? who served in the war with Mexico cer | rain bounty lanjs. A petition riniii New York citizens was presumed by Mr. Sew.ird against restoring | flogging *n the Navy ; a!so for the freedom of public In ml 5. On motion, the Senate went into execu tive session, and shortly after adjournod. House.—The House then went into Com mittee of the Whole on the Homestead Bill. Mr. Filch delivered n lens' by address upon ihe subject, arid said he would vole for the bill if properly guarded. ; Mr. Houston reported tire Army Appropri tion Bid, which, on motion, was committed toilio Committee of the Wbol<*. After the transaction of some further busi ness of no groat interest, the House ad journed. Later from Europe. Arrival of tlio Arctic. t The Collins steamer Arctic, from Liverpool Feb. 25, arrived at New York, March S. England. The ministerial crisis absorbed all the at lent ton of the British poblic. Lord John Russell * resignation had been definitively accepted by the Queen on the 2lst of Feb., and Lord Derby (late Lord .Stanley) was seal fox at once. , un Monday smu, the latter NoMemaff Sttfr muted a list of his Cabinet to Her Majesty, and : kissed bands on his appointment to office. Generally speaking, the new Ministry is ! well received ; reports prevailed, however, that the opposition would not vote the usual sup plies until Lord Derby bad announced the principles on which his administration would act. France. The alleged protest of the Auto crat, addressed to Louis Napoleon, is suspected to be without foundation. Active negotiations are said to be gomg on>, to induce the Dutchess of Orleans to consent that the Count de Paris shall waive his right as King of France in favor of the Due de Bor deaux, The Paris elections were to take place on the 2'Jlh nil- and 1st Inst. Detachments from all the rigiments of the Army were to be sum moned to Paris, to receive from the President the new colors, surmounted by the Eagle. The demand of France for the destruction of the W aterloo Monuments, has created great excitement in Belgium. Diplomatic relations between Belgium and Russia are about to take place. The Clipper Packet Ship ‘ Stafford shire.’— It will be Been by our advertising columns, that Messrs. Enoch Tram & Co. intend sending this magnificent clipper ta Cali form r. Phis ship, we understand, ac comotl ,tes about fifty cabin, and one hundred anil filly second cabin passengers, and ran take from twenty-five hundred to three thou sand tons of cargo. Her staterooms are lar ger than ore usually built, and her cabin is furnished in a most luxurious manner, not omitting an elegant piano. We should advise all those who wish to have their families go out in a pleasant and comfortable manner, to take advantage of this pleasant conveyance,—thus avoiding all the annoyance of the Isthmus, and the crowd ed decks of the California steamers. 1 Ins clipper is the largest of the many ships built by Mr. Donald McKay, and he may just ly feel proud of Itis success in combined ca* pneity and speed in such admirable propor tions. We shall nnticipnte for her a rapid passage, as she followed so close in the steamers, wake oil a recent passage to Liverpool, as to to make the trip in somethin!! less than four teen days! When the Pacific sailed, the ‘Staffordshire’ was waiting with about fifty sail of vessels for a fair wind.—Boston Daily Journal. Fire at Belgrade. On Thursday eve ning last, the hardware nnd Stove Store of Mr. Geo. Starrett, at Belgrade Depot, was burned, and its contents mostly rendered val ueless. The fire broke out between nine and ten o'clock. The building is said to have cost $800; and the stock in store to be worth $1800. Insurance in the Lincoln Company, Baih, for $500 on building, and $800 on stock.—Ken. Journal. 'Thebe's a Sex in the Soul.’—Horace Mann says ‘that the human sou! and tb» hu man feelings were created male and female, as much so as their bodies were.’ He adds— ‘ Knives and forks nod hooks anil eyes might at well quarrel about equality as man and wumin. Equably in numbers is the point where the sexeeara Dearest alike, and almost the only point. _ - _