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STATE JOURNAL & FLAG OF THE UNION. NUMBER 5. amicably concerning Ihe same, by Ihe means of suitable persons appointed to con duct such negotiation. And. when ratified, this treaty shnll be faithfully observed in all its parts by Ihe United States and China, and by every cit izen and sunject of each ; and no individu al State of the United Stales can appoint or send a minister to Cnina to call in ques tion the provisions of the same. The present treaty ol peace, amity, and commerce, shall be ratified and approved by'th* President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by the august sovereign of the Ta Tsing empire, and the ratifica tions shall be exchanged within eighteen months from the date of the signature there ot, or sooner if possible. In faith whereof, we, the respective plen ipotentiaries of the United States of Ameri ca, and of the Ta Tsing empire, us afore said, have signed and sealed these pres ents. Done at Wang Hiya, this third day of Ju ly, in the \ ear ol our Lord Jesus Christ, one thousand eight hundred and forty four; arid of Taon Kwnng, the twenty-fourth year, fifth month, and eighteenth day. C. Cl'SIIlNG. Tsiyexg. The Tariff of duties to be levied on imported and exported merchandise at the five, ports. The duties which it is agreed shall be paid upon goods imported and exported by the United Slates at the custom-houses of Canton,. Amoy, Fuchow, Ningpn. and Shanghai, are as follows ; the articles be* ing arranged in classes, viz: EXPORTS. Class 1.—Allum, oils, &ic. Tat-Ia. Mmc. Caixla Allum, i. e. white alum, for. merly white allum and blue stone, pr. 100 catties 0 10 Aniseed oil, not formerly contained in the tariff, per 100 catties • 5 0 0 Cassia oil,‘not formerly con. tained in the tariff, per 100 catties .>500 Class 2-—Teas, spices, iic. Tea, formerly divided into fine and native bluck, and fine and native green teas, per 100 catties . 2 5 Aniseed star,per 100 catties 0 5 Musk, each catty . 0 5 Class 8—Drugs. Capoor cutchery, per 100 catties . . 0 3 Camphor, per 100 catties 1 5 Arsenic, under different Chi neso names, per 100 cat* ties ... 07 Caasia, per 100 catties 0 7 Cassia buds, not formerly coutained in the tariff, per 100 catties » 1 0 China root, per 100 catties 0 2 Cubebs, not formerly in ta riff, per 100 catties 1 5 Gulingal, per 100 catties 0 1 Hurtall, per 100 catties 0 5 Rhubarb, per 100 catties 1 0 Turmeric, ptr 100 catties 0 2 Class 4—Sundries. Dangles, not formeily in ta* tiff, per 100 catties 0 b Bamboo screens und bam boo ware, per 100 catties 0 2 Corals, na i«e, or fulse cor. als, not formerly in the tariff, per 100 catties 0 5 Crackers and fireworks, for merly classed as rockets, per 100 catties -07 Fans, (feather fans,dec.) not * formerly in the tariff, per 100 catties * - 1 0 Glass, glassware of all kinds, formerly classed as native chrystal wart, per 100 catties >..05 Glass beads or fulse pearls, per 100 catties » 0 5 Kiltisols, or paper umbreU las, per 100 catties 0 5 Marble, and Marble slabs, not formerly in the tariff, per 100 catties - 0 2 Rice paper pictures, per 100 catties - 0 1 Paper fans, per 100 catties 0 5 Pearls, (false,) not formerly in the tariff, per 100 cat ties ... 05 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Class 5.—Painters stores, aic. Brass leaf, per 100 catties 1 5 Gamboge, per 100 catties 2 0 Red lead, per 100 catties 0 0 Glue, as fish glue, cowhide glue, &c., per 100 cat. ties ~ 0 5 Paper, ‘stationery, per 100 catties ... o Tin foil, per 100 catties 0 Vermillion, per 100 catties 3 Paintings, (large paintings,) fonneriy divided into large and small paintings each • .01 While lead, per 100 catties 0 2 -Class 6.— Wares of various kinds. Bone and horn ware, per 100 catties • 10 China ware, fine and coarse, formerly classed as fine, native, coarse, and mid. dling, per 100 catties 0 5 Cupper ware and pewter ware, per 100 catties 0 5 Manufactures of wood, fur. niture, die-, per 100 cat. ties . 0 2 Ivory ware, all enrved ivory work included, formerly divided into ivory and ivory carvings, per 100 catties • >50 Lacquered ware, per 100 catties * >10 Mother-of-pearl ware, per 100 catties • > 1 0 Ratan ware, ratanand bum boo work, per 100 cat ties * • » 0 2 Sandal wood ware, per 100 catties . >10 Gold and silver ware, for merly divided into gold ware and silver ware, per 100 catties - 10 0 Tortoiseshell ware,j>er 100 catties - - 10 0 Leather trunks and boxes, per 100 catties • 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C tntt Tacts. Mace. Camla rim s. Class 7.—Canes, iic. Cnties and walking slicks, of all kinds, per 1,000 pie. ces * • 0 5 0 Class 8.—Articles of clothing. Wearing apparel, wlielher of codon, woollen, or silk, formerly divided into cot ton clothing, woollen clo. thing, silk and satin clo. thing, and velvet, per 100 catties • - - 0 0 0 Boots and shoos, whether of leather, sntin, or oth erwise, per 100 catties 0 2 0 Class 9.—Fabrics of hemp, cotton, icc. Grass cloth, and all cloths of hentp or or linen, per 100 cutties - 1 0 0 Nankeen, and all cloths of cotton, formerly not in the tariff, per 100 caities 10 0 Class 10.—Silk, fabrics oj silk, &c. Raw silk of any province, per 100 catties 10 0 0 Coarse or refuse silk, per 100 catties . 2 5 0 Organzine, of all kinds, per 100 catties -.100 0 Silk rihhon and thread, per 100 caities - . 10 0 0 Silk and satin fabrics, of all kinds, as crape, lutestrings &c., formerly classed as silk and satins, per 100 catties . - 12 0 0 Silk and cotton mixed fab rics, per 100 catties 3 0 0 Heretofore a further charge per piece has been let ied; the whole duty is now to be paid in one sum, and the further charge is abol ished. Class 11.—Carpeting, matting, &c. Muls of all kinds, as of straw, rntan, bamboo, per 100 cullies * 0 2 Class 12.—Preserves, die. Preserved ginger, and fruits of all kinds per 100 cat ties - • 0 5 Soy, per 100 catties -04 Sugar, white and brown, per 100 catties 0 2 Sugar candy, all kinds, per 100 catties 0 3 Tobacco, prepared and un prepared, die., of all kinds, per 100 catties 0 2 Class 13.— Unenumerated articles. All articles which it has not been practicable to euu met a e herein specifically are to be charged a duty of 5 per cent, ad valorem. Class 14. Gold and silver coin, and gold and silver, duly fiee. Class 15. Bricks, tiles, and building materials, duty free. IMPORTS. Class 1.— Wax, saltpetre, <fce. Wax, foreign, as beeswax, alfo called tile wux, per 100 catties . 1 0 Oil of rose mallows, per 100 catties . > I 0 Saltpetre, foreign, per 100 catties . - 0 3 This article is only allowed to be sold to the govern ment merchants. Form, erly this regulation did not exist. Soaps, loreign, os perfumed soap, per lOOJcatiies. 0 5 Class 2.—Specimens and perfumes. arum beii7. >in and oil of ben zo n, per 100 catties 1 0 Sandal wood, per 100 cat. lies . - 0 5 Pepper, black, per 100 cats ties . . 0 4 All other articles of this class, not specifically mentioned herein, to pay a duty of 10 per cent, ad valorem. Perfumery, 5 per cent, ad valorem Class 3—Drugs. 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 38 Asalce Ida, per 100 caities Camphor, superior quality, t. e. pure, formerly class, ed ns good undinfeiior, per catty Camphor, inferior quality or refuse, formerly un clenned camphor, per cutty • . Cloves, superior quality, picked, per 100 cutties Cloves, inferior quality, (mother cloves.) per 100 caities . . Cow bezoar, per catty Cutch, per 100 cutties Gamhier, per 100 catties Areca nut, per 100 cat lies Ginseng, fo eign, superior quality, die. per 100 cat lies Ginseng, inferior quality, dtc- pe<’ 100 caities Of every 100 catties of for eign ginseng, of whatev er sort, one fifth part is to be considered as of supe rior quality, and four fifths of interior quality. Gum|olihanum, per 100 cat. ties Myrrh, pt r 100 catties Mace, or flower of nutmeg, per 100 catties Quicksilver, per 100 catties Nutmegs, first quality, per 100 catties 2 Nutmegs, second quality, or coarse, per 100 catties 1 Putchuck, per 100 catties 0 Rhinoceros horns, per 100 catties - 3 Class 4 —Sundries. 1 3 5 0 3 1 0 0 Flints, per 100 catties Mother-of pearl shells, per 100 caities * 0 2 Class 5.—Dried meals, die. Bird's nests, first quality, mandarin, per 100 caU ties Birds’ neats, second quality, 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 ordiuary, per 100 cat. ties . • 2 Birds’ nests, third quality, with feathers, per 100 catties : : 0 Bicho do mar, first quality, black, per 100 catties o Bicho de mar,second qual. ity, white, per 100 cat lies : : O Sharks’ fins, first quality, while, per 100 catties 1 Slock fish, called dried fish, per 100 catties : 0 Fish Maws, not formerly in tariff, per 100 catties 1 Mace. Canda 5 0 5 0 6 0 2 0 0 0 4 0 5 0 Class 6 —Painters' stores. Cochineal, per 100 catties 5 0 0 Smalts per l00 catties 4 0 0 Sapan wood, per 100 cat ties : : 0 1 0 Class 7.—Woods, canes, &c. Rata ns, per luO ca ties 0 2 0 Ebony, per 100 catties 1 5 All other imported woods, as red wood, satin wood, yellow wood, not specifi cally enumerated, to pay a duty of 10 per cent, ad valorem. Class 9—Clocks, watches, &c. Clocks. Watches. Telescopes. Glass panes and chrystul ware of all kinds. Writing desks. Dressing cases. Jewelry of gold and silver. Cutlery, swords, itc. All the foregoing, and any other miscellaneous arti cles of the same descrip, lion, 5 per cent ad valo rem. Class 9. 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 Gold and silver bullion and specie, duty fri e. Class 10. Cotton, and fabrics of cot. Ion, (fee., canvass from 75 to 100 cbib long, and 1 clnh 7 tsun 10 2 chih 2 tsun wide, per piece Cotton, allowing5 per cent. for tare, per 100 catties Long white cloths, 75 to 100 chih long and 2 chih 2 tsun to 2 chih 6 tsun wide, formerly divided in. to superior and inferior fine cotton cloth, per piece Cambrics and muslins, from 50 to 60 chih long, and 2 chih 9 tsun to 3 chih 3 tsun wide, per piece Cottons, gray nr unoleach. ed domestic, (Sic. Irom 75 to 100 chih long, and 2 chili to 2 chili9 tsun wide, formerly classed as coarse long cloths, per piece 1' w i 1 I e d cottons, gray, same dimensions, per piece : Chintz and prints of all kinds, from GO to 75 chih long, and from 2 chih 9 tsun to 3 chih 3 tsun wide, formerly called or namented or flowered cloth, per piece : Cotton yarn and cotton thread, per 100 cutties .inen, fine, not loimerly in the tari(T,g|lrom 50 to 75 chih long, and 1 chih 9 tsun to 2 chih 2 tsun wide per pi( ce : : Juntuig, per chang : VII other imported articles of this class, as ginghams, pulicats, dyed cottons, velveteens, silk and cot ton mixtures, aud mix. turesuf linen and cotton, die. 5 per cent, advulo. rem. Class If.—Fabrics of silk, woollen, &c. Handkerchiefs, large, above 2 clnh 6 tsun, each Handkerchiefs,small, under 2 chili 6 tsun, each Gold and silver thread, su perior or real, per catty Gold and silver thread, in terior or imitation, per catty : : 0 0 5 0 0 0 li 0 0 Broadcloths, Spanish stripe, Arc,, from 3 chili 6 tsun to 4 chili 6 tsun wide per cluing : : 0 1 Narrow cloths, as long ells, cassimeies, &c.,Jormerly classed as narrow wool lens, per chang : 0 0 Camlets, (Dutch,) per chang 0 I Camlets, per chang : 0 0 Imitation camlets or bom. bazettes, per chang 0 0 Woollen yarn, per 100 cat ties s : s 3 0 Blankets, each : : 0 1 All other fabrics of wool, or of mixed wool arid cotton, wool and silk, Sic., 5 per cent, ad valorem. Class 12.— Wine*, &c. Wineand beer,in quart hot. ties, per 100 • . 1 0 Do. in pint btttles, per 100 0 5 Do. in casks, per 100 catties 0 5 Class 13.—Metal*. Copper, foreign, in pigs,dtc., per 100 catties - 1 0 Cop| er, wrought, as sheets, rods <$-c., per 100 catties 1 5 Iron, foreign, unmanufac tured, as in pigs, | er 100 catties . 0 1 Iron, manufactured, as in bars, rods, die. per 100 catties • - . 0 1 Lead, foreign, in pigs, or manufactured, per 100 catties - >02 Steel, foreign, of every kind per 100 Catties . 0 4 Tin, foreign, per 100 cat. ties . .1 0 Tin plates, formeilv not in Ihe tariff; per 100 catties 0 4 Spelter is only permitted to be sold to Government merchants. All unenumeraied metals, as zinc, yellow copper, die., 10 per cent, ad valorem. 5 7 5 7 3* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 e o o 0 Tut-It. Mace. Cauda Class 14.—Jewelry. Cornelians, per 100 stones 0 5 Cornelian beads, per 100 catties • 10 0 Class 15.—Skins, teeth, horns, &.c. Bullocks' and buffalo horns, per 100 catties 2 0 Cow and ox hides, tanned and untanned, per 100 catties • 0 5 Sea otter skins, each 1 5 Fox skins, large, each 0 1 Fox skins, small each 0 0 Tiger, leopard, and marten skins, each : : 0 1 Land otter, racoon, and sharks’skins per 100 2 0 Beaver skins, per 100 5 0 Ilare, rabbit, and ermine skins, per 100 : 0 5 Sea horse teeth, per 100 cat ties : : : 2 0 0 e 0 0 0 5 U 5 0 0 0 0 Elephants' teeth, first qiiali. ty, whole, per 100 catties 4 0 0 Elephants’ teeth, second quality, broken, per 100 catties : ; ; 2 0 0 Class U}.~Unenumerated. All new goods, which it has not been practicable to enumerate herein, a du. ty ol 5 per cent, ad va lorem. Class 17. Rice and other grain, dutyfree. Contraband—Opt urn. Shipping dues.—These have been hith erto charged on the measurement of the ship’s lengti and breadth, as so much per chang, but it is now agreed to alter the sys tem, and chrrge according to the registered s atement of the number of tons of the ship’s burden. Oi each ton, (reckoned equal to the cubic coitents of 122 tow, a shipping charge of 5 trace is to be levied, and all the old charges of measurement, entrance, and port clcarancr fees,daily and monthly fees, dec. are abo idud. C. CUSHING, TSIYENG. ■mu miurciH me sam treaty nas ueen au. ly ratified on jolh parts, and the respective ratifications of the same were exchangd at Pwan Targ, Canton, on the thirty-first day of December,one thousand eight hundred and forty five, by James Biddle, Command' er-in-eluef of the naval forces and Acting Minister nnd Commissioner to Chinn ol the United Sintesof America, and Ke Ying, of the Imperial House, general superintendent cd the free trade of the five ports, Governor Generul of the two Kwang provinces, Di rector of the Board of War, Vice High Chancellor, a A ice Guardian of the Heir Apparent, Minister and Commissioner Ex traordinary of tile Ta Tsing Empire, on the part ol their respective Governments. Now, THEREFORE, BK IT KNOWN, that I, JAMBS K. HULK, President of the United States of America, have caused the said treaty to be made pub'ic, to the end that the same and every clause and article (hereof may be ob served and fulfilled with good faith by the Uni ted Stales end citizens thereof In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington, this eigh teenth day of April, in the year of our I.L. s ] Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, and of the independence of , the said States, the seventieth. JAMES K. POLK. By the President : James Buchanan, Secretary of St etc. r|AHE EXERCISES OK MU. FURMAN’S 1 SCHOOL will be resumed on the first Monday in January, at the old stand, on the road leading to the University. For particu lars, see advertisement iu another column, Dec 10, 1045. 2t 5 Dwelling houses for rent, apply to HENRY a. snow, & CO. Ttx COLLECTOR'S SALE. ILL be sold, in Iront of Ihe Court-house door, in the Town of Jasper, on the third Monday in June next, 1047, to the highest bidder, for cash, the following described lltnds. in the county of Walker, Slate of Alabama, lor tax-s due, to wit: The north-east quarter of section 26, town ship II, range 4, west; part of the north east quarter of the north-west quarter of section 3, township 12, range 4, west, containing 27 acres; the north west quarter of the north east quarter of section 3, township 12, range 4, west; the south-west part (east of the Black Warrior River) of fiactional section 26, town ship 14, range 6, west, containing 156 and sixty-seven hundreths acres; the north-west part (east of the Black Warrior River) offrac lional section 35,town9hipl4, range 6,west,con taining 159 and An hundreths acres ; the west part nl'Uhe north-east pari (east of the Black Warrior River) of fractional section 23, town ship 14, range 6, west, containing 30 acres; and the earn half of the north-coat quarter of sec. tion 22, township 14, range 6, west. mi -.uw.iiimp i-t, range u, west. W.V1, ROBBINS, T. c. w. c. Dec. 18th, 1846 (pr’a feegtO 50] lm6m December 18. 1846. 3t 5 TAX COLLECTOR’S SALE. WILL be sold, in front, of the Court-house door, in the 'I own of Jnsper, on the fifth Monday in March next, 1847, to the high eat bidder, for cash, the following described lands, in the comity of Walker, State of Ala bama, for taxes due, viz: The west half of the south-west quarter section 29, township 11, range 8, west, aon taming 80 and seven hundreths acres ; the east half of the south-east quarter section 30, township 11, range 8, west, containing 80 and twenty hundreths acres; tbe west half of the south-east quarter section II, township 15, range 9; the east half ot the north-past quar ter section 10, township 15, range 9; the norl-rasl quarter of the south-east quarter sec lion 10, township 15, range 9, containing 40 and forty hundreths acres; the south-west quarter of the north-west quarter section 34, township 14, range 9, containing 40 and sixty nine hundreths acres; the north-east quarter of the south-west quarter of section 34, township 14, range 9, containing 40 and sixty.nine hun dreths acres ; the west half of the south-east quarter section 14, township 14, ranged; the south east quarter of the south west quarter section 4, township 14, range 8. Also, the following Town Lots, in the Town of Jasper : Lot No. 11. and Lot No. 8. WM. ROBBINS, t. c. w. c. Dec. 18th, 1840. (pr’efoe, 96 00j liu3m Removal—Auction House. RW. YEATES, has removed from the . late store of Vaughan &. Yeates, to the store formerly occupied by E. Cooper, as a clo thing store, where he will attend to the selling, by auction, of goods wares and merchandise. Articular attention will be paid to the sale of Real Estate, Negroes, Household furniture, the. This is the only Auction- House now in this city—and parsons consigning goods to it for sale, are assured of the utmost ;care and promptness iu the transaction of their business. R. W. YEATES. Auctioneer. 4. Dec. lltb, 1(46. PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE. The message was delivered to the two houses of Congress on Tuesday 8th Dec. Every line of it is full of interest. Its lead ing feature is— THE MEXICAN WAR. AND THE CAUSES WHICH LED TO IT The existing war with Mexico was neith er desired nor piovoked by the United Slates, On the contrary, all honorable means were resorted to to avert it. Alter years of en durance of aggravated and unredressed wrongs on our part, Mexico in violation ol solemn treaty stipulations, and of every prin ciple of justice recognised by civilized na tions, commenced hostilities, and thus, by her own act, forced the war upon us. Long before the advance of our army to the left bank of the Rio Grande, we had ample cause of war against Mexico ; and had the United States resorted to this extremity, we might have appealed to the whole civilized world for the justice of our cause. I deem it to be my duty to present to you, on the present occasion, a condensed review ol the injuries we had sustained, ofthe caus es which led to the war, and of its progress since its commencement. This is rendered the more necessary because of the misap prehensions which have to some extent pre vailed as to its origin and true character. The war has been represented as unjust and unnecessary, and as one of aggressien on our part upon a week und injured enemy. Such erroneous views, though entertained by but few, have been widely and extensively cir culated not only at home, but have been spread throughout Mexico and the whole world. A more effectual means could not have been devised to encourage the enemy and protract the war than to advocate and adhere to (heir cause, and thus give them ‘•aid and comfort. It is a source of national pride and exut. tation (hat the great body- of our people have thrown no such obstacles in the way of the government in prosecuting the war success fully, but have shown themselves to be emi nently patriotic,and ready to vindicate their country’s honor and interests at any sacri fice. The alacrity and promptness with which our volunteer forces rushed to the field an their country's call, prove not only their patriotism, but their deep conviction that our cause is just. i no w,on«s wmch we have suffered from Mexico almost ever since she become nn in dependent power, und the patient endurance with which we have borne (hem. are without i parallel in (lie history of modern civilized nations. There is reason lo believe that if lliese wrongs had been resented and resisted in the first instance, the present might have been avoided. One outrage, however, per milted to pass with impunity, almost neces sarily encouraged the perpetration of anolh it, until at last Mexico seemed to attribute to weakness and indecision on our part a forbearance which was the offspring of mag nanimity, and of a sincere desire to pre serve friendly relations with a sister retmb lie. Scarcely had Mexico achieved her inde pendence. wich the United States were the first among the nations toacknowledge. when she commenced the system of insult and spoliation, which she has ever since pursued. Our citizens engaged in lawful commerce were imprisoned, their vessels seized, and jur flag insulted in her ports. If money was wanted, the iuwless seizure and confis. nation of our merchant vessels and their car goes was a ready resource ; and if to ac complish their purposes it became necessary to imprison the owners, captains, and crews, it was done. Rulers superseded rulers in Mexico in rapid succession, but still there was no change in this system of depredation. I'he government of the United States made repeated reclamations on behalf of its citi zens, but these weie answered by the perpe tration ol new outrages. Promises of redress made by Mexico in the most solemn lorms were postponed or evaded. The files and records of the Department of State contain conclusive prools of numerous lawless acts perpetrated upon the property and persons [>l our citizens by Mexico, and of wanton insults to our national Hag. The interposi tion of our government lo obtdin redress was again and again invoked, under circum stances which no nation ought to disregard. It was hoped that these outrages would cease, and that Mexico would bo restrained by the laws which regulate the conduct of civilized nations in their intercourse with each other after the treaty ol amity, com meice. and navigation of the fifth ol April. 1831, was concluded between the two re. publics; but this hopo soon proved to be vjiii. i ne course ot seizure and confisca lion of the property of our citizens: the vio lation of their persons and the insults to our Hag pursued by Mexico previous to that time were scarcely suspended for even a brief pe riod, although the treaty so clearly defines the rights and duties of the respective parlies that it is impossible to misunderstand or mistake them. In less than seven years alter the conclusion of that treaty our grie vances had become so intolerable that, in the opinion of President Jackson they should no longer be endured. In his message to Congress in February. 1837, he presented them to the consideration of that body, and declared that “'I’he length ot time since some ol the injuries have been committed, the re peated and unarailed applications for re dress, the wanton character of some of the outrages upon the property and persona of our eit izeris, upon the officers and flag of the United States, independent of recent insults to this government and people by the late extraordinary Mexican minister, would jus lily in the eyes of all nations immediately war.” In a spirit of kindness and forbear ance, however, he recommended reprisals as a milder mode ot redress. He declared that war should not be used as a remedy “by just and generous nations confiding in their strengih for injuries committed, if it can be honorably avoided,” and added, “it has oc curred to me that, considering the present embarrassed condition of (hat country, we should act with both wisdom and modera tion, by giving to Mexico one more oppor tun ty to atone for the past, b fore we take redress into our own hands. To avoid all misconception on the part of Mexico, as well as to protect our own national charac ter from reproach, Ibis opportunity should be given with the avowed design and full preparation to take immediate satisfaction, if it should not be obtained on a repetition of the demand for it. To this end, I re commend that an act be passed authorizing reprisals, and ilia use ot the naval force of the United States by the Executive against Mexico, to enforcs them in the event of a refusal by Hie Mexican government to come to an amicable adjustment of the matters in controversy between us, upon another demand thereof, made from on board one of our vessels of war on the coast of Mexi co.” Committees of both houses of Congress, to which this message ot this President was referred, fully rustained his views of the character of the wrongs which we had suf fered from Mexico, and recommended that another demand for redress should be made | before authorizing war or reprisals. The Committee on Foreign Kelationsoi the Sen ale, in their repori, says : “After such a demand, should prompt justice be refused by the Mexican government, we may appeal to all nations not only for the equity and mod eration with which we shall have acted to wards a sister republic, but for the necessity which will then compel us to seek redress for our wrongs, either by actual war or by reprisals. The subject will then be present ed beforu Congress, nt the commencement of the next session, in a clear and distinct form , and the committee cannot doubt but that such measures wall be immediately adop ted as may be necessary to vindicate the honor of the country, and insure ample re. pa ration to our injured citizens.” The Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives made a similar fe commendation. In their report, they say that they “fully concur with the President that ample cause exists for taking redress into our own hands, and believe that we should be justified in the opinion of other nations fer taking such a step. But they are willing to try the experiment of another demand, made in the most solemn form, up. on the justice of the Mexican government, before any other proceedings are adopted.” No difference of opinion upon the subject is believed to havu existed in Congress nt that time. The Executive and legislative departments concurred ; and yet such has been our forbearance, and desire to preserve peace with Mexico, that the wrongs of which we then complained, and which gave rise to these solemn proceedings, not only remain unredressed to this day, but addi tional causes of complaint, of an aggrava ted character, have ever since been accumu lating. shortly alter these proce d ngs, a sprcial messenger was despatched to Mexico to make a final demand for redress; and on the twentieth of July, 1837, the demand was made. The reply of the Mexican govern ment bears date on the twenty-ninth of the samo month, and contains assurances of the anxious wish” of the Mexican government “not to delay the moment of that final and “equitable adjustment which is to terminate the existing difficulties between the two gov ernments that “nothing should be left un done which may contribute to the most spee dy and equitable determination of the sub jects which have so si rionsly engaged the attention of the American government” that the “Mexican government would adopt, as the only guides for its conduct, the plainest principles of public right, the sacred obliga tions imposed by international law, and the religious faith of treatiesand that “what ever reason and justice may dictate respect ing each case will be done.” The assurance was further given, that the decision ol the Mexican government upon each cause of complaint for which redress had been de manded, should be communicated to the gov. ernment of the United States by the Mexi can minister at Washington. These solemn assurances, in answer to our demand for redress, were disregarded. By m iking them, however. Mexico obtain ed further delay. President Van Buren, in his annual message to Congress of the fifth of December, 1837, states, that “although the larger number1' of our demands for re dress, and “many of them aggravaled cases of personal wrongs, have been now for years before the Mexican government, and some of the causes of national complaint, and those of the most offensive character, ad mitted of immediate, simple, and satisfacto ry replies, it is only within a few days past that any specific communication in answer to our last demand, made five months ago, has been received from the Mexican minis terand that “for not one of our public complaints has satisfaction been given or of fered ; that but one of the cases of personal wrong has been favorably considered, and that but four cases of both descriptions, out of nil those formally presented, and ear nestly pressed, have as yet been decided up on by the Mexican government.” Presi dent Vun Buren, believing that it would be vain to make any further attempt to obtain redress by the ordinary means within the power of the Executive, communicated this opinion to Congress, hi the message referred to, in which he said : ‘ On a cureful and de liberate examination of the contents,” (of the correspondence with the Mexican gov - ernment,) “and considering the spirit mani fested by the Mexican government, it has become my painful duty to reiurti the sub ject, as it now stands, to Cjngrese, to whom it belongs, to decide upon the time, the mode, and the measuies of redress.” Hnd the United States, at that time, adopted compulsory measures, and taken redress into their own hands, all our difficulties with Mexico would probably have been long since adjusted, and the existing war have been averted. Magnanimity and moderation on our part oaly had the effect to complicate these difficulties, and render an amicable settlement of them the more embarrassing. That such meusures of redress under simi lar provocations, committed by any of the powerful nations ol Europe, would have been promptly resorted to by the United States, cannot be doubled. The national honor, and the preservation of the national charac ter throughout the world, as well os our own self-respect, and the protection due to our own citizens, would have rendered such a resort indispensable. The history of no civ ilized nation in modern times has presented, wiihin so brief a period, so many wanton attacks upon the honor of its flag, and upon the property and persons of its citizens, as had at that time been borne by the United States from the Mexican authorities and peo ple. But Mexico was a sister republic, on the North American contioent, occupying a territory contiguous to our own, and was in a feeble and distracting condition ; and these considerations, it is presumed, induced Congress to forbear still longer. Instead of faking redress into our own hands, a new negotiation was entered upon with fair promises on the part of Mexico, but with the real purpose, as the event has proved, of indefinitely postponing the repa ration which we demanded, and which wna so justly due. Tbit negotiation, after more than a year's delay, resulted in the conven lion of tlie eleventh of April, 1839, “for the adjustment of claims of citizens of the Uni* ted Slates of America upon the government of the Mexican republic.'' The joint board of commissioners created by this convene lion to examine and decide upon these claims was not organized until the month of August, 1840, and under the terms of the convention they were to terminate their duties within eighteen months from that time. Four of the eighteen months wera consumed in preliminary discussions on friv. olous and dilutory points raised by the Mex< ican commissioners ; and it was not until the munth of December, 1840, that they commenced the examination of the claims of our citizens upon Mexico. Fourteen months only remained to examine and de. cide upon these numerous and complicated cases. In the month of February, 1842, the term of the commission expired, leaving ma ny claims undisposed of for want of time. The claims which were allowed by the board, and by the umpire authorized by the con vention to decide in case of disagreement between the Mexican and American com missioners, amounted to two million twenty, six thousand one hundred and thirty-nine dollars und sixty-eight cents. There were pending bufore the umpire when the com. mission expired additional claims which had been examined and nwarded by the Ameri can commissioners, and had not been allow ed by the Mexican commissioners, amount, ing to nine hundred and twenty-eight thou sand six hundred and twenty-seven dollars, and eighty-eight cents, upon which he did not decide, alleging that his authority had ceased with the termination of the joint com mission. Besides these claims, there were others of American citizens amounting to three million three hundred and thirty-six thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven dollars and five cents, w hich hud been sub. mittnd to the board, and upon which they had not time to decide before their final ad. journment. I he sum ol two million twenty-six thou, sand one hundred and thirty-nine dollars and sixty-eight cents, which had been owar* ded to the claimants, was a liquidated and ascertained debt due by Mexico, about which there could be no dispute, and which she was bound to pay according to the terms of the convention. Soon after the final awards for this amount had been made, the Mexican government asked for a postponement of the time of making payment, ulledging that it would be inconvenient to make the pay* ment at the lime stipulated. In the spirit, of forbearing kindness towards a sister re. public, which Mexico has so long abused, the United States promptly complied with her request. A second convention was ac. cordingly concluded between the two gov. ernrnauts on the thirtieth of January, 1843, which upon its face declares, that “this new arrangement is entered into for the accom. niodution of Mexico.” By the terms of this convention, all the interest due on the awards which had been made in favor of the claim* ants under the convention of the eleventh of April, 1839, was to he paid to them on the thirtieth of April, 1843, and “the prin cipal of the said awards, and the interest uc ciuing thereon,” was stipulated to “be paid in five years, in equal instalments every three months.” Notwithstanding this new convention was entered into at the request ol Mexico, and for the purpose of relieving her from embarrassment, the claimants have only received the interest due on the thirti eth of April, 1943, and three of the twenty instalments. Although the payment of the sum thus liquidated, and confessedly due by Mexico to our citizens as indemnity for acknowledged acts of outrage and wrong, was secured by treaty, the obligations of which are ever held sacred by all just na tions, yet Mexico has violated this solemn ergagement by failing and refusing to make the payment. The two instalments due in April and July, 1844, under the peculiar circumstances connected with them, have been assumed by the United States and dis charged to the ciaimants, but they are still due by Mexico. But this is not all of which we have just cause of complaint. To pro vide a remedy for the claimants whose cases were not decided by the joint commission under the convention of April the eleyenth, 1839, it was expressly stipulated by the sixth article of the convention of the thirtieth of Jhnuary, 1843, that “a new conveo.tion shall be entered into for the settlement of all claims of the government and citizens of the United States against the republic of Mexico which were nor finally decided by the late commission, which met in the city of Wash ington, and of all claims of the government and citizens of Mexico against the United States.” in conformity with this stipulation, a third convention was concluded and signed at the city of Mexico on the twentieth of Novem* ber, 1843, by the plenipotentiaries ot the two governments, by which provision was made for ascertaining and paying these claims. In January, 1844, this convention was ratified by the Senate ot the United States with two amendments, which were manifestly reasonable in their character. Upon a reference of the amendments pro* posed to the Gover\ment of Mexico, the same evasion, difficulties, and delays were interposed which have so long marked the policy of that government towards the Uni ted States. It has not yet even decided whether it would or would not accedo to them, although the subject has I een re. peatediy pressed upon its consideration. Mexico has thus violated a second timo. the faith ot treaties, by failing or refusing to carry into effect the sixth article of the convention of January,.1843, ... Sujh is the history of the wrongs which we have suffered and patiently endured from Mexico through a long series of years. So far from affording reasonable satisfaction for the injuries and iusults we had borne, a great aggravation of them consists in the fact, that while the United States, anxious to preserve a good understanding with Mex ico, have been constantly, but vainly, em ployed in seeking redress for past wrongs, n«.w outrages were constantly occurring which have coutinued to increase our caus* cs of complaint and to swell the amount of our demands. While the citizens of the United States were conducting a lawful commerce with Mexico under the guaranty of a treaty of •‘amity, commerce, and navi gation,” many of them have suffered all the injuries which would have resulted from open war. This treaty instead ol affording protection to our citizens, has been the means of inviting them into the ports of Mexico, that they might be, as they have been in numerous instances, plundered of their property and deprived of their perso nal liberty if they dared insist on their rights.