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Sacramento daily record-union. [volume] (Sacramento [Calif.]) 1875-1891, January 01, 1880, Image 12

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fFor the Record-Union.]
Matthew Irkel was the eldest of three
sons of Quaker parents, who lived near the
Tillage of Grafton, Mass., and who by
hard work and rigid economy had gained a
small independence. They had a farm, on
which almost anybody but a thrifty New
England farmer would have starved, and
they were so bent on farming, as they call
tilling rocks in that section, that they de
cided to rear their boys to the same severe
and unremunerative occupation. Matthew,
however, had no fancy of the kind. He
had a bias in favor of the law, and after ac
quiring an ordinary education at a neigh
boring academy, he went to Worcester to
engage in legal studies. Soon after reach
ing his twenty-fifth year he was admitted
to the bar, and then he announced to his
parents hia determination to seek his for
tune in the West. They tried hard to
dissuadehim ; but, finding that his mind was
made up, they parted with him sadly, giv
ing him their blessing and a Bible, and en
joining him to remember always the Chris
tian precepts in which he had been so
carefully instructed.
Kansas, to which a number of New
Englanders had already emigrated (this
was during the summer of 1555), seemed
to be a good field for a young lawyer, not
withstanding political troubles had already
begun there, and to Kansas he went. He
believed that the civil discord would soon
be settled, and even if it were not, he felt it
to be a sort of duty, having been reared as
an abolitionist, and being conscientiously
opposed to slavery, to lend his moral influ
ence to the Free State men in their effort
to resist Missouri aggression.
He arrived at Lawrence toward the end
of July, just after Governor I'eeder had
been removed ; after the Territorial Legis
lature had expelled the Free State men and
given their seats to the pro-slavery men,
originally returned, as wasalleged, by fraud
ulent votes. For a man of peace and he
had been bred a non-resistant he could
not well have reached a more uncongenial
place at a more uncongenial season. Feel
ing between the two parties was intense :
the entire community was on the verge of
war ; the most pacific of the inhabitants
went armed ; everybody was prepared to
fight for his principles. Law was out of
fashion in the Territory ; disorder and an
archy had usurped its place. It was plain
to Irkel that if he intended to stay there
he would better study military tactics than
Coke or Blackstone, and he was so dissat
isfied with the appearance of things that
he would have gone away at once, had he
not considered departure unmanly under
the circumstances.
" Because I am opposed to fighting,'" he
said to himself, ''it is no reason why I
should run away. Heroism consists in
moral courage. This is the place for me to
prove my Christianity. Here I am, and
here I intend to remain. "
He took no very active part in politics,
although he did not hesitate to express
his convictions and opinions, when
there was any occasion to. In so small a
town as Lawrence everybody knew what
side everybody was on. Irkel had not been
there a week before he was as clearly un
derstood to be a " nigger-stealer " — so the
Missourians designated it — as if he had
placarded his principles in each of the half
elozen rum shops of the village. The feel
ing between the opposite parties grew bit
terer and bitterer personal rencounters fre
quently occurred ; every Yankee was
liable to insult and assault on account of
his nativity, and the lion was aroused in
some of the most lamb-like natures. The
Free State men became intolerant and
violent after a while, and were often the
aggressors, although they claimed to be
always on the side of law and order.
Irkel had been employed as counsel in a
number of cases, but they had all grown
out of the existing troubles, and few were
pecuniarily profitable. Still, he thought
he saw a very favorable opportunity in the
future for such talents as he had, and he
waited patiently for the cessation of
confusion and tumult. But things rather
deteriorated than improved as the months
went on. The Constitutional Convention
had assembled at Topeka, and in Novem
ber had promulgated a Constitution pro
hibiting slavery, which roused the South
erners to a pitch of fury, and put the
" Yankees " in a frame of mind undeniably
belligerent. A number of men were killed
on each siele. Governor Shannon, who had
succeeded Beeder, called out the militia,
and the town was, for a time, in a state of
All this while, poor Irkel had been very
unfortunately situated ; his non-combative
ness had been most severely tested ; he
had shown on several occasions a moral
courage little less than sublime ; for after
his arrival, it was ascertained that he 'was
conscientiously opposed to fighting, and
consequently temptations to fight were in
cessantly thrown in his way.
Kansas at that period swarmed with
bullies as well as ruffians, fellows
not exactly cowards, but fellows
who were morbidly anxious to be
considered insensible to fear ; who
boasted that they loved to fight ; who pre
ferred to seem brave rather than to be
brave, since the seeming was unattended
with any particular risk. One of these
half drunk, of course — encountered the
lawyer in the main street one afternoon
and denounced him as a "d — d nigger
thief,"' simultaneously drawing a revolver,
and inviting him to do the same.
'.'. I have no cause to quarrel with you,"
replied Irkel. "Besides, I object to light
ing on principle, as you know very well.
Otherwise, you would not try .to pick a
quarrel with me without cause." '•
" It's ad— d lie ! I'd ruther fight'n eat
any day."
" That doesn't prove your courage. If I
weren't a non-combatant I'd rather fight
ten times than eat once of the kind of food
they prepare here. What's being shot at
to attacking one of your Kansas leather
steaks swimming in flies and ,grease !"
This presentation of the ludicrous side
of the question, which ' the lawyer had
often found effective, caused the tipsy ruf
fian to break into a horse laugh, and he
roared out : " That's so pard ; you've got
the thing down to a dot, thah ; you and me
must board at same place, sure. Ha, ha,
ha I That's rough on the steak, but cl — d
true every word. I've been thar. Let's
take a drink. They a white streak in you
if you do steal niggers." rr.j:.-
Irkel declined — he could not have been
more courteous if the fellow had spoken to
him with all fairness— and went his way ;
while Jack Barry, as he was called, steadied
himself at a hitching-post, and looking at
the retreating figure, solile>quized : "D — n
queeah Yankee, that : some good stuff in
him. If he'd get drunk and fight, he'd
pass fora genTman."
This was a sample of the treatment the
young New Englander not infrequently re
ceived, and it was not pleasant certainly.
especially as he was by nature strong, sen
: live ami quick-tempered, and had hard
work to control himself when such gratui
tous insults were offered him. On Jack
: Barry, _ for. example, he had never before
laid eyes, to his knowledge : nevertheless,
Jack felt privileged, and entirely secure, to
I abuse him because he was a pacific Yankee.
Irkel had a deal of self -discipline for I _M
so young— thanks to his Quaker training—
and could preserve his external coolness,
no matter how he might blaze within. To
this, and to : his jocular bearing when af
fronted; he owed his avoidance of bodily
harm, which had been threatened a hundred
times. His was a pure triumph of over
blood. He never could have kept Satan
down, as he expressed it, had he not read
his Bible, and prayed long and earnestly
every night before he went to bed.
" It's hard, it's hard," he often said, " to
be set upon thus by a set of bullies, whom
I have never even looked cross at, and in
deed don't know by name or sight."
And when he thought of a Quaker non
combatant settling in Kansas at such a
time, his sense of humor inevitably insti
tuted a comparison between himself and a
cat doomed to Hades and deprived of
claws a profane picture that had often
been drawn for his benefit.
The knowledge that he had been reared a
Quaker spread through the town, and he
was often called White-livered Broad
brim—an epithet that brought the blood to
his cheek, and would have brought his
hand to his revolver, had he been of carnal
Poor fellow, he was really to be pitied.
His struggles with himself were tremen
dous ; they were wearing him out, and he
had well nigh decided again anil again to
return East. But the idea that it would
be cowardly to shrink from what appeared
to be duty, riveted him to the West. In
momenta of extreme bitterness he thought
that Christianity ought to expire by lim
itation, and that its limitation should be
the Mississippi river. The more his blood
boiled, the more chapters he read in the
Bible and the longer he prayed in the dreary
room of the second story of a frame build
ing, which served him both for office and
bed-chamber. The gleam of his solitary
candle might be seen shining through his
window almost every night until a late
hour, for he was a hard student, though his
Bible had recently made marked encroach
ments upon his law books, for the reason
that he needed divine guidance far more
than legal attainments in that particular
civilization. He wa3 greatly strengthened
in his non-combativeness by long letters
from his father and mother, especially the
latter (he loved his mother devotedly), who
earnestly besought him to control his
passions, and remember what he owed to
Christian example.
"Good, simple souls," he would say,
after he had read what they had written,
" they little dream how hard it is for a man
to appear like a coward, even for the love
of God. I'm not afraid to do right, Heaven
knows ; but I'm almost afraid to seem
afraid. I wonder what Thera would think
of mv meek submission to insults, day after
day?" yr-_
This question he had put to himself
several times recently — why he could not
tell ; for Thera, as he admitted, was noth
ing to him, nor would she ever be. Never
theless, she was in.his mind very often, and
do what he might he could not keep her out.
Thera Dalton was the daughter of a Ver
mont farmer, who a few months before,
had sold his farm and emigrated to
Kansas with a view of making his home
there. Thera, his sole surviving child, had
taught school in her native State, and ex
pected to teach school in the Territory as
soon as she could secure one. She was in
her nineteenth year, and though not hand
some, she was interesting ; she had a good
mind without much culture, and was a
gentlewoman more by instinct than by
breeding. She and Irkel had become ac
quainted immediately after his arrival, as
New England people naturally would, in so
small a community ; but beyond spending
part of an evening at her father's house
once a fortnight or so, they seldom met.
She was, by all odds, the most refined and
attractive woman in or near Lawrence, and
given youth, contiguity, difference of sex
! and acquaintance, the fact of their gravi
[ tation to one another was a foregone con
: elusion. They were unconscious of the
' fact themselves, and lrkel's question,
whenever he asked it, seemed as futile as >
it was foolish.
Mr. Dalton, who had brought some
money with him, had been disappointed,
like all the Eastern emigrants, in the polit
ical troubles, and was waiting for them to
settle before he purchased his farm. '■-''-.:
Toward the close of December a client
of Irkel brought suit against James
Armistead, a Missourian, living near Law
rence, for the recovery of two horses which
the plaintiff claimed had been stolen, and
which the Judge awarded to him. The
decision was largely owing to the manage
ment of the counsel, who, as may be sup
posed, gave great offense to the Missou
rian because he had honestly won the case
and had broken down an evidently per
jured witness on the side of the defendant.
The day after the suit Irkel was on his
way to the hotel where he took his meals.
As he passed a "saloon" Armistead was
standing at the door, but was not noticed
by the lawyer, who was walking on with
his head down, when the latter ran out
with a pistol in his right hand, while with
the left he seized Irkel's nose and wrung it
savagely, saying : " Yuh d d scoun
drel, you d— — d abolitionist, I'll learn yuh
how to rob a genTman of his prop'ty by
yuh d d lawyer's tricks." At the same
time he leveled his revolver at Irkel, in
tending to shoot him if he should attempt
to resent the deadly affront.
The lawyer looked up with a flashing
eye, and a burning face. He clenched his
fist, lifted his arm a very little from his !
side, and let it fall again ; his breast heav- I
ing and his eyes blazing on his enemy until
the latter quailed before it. His lips |
opened and then shut like a vice ; the color j
that had rushed into his face as suddenly
retreated, leaving it pale as death, while
his eyes glittered still more balefully from
the whiteness in which they were set.
A crowd gathered instantly at the pros
pect of a fight. A Free State man, who !
knew Irkel by sight, seeing him without a !
weapon, offered him a pistol, which he de- '
clined with the words — they came slow j
and hard — -"I'm a non-combatant. That
man knows it. He heard me say so in
Court yesterday. He assails me for that
reason. "
Then again turning _ his gaze full on
Armistead, he continued : " You're afraid of
me unarmed. You know you have done a
cowardly act. You feel you are a coward.
The outrage you have committed makes
you cowardly. It's the wrong you have
done me that makes you quail. Use your
pistol. I have DO fear of you. It is you
who are afraid."
As he spoke, Armistead, muttering oaths,
slunk into the saloon, fairly cowed by
Irkel's display of moral courage. The
sympathies of the crowd, though they may
not have been with the Missourian, refused
to go with a man who would not resent
such an insult, and voices .were heard to
say, "Why didn't he kill him?" "D n
a man that won't fight ! " "0, that's white
livered Broadbrim." "Every nigger-stealer
ought to be hung." . '•
Some one coming along who knew the
lawyer, asked him what was the matter.
Irkel, who had partially mastered his emo
tion, tried to be jocose, and replied : ''Oh,
nothing ; I was walking down street when
a very pleasant gentleman, whose acquaint
ance I have not the honor of, stepped out
and did me the kindness to— to — pull —
pull— my nose — and — and — He could
not finish. His indignation was too great
for his assumption. The words rendered
the outrage too vivid. His voice chokeel,
and pulling his hat over, his eyes, he hur
ried away.
The affair was immediately bruited.
Most of Irkel's friends blamed him for
going unarmed, declaring he would be ex
posed to such outrages just as long
as he continued to go unarmed. Sev
eral of them . called on ; him and told
him that he wjrald better quit the Terri
tory, if he persisted in . his Quaker no
tions ; but that the best thing was to fight ;
that fighting was the only way to get
peace. '"•■•,
The lawyer believed otherwise. " I'm
determined," he said, "to show the people
that I can live here, and not depart from
Christian rule. I'll prove , to them that
moral courage is the only courage worth
having. They shall not drive me from the
Territory, nor from my principles, either.
The real hero is he ho can take an insult
or a blow in a ' purely , Christian ' spirit.
With God's help, I'll :' persevere in my
' Although ' Irkel talked so, ' he ; did ' not
feel so. Since his nose : had been pulled,
he had nearly lost faith in ' non-combat
ing his big fist down until .the decanters
shook, and the painted beauties trembled
with enforced and unnatural modesty. '." He
went directly up to him and said, :" Mr.
iveness. He had no guarantee that every
ruffian in Kansas might not take a fancy
to do the same thing, and the prospect of
having his nose pulled periodically for a
series of years was not wholly enchanting.
He read his Bible, and prayed more and
more ; he wrestled night and day with his
proneness to evil. He kept aloof from
the Daltons, dreading that they, too,
might be opposed to the continuation
of his entirely pacific habits, | and he
needed all the strength he could command
to do what he piously believed to-be
right. As he walked through the town he
heard ragamuffin boys remark, as they
pointed him out, "There's the man that
got his nose pulled;'" and one . urchin,
more audacious and insolent than the rest,
accosted him one morning with, "I say,
mister, as they all's a pullin' of yer nose,
ye'd better soap it. It won't hurt much
then. S-o-a-p it, old feller ! "
This was wormwood to him ; he drew
down his hat to conceal the fire that flashed
into his cheeks ; and yet he felt the humor
of the speech, and laughed a little, while
the bitterness stung him like an asp.
Those were miserable days, and more
miserable nights, for the young man. He
was convinced he was right, and still he
doubted at times if any law, human or di
vine, should compel an inoffensive man to
submit in patience to perpetual insult. He
was a martyr to his own opinion ; he was
stretched on the rack.
"I fear I am a coward, after all," he
groaned out while tossing on his bed ; one
night. "I seem not to have the courage
to be loyal to my own convictions. Why
am I thus tortured ? " „ And the strong
man burst into an agony of tears,
Less than a fortnight after the assault
upon him, Irkel was on his way to the
miscellaneous store, where the Postoffiee
was kept, to mail a letter to his parents.
The days were short, and the dusk was
coming on, as he descried approaching him
Thera Dalton. She was walking fast, evi
dently desirous of getting home before the
night had fallen. His instinct was to
avoid her, for he had not seen her since he
had been assailed by Armistead. He was
about to turn off at a cross street when he
heard some fellow who had come up be
hind her accost her with the words, " Yuh
anotha o' them d — — d Yankee school
inarms that them Mass'chus'tts nigger
stealers been sendin' out heah. Why in
h don't yuh go home wheah yuh
along ?"
She turned in terror, and seeing that the
ruffian had been drinking, she instinctively
fled toward Irkel, whom she had recog
nized some time before.
The man followed her, and she exclaimed,
" Please protect mc, Mr. Irkel," and then
added, excitedly, "Ono; nevermind. I'd
forgot that you don't But can't you
detain him a moment until I find some
other gentleman ?"
He felt the full force of this speech, more
keenly than if it had all been expressed.
"Have no fear, Miss Dalton," he replied.
"You need not go any further for protec
tion. Here my duty's plain." And he
stepped between her and the advancing
" Yuh protect hah, yuh white-livah'd
Broadbrim '." was the taunt of the ruffian.
"Yuh th' meanest sneak and biggest cow
ah'd in all Kansas. Yuh afeah'tl o' a mouse,
G — d d — n you ! I'll take th' gal away
from yuh undah yuh nose."
As he stepped forward to catch hold of
her, she shivered towards Irkel, who dealt
the scoundrel a ringing blow that sent him
to the ground.
In a moment the wretch was on hi 3 feet
again, in a furious rage. "No man can
strike Bill Simms and live to tell o' it," he
roared out, drawing a revolver, with mur
der written in his face.
■ The girl threw herself before her pro
tector, and as Simms tried to get around
where he could use his pistol without en
dangering her, she clasped Irkel in her
arms, saying : " You shall not harm him !
Your pistol must reach him through me."
And she clung to him convulsively.
The lawyer struggled to get free. ! ' Never
fear, my child. There's no harm in him.
A fellow who can insult a woman will not
hurt a man." But, without violence, there
was no way for him to relieve himself of
the terrified girl, who clutched him with
the desperate nervous force of a elrowning
Seeing this Simms cried : " Jes like yuh,
white-livah'd Broadrim. Skulk behin' a
woman — it's the uigger-stealin' style. I
let yuh go now. But I've mahk'd yuh.
I'll shoot yuh on sight. Ef ye've a spahk
o' grit in yuh, yell come to th' 'Mer'can
Eagle Saloon to-night and j ett'l this eah
thing. Itec'leck it's got to be sett'l'd, an'
d — n soon !"
Simms strutted off, and Irkel, laboring
to calm Thera's fears, escorted her home.
To her entreaties not to go near the Ameri
can Eagle Saloon, he replied with intense
bitterness : " Have no apprehension for
white-livered Broadbrim ! He, as you
know full well, is a man cf peace. A man
who doesn't object to having his nose
tweaked isn't likely to get into any serious
" Please don't speak so of yourself, Mr.
Irkel. I admire you for your principle.
It's a great deal harder for a man not to
fight than to fight. A woman can feci
that. I shan't misunderstand you, be
sure, especially after your noble conduct
this evening. I have no words to thank
you ; but the thankfulness is in my heart."
Irkel bade Thera good evening at her
father's door, declining to go in for tea,
and requesting her to say nothing about
what had happened. ''^ifffrj.
It was quite dark as the lawyer went to
the store to mail his letter (the scene he
had passed through had not made
him unmindful of that), and on his way
there he congratulated himself that nobody
had witnessed the " difficulty," thanks to
the hour and the unfrequented part of the
town. He had determined to go to the
American Eagle Saloon and have a settle
ment with the ruffian. There was no other
method. ; He had already relinquished non
conibativeneaa by. striking a blow. He
could no longer give that as an excuse for
not resenting personal outrages. Besides,
to meet his enemy was the safest plan. He
knew Simms by reputation as a desperado,
who would be very apt to assassinate him,
unless he encountered him face to face.
Such men were never so dangerous. when
confronted as when avoided ; and it must
be confessed, besides, that the lawyer had
suddenly got over his scruples against fight
ing. The insult to Thera, and the blow
struck in her defense, had changed him
completely. He was like a lion who had
tasted blood. His spirit was up, and would
not down. There was a sense of emanci
pation in that blow. He had never expe
rienced a feeling of so unalloyed satisfac
tion as when he had knocked the braggart
down. He wondered how he could have
endured all that he had endured. His
pulses throbbed at the thought of his
wrung nose ; his fingers tingled to repay
the outrage in kind. The element of the
wild beast which is latent in every man of
spirit was awakened in him, ami the
idea of conflict, even to the death,
captivated his imagination. While
his brain was on tire, his nerves were
steady, his muscles like iron. ■■".. He longed
for battle ; carnage had its allurement.
The thought of danger never, obtruded
itself : he seemed invulnerable ; between
life and death there was not a toss. '_ He
appeared to 'be in a dream ; and yet so
acute was every sense, so vivid every emo
tion, that the dream on one side was a
ternl'le reality.
In this moo J the lawyer -talked into the
appointed saloon. It was a long room,' a
wooden counter running from end to end,
lighted by several camphene lamps, and
halt full of rough men drinking and talking
politics with much i ii. ill .sis and profanity.
Behind the counter were two large mirrors
in gilt frames, several rows of decanters of
liquor, and on the unevenly papered parti
tion hung several cheap pictures of women
rejoicing in a superabundant reddish-yellow
_ destitution of all raiment whatsoever.
Irkel saw J his challenger with a glass of
spirits in his hand, leaning on the counter
and talking very loud, occasionally bring-
Simms, I,am ■: here >to ' settle that matter
with you as I have promised."
fi. '.«_ Yuh r don't mean .to say yuh set on a
squah fight,' do yuh, white-livah ?" ;
"Don't repeat . that, or I'll knock you
down. The name belongs to me no more.
I come here to fight you or anybody else
who wants to fight, wherever, however or
with whatever you choose."
' -".That's right. : The stuff's in yuh. Glad
to see a Yank that'll I fight ; been lookin'
for one long time.' Take drink 'fore we git
to bus'ness."
H The lawyer declined, and the arrange
ment : was 1 made (Simms taking the bar
room : into '■- his . confidence) . that the two
should step . into an adjoining apart
ment, where '; several ; men . were drinking
and gambling, place themselves fifteen feet
apart," each with a loaded revolver, begin
firing at the word, and continue until the
chambers were exhausted.
Some time was required for adjusting the
details, ' as ' each tippler had suggestions to
make ; but everything was ready at last ;
and the 'two combatants, ; with X their
seconds were about to enter the adjoining
room when Irkel J remarked to ; his adver
sary that the latter might have been drink
ing so much as to render his aim unsteady.
- '.' Not ■ a bit, " answered Simms. : " See
heeah ! : I'll show yuh ! Look at that eeah
statute's head (pointing to a plaster bust of
a nondescript Venus) ovah th' dooah at the
end of th' saloon. _ j j. >_?-
As he spoke, he raised his revolver and
shattered the image with his bullet." A
cheer. went up from those present ; they
were all highly excited and delighted "at
the prospect of the desperate duel, jff
"Five to one," cried one of the number,
" that Simms kills his man at fuhst fire."
Simms gazed into the lawyer's face, as
the bust fell to pieces, but not the slightest
change was visible. "Yuh a game man,
Bhuah," he exclaimed, "ef yuh ah a Yank.
I love a game man whehevah he hails from.
Heeah, let me say I was wrong in insnltin'
that young lady; I respec' you for protect
in' her. Kf you hadn't struck me, I'd for
giv yuh ; but Bill Simms can't stand a
The gamblers in the room put away
their cards with joyous alacrity when
they were told of the duel. The distance
was measured off, and freshly-loaded re
volvers were put into the duelists' hands.
As Irkel received his he remarked,' with- a
strange smile, to Simms : "If you serve
me as you served that plaster cast, my
friends will be saved funeral expenses, for
there won't be enough left of me to bury."
"But yuh ah a crack shot, no doubt,
Mr. Irkel."
" That remains to be seen," replied the
lawyer, who scarcely knew anything of
firearms, never having discharged a pistol
more than twenty times in his whole life.
They took their positions on one side of
the room, a lamp above each of their heads,
the seconds standing on the other side, and
the spectators crowding round the open
door leading to the saloon.
As the moment approached the silence
was audible ; the lookers-on seemed more
excited than the priucipala ; the feeling
was intense ; the breathing of forty men
was distinctly heard ; every eye was fas
tened on the combatants, standing still and
silent under the glare of the lamps.
"Gentlemen, are you ready? Fire.
One ; two ; three.'"
At the word two both pistols were simul
taneously discharged. Neither of the men
stirred. The witnesses were waiting in
tently for the next shots. Every second
-. mcd an hour.
"They are both dead," some one whis
pered. "Shot through the heart," said
another, aepulchrally.
The second* moved forward, when an
other shot was fired. It came from Simms'
revolver, just as he was lifting it toward
his adversary, and the bullet went into the
floor.. Simms himself swayed to the right,
and slowly sank to the floor.
"Is be killed?" inquired one of the sec
" Dunuo," replied Simms, feebly ; , but
hurt pretty bad," and fainted away.
"How is it with you. Mr. Irkel," asked
his second.
"All right, I believe," and he stepped
forward. The back of his head was bleed
ing. Simms' ball had grazed the base of
j his brain, cut off a lock of his hair, passed
through the partition and flattened itself
against an adjoining brick wall.
Although Simms was thought to be dy
ing, it was deemed prudent to place him in
care of a surgeon, and he was accordingly
placed on a board, covered with a blanket,
and carried, still insensible, to the office of
a physician near by.
As soon as he had been removed the
rough men in the saloon began to press
about Irkel, drawn, as the crowd always
is, to the victor of the hour. They con
gratulated, flattered, fawned upon him,
though they would have insulted and mal
treated him an hour before.
The lawyer, anxious to escape from their
servility, had announced hia desire to sur
render himself, anil was on the point of
going when he perceived Armistead stand
ing at the bar, and trying to steady his
nerves, disturbed by the duel, which had
resulted so differently from his wishes and
The sight of the fellow who had out
raged him inilamcel Irkel afresh. Still
holding his revolver, he went up to Armi
stead, and looking him steadily in the eye,
said, in a tone of constrained quietness,
"You were good enough to pull my nose
the other day, and I am so sensible of your
goodness that I should be ungrateful if I
did not return it.''
With the words, he seized his enemy's
nose, wrung it severely, and then dragged !
him by it across the floor. The bully was .
sojjterror-stricken that he merely struggled I
to get away, muttering something about j
taking an unfair advantage of him.
" Unfair advantage !" echoed Irkel. "It I
is you who tlo that. You assaulted ,me j
with a weapon in your hand, knowing that |
I was not only unarmed, but opposed to ;
fighting. Now that lam armed as well as
you, and ready to fight, you prove your
self to be what I have called you a i
coward. If you had a particle of spirit,
you would make good your pretensions of
courage." '„*, .-. : -.:>-- ... . . .v
Armistead replied not. He sidled to
the door, and as he opened it, he . flung
back, "I'll see yuh agin,'' and dashed out.
Irkel" then 'said, to the men about him,
" Armistead is like many of you ; he likes
to insult those whom he thinks it safe to
insult.". When Ij was a non-combatant
everybody offered me affronts. ■."".' Now that
I have been driven into j resistance I can
find few to quarrel with. "; If ' any of you
present object to me on j my abolition prin
ciples, 1 I am entirely willing to give you
satisfaction." . Haying begun to fight, I may
as well continue. I don't expect ,to come
here again ; so you would better embrace
the opportunity." _ :. ■_"■■'".
" We ah ' friends of .- ynhs," came from
half-a-dozen voices. "Let's take a drink,
and let bygones be bygones." .. .
At least half of the men in the saloon
hated Irkel, whom, had he not shown such
prowess, some one of them would have at
tempted to assassinate. But they were all
magnetized and overawed by his courage ;
he was as secure in that dangerous com
pany as if he had borne a charmed life. ■•■'. ri I
Leaving the saloon, he went to the police
station," related the particulars of the duel,
and delivered himself up. To shoot a man
in Kansas at that time was a small offense,
and the circumstances of this case . ren
dered the offense a Western virtue. ' Simms,
it was ascertained, was not dead ; so Irkel,
having been put under, bail, a dozen men
contending for the honor— went to supper,*
and then , to his office, part of which, di
vided ,by a partition, served ;as a p bed
• The . unnatural . strain and calm which
the lawyer had been under ] soon gave way
to an intense" nervous excitement. j\ To
calm this he took down his law books, and
looked up certain authorities : in a case Ihe
had ? to . argue ■ within ;' a r fortnight. By a
great effort : of .will he banished from ■ his
mind , the events of the { evening : and be
came interested in his researches. ff
jj While ; he ' 4 was •' seated jby the window,
poring over a book by the light of a lamp,
he | thought |he heard a step on the stair*
case running outside of the building. He
listened ; for ,a . moment ; _in . another \ the
door '■■ flew open, and Thera ; Dalton burst
into the room. j^Jffjr ffjj--jj'j
■ Her face was white as a sheet, and her
eyes burned like coals, as she exclaimed,'
" 0," Mr. Irkel, you are to ;be murdered.
I've come to warn ' you. You must leave
here at once." .
f',; You are needlessly alarmed, Miss Dal
ton. All danger; to me has passed. Sit
down, please. Quiet your nerves."
~ "I : am ; not needlessly • alarmed. Our
servant girl, -a Nora, : while : out _ with '. her
beau to-night, overheard two men planning
to murder you in ; your office. She heard
your name ' mentioned, and knowing that
you visited our house, she told me a few
minutes ago. The men may here any
minute. Come away with me at once."
" But this cannot be.". '_.■-_■-'-/
_ "It- is ! time. . '■ Do . not : delay. If you
do care for mc, Mr. Irkel, you will not
stay another second." I beg you, if not for
your sake, for mine." And she went to
him and caught his arm.
On " the instant, the sound of a' shot
pierced the silence — was under the win
dow—-the glass was shattered, and Thera
fell into his arms. -
j '■'_,*' Poor girl, she has swooned,'" he said,
and carrying her to the door that the air
might revive | her, he elrew off her shawl ;
saw blood ; upon ; her gown, and then a
ghastly wound. "Great God," he cried,
" she is dead ! . _' They have murdered her !
And it is I who am the cause !"
For weeks Thera Dalton was confined to
her bed, and her recovery considered hope
less. ■'.; The day • after she , had been shot,
Irkel r begged to be united to her in mar
riage, declaring he had loved her from the
hour he had seen her first. She assented
in a faint voice with the words, " Death
has no terrors, Matthew, since I can die
your wife." -,;'. jiff,'
It proved to be Armisteatl who had at
tempted to assassinate Irkel. Knowing
the lawyer's habits, he had climbed upon
a pile of boards not far from the lighted
window, and discharged a rifle at the figure
or figures revealed by the lamp. He thought
he had had his revenge ; but, learning that
he had killed a woman, he fled from jus
Simms did not die, nor Thera , either.
From the evening of the desperate duel
Irkel lost the name of White-livered
Broadbrim, and was never afterward in
sulted or provoked by any ruffian, however
ferocious. He had found fighting the
surety of peace, and although amiable and
kind-hearted, his perfectly understood
willingness to accommodate any disposition
to pugnacity kept him thenceforth out of
serious quarrels.
"Matthew, I have sometimes thought,"
said Thera, "that you married me Irom
" Not at all, my darling, unless it be the
chivalry which springs from answering
blood, sympathy of mind and magnetism of
the heart."
The English army moved rapidly forward
and northward toward Calais, conquering
everything on its way, till, when in the
neighborhood of Crecy, the intelligence
came that the French King, Philip, with
an army of one hundred and twenty thou
sand men and all the chivalry of France,
had come in between it and the sea. There
was no retreat possible. Edward had but
thirty thousand to oppose this great bosk
They were four to one. He was in a elan
gerous spot also ; but after a time he suc
ceeded in getting away to a good position,
and there he awaited the onset. No or
will doubt that he was anxious enough, anil
yet what did he do ': After arranging his
troops iv battle order, three battalions
deep, ha sent young Edward his son to the
very front with a group of his finest barons
to take the brunt of the terrible charge to
come !
Edward made it a point of duty to keep
outof the battle altogether. He was nowhere
to be seen. He went into a windmill on a
hight near by, and watched the fight
through one of the narrow windows in its
upper story. He would not even put on
his helmet. That was tbe way the father
stood by his son— by showing absolute
confidence in him, and denying himself all
the glory that might come from a great
and important battle. And the young
fellow was a thousandfold nerved and
strengthened . by knowing that his father
fully trusted in him.
I need not give the details of the battle.
It is sufficient to know that the first line
of . the .French chivalry charged with the
utmost fury.
Among these was John, King of Bohe
mia, who with his barons and knights was
not behindhand in the deadly onset ; and
yet this King was old and blind ! He
would have his stroke in the battle, and
he plunged into it with his horse tied by
its reins to one of his knight's on either
side. A plume of three ostrich feathers
waved from his helmet, and the chroniclers
j say he laid about him well. ' After the
j battle, he and his two companions were
found dead, with their horses tied toother.
But although the French were brave they
I were not wise. For not only had they
j brought on the fight with headlong energy
i before they were prepared, but they had
j allowed Edward to place himself so that
| the afternoon sun, then near its setting,
; blazed full in their eyes and faces. Ed
ward's army fought in the shadow. The
terrible English bowmen sent their deadly
cloth-yard arrows so thick and fast into the
dazzled and crowded ranks of fifteen thou
sand Genoese archers and the intermingled
men-at-arms that the missiles filled the air
like snow. The Genoese were thrown into
confusion, and this spread throughout the
whole French army. The French King,
with some of his Dukes, flew foaming over
the field, trying in vain to get up in time
to swell the onset upon the English front.
But the onset had proved hard enough
as it was. The knights around the young
Prince were frightened for his safety. One
of them, Sir Thomas of Norwich, was sent
back to Edward to ask him to come to the
assistance of the Prince. -<".»' - :'"
_, "Sir Thomas," said the King, "is my
son deaei or unhorsed, or so wounded that
he cannot help himself •;?
"' _" Not so, my lord, thank God ; "but he
is fighting against great odds, and is like
to have need of your help."
.i'-,," Sir Thomas," replied : the King, "re
turn to them who sent you, and tell them
from -: me not to send _ for me, whatever
; chance befall them," so long as my son is
; alive; and tell them that I bid them let the
! lad win his spurs : for I wish if God so
I desire, that the day should be his, and the
honor thereof ,; remain; to him and to those
to whom I have given him in charge."
! And there he stayed in the windmill till
the battle was over. Soon the cry of vic
tory reached him as the French fled in the
darkness," leaving their dead strewn upon
the field. ■'. Now the young Prince appeared
covered with all the glory that his father
had coveted j for him, bearing the ostrich
plume which he had taken from the dead
King of Bohemia. f The, boy rode up with
his visor raised his j face was as fair as a
| girl's, and glowed under a crown of golden
j hair. He bore his trophy aloft, and when
lit was placed ras a'- knightly . decoration
above the crest of; his helmet, '.be little
thought that the triple tuft was to wave for
more than five hundred y«_ara, even to this
day, on England's front, for such it does,
and that, next to the crown,' there shall be
no badge . so proudly j known as the three
feathers which S nod above the coronet of
the Prince of Wales. Albert Edward, son
of Queen Victoria, now; wears .it because
Edward,"; the > Prince of .Wales, " : when still
in his teens, won it at Crecy. — Nicho
las. '-fr-.rrf : '~jf:^fr fr ,'_■'.•' ;._'.'■
■: . m .
Apple Custard : Pie. Scald the milk
and let it cool; | grate some sweet apples ;
to each cupful of apple have two-thirds
cupful of powdered sugar, four well-beaten
eggs, one cupful milk, ois-fourth of a nut
meg ; line an earthen pie-dish with a rich
crust, and let it ' bake ;"" then fill .with the
custard and let it bake for < half •■ an hour.
To be eaten cold. .
The Importance of Extending Our Com
mercial Relations with the Republic
—Some Practical Views.
By the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in
1848, and the Gadsden purchase, in 1853,
the United States acquired from Mexico
the territory now. in the States of Cali
fornia, Nevada and Texas, the Territories
of Utah, Arizona and New Mexico, andthe
southern part of Colorado. It extends
from -the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific
Ocean, from the twenty-sixth to the forty
second parallels of north latitude, and in
cludes within its boundaries 967,451 square
miles of land. It is safe te assert that no
other portion of our country has made such
tremendous strides in wealth ami impor
tance during the past quarter of a century.
When incorporated into the Union it was
without population or commerce. It did
not possess a mile of railroad, a town of
any size, a settled population or a trade.
Now it is
The most prosperous and the most pro
gressive section of the United States. It
produced from IS4B to 1870 gold and silver
to the value of §1,359,372. 183. It is now
producing from §00,000,000 to §70,000,000
annually, and the richest deposits are yet
comparatively untouched. The wheat crop
of California and Texas is worth -510.000,
--000 each year. The cotton crop of Texas
is worth §35,000,000 annually, and its corn
crop is valued at §25,000,000. There are
within the limits of this territory not less
than 5,000,000 cattle and 4,000,000 sheep.
In ISSO it did not possess. a mile of rail
way. In 1875 it had 5,000 miles. In now
possesses over O,OCO, and is building more
extensively than any other part of the
country.' Its wines, fruits, wool, silk,
wheat, barley, . corn, cotton, gold, silver,
quicksilver, copper, lead, sulphur, borax
and a thousand other products, mineral
and vegetable, are unapproachable in qual
ity and exhaustless in quantity. Yet this
vast and rich territory, that under the
vivifying influence of
Has developed into an empire of almost
fabulous wealth, was considered at the
time of its cession by the Mexicans them
selves as the most insignificant portion of
their wide domain, and as such was re." lily
yielded to the conquerors. The present
territory of Mexico, though smaller in ex
tent than that surrendered to the United
States, is unquestionably resources.
At the time of the Spanish conquest the
natives possessed gold and silver in abund
ance, and their mines had doubtless been
worked with profit for centuries. Since
that time they have poured a flood of the
precious metals into the channels of trade. '
The best authorities estimate the total ;
product of gold and silver from 1521 to
1576 at §3,495, 140,000. The present an
nual yield is nearly §30,000,000. It would
be very much larger if a stable government
and a modern system of transportation al
lowed the business of mining to be pursued
in a thorough manner. All authorities
agree in pronouncing the mineral wealth of
the Northern States of Mexico
Ward's official report to the British Gov
ernment says : " The States of Durango,
Sonora, Chihuahua and Sinaloa contain an
infinity of mines hitherto but little known,
but holding out, wherever they have been
tried, a promise of riches superior to any
, thing that Mexico has yet produced." The
. Mexican Committee on Mining Taxes re
[ ported in ISGS that " the mineral wealth
of the States of Durango, Sonora and Chi
huahua is greater than all the rest of our
territory." Dr. Wislizenus, in his work on
Northern Mexico, says : " The silver mines
of the State of Chihuahua, though worked
for centuries, seem to be inexhaustible."
J. Ross Browne, in his report on mining
statistics in ISOS, saya : " Durango is very
rich in silver, but its wealth was not known
until just before the revolution, and there
has been comparatively little exploration
since. " In a paper read before the Royal
Geographical Society of London in 1559 by
Charles Sevin, it is stated that "in a space
of two square leagues all the mountains of
Santa Eulalia, Chihuahua, contain silver."
The total yield of the Santa Eulalia mines
is estimated at $430,000,000. Great as has
been the yield of these mines, the opinion
is general among those best acquainted
with them that not only is their wealth
not exhausted, but that their richness has
not even been fully tested. The surface
has only been scratched, and in most in
stances the ores have been worked in the
crudest and most primitive manner. With
such machinery and system as prevails on
the Comstock lode, the product of these
border States would be incalculable.
Says of Sinaloa: "The State of Sinaloa
is said to be literally covered with silver
mines. Scientific explorers who visited
the Sinaloa mines in [872, reported that
those on the Pacific slope would be the
great source of supply of silver for the
next century." In the palmy days of
mining, before the revolution, when by
wise and liberal laws that industry was
encouraged and protected, the city of j
Chihuahua had a population of 70,000. I
Anarchy and misrule, and the want of
railroads, have destroyed this prosperity I
and the town now contains no more than
12,000 people, but the mines are still there
and need nothing but American enterprise
to restore them to all their former pro
ductiveness. Santa Eulalia, too, has sunk
from its former magnificence, and since
1833, when regular operations were in
terrupted, it has not retained more than
1,500 or 2,000 of its population. These,
however, as well as the inhabitants of the
. surrounding country, are wholly supported
, by its mines, which now, under the most
I discouraging circumstances, turn out a
1 large and . steady .yield. But compared
with the agricultural wealth of Mexico,
its precious metals sink into insignificance.
With its favorable climate and vast extent
of fertile soil there is no commodity de
manded :by commerce that it cannot
Even under existing circumstances, with
an indolent population, no railroads, aud
no improved machinery, the yield of corn,
wheat, sugar, coffee and cotton is enor
mous. ! Ii its broad plateaus were trav
ersed by railroads, connecting with the
American system, the stimulating effect of
the demand thus created would develop
production until no portion of the earth's
surface would yield such returns. Coffee and
sugar are two articles in enormous demand
within the United States, and for which
we must always go beyond the limits of
our present territory. Mexico can easily
supply any possible demand for these ar
ticles. ■ It produces at present enough
coffee for home consumption and a surplus
for export. The chaotic condition of the
Government makes it impossible to get any
reliable statistics, but the* report of the
United States Consul-General shows j that
the exports from the single port of Vera Cruz
in TS74 amounted in - value to $543,352,
while in 1870 it had risen to 81, 140,845.
He estimated the value of the crop on a
few scattered plantations around the City of
Mexico at 1,000, 000, and adds, '". This can
be increased to a hundred millions, with a
comparatively small money capital."-: The
.Mexican j Government jis doing something
toTencourage the r growth -of coffee by re
mitting taxes and offering bounties. v Un-'
der ■ the encouraging effects of this policy
the . production ) is increasing, and the ex
ports from the Western' coast is assuming
importance. " The quality of the product of
On the , Pacific ' coast is very fine," and the
small lots that have 'found their way into
foreign f. markets fi command ;3 the ..; highest
prices, Colima ; is - especially, favored ! in
this particular, specimens of its coffee hay- i
ing taken premiums at the several World's
Fairs over the best products of Arabia and
Java. i Samples of Colima coffee from the
Aqua Sacra estate, now on exhibition in
San Francisco, are - superior to the best-
Mocha. | The combination of soil and cli
mate lis highly favorable ; to . production.
The trees are free from disease, long-lived
and prolific, while the quality of the crop
is unsurpassed. The yield per tree is esti
mated at two and one half pounds through
out Mexico, but it is evident that witli
careful and systematic culture the crop can
be greatly increased. The British Minis
ter is authority for the statement that on
many plantations the yield is from three
to four pounds per tree, and he mentions
one tree in the garden of Don Pablo de la
Llane, at Cordova, which produced twenty
eight pounds of coffee at a single crop.
The capacity of Mexico for
Is marvelous. The rich lands near the
coast, both on the Gulf of Mexico and the
Pacific, yield double what the best Cuban
plantations will produce, and we'll up on
the slopes of the mountain chains the cane
grows and thrives. The British Minister
estimates that the State of Vera Cm* alone
is capable of supplying the entire demand
of Europe, and that State includes cut a
fraction of the lands suited to its growth.
Tha wants of the country tributary to San
Francisco are now partially supplied by the
Sandwich Islands and Manila, but a good
deal of sugar is also shipped here from.
New York. J With the development of the
.Mexican lands on the western coast San
Francisco could supply net only our own
people, but control the market in all the
interior States. Cotton was cultivated
and manufactured by the Aztecs at the
time of the Spanish conquest. It has
been one of the staples of Mexico ever
since. In IS4S, .§7,000,000 were invested
in cotton factories, and the consumption
of cotton by the factories in the States of
Mexico, Pueblo and Queretaro in IST I was
over 11,000,000 pounds. While the coun
try under happier conditions might become
a large exporter, it has so far failed to sup-,
ply its own wants, and one of its princi
pal imports from England is cotton gooels.
Cochineal is produced in Oaxaco and ad
joining districts to the value of 9200,000
annually. An inferior quality is produced
in Brazil, but practically Mexico has a
monopoly of this valuable article of com
merce. ■_ ■:T
Grows luxuriantly in all parts of tbe ioj
public, and is the chief subsistence of the
greater portion of its population. Wheat
of the first quality is produced throughout
northern Mexico and on the elevated lands
of the south. The yield per acre is as large
as that of the best lands of our own State.
In the hands of such a population as is now
filling up the States and Territories of the
great West, the commerce of the region
would build up two or three cities like San
Francisco. At present the foreign trade of
Mexico is principally in the hands of the
English and Germans. The Republic buys
three times as much in Europe as it does
in the United States. Cotton goods, which
we produce cheaper and of better quality
than any country in the world, even i;u
tlerselling England in her heme markets,
are imported from the latter country.
Quicksilver is in large demand for mining
operations, and California should supply
every pounel of it. An illimitable field
ought to be openeel up for our minn _ ma
chinery and agricultural tools. We are
more favorably situated for trade with
Mexico, either on the coast or in the inte
rior, than any other country m the world,
and something should be done at once to
remove the barriers that have so long shut
us away from the richest and
The control of the trade of China and
, the East has been the dream of merchant
princes for ages, but here at our very eloors
I is a commerce that in a brief time will
rival it in wealth, with none of the attend
, ant disadvantages that have made our re
, lations with the Asiatics a source of danger
i to our State. California can and ought to
take a forward position in working this
1 mine of wealth. An extension of our rail
. road system over the broad and fertile
'■ table-lands of Mexico would soon give us.
the control of its commerce. San Francisco
j and Sacramento are nearer to the city of
Mexico than any Eastern trade-center, by
i more than a thousand miles. By sea we
I possess important advantages, and can al
ways compete successfully with other
countries. It needs but a tithe of the en-
I ergy and perseverance shown in the pursuit
ot trade in other directions to bring about
! the desired relations with Mexico. The
I exchange of all products of the two coun
tries free of duty, or at least a commercial
compact by which present duties shall lie
reduced and the collection simplified ; a
compact by which protection shall be
guaranteed to
In railroads and industrial enterprisess,
would confer incalculable benefit upon our
own country, and in a few yean would lift
Mexico itself from the slough of apathy
and discord into which it has fallen. If it
is urged that no such arrangements can bo
made with the existing Government of our
sister Republic the reply is obvious. With
in the limits of Mexico there are many lib
eral ami enlightened men, who are anxious
to cultivate close relations with the United
State. We have only to press upon the
I Mexican people the advantages that a.
friendly commerce with us offers, to give
! the progressive portion of the population
an influence that cannot be resisted. It
rests with our delegation in Congress, our
merchant princes, and our railroad kings,,
I to improve the opportunity that presents
itself, and secure forever to th" cities of
the Pacific ccast the trade of the richest
country under the sun.
To professional men, men of business,
and indeed all who are engaged in pursuits
requiring more or leas severe mental work,
coupled with more or less confinement,
exercise is, of course, the conditio me qua
non oi the recreation to be recommended.
This fact is bo obvious that I need not
dwell upon it further than to make one re
mark. This is to warn all such persons
that their feelings are no safe guide aa to
the amount of muscular exercise that is
requisite for maintaining full and sustained
health. By habitual neglect of sufficient
exercise, the system may, and does, accom
modate itself to such neglect ; so that not
only may the desire for exercise cease to
be a fair measure of its need, but positive
exhaustion may attend a much less amount
of exercise than is necessary to long con
tinuance of sound health. However strong
I and well, therefore, a man may feel
notwithstanding his neglect of exercise, he
ought to remember that he is playing a
most dangerous game, and that sooner or
later his sin will find him out— either in
the form of dyspepsia, liver, kidney, or
either disease, which so surely creep upon
the ' offender against nature's laws of
health. According to Dr. l'arkes, the
amount of exercise that a healthy man
ought to take without fatigue is atthe
least that which is mired for raising '150
foot-tons per diem. This, in mere walking.
would, in the case . of a man of ordinary
weight, be . represented by a walk of be
tween eight and nine . miles along level
ground," or one mile up a tolerably steep
hill; but it is desirable that the requisite
amount .of ' : exercise • should be obtained
without s throwing all the work upon one
set of muscles. . For this reason walking
ought to be varied with rowing, riding, ac
tive games, and, where practicable, hunt
ing or shooting, winch, to those who are
fond ot sport, constitute the most perfect
form of recreative exercise.— [The Nine
teenth Century.
„'A :l ittle dry sand sprinkled over the
potatoes in . the fall, will destroy any un
pleasant odor .they may ! have, and air
slacked lime, used sparingly, will ' prevent
rotting. ' •
.^Crushed hemp-seed is recommended as
a gooel substitute for ants' eggs in feeding
young birds." a- _

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