Newspaper Page Text
THE DAILY RECORD-UNION. THMMSAV ....... irttefi"* QUADRUPLE SHEET. NO PAPER TO-MORROW. The Rbcord-U.mon, in aoeordance with its aunual ustom, will not be published to-morrow, bat on | aturday morning the usual double-sheet will be is- . sued. __ NEWS OF THE MORNING. Is New York yesterday Government bonds were noted st 1041 for Is of 1807 ; 103 t for 5s of 1881. 100J for 4Js; sterling,.}! m_*X%* Vi Bilver bars, 1181 ; silver coin. JIJM discount. Silver in London yesterday, 62j; consols, tf! 9 IC; 5 per cent. United Stat*s bonds, 10CJ ; 4s. IOC: ; 4js, lODJ. Is San Francisco half dollars arc quoted at par ; trade dollars,' 95 buying, 96i selling; Mexican dol lars, &6 buying, 96} selling. At Liverpool yesterday wheat was quoted at 10s 8d tolls Si for average California white, and lis ed to lis lOd for club. Unite stocks were steadier in San Francisco yes niay morning, vith some elements of a better tone here and there. Sierra Nevada advanced 82, Mexican £1 75, Ophir $2, and other kinds from 10c o 7r".a-. There aro indications of better times to ome for the holding interest. Tom Pico, a horse thief, was shot Monday at Riv erside, San Bernardino county. Hon-. QaOMI S. Houston, United States Senator, died yesterday at Athens, Ga. The explosion of a giant powder cartridge at Oak laud yesterday injured two men, one seriously. A most wonderful case is reported from Watson ville—the death of a woman who for a quarter of a century passed as a man. Faso. L. Ames has been elected President of the Boston, Iloosac Tunnel and Western Kailroal. Richard Smith, of the Cincinnati Gazette, has been arretted on a charge of criminal libel. San Franctsco Democrats indorse the action of the Governor of Maine. .. '.-■■ Y;f Mrs. Cynthia Hobodon, the convicted abortionist, has been denied bail in San Francisco. Thk Stock Boards adjourned in San Francisco yesterday until Friday. As accident occurred yesterday on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway, but without serious results. At Ottawa, Canada, the thermometer marked 20' below zero. The new Constitution of Louisiana was adopted by 59,148. Grant is receiving a hearty welcome in the South. Keeke has shipped $4,000,000 in gold to Chicago' to conduct his January deal i.l wheat. A woman near Los Angeles yesterday threw her child into a pool and drowned it. At Burlington. la., yesterday, Jehn A. Woodward shot and killed Edward Price, and then committed suicide. M. Meter and Humbert resumed their duel at Paris yesterday, and both were wounded. BritaDixas were erected at Portland, Or., during 1579 Kilned at 31,162,700. Tub Record-Union this morning is composed of Sixteen pages, filled with valuable statistical and other matter. The inside pages especially will be found interesting and worthy of careful examina tion. r i;:* - " THE NEW CONSTITUTION. . To-day the bulk of the new Constitution goes into effect, though as a matter of fact the Legislature about to meet will be called upon to exhaust its energies in putting the organic law into working shape. The new Constitution is unfortunately not a wise or sound instrument. It is one of the crudest and most imperfect that has ever been ac cepted by a community. And though the men who insisted on trusting to their own ig norance and prejudice rather than to the reasonable' representations of more experi enced law-makers, may hereafter be heartily abused for their work, it is a kind of work which the people cannot get rid of, bow ever much they dislike it. We have fol lowed the working of the new Con stitution from beginning to end, and may say that we comprehend its defects thoroughly. What these defects are we have pointed out with all our ability so often that our readers at least do not require to have them recapitulated. The Legislature, how ever, will have a most unthankful and diffi cult task to encounter. It will be held re sponsible for the mischief which really inheres in the Constitution, and should it attempt to fend off from the public any par ticularly obvious evil consequences, it will no doubt be accused of a desire to nullify the Constitution. If the Constitution inflicts injury upon the State, it will be said that the Legislature tried to make it odi ous. And that it will inflict injury upon the State if faithfully . followed out, no intelligent student of it cm for a moment doubt. Since its adoption until now it has been possible for those who pretended to regard it as a monument of human wisdom, to escape the reputation which actual experiment brings. Hence forward, however, there will be no possibility of evasion. The new Constitution will be in operation, and all its angularities, and all its blemishes, must be exposed. We have no in tention of congratulating the people upon the fact that it goes into operation to-day, for we are convinced that it is the worst legislation ever done for California. A year hence, however, we will compare notes with the '< supporters of the instrument, and challenge | them to say frankly what they then think j of it. SECRETARY SHERMAN ON REFUNDING. Secretary Sherman's letter to the Chair man of the Senate Finance Committee, in regard to the refunding operations, is impor tant and seasonable. He points out that in ISSO nearly eight hundred millions of five and six per cent, bonds will have to be re funded, and that a determined effort should be made to get them funded , into four per cent, consols, all tbe circumstances now favoring such an operation. And he sug gests, as a further reason for ■ urging I this measure, that the continuance of the present state of affairs is by no means certain, and if this opportunity is allowed to slip, the country will thereby lose ten and a half mill ions of dollars yearly, which can be saved by refunding. In regard to the proposition fot refunding the debt or any part of it at three and. a half per cent., the Secretary is of the opinion that the scheme is not prac ticable, and that if it is tried the only result whi be to stop refunding at four per cent, in definitely. The idea that the debt could be funded at Sh per cent, is indeed one which seems to rest upon no intelligible foundation. It is open to suspicion that some of our ama ture Congres-ional financiers have been pon dering the phenomena of English Consols, and have derived therefrom the theory that what ever can be done in England outfit to be possible here. That Government bonds could be marketed at par on 3J per cent inter est is of course quite out of the question at the present time ; and the prevalent tend encies justify a belief that no such operation _ will be practicable for a long time to come. It is indeed questionable whether the very heavy funding operations which the Secre tary points out as part of the financial work for ISSO, will be possible. It must be remem bered that the facility with which refunding has been accomplished hitherto has been caused in the main by the generally depress ing business outlook. As . the business out look has now. brightened, however, a new set of influences are at work, and we believe that even if the 3.J per cent achetne is abandoned entirely, the Secretary cf the Treasury will he very much embarrassed to place his eight , hundred Bullions, .'_. , A YEAR'S PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES. - While the year Just closed was an excep tionally unfortunate one for most r.f the countries of Europe, it has been fraught with | remarkable ._ benefactions for the United Stater. The first real approach to perma nent specie resumption, which ushered it in, gave the keynote to the whole year. Con fidence, which bad been almost lost amid the confusion of financial heresies and schem ing unscrupulous politicians, returned. Busi ness was once more placed on a sound basis. Values fell by degrees into their normal condition. Speculation languished, and as the temptation to gambling declined, the incitement to legitimate enterprises increased. The recovery of the country from the col lapse of 1873 has in this last year been well begun, but it is noce the less true that very much remains to be done before the com merce and finances of the nation are in a thoroughly healthy condition. ' It is most important that the funding of the public debt should be completed, and that the cur rency should be taken altogether out of the hands of Congress. Until both of these measures are secured it will be premature to congratulate ourselves. When the year opened it brought with it one source of danger and mischief in the shape of the Bland-Allison Bill, under the provisions of which the Mints have been compelled to coin silver dollars at the rate of two millions a montb. As was predicted before this per nicious bill parked, it was impossible to get these silver dollars iuto circulation, and tbey are now clogging the Treasury vaults to no purpose. As a matter of course the pub lic had no use for a depreciated and over valued money when they were supplied with all the paper based on gold they needed. The danger, however, was and is that by coining silver plentifully it may be forced into circu lation, when its effect would be to drive out gold, and to give the country a single silver standard, with greenbacks based on silver, and following its depreciation. That was the most serious danger in the currency situation a year ago, and it remains so to-day. In regard to the financial heresies with which politics have swarmed so many years, the Greenbackers appear to be the sole survivors of the crowd, and now they have changed their position without appearing to realize the fact. As a very practical answer to a great deal of demagogic froth and clap-trap, the Secre tary of State instructed our Consuls in Europe to collect labor statistics in tbe coun tries where they resided. The result has been | a series of very valuable reports, showing j conclusively that labor is better paid and fed iv the United States than anywhere else in the world. This exhibit came in pood season to stop the mouths of certain canting impos tors who had undertaken to persuade the American workingmen that they were some how crushed and trampled upon. It has proved, furthermore, that not only are the United States the Paradise of Labor, but that California is the most eligible part of the United States. Yet, in despite of these facts, it is in California that Kearney- I ism has had its origin and maintained I its existence. The general and quite rapid growth of all kinds of business and ! manufactures, however, put an end, at lea^t j for the time, to those movements on the part j of Labor which threatened disturbance in ; the spring. Quite a general and extended r strike was abandoned, and in full work and i good wages were speedily forgot tke themes | which during periods of stagnation and press : ure enlisted all their attention. Had the United States possessed a merchant navy, aad been unfettered by a protective tariff, the past year would undoubtedly have been far more prosperous than it has turned out. For under existing circumstances the people have had to struggle at every upward step, i and they have been weighted and handi capped by the barbarous fiscal system whose retention gives the lie so flatly and persistently Ito our vain-glorious boast of . national intelligence. We have therefore done as well as we could, though not as well as we ought to have done, and the same causes must render all further progress j difficult and laborious. In politics, the year has not been remarkably productive, the theft of Maine at its close being decidedly the most sensational episode of it. The Democratic programme of the extra session of Congress was simply a bold but ill-advised attempt to provide the means of counting-in I a Democratic President, in advance of the | e'ection. It did not deceive the country for ; a moment. The purpose of the Democrats i to employ force at the South and fraud at the ; North was everywhere recognized, and the ! answer wis a series of crushing Democratic I defeats all through the November elections. A feature of the year deserving special mention was the enthusiastic reception ac corded General Grant on his return from a two year's tour of the world. Some time previously an attempt had been made to arrange a political reception, but it fell flat. Finally no political significance was attached to the demonstration, but it was so emphatic and pronounced that it seems to have been generally regarded as an indication that Giant can have the Presidency if he wants it. The influences which have wrought so extra ordinary a change in popular sentiment since the departure of General Grant after the close of his second administration deserve to be analyzed, if only to show upon what pe culiar and irrelevant grounds public opinion | may be established. Whatever the causes of the change, however, its existence remains the same, and at this moment it seems scarcely doubtful that General Grant is the foremost nominee for the Presidency. During the past year several enterprises have been begun, looking to the development of those I mmense resources which the West contains, i aid which, notwithstanding all that has been written about them, are still scarcely more than scratched. . Railroad building and settlement and cultivation have, as always, gone hand in hand. The Southern Pacific has been quietly pushing southward through Arizona and New Mexico, and lay- ing the foundations for a very important ac cession to the trade of California. The fa cilities for' shipping the produce of our bar- vests to Europe are in fact being increased so rapidly that in a few years ■ this freight will beyond a doubt find its way overland to tide water on the Gulf of Mexico, and thence to Liverpool and London by swift steamers, thus putting the long passage around the Horn in the limbo of obsolete institutions, and discounting the best results of whatever intcroceanic ship canals may be constructs". The future indeed is full ef praise, and the year now closed has seen, the commencement of many undertakings which will ameliorate the lives of millions, and elevate the human rice. The Prize Stories,— There bave now been filed three stories in competition for the Recokd-Umox $200 prizes. The lists remain open for competitors for the I prizes tip to January 15th inclusive. While so many com petitors cannot be expected as entered for the Christmas prize which called for a briefer story— still we are assured of a very goodly number and of strong competition. .'. La See Thi3.— The Semi-Weeslt Vsios it tentintittbtof from 10 to 125 copiet to ovei 500 Posioffieu in California," It ttandt un rivaled at an advcrti*i#g medium, I SACRAMENTO : DAILY RECORD-UNION, THURSDAY, JANUARY 1, 1880. FOREIGN REVIEW. ESGLAVD. a - The past year has not been a fortunate one ( for England. To an unusually severe winter | .an unusually severe summer succeeded, and it j did not need the comparative crop failure so caused to make the outlook depressing. For it has been made apparent in this last twelve month that great and far-reaching changes are about to occur in English commerce, ag riculture and land tenure. Every country has two lives. That which it lives outward to the world, and that wiiich it lives inward to itself. England's outward life is the rec ord of her foreign policy, of her attempts to make Turkey fulfill her pledges, of her wars in South Africa and Central Asia, of her troubles iv India, of Beacn^field's doings and reputation. Her inward life is the record of her people's progress, and this after all is the most significant. For some years past for eign competition has been encroaching more and more upon England's commercial supre macy. The blind folly and brutal selfish ness of her own workingmen have at the same time contributed to cripple her man ufactures. In their eagerness to dictate terms to their employers these men have through their trade-unions done much to pre- j vent manufacturers from competing fairly with their continental and American rivals. The favorable reaction in the trade of the United States has helped to intensify tbis depression, while the menacing aspect of the future tends to prevent recovery. The in creased facilities for the exportation of Amer- i ican cattle and cereals, have shown the Eng lish farmers that the scepter is departing from them. A great depreciation in the value of farming land has resulted. The farmers can no longer pay the high rents of old times, and the wealthier landlords have been obliged in many cases to remit a great part of their rents. Nor is there any reason to ex pect a change for the better in the situation. America will produce moie wheat and cattle henceforth than ever before, and both will be transported more swiftly and cheaply. At present the English agriculturists seem to to think that a change in the tenure of I land would solve the problem for them, i and the Irish agitation naturally sug ! gests the abolition of primogeniture and entail. Whether if tbis reform were granted it would have the effect anticipated, must be considered doubtful, but it is not probable that any such innovation will be possible un- I til there has been a protracted discussion over it. So long as England adheres to her ! Free Trade policy she can never be perma | nently crippled by competition. She may j have to change her commercial policy in : some respects, but she will continue to be the treasury and the emporium of the world, and ; however difficult her situation may appear for the moment, she will extricate herself ! from all temporary embarrassments. Her politics this year have been more than usu ally stirring. The failure of the projected reforms in Asia Minor, undertaken in con formity with the Treaty of Berlin, the disas ! ters which marked her military record, first in South Africa and later in Afghanistan, ; and the stormy agitation on the laud ques , tion which has arisen in Ireland, have almost I shaken to pieces, the singular confidence in I the Beaconsfield Ministry which existed at j the opening of the year. The programme of | the Premier indeed has been most unfortu nate. Not one of his predictions has been verified, not one of his avowed causes of con gratulation has proved genuine. Entangled with Turkey in a reform experiment which all Europe saw to be hopeless ; committed in I Central Asia to a policy of conquest which must make the frontier of India less secure instead of more scientific ; confronted at home by an Irish agitation which may drift into an Irish rebellion ; the star of Disraeli seems to be threatened with extinction, while j the popular reaction promises to take his I great rival Gladstone once more into favor, I notwithstanding his doubtful patriotism and his dangerous leanings toward ecclesiasticism. FRANCE. France has enjoyed the prosperity that seems to be the natural sequence of the most tremendous suffering. It is only when nations have been ground into the very dust that they are so driven to sober and pru dent ways as to command their well-being for many years to come. France, that is to say the French people, has been growing strong and rich, and they have shown themselves content with very prosaic careers. France the nation has been engaged in a preliminary struggle with Ultramontanism. But for the premature taking off of the young Prince j Eugene Napoleon it is possible that the Im perialists would have made trouble this year. That event, however, paralyzed them, and wil] 1 probably in the end destroy their organiza tion. The young -Republic, still inex perienced and full of crudities, has been called upon to determine what the character of the popular education shall be. The United States policy should have taught France the wisdom of making a broad separation between Church aad State, but unfortunately the leaven of Catholicism was still too power ful to be ignored, and so the effort to make education entirely secular has been resisted not only strenuously, but with a measure of ! success anything but reassuring. The priests, j of course, are very reluctant to abandon their hold upon the schools. It is true that religion has ceased to possess a vigorous existence in France. The men are for the most part skeptics, and the women are alone tools of the- priests. But there is quite enough of ceremonialism left to feed bigotry, and to give the [tramontanes some expectation of ultimately controlling the republic. And this is the greatest danger that confronts France to-day. Neither her people nor her statesmen appear to realize the importance of keeping the public educational system free from all sectarian influence. This is no doubt due in great measure to the fact that France has never abandoned Rome, and that although during the Revolution she flung religion over board altogether, she never became Protest ant The Huguenot movement which the Massacre of St Bartholomew stifled, has never been revived, and therefore it is that the instinctive avoidance .of sectarian interference with state education is wanting in the French people. Their skepti cism is not intelligent. They despise the I creed which they retain, but that does " not hinder them from permitting its priesthood to control the education of their children. Some ! day they may have reason to regret their | apathy in this regard. "Meantime they are spending much surplus energy in Cabinet j quarrels and intrigues and parliamentary j crises, which after all mean little or nothing, j or which ought not to mean anything. The people have shown some dangerous indiffer ence to their political duties. ' This is a bad symptom. When a man like Blanqui is nearly elected because four out of five electors refrain from voting, it is evident that the people need stimulating, or that they lack the genius for self-government ; And it must be remem here that the French Republic is quite an experiment, despite its nine years. Whether the Gallic character is fitted for free institu tions cannot yet be ascertained. It is indeed somewhat remarkable that the same political apathy noted among the French voters has been . observed also among the .Italians. Whether these races are naturally inapt to : exercise political right* remains to be seen,': but it is certain that among Anglo-Saxons the inherent jealousy of all forms of government operates as a continual spur to political action, The war spirit has no doubt an existence still, but it has for come time been thrust into the background. The army has been reorganized, forts have been rebuilt, and so much revenue has been spent in preparations for conflict that sooner or later . the conflict will have to be undertaken. A serious blow has been dealt the wine interest by the ravages of the Phylloxera, tor which no remedies have been found, and which has practically destroyed the best claret vineyards in France. This disaster has inevitably opened the door to the wines and vines of California, which in the near future may not impossibly supplant the French vintages to a very considerable extent. GERMANY. Germany at the opening of the year had not ceased to suffer from the effects of her military success, but she has made some progress toward prosperity, and would have made more had not Prince BisiAarck under taken to cure existing evils by the patent medicine of a protective tariff. The new fiscal policy which the Chancellor has in his usual arbitrary way thrust down the throat of his country is as unscientific and bad as it could possibly be. It cannot produce other than evil results, and it will not take many months to develop its mischievous implica tions. The tariff which has been enacted lays heavy imposts upon articles of food, am its first consequence therefore must be to make living more costly to the masses. The re cently published Consular reports on workand wages in Europe, however, prove conclusively that the peasants and laborers of Germany are already on as economical a diet as will maintain life, and to raise the cost of corn and beef to such a population is to produce a famine. Already in Silesia, for which Frederic the Great paid so dearly in blood and treasure, actual famine has occurred, and Bismarck's tariff will assuredly operate to disseminate rather than to check it. It is the more singular that the Chancellor should have decided upon so strangely anti-popular a fiscal policy, because no man knows better the importance of conciliating the masses from which all the recruits to Socialism are drawn. For although he has obtained- the authority to exercise a police power of the most sweep ing and arbitrary character, for two years. Bismarck must be perfectly well aware that coercion can only drive Socialism from the surface, at.d cannot extirpate it from the body politic. The only way to do that is to re move all causes of complaint, and the in crease of the price of food has always- consti- tuted the most prolific sottrce of sedition and discontent. The tariff is therefore oct tain in the end to produce the worst effects, and whatever it may seem to do for the moment towards building up German manufactures will be more than counterbalanced by its pauperizing influence upon the masses. The contest with the Papacy has somewhat lan-* (pushed since the death of Pius, and it has been made apparent more than ever that if it were not for the Jesuits the Vatican and the Empire would ere now have found common standing ground. The utter indifference to consistency which characterizes Bismarck's action when lie has a pi lint to make, and which leads him to discard his friends and take his enemies to his arms, awakened in the Ultramontanes a hope that they might after all be able to pro cure the repeal of the Falk laws. Bismarck, however, has never had any real intention of going to Canossa. He wanted the Ultra montanas, and he therefore used them, but i he did not mean" to make any concessions to Rome, and he has not done so. So long an he is Chancellor the State will control the | Church. Of that there can be no doubt, and it is equally impossible to imagine the reten tion in Germany of the Catholic ascendancy in any form. It has been outlived, and the I people could not, if they wanted to, go back to it. As regards foreign feeling, Germany has for the last year been turning the cold shoulder to Russia. It, is indeed almost cer tain that Bismarck desired to quarrel with the Czar, but that the Emperor William's regard for his nephew overcame the Chancel lor's policy. As the next best course he has steadily snubbed Russia, and given encourage ment to the belief that Germany and Austria have formed a close alliance. This no doubt is true, but Bismarck does not probably in tend that Austria shall derive much ad vantage from the arrangement. The con solidation of the German Empire is his am bition, and to effect this he is willing to" trample all Europe under foot. Much re mains to be done before the great work can be considered firm and solid, and Bismarck must be approaching the end of his career. In his efforts to make a policy which will solidify the empire he is curiously indifferent to the movements of that democratic spirit which is working so subtly all over Europe in these days, and it is possible that this spirit may arise when he is cone to undo his handi- j work, and to prove once more that a policy of repression never settles anything, but only postpones, and in so doing intensifies, the ex plosion of popular will and passion. RUSSIA The disintegration of Russian state-policy has been proceeding steadily during the past year. The audacity of the Nihilists has in creased with the ferocity of their pursuit, and the ramifications of their conspiracy have been shown to be wide as the empire. Nihilism is still in many respects mysterious to the world at large. There seems, how ever, little doubt that it is really that balf dumb discontent which observation of such a despotism as that of Russia must awaken in semi-civilized minds. It is a protest against Czardom, and against that corrupt and brutal bureaucracy which in effect mul tiplies the worst evils of autocracy, while acting without the slight consciousness of responsibility. The Nihilists of coufse do not all hold the same views, but they are all against the Government, and they have been strong enough to defy it openly. "They have met every execution with au assassination. They have posted their placards under the eyes of the .lice and in the most secret recesses of the palace. They have succeeded in robbing the Court of all confidence in its ] alleged friends, and in making the Czar's life I a misery to him. Several bold and deliberate attempts have been made to assassinate him. Had he not worn secret armor he would doubtless have been killed. Of late his en emies have taken to blowing un railroad trains in which he is supposed to be, and he can scarcely move without danger. Where so much depends upon the life and will of one man it i 3 of course necessary to consider carefully the agencies which influence that life and that will. At present it is said that the Czar has been so shaken by the deter mined pursuit of his life that his nervous systepi is in danger of collapsing. His pol icy., indeed, appears by no means certain, consistent, or vigorous. A quarrel has been going on for some time in regard to the tenure of the Chancellorship which Prince Gortchakoff lately _ resigned, or from which he was removed. The vacillation of the. Czar's character bas been strikingly exhibited in this matter, and it lias been impossible to determine from mi nth to month what line he wa-» bent on pursuing. . Meantime the internal condition of Russia has been going from bad to worse, ' Tho straggle between the Government and the Nihilists has men aced the country with anarchy. The close of the Turkish war left the exchequer empty and the national credit practically moribund. . All efforts to . restore the finances have proved unavailing. The enor mous debt increases, and fresh i ? sties of an already frightfully depreciated paper money are the sole resort of government. condi tion of the masses continues to be most wretched. They are in fact considerably worse off than before the emancipation of the serfs. Nevertheless attempts are frantically made to maintain the aggressive po.icy of the empire. The ambitious schemes which, since the time of Peter the Great, have been associated with. Russian views of Central Asia, are to-day cherished even more fondly than ever before. Despite internal confu sion and national bankruptcy, the ambitious military aristocracy press forward in rapport of energetic prosecution of the conquest of Asia, and anticipate tiie time when Russian arms will be carried across the Indus, ln Europe Russia can afford to await the certain death of the Ottoman power. It can stand back and amuse itself with England's des perate attempts to transform the Turk into a reformer, and it can placidly look forward to the time when the Porte will no longer be able to offer even the pretense of a stable government. The recent unfriendliness of Germany, however, clouds this future. If Berlin is not complaisant Russia can make nothing of the decline of the Porte, nor can she afford to defy tbe naval force of England when the supreme moment arrives. She has risked almost everything for the sake of an outlet upon the Mediterranean, and the has not got it, and perhaps will not get it. _Meanwhile.it is quite probable that in the course of the ensuing year Nihilism will bring the pending struggle to a climax, and should the death of the Czar occur soon it is extremely doubtful whether his successor could maintain the existing absolutism with out important . changes. In Russia, too, the democratic spirit is rife, and it promises to produce startling effects in that country be fore the world has grown much older. ITALY. The present Government of Italy, like that , of, France, is an experiment, and it is envi i roned with dangers and difficulties. In Italy : the Clerical party has always and necessarily been very influential, but the policy of Pius the Ninth after the loss of his temporalities was one of sullen non-intercourse. The Church and its friends would abstain from j politics. They would neither vote nor be voted for. But with the accession of Leo has come a change in the programme, though it is as yet more foreshadowed than put in practice. The Italian Ministry has been what is called Libera], which means that it has been obliged to half tolerate the Italia Irridente factionaries, and all the otber dema gogues and simpletons who are unable to dis tinguish between liberty and license. These factions of course have cause to detest the Government because it will not go as far as they want to. The Government, badgered and hated, is contemplating an exten sion of the suffrage in order to popularize itself. And in this measure the Clericals think they see their opportunity. For they have been reflecting that after all if they wish to get their own again they must control the masses, and that if the masses have votes the Church can dispose of them. And so it is evident that the Clerical party will soon emerge from its silence, and take an active and a formidable part in politics. The real ; danger of this change consists far less in the ) actual potency of the Church as a political factor than in the possible alliances it may make with other factions. For instance, there is in Italy a considerable element which is opposed to unification, holding that the various districts and provinces are so entirely different, and their people so distinct in char acter and habit, that the attempt to make of them one nation is a mistake. These "re " gionalists," as they are called, are practi cally at war with the Republican element that desires a federative republic. The Church might make use of both these ele ments against the Government, though of course -he has no sympathy with the ideas of either. It is still believed at the Vatican that the temporal power of the Pope will be restored, and that is the aim of the Clerical party. Meantime popular education pro ceeds but slowly. The percentage of those who can neither read nor write is about fifty, though in Southern Italy illiteracy is far more marked than in the North. The trade of the country has been growing quite rap idly, but the whole nation is kept back and disabled from expanding naturally by that .incubus of all continental peoples, the stand ing army. It is, no doubt, very difficult for Italy to realize that she does, not stand in need of this formidable army, but the condi tion of her finances shows that until it is cut down within reasonable dimensions the ex j chequer will be poor and the nation be drained of its surplus energies. Recent de velopments have showed a faculty for the accumulation of municipal debts in Italian towns, such as might h»ve been thought was confined to American enterprise. Some of these ancient historical cities have rolled up debts which they are quite unable to pay, i and it has been found necessary for the Par liament to devise means ef relieving them. A new experiment has been made by pur chasing the railroads and operating them under Government management. How it results cannot as yet be determined, but there can be no doubt that it will very ma terially increase the cost of operation, while it must bo doubtful whether the safety and convenience of the public will gain pro portionately. At present education seems a j much more pressing need than an extension of the suffrage, especially as the Church will probably make the only use made of this measure, and seriously to the injury of free institutions. One of the discouraging fea tures of the situation is a marked political apathy on the part of the better educated class. The ignorant voters vote eagerly enough. It is the educated ones who stay away from the polls. "One result, of course, is that ignorance gets more than its fair repre sentation. On the whole, however, the progress of Italy is such as to warrant the belief that ' she has almost reached the period of positive safety. Another decade of peace and in dustry will; put her beyond the power of • Clericals or other disorganizes to injure seri ously, and, best of all, to deprive her people of the liberties they have endured so much to 1 obtain. TURKEY. The Ottoman Porte has been all the past year approaching a state of utter collapse. There can be no . doubt that it would have reached that condition before now had it not been firmly held up by the Powers that are impatient for its end, and yet fear to strike the final blow.. From the time when the "Grand Turk" was a very real European portent, and when his armies c.irried fire and slaughter even to the gates of Vienna, to the present abject situation of the same Power, is indeed a remarkable change. Since the late war with Russia Turkey cannot be said to possess any real existence. The territories which formerly owned the sovereignty of the Porte are now either wrested from it, or have slipped away into anarchy. Even in tbe im mediate neighborhood aof I Constantinople brigandage has been established. In Asia Minor England has been tryicg to restore some kind of rovernment, but with little suc cess, for tho people do not understand the clemency and justice which have succeeded the despotism of the old Pashas, and they take advantage of it to ignore the new laws. As for the Constantinople Government, it is sunk in sensual imbecility. There is no longer any hope from patriotic feeling, for it is dead. The Sultan is a wretched debauchee, and lie is ruled by an eunuch. For the mo ment English influence is supposed to be par amount, but the Porte has no longer a policy or the means of carrying one out. It is per fectly plain that the time has come when the mission of the Turk is accomplished, and when there is no longer any place or function for him in Europe. But he is being sup ported in his dotage by the Powers that sur round him, and every one of whom hopes to administer ou his effects, and is platting to overreach the rest. Whether there will be a Turkey a jjk'ar hence is by no mean? certain, or what fl. Jwili float oVer the Bosporus. AUSTRIA. Since Sadowa the future of Austria has been under a cloud, and of late years it lias been more apparent that she was being used by Bismarck as a foil to Germany, and in such a way as to commit her to a destiny which must remove her forever from the path of her neigh bor as a possible rival, In the Treaty of Berlin she.was given the occupation of Bul garia and Servia, and it was Well understood that this occupation would be permanent. In | practically annexing this territory Austria enlarges her Slav population, and gives to that element a preponderance altogether dan gerous to the supremacy of the German ele ment ' Austria is a bundle of discordant j nationalities, but she has until quite re cently had her choice of two destinies. She might be all Slav, or she might be all Teuton. Sadowa put a veto on the second proposition, and ever since Austria has been drifting in the direction of the first. The two destinies, however, do not involve the same end. The Slav future means semi-barbarism. The Teu ton future meant constant growth in civiliza tion. It appears now that the Slav influence must carry the day, and if this is so it is only j a question of time fur the Teutonic elements of Austro-Hungary to drop off, and to return ' to their natural home in the bosom • >:" the German Empire. Austria obtained territory from the llusso-Turkish war, though she did not fight for it, but it may be doubted whether every rood of the ground does not carry a ] | curse witii it. Bismarck desires to utilize his i Austrian neighbor as a bulwark against Rus i sian aggression, and therefore be had her as ... I signed a position analogous to the ancient and perilous office of Warden of the Marshes. As guardian of the Slav provinces she can no doubt do much good to Germany, bat it must be at the sacrifice of her own progress. A time, indeed, is not far distant when the par- i tition of the Austrian Empire will be mooted. Meantime the Hapsburgs should make fait friends among stable Powers. SPAIN. Xo country has profited less by the growth of modern civilization than Spain, and in no country is the progress of the people so slow. The centuries during which they remained the contented, or at least object creatures of Rome, stunted their minds aud incapacitated them for making those restless and inces sant advances to which the nations of the time owe their position. At present Spain is in a state of languid progression. Recover- ; ing somewhat from the depressing effects of j protracted civil wars, she is making an effort ; to follow the example of her more prosper ous neighbors. The Government affects lib eralism, but without being really liberal. It abolishes slavery in Cuba, but only in name. It proclaims religious toleration, but does not practice it. Education makes very slow progress. One reason is that the Church, the Old Man of the Sea, is still on the shoulders of the State, and that the leaders do not dare to shake it off because the masses are still so blind to their own interests. Spain lifts a magnificent country, a brave and generous and amiable people, and great resources. With a stable government, which means a government not controlled by the black-robes, and with fairly liberal fiscal measures, she would quickly regain much of her old conse quence. But in the absence of statesman ship and the popular wish for improvement, ! it is impossible that she should do much more than vegetate, as at present. BELGIUM. Belgium has inherited a tendency to be dragooned by Rome. She had her oppor tunity of religious independence with the rest of the Netherlands, long ago, and she preferred obedience to Philip, and commercial ruin, to freedom and prosperity. Her ortho doxy has generally been sound enough, but at present it stops short of what the Churcb de mands, for in this little kingdom again we find the same contest going on over popular education that has already been noted in France and Italy and Germany. The Bel gian Government has thus far stood up pretty stoutly against the priests and bishops, and it shows no signs of weakening. But the Church shows a keen appreciation of its in terests in seeking to control the fountain head of knowledge in every country, and the peoples who do not hold that interest to be identical with their own will do well to re flect upon this uniform and persistent Roman policy. * - SOUrH AMERICA. With the exception of Brazil, which con tinues to enjoy tranquillity under the enlight ened rule of Horn Tedro, the States of South America are scarcely ever in a quiescent con dition for a year together. When Paraguay, Uraguay and the others are taking a breath ing spell, Bolivia, Peru and Chile keep the scene in animation. The ■ ar between the last-named Powers, which arose out of a dis pute about the title to the nitrate mines, has thus far resulted disastrously to Peru and Bolivia, and gloriously though expensively to Chile. There has been some naval fighting with the ram Huascar, which was captured at last after a spirited but unequal contest. Tbe force subsequently landed in Pern by the Chileans encountered and defeated tbe allied forces, and at present Bolivia is evi dently tired of fighting, while Peru, with plenty of pluck, has no longer any money. No doubt Chile is almost equally destitute, and by the time peace is concluded all the three contestants promise to be thoroughly bankrupt. The way in which these petty States maintain a state of bickering which effectually prevents all gennine progress seems to point to a destiny of absorption for them. They are almost certain to cripple one another so much J that any considerable and at all stable Power on the same continent ' must ultimately swallow them up, if only as a measure of self-protection. INDIA The state of India has for some time alarmed those who have studied the country aad the people most deeply. It is an ad mitted fact that the English policy has thus far not produced the results anticipated from It. Too rapacity of the old company officers has given place to a loftier code of ethics, and philanthropic schemes of stupendous magni- J tudahava been undertaken ty the Govern- inent. The greatest efficiency has been se cured for tiie military force at disposal by covering all the strategic points with rail roads. Plans of public works, plans famine relief, plans of popular education, plans of court reform, have succeeded one another. A Royal Prince has been sent out and paraded through the land. The Queen has assumed the grandiloquent title of Empress of India. Yet still and in spite of everything the old evils remain, the old diseases flourish, the old famines desolate, the old corruption thrives, and the old hatred of the dominant race burns as fiercely as ever below the surface. In many respects, in deed, attempted reforms have proved actually injurious. ; This has been the case with the tenure of land. By enabling the people to obtain html more easily and to cultivate it more cheaply, the Government has produced such an accession to the population that the food apply will not sustain them, and as a result famines are becoming more frequent instead of less so. There is also a grave movement proceeding among the people. What it portends is not exactly compre hended jet, but that it involves armed in surrection few experienced observers doubt. It is highly probable that Russian emissaries have "--en at work in this matter, for Cen tral Asi i has for ages been a great hot-bed of revolt and conspiracy. Many causes have contributed to forward this movement, but it is unnecessary to trace them. They all tend to the same end, namely, tho attempt to overthrow the English rule, In this it is ex treme'} - improbable that they can succeed. If the great mutiny of 1557 was a failure, no native uprising can ever again be made under as favorable conditions, and therefore no such revolt is likely to do more than shake the power of the conquering race. But the revenues of India are already more than ex hausted in internal improvements, and here after English thrift is apt to rebel at the ex penditure of more blood and treasure to keep up an empire which is becoming more and more a source of weakness and danger. JAPAN. Japan is a better China. It is China with out her immobility and stolid conceit. The Japanese are active, changeable, bright, do cile, quite European in their enthusiasm, and amiable beyond any oriental race of which |we have cognizance. In the future Califor ] nia and Japan must be drawn very close to gether by the bonds of commerce, and there : fore all prejudice ought to be cleared away. j We ougjit to be on intimate terms "ith our Japanese neighbors, and we ought to show our sagacity by cultivating them more than iwe have done. The? are a gem-il and civil j ized and progressive people, full of a high order of i.-telligeace, quick to appreciate the wort i of western culture, and deter mined in put! ing away obsolete customs and institutions. Japan is coming to the | front among the nations steadily. Of late . Russia has manifested some inclination to back China in forcing a war upon the Japanese Government, the fact being that Russia wants more harbors for her.-elf on the Pacific. She ii a bad and dangerous neighbor, however, and should she pursue this programme, and Japan be drive. to the wall, we believe the Unite! States will find it necessary to take the Land of the Rising Sun under protection, and check Muscovite aggression. Certainly we could not stand by and see China destroy the growing civilization of a people so in finitely fuller of promise than herself. MATTERS AT WASHINGTON. <;_■:>. Stolen from Our Own (01 re spomlrnt. Affairs at the National Capital. [Special to the RBCoas-Uxiox.J Washington, December Slat— The violent talk so generally prevalent a tew days ago in regard to the situation in Maine has greatly subsided. It is now almost universally believed that some solution i of the difficulty will be reached without a resort to forcible measures on either side. It is known that several Democratic Senators have telegraphed from this city to Governor Gareelon, earnestly advising him to agree to ea -Senator Morrill's proposal for an arbitrament of the matter by the State Supreme Court, and it Is understood that a number of Repub l lican .senators, including Edmunds, Anthony and Burnside, have advised the Maine Re* publicans not to take any step which might look like appealing to force, but in default «>f Garcelon's agreeing to refer the case to the Supreme Court, to submit their wrongs under protest, and endeavor to Induce the Legislature to carry out the spirit of the law, under the letter of which Gareelon claims to have acted. One of the 'w ast prominent ; Republican Senators now in Washington expresses the opinion that the Gareelon Legislature will as semble without molestation on the lith of January ; that the Republicans will then demand that imme diate steps cc taken to correct their alleged wrongs beforo an election is held for Govern >r, and that this demand will to some extent If not wholly be complied | with. | It is still expected, however, by moat Re- I publicans in this city, tl at in the event of a non compliance with such demand the Maine Republi . cans will organise a Legislature cf their own, and proceed to elect Davis Governor. It i- also now re marked that in case this be done it would be vena easy to throw the whole mor 1 power of the National Administration into *Ac scale in favor of Davis by a simple congratulatory telegram, li) be sent by Rutherford B. Hives in acknowledgment of a tele graphic announcement from Davis that the Legisla tors bad on such a daj duly fleeted him Governor, This course, it is argued, would avoid all question (»i the right of formal recognition oi one -i the two Governments by the President, but would exert practically the same effect as a favorable official re sponse to a cab for national assistance to suppress d'jinestic insurrection. CONSULAR AITAIBS IN CHINA. Tne House passed a resolution before recess call ing upon Secretary Evarta, if not incompatible wiih public interests, to furnish copies of the cor respondence of Colonel Mi.sbv, Consul at Song kong, with the State Department, in relation to Consular affairs in China. Secretary Kvarts has decided, it is said, that it is incompatible with the public interest to make this correspondence public until the reports arc received from Department Special Agents, who are now investigating the mat ter referred to. It seems to he universally under stood, however, that official developments on this subject may soon he expected, wftrioh will lead t* important charges. '""..'. RESIGNATION rOSTrONKD. Assistant Postma'ter General Brady, who had . contemplated resigning his position, will nut now I retire until Congress disposes of the charges made against him by certain newspapers relative to the increased mail service on the star routes, either by . an investigation or, as Brady dicta will be the case, by granting an appropriation to i supply thu deficiency about which all the clamor has - been made; Gene .! Brad) ridicule* the charges, but gays he does not fare to go MB "under tire." garfield'h prospects*. General Garfield has gone to Ohio, but will return to Washington before the Ohio .Senatorial election. He feels so confident of his election that be will not put in an appearance at Columbus at all. Nearly all the Ohio politicians in Washington Democrat* and Republicans alike— concede that Garfield will be elected - .Af , ; 'f, rri'tr- NO APPEAL TO BE TAKEN. The Attorney General of Colorado writes to the Acting Commissioner of the General Land Office that after consultation *■ ith Governor Pitkin, he has concluded to take no appeal from the recent decision in the silver Cliff cast , both believing it to be sound in law. Tae Deiiartraent wiil therefore Immediately make the Commissioner's action final. This was the claim tif tin State to ft sixteenth sec. ion on wbich _ the town of Silver Cliff is locate*!. It was urged . upon the ground that the mineral character of the land had not been discovered at tbe time of survey. FEESOSAIi— THE STr.WABT FIRE. Senator Booth has returned from (few York to ; spend >• \v Year's '1 tv it. Washington. , •I he I as by laat night's Bre In ex-Seti»tor *•!""■ residence is to-day estimated- not U exceed ilft.Of" upon the building. The amount of Inm on personal effects cannot be. knn.iii until an inventory is taken, but wiil M much .am than van at first supposed. The silver a.d all the carats ad valuable furniture on the first sad second floor were saved, together with most ri the painting! an I other works of art LAN, . CASK PI JISIO.V. W_i____n_MH», December n t.— Secretary Schurz to-day decided the inip-.rtunt fra-e appealed to him, and strenuously conusted dtirinfj the past year by private parties 'on the one ioiui anal the Wat De partment auiiioriti<« on ihe 'other, concerning the 1 correctness of Commissioner jWlßisnison'i decision in regard to the survey of Jthe Kancho Orte de Modern del Preiidio in Maria county, i-ecretary Schorl decides that the mou^id at or near the bead of I' rrt T.ihilrtmi min-l ix considered as the eastern boundary, and directs: Beirvev.,r-Gi_ter.J to caaas a new sun ey to be a'ailc. Remittent fever is nr ; t contagious. At least delinquent subscribers, do not seem to catch it, no matter how much they are exposed. :__. . . . . .