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Sacramento daily record-union. [volume] (Sacramento [Calif.]) 1875-1891, December 10, 1887, Image 2

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Letter from Anthoty Cometock Con
corning what is Obscene and
what legitimate Nude in Art.
Society fok Si itkh-sion of Vice, J
150 Nassau Street, >
New Yokk, December 1, 1887.)
Bus. RboOBD-UwOH : I see in your pa
per (A the 22d of November an article
entitled " Conr-tock's Mistake." For the
kind and fair manner in which you
discuss this subject I desire to thank
you. At the same time, in the spirit of
fairness, I would like to correct some of the
mistakes which you seem to have fallen
into in reference to tin- matter which you
You say : "The pictures are of the node
in art, ami as such offend Mr. Comstock's
sense of propriety."
Permit m ■• to say that the pictures are
not the nude in art, but are strictly lewd
and indecent photographs purporting to be
taken from French works of art. In
art there is what may be called decent and
indecent, just the same a- there i- in prose
and poetry : and when art i- employed to
convey an obscene and indecent thought
•>r suggestion, it is just as destructive of the
morals of the young, as when prose or
jioetrv is prostituted for such base pur
poses. That these pictures do "offend my
sense of propriety, is true; and I beg to
state that they would offend your sep.-e of
propriety, Messrs. Editors, were you to see
them. From the spirit of your criticism,
J am very clear that there would be noone
more pronounced against these very pic
tures than you would be, were you to find
them circulating indiscriminately among
the young.
lii this case there are one or two facts
which 1 desire to present to your readers,
and let them judge whether I have made
a mistake or not.
In the first place, in 1884, certain pic
ture:- which are now the subject of com
plaint, were passed upon by a jury in the
Dyer and Terminer Court in this city, and
Were pronounced to be obscene. This case
i* now known as the celebrated case of
People vs. August Mueller, and is reported
in 32 Hun, t where ii was carried to the
general term of the Supreme Court. The
photographs were produced upon this ap
peal before the general term, and were ex
amined by the Judges, after which they
say :
"They are photographs of nude females
in a variety of attitudes and po.-tures which
the jury might very well and naturally
determine to !>o both indecent and obscene
in their character — ordinarily they would
l>e so pronounced, although they would not
exert the same demoralizing and sensual
elicits upon all persons alike. Their judg
ment would be the same, that these photo
graphs and pictures would tend to promote
vicious and sensual misconduct and prove
injurious to the morals of the community,
especially to those whose judgment and
experience were not sufficient to control
the impulses of their passion."
In the same case this high Court, in
speaking of the law, declares:
"The Object of the law was to protect
public morals, especially of that class of
the community whose character is lot so
completely formed ;ls to be proof against
the lewd effects of th«* pictures, photo
graphs and publications prohibited. And
where it may be violated that violation
would in no sense be relieved by proof
that similar act- were tolerated by the
public authorities of other States or Coun
The judgment Of the lower Court was
affirmed, and the case was carried to our
Court of Appeals. This highest Court in
the Stale, by a unanimous decision, af
firmed the judgment of the lowei Courts,
and in speaking of these pictures say:
"The facts that the original pictures of
which the photographs were copies had
been exhibited in the Salon in l'aris was
admitted by the 'prosecution, and it was
proved th.it one of them had been publicly
exhibited in Philadelphia. But this did
not as a matter of law exclude a finding
by the jury that the photographs were ob
scene and indecent. It is not impossible
certainly that the public exhibition of in
decent pictures may have been permitted
in l'aris or Philadelphia, and the fact that
a picture had been publicly exhibited
would not necessarily determine its char
acter as decent or indecent."
Secondly — Some fifteen or twenty other
i ersons have been convicted in the Courts
of this city since l s ~l, for selling the same
Kind of pictures, and their stock has been
Beized and destroyed. Many of these par
ties complained because this society did
not arrest the principal men. who import
ed and furnished these pictures to the trade.
A copy of the law had been previously
served upon this firm, and an appeal made
to them to discontinue the importation
and sale of this class of pictures. That
appeal was treated with derision. The
importation and s;ile continued. At last a
quantity of these pictures were obtained
and submitted to the Executive Commit
tee of this society. From the Executive
Committee they were taken and submitted
to the District Attorney, who i> the public
prosecutor for this county. Indeed, he is
the law officer of this county in criminal
matters. All agreeing that the pictures
were both obscene and indecent, and espe
iallv as some of them were those that had
been passed upon by the highest Courts in
this State and adjudicated to be obscene, it
will hardly be contended that it was a
mistake for ns to mete out the same en
forcement of law to the rich linn that had
been meted out to the poor. If ti ere is
anything more abhorrent than another in
the administration of law, it seems to me
to be that justice which discriminates, and
allows a man who has a little money to do
that which the poor man is immediately
arrested and prosecuted for doing.
In reference to art, as you have in sub
stance well stated, there is a vast distinc
tion between a work of art environed as it
is with a halo of beauty made Dp of the
harmony of blended colors, tintings. shad
ings acd lines of beauty, with the objec
tionable feature, if there be any. placed in
the back-ground :tnd surrounded by this
beautiful covering which calls for a'diver
siou of the attention,- and a photograph
which strips the objectionable feature in
the work of art of ;ill it-, beautiful sur
roundings, taking that out by it-elf and
rmplnHiing it. do! before the art student
or the eonuoi-seur. but disseminating it in
a public manner so as to bring it within
caW reach of the youth of both sexes.
1 respectfully submit, Messrs. Editors,
that wilt! beasts in a zoological garden are
in their proper place, and under proper re
straint our boys and girls may pass by
them without king riponcd to danger.
The medical !>ook in the book store, re
stricted in its sale to the medical student
Ar the purpose „f good that is contem
plated by the author, is i_, its proper and
legitimate place The classic that com
mands a very high prioeaad is thus con
fined to the student, or literary mail, and
beyond the reach of the young, is in its
proper place. So ;l work 'of jrt, placed in
ail art gallery, though it be ef an immoral
tendency, if it ha- any Legitimate place at
all, it is only where it is manned out
of the reach and gaze of those
who an open to the imm.ir.il
influences which such a picture is likely to
exert. And when either Iv.i-ts. the medi
cal works, the daSBU or w,.rk> of art break
fiwm the ns. r.iir.ts which to* law
aad public morals placed ujkju then), '■■ \<
no mistake lor a man to take upthecud"*l
of the law. drive them back into their
r place, and prevent them from de
stroying that which is of infinitely more
imjiortaiice — the moral purity of the chil
dren of this country. lam perfectly will
ing to be called "fanatic," '-lunatic/
roid of judgment," ridiculed and derided
by the public pMK of this nation, if need
be, but I am not billing to surrender to
any man the privilege of disseminating
that which is lewd, unc.'eau and indecent
among the youth of this country, whether
it he in the beauty of prose, *he' sweetness i
of poetry or the grandeur of art.
In this discussion the public p/ess have
not yet got up to the fact that there is a
question of morals and of law which over
rides and controls the imjiortation into
this country and sale of photographs of
lewd, obscene and indecent works of French
art. For the children of this great coun
try this battle is being fought, and if "mis
take-" are made they are made in a just
and holy cause, and the error is on the
right side — the side that seizes and de
stroys the corrupting pictures that are be
ing disseminated, whether by rich or poor,
high or low. Very respectfully yours,
Anthony CoKBTOCK, Secretary.
Another First Discoverer of the Precious
Metal in this State.
Claimants to the honor of having been
the first discoverer of gold in California,
says an exchange, like the heirs to the
nfytlie estate, multiply apace. The most
recent aspirant to this distinction is one
Thomas Monroe, who, according to state
ments recently published in a Montana
paper, arrived in California overland from
Missouri in the fall of 1,54").
Having disposed of the goods brought
with him, Mr. Monroe, it would appear,
determined to prospect for gold, being con
vinced from his experience in the lead
mines of Illinois thai this was a mineral
country. In pursuance of this purpose, he
explored the coast for 700 miles, having in
the course of bis travels encountered some
iof the Jesuit Fathers, who assured him
' that there actually was gold in the country.
Before returning to Missouri, which he did
the following summer, our adventurer
managed to obtain a quantity of gold-dust,
which he took with him ami exhibited
after reaching home. Whether this gold
dust was obtained by digging or in the
course oi trade doc- hot appear. In con
firmation of the foregoing, we arc further
informed that this Thomas Monroe in re
lating what lie hail seen while in Califor
nia, described many localities and objects
which were afterward identified, lending
to verify the truthfulness of his statements.
Among other things BO Been and described
by him was Sutlers Fort and the sawmill,
in the race of which Marshall two years
[ later picked up the first nugget of gold.
That this gentleman from like was able to
see and describe Butter's sawmill a year
before it was built, or even commenced,
may be accounted for on the supposition
that he possessed the gift of prevision.
Premising that there can be no doubt
a!«>ut Thomas Monroe's having visited
California at the time and in the manner
mentioned, and that by some means he ob
tained while here a quantity of gold-dust,
a brief examination of Ins narative, or
rather perhaps it should be said the narra
tive which others have framed for him,
will, we think, serve to explain where that
gold-dust came from, as well as the manner
in which he probably procured it. Evi
dently Monroe on reaching this coast
turned his course toward the south, since
only by going in that direction could he
have met with any of the Jesuit Fathers.
After a time he reaches Los Angeles, the
journey he had made, traveling in the
manner he did, having seemed to him. we
may well believe, fully 700 miles in length.
Here, disposing of his goods, he received
in part payment thereof the gold-dust in
question, the remainder having been paid
in bronchos, a band of which he took witii
him on his return to Missouri.
For a number of years prior to the
period of which we are speaking, small lots
of gold-dust hail been gathered in the San
Fernando mountains, JO miles north of
Los Angeles, at which place this gold-dust
found a market. If our Missourian ever
dug any gold, it was beyond question in
these San Fernando placers; the probabil
ities being that he never collected any of
the precious metal with his own hands, or
even so much as saw the place whence ii
came. The value of gold-dust was at that
day well established in Los Angeles, where
it passed currently at $16 per ounce, about
the price of a broncho. Clearly to our
mind, Thomas Monroe received for the
goods he sold in California part payment
in gold-dust and the balance in bucking
If the hero of this story prospected the
coast for 700 miles, as his chronicler re
lates, he must have done his work in a
very hurried manner, seeing he was in the
country only about a year, and this in
cluded the winter months, when not much
could have been accomplished in that line
of business. The pro-pectin;; lie did was
from his covered wagon as he journeyed
through the valleys on his way south.
That he heard a good deal about these
San Fernando diggings it is natural to
suppose, :is he would be very likely when
he received this gold-dust to inquire where
it came from, and would be just as likely
to be told by the natives that these pla
cers whence it came were rich and exten
sive, such having been the account given
of them by the department officials in their
reports to the Mexican Govi rniient.
Of the many who have contested with
.lames W.Marshall the honor of having
been the first discoverer of gold in. Cali
fornia, the claim advanced in behalf of
Tli imas Monroe seems to us about the
most flimsy. As to Marshall has been
awarded this honor, so is lie likely to con
tinue in its undisturbed enjoyment, ex
cept, perhaps, in SO far as it ought to be
shared in part with hi- associates .John A.
Sutter and I'eter Wimmer. As regards
the placers discovered and worked here at
an earlier day, they were so unimportant
compared with the Marshall find that
they have by common consent been ignored
a-s unworthy of mention.
Municipal Patriotism.
The voter who has come to claim for
his individual conscience the supreme
power of private judgment in national
politics is still far too apt to accept with
out hesitation the guidance of his party
"machine"' in State politics, while he
looks upon city politics as practically be
neath his notice. He is alirontccl by the
action of his national party, in any of its
attempts to control the action of its
minorities, while hega/.es tranquilly above
and beyond the grossest abuse of his own
city government. His Common Council
spends months in a "dead-lock" over the
appointment of three or four policemen,
:oi. i •• deal.-" and diplomatic negotiations
enough for the management of an empire
and hardly enough success for the manage
ment of a kitchen; the Fire Department,
the Health Department, the Building De
partment, the Department of Public
Works, the Police Department and the
Department of Education, which should
be in active and harmonious co-operation,
spend the time and effort which should be
given to the city service in dealing one
another vicious blows through the news
papers and elsewhere ; taxation results
merely in providing a livelihood for in
competent offidaia anil in thrusting inef
ficient public service upon the citizens;
and still the citizens refuse to learn the
essential lesson that there is such a thing
as municipal patriotism, and that muni
cipal politics is its only practical mode of
Why should the politics of the city l>e
tied down to the politics of the nation or
the State '.' Is there any identity of inter
est between the two, such as would be apt
1. 1 seenre efficient city administration by a
selection of city officers based upon "na
tional party preferences ? Every one
knowns the contrary, from practice as well
as from theory; in a \~ow of our cities, the
tesßosi lias already developed a ttamtg and
effective independent city vote : and yet,
take the country through, the indiviJu::!
conscience seenis to be almost as inert a*
ever in this matter. The man who, moved
by conscience, takes up his own burden of
battle against the abuses of his own city
government, is pretty certain of the pity
of those who know him personally and of
the Criticism of those srbo arc strangers to
him; he need not expect that which he
ii.-(iv<- — the cordial sympathy of his fel
low-citizens, their consideration for hi- in
sritaUe srrors, and their rejoicing in his
successes. His fellow-citizens have not yet
'*-t?n educated up to that point. We still
Lack that essential factor in political devel
opment — muiricipal patriotism. Thou
an.is of men h.tve l>eeii found ready and
rifling to die for the United States or
>yen for the individual State. Where are
be men who would (.He for Brooklyn, or
3ucago,or San Francesco? Where, hi
leed, are the men who wo^ld lit* for them?
— The Century for Dte&Hbtr.
A. E. Redstone is in Washingi'in, prc~
>ared to contest Feitoc's seat. " '
An Ollapodriila of Mythology, His
tory, Tradition and Religion —
Strange Things in Belief.
[Special correspondence of the Record-Union.]
Tula (Mexico), November 30, 1887.
Living in this oldest inhabited city of
the Western World, one seems to have
been suddenly transported from the nine
teenth century away back to the misty
past. But even imagination canr.ot revert
to its curliest days, for no man lutOWB who I
Were the original builders of this ancient |
Mnit/«iiii, which theToltee* found deserted
and falling to decay when they arrived
here A. I>. 648, rechristened Tollanfadngo,
Tollan or Tula, and made their capital tor
four hundred years thereafter.
Just back of modern Tula, on a rocky
ridge a mile long — called "the Hill of the
Treasure '' — may be found one of the most
Interesting groups of ruins, in all Mexico.
It overlooks both the Tula valley and the
valley of Mexico, and a glorious prospect
of green meadow and purple mountain.
Every afternoon we climb to the summit
through thickets of nopal and "organ"
cactus to watch the gorgeous sunsets; and
we do not wonder that those early wander
ers tarried here so long in their southward
migration, for — regardless of ready-built
Manhemi — it i. a charming little pocket
of fertility hidden among the hills. Few
scuLptured stones are to be found now
Not much but opened cellars and massive
walls, with patches of red plaster adhering
to them, a- at Pompeii. Farther back,
buried in the thick woods, are the largest
of the ruin ponderous temples and pal
aces, split everywhere by the irrepressible
growths of the' tropics, flourishing Luxuri
antly in the crevices their roots have made.
There have been many excavations here,
and M. Chamey, the French archseolo
gist, claims to have unearthed some mar
velous temples and palaces. Hut it must
be remembered that eminent savant is
gifted with a viyid imagination, and
though the outer walls of these structures
are really magnificent in extent, they were
composed of rooms six feel by eight.
Sctior Crebas, the .Mexican archaeologist,
; in an article entitled " Kuinasde la Antigua
Tollen," gives a list of the most noteworthy
antiquities discovered near Tula, and lith
\ ographed figures of the principal sculptures,
\ including the celebrated zodiac and hiero
glyph, which have since been set into the
' walls of the great church on the lintel of
the main entrance. There are three colos
sal sculpture — perhaps of caryatides — still
to be seen in the little plaza of Tula. Two
of these are standing erect, while the third
— lying down — is in two pieces, and shows
that it was formally united by mortise and
Near the ottice of the railroad superin
tendent may also be seen an enormous ring
•if solid stone, like those found in the
ruins of Yucatan and Central America.
t .lust within the door of the cathedral is a
beautifully sculptured Stone, taken from
\ one of the ancient temples, where it
doubtless served some heathen rite, now
used as a baptismal font. In walking
t - about the sleepy little town we frequently
tread upon remarkably sculptured stone-.
set into the shabby pavements, carved,
perhaps, a thousand years ago.
I In this spot, so rich in archseological
wealth, man is known to have lived for
". more than thirteen hundred chronicled
years, and how long previously none can
"tell. Tradition says that at Tula the great
* culture-hero,
i;< KT/.AUoATI., Till-: "FEATHERED ski:
. PEHTj"
- Developed the civilization that raised the
i Toltees BO far above the level of their
! neighbors. On the face of a near-by dill
. his face is sculptured, and in the market
i place of Tula may be seen his image,
■ carved on a massive pillar unearthed from
; Tollant/.ingo, ancient Tollen or Tula,
(lose by is pointed out that famous "Hill
of Shouting," whereon Quetzalcoatl, "Hod
of the Air," proclaimed his mandates over
the entire valley.
The Toltees had lived in Tula nearly a
hundred years when he first appeared
among them, which would make his ad
. vent about the year Toil. He was a bene
ticient diety, who took upon himself the
shape of a man in order to improve the
condition of the people of carth — a sort ..1'
Toltec Chri-t. His name is constructed
from two words Quetzal, a bird of brilliant
plumage found in the forests of Southern
Mexico, and coati, a serpent, also found in
' the same latitude. Tradition paints him
as a very tall, white man, with long, full,
blonde beard — a perfect European in mm
. plexion and general appearance, as differ
ent from the Indians among whom he
lived as can possibly be imagined.
His stay marked the Wolden Age of
the Toltees. Here he built those famous
palaces of silver, crystal and feathers, and
here were the celebrated gardens in which
cotton grew in various colors, ready dyed
for the 100m — scarlet, green, red, blue, yel
low. In his time corn mew so strong that
a single ear was all that a man could
carry. Gourds were as long ;i< a man's
body, pumpkins a fathom in circumference,
and other fruits in similar proportion.
Hi taught the people many useful arts —
how to cut thai precious green stone, the
rluilchinite, how to cast metals, to reckon
time, etc.
Souie say that lie was a native of the
Kast, and came from over the ocean. In
deed, nearly every nationality on earth
has been claimed for him — from Egyptian
to Irish! Hut by and by there came
among the people
Named Tezcatlipoca, who immediately be
came very jealous of Quetzalcoatl, and de
termined to drive him from the country.
So Tezcatlipoca appeared in the form of an
aged man and informed the "Feathered
Serpent" that it was the will of the gods
that he should betaken to Tlapalla. At
fir>t Quetzalcoatl declined to go, but after
drinking a beverage which the old man
offered him, he suddenly changed his mind
and sit out at once, followed by many of
bis subjects. Many traces of this memor
able journey are still pointed oat. Near
the city of (^uauhtitlan, in the valley of
Mexico, he felled a tree with stones, which
to this jay remain fixed in the trunk, and
near the village of Halnepantla he laid his
hand upon a rock and left an impress of it
for all time to come. Finally, on his way
to the coast, he came to Cholula, where the
great pyramid is, and the people would
not let him go, but made him their ruler.
Here lie remained twenty year.-, though
the (holulans would have 'detained him
much longer. He did not approve of the
sacrifice of human beings, which some of
the tribes performed in their worship, anil
commanded that they offer to the L'od
only fruits and flowers.
Finally, drawn by some irresistible im
pulse he bade adieii to his beloved Cholu
[ans, and, taking with him four noble
youths, he let out for the province of
CoatxeoakoSj on the Gulf of Mexico,
llt-re he dismissed his attendants and
launched out upon the waters alone, and
the youths returned to Gkokdl, where they
ruled for many years. It is said that
(^iietzaicoatl appeared later on the coast of
Yucatan, and was worshiped there for
many years, under the name of Kukulcan ;
and to-day bis imsge may be seen, cut into
the walls at the vast ruin'u! edifices of that
When he left Tula and Cholula every
.'::n_ changed, aad even the sweci-si using
birds, every one. fallowed him to that mys
teri us kingdom of {he east, the land of I
Tlepalian. But he promised his followers
that he would return isometime, and bring,
bade all the prosperity Ibal had attend«l
his first appearance.
So for hundreds of years iie descendants
of these people, firmly believing the legend,
watched :tiixiou-!v Sax ti:-. promH-'d "second
coming" of the Plumed tjerpent ; and at
List when the Spaniards a'ppeareJ—be
cause they were white-skinned and ft.'me
from the east — the single-minded n.itivev
mistook the«c cruel a.-vi Mood-thirsty Lrig- '
ands for messengers of love from the be
nificent Quetzaeoatl !
It was long after the reign of this deity
that the order of nobles called "the
Eagles," whose patron was the sun, was
established in Mexico. I think it was dur
ing the reigu of Tizoc, seventh King of
Mexico, who ascended the throne about
14S0. It was at this time that the horri
ble sacrificial stone came into «se —
The word meaning "euauhtli" (eagle),
from the order aforesaid, and " xicalli "
(drinking cup). U[K>n this rock, in cer
tain religious festivals, the Mexicans sac
rificed a human victim, to whom they gave
the name of "Messenger to the Sun."
That primitive historian, Father Duran,
tells us all about it. He says that at the
sound of musical instruments they brought
forth an Indian from among the prisoners
taken in war. He was surrounded by il-
I lustrious noblemen, who painted his limbs
1 red, with white stripes. Half his face wa
! painted red, a white plume was glued into
hi- hair, and on his back was a little bun
! die which held a few eagles' feathers,
; lumps of ochre, pieces of gypsum, candle
. j wood and parchments. In one hand lie
.carried a walking-stick, very gay with
knot- and ties of leather and feathers of
all colors; in the other he bore a shield,
i . with live small bundle- of cotton on it.
They led him to the foot of the stair
case ascending to the temple, and there in
a loud voice, BO that all could hear, they
.-aid to him : >; Sir, that which we entreat
thee is, that thou dost go before our God,
the Sun, and that on our behalf thou dost
: I salute him, and that thou dost tell him
■ that his Bona and principal nobles who re-
I main here supplicate him to remember
; them, anil that from his throne he doth
; favor them, r.nd receive this small present
I which they send him; and do thou give him
; this cane for walking, and this shield for
! defense, and the other things that thou
■ bearest in that little bundle."
Answered what he pleased. Then they un
j tied him and led him very -lowly up the
I great staircase toward the temple," making
; much delay at each step to give him EresE
instructions. Finally, arrived at the sum
mit, they placed him upon the
rock Cuauhxicalli, where he was
compelled to -bout his message
to the Mm. Then four ministers
of the sacrifice ascended the four
Steps to the rock, removed the cane, the
' ■ shield and the little bundle which the vic
\ tim bore. They seized him by the hands
: and feet and held him fast, while the high
1 priest came and cut the victim's throat, at
" the same time commanding him to go with
: his message to the true Sun and another
life. The blood drained into the bowl in
the center of the rock and ran down a
1 channel cut at the side in front of the
chamber wherein was kept the golden im
age of the sun, and the sculptured sun on
■ the face of the rock was drenched in blood.
When blood ceased to Bow the High
' I'riest opened the captive's breast with his
' knife of obsidian, or volcanic glass, and
' plucked out the smoking heart, which he
1 , presented with high hand to the sun, hold-
Ming it aloft till it had ceased to drip and
' beccme cold.
' Outlined in carving upon the sides of
' this rock is the belief of those early sav
ages respecting the establishment of sacri
" fiees. It represents the astronomical strug
• gle between Quetzalcoatl and Tezeatlipoea,
- in which the former is the attacking war
• rior and the latter the defending gladiator.
1 Under this theory the conqueror, Tizoc ar
-1 legated to himself the place of the
1 warrior. and the conquered na
' tiona that of the captive. The fig
' ure of Quetzalcoatl wears the sacred mask,
| that part of the face uncovered and the
• | hands and feet anointed with the black
ointment of the priests and gods. On his
head are the plumes of the quetzal, and
numerous serpents of the coati species are
turned around him. In one hand he car
ries a sword of obsidian, and in the other a
shield with a Btar upon it.
Fannii: B. Wai*.
Huge silver jnow-peaka while ns wool;
Huse skvk. fat steers knee-deep tn grass.
And belly deep, andbelly full.
Their Bower-beds one fragrant mass.
Oil flower land so calmly grand
Where Bowers chase the flying snow !
Oh, high-held land in God's ri;;ht haud,
Delicious, dreamful Idaho:
We code the rolling cow-sown hill-,
That bearded cattle-man and I ;
Below us laughed the blossomed rills,
Above the dappled clouds blew l>y.
We talked. The topic? <;uess. Why, sir,
Three- fourths of all men's time they keep
To talU. to think, to be of 11 Kit ;
The other fourth they give to sleep.
To learn what he Blight know of love,
I laughed all constancy to ccorn.
I Behold, yon happy, changeful dove!
Behold this day, nil storm at morn,
Yet now 'tis changed to cloud and sun.
Yea, all things changi — the heart, the head,
Behold on earth then' is noi one
That changeth not in love," ] said.
He drew a glass, f s ii to Kan
The steeps !or steers; raised it and sighed.
He craned his neck, this cattle-man.
Then drove the cork home and replied :
■■ Tor twenty years (forgive these tears) —
For twenty years no word of strife —
I have not known for twenty yean
One fully frocn my faithful wife."
I looked that tarn man ia the face -
That dark-brown, bearded cattle-man.
He pulled his heard; then dropped in place
A broad rijrht hand, all scarred and tan,
And toyed with something Bhinlßg there
Above hia holster, bright and small.
I was convinced. I did not care
To agitate his mind at all.
Bat rest I could not. Know I must
The story of my stalwart guide;
His dauntless love, enduring trust;
His blessed find most immortal bride.
I wondered, marveled, marveled much;
Was she of Western growth ? Was she
Of Saxon blood, that wife with such
Eternal truth and constancy?
I could not rest until I knew—
" Now, twenty years, my man," said I,
"Is a long time." He turned, he drew
A pist .1 forth, also a si^-h.
II 'Tis twenty years or more." fished he.
" Nay, nay. my honest man, I vow
I do uot doubt that this may be;
But tell, oh, tell me how.
" 'Twoulil make a poem, pure nnd ijrand;
All time should note it near and far;
Ami thy lair, virgin, gold-sown land
Should stand out like a winter star.
America should heed. And then
The doubtful French beyond the sea —
'Twould make theni truer" nobler men
To know how this might truly be."
" 'Tis twenty years or more," urged he;
■• Nay. that I know, pood Ruide of mine-
Hut lead me where this wile may be,
And 1 a pilgrim nt a shrine,
Aud kneeling, ns a pilgrim true" —
He leaving, shouted loud and tlear:
" I cannot show my wife to you;
She's dead this more than twenty year."
—Joaqum Millrr.
Invention ami Tiiuiiel-Dl|;glii£.
Work upon the Mont Cenifl tunnel was
begun in L 857, about two years before De
Loanepa commenced operations in Egypt.
The working parties in the opposite head
ings, French and Italian, met on Christ
mimniiy, 1870, about a year after the in
auguration vi the Suez" canal. The St.
Oothard tunnel was begun after the com
pletioD of the Mont Cenis, in 1872; the
heading! met February 29, 1880. The
length of the Mont Cenis tunnel is over
seven and a half miles : that of the St.
Uothard about nine and a i|uarter mile;;.
The c are the longest tunnels ever con
structed. The invention, by means of
which the progress of tlie work was facili
tated, consists in the use of atmospheric
air as a motor. By means of water-power
air i- reduced to one-sixth its ordinary
bulk, and the expansive force thus ac
quired performs the drilling. Owing
t<> the conditions under which tun
neling is done, this method is of signal
advantage. Each of the Alpine tunnels
was excavated through solid rock, so that
blasting was necessary. The use of explo
; styes vitiated the air, while the length of
the passage and the impossibility of sink
ing shafts made the ventilation question a
vital one. Had the drills been run by
steam the presence of steam-engines con
stantly generated smoke and eat would
I have heated and vitiated the air still fur
ther. By the new invention the difficulty
was met. The air was compressed outside
the tuuuel and conveyed into it by pipe-.
I Here a double purpose was served : by h<
expansion and liberation the air ran" the
drills and ventilated the tunnel. The in
vention which makes this practicable is
called the Sommeiller machine, from the
name of the chief inventor. — .Stuart F.
Weld in Popular Sdmet -Voni/ify for I)e
*-+■ — -
A- the hair has a shadow, so the slight
est disease of the scalp threatens the hair.
Put the scalp in healthy condition by the
use of Warners Log C'abiu ficalpine. It
restores the fcair, aau has no e^is-ii.
The Peculiar Qualities of the Kola Tree
And Its Fruit.
Planters in tropical clime* are recom
mended to cultivate the kola tree, the nut
of which seems to possess some marvelous
qualities. If the prophecies regarding the
beneficent services of certain preparations
of it are realized an unspeakable boon will
be conferred on millions of the human race.
For many years it has l>een extensively
used as an excellent beverage and sacred
symbol in the interior of Africa, but now
its properties have every reason to be far
more extensively utilized. There is no
doubt (a writer in The i"i<imi says), from
what is already known, that it has the ex
traordinary property of counteracting the
influence of alcohol, of giving a stimulant
in wasting diseases, of acting as a powerful
tonic in cases of deep-seated injuries of the
digestive organs, of purifying foul water,
of overcoming the sense of fatigue, and of
exciting to arduous work with, the least in
jury to the frame.
It appears that the kola nuts were orig
inally found in the western territories of
Africa, and that soldiers stationed along
the coast were the first white men who be
came aware of their peculiar property.
They found, for instance, that the chewing
of these nut- prevented a drunken head
ache. Nut inly so, but some who have
used the nut paste as a "pick-me-up" as
sert that, while removing the nausea, it
gives them quite a " skinnier ' at the smell
of whisky, and removes the irritating de
sire for a " morning" to keep the Stomach
hearty. If the paste be mixed with cocoa
paste, which it resembles closely, it pro
duces a much liner and more nutritive
chocolate. It has been shown by repeated
experiments that the nerve energy produced
by partaking of the chocolate made with
kola paste is ten times greater than that
produced by an equal quantity of ordinary
cocoa chocolate. .So nutritious is this kola,
that with a single cup of it a laborer can
undergo a day's work without any sense of
weariness. Though it may not directly
feed the muscular system, it has the prop
erty of preventing the rapid waste of the
tissues. So much have the manufacturers
of chocolate, both in this country and
abroad, become alive to the excellent
properties of the new paste, that they arc
making arrangement- t'j procure it for
mixing purposes as soon as its price be
comes reasonable.
The liritish Government, too, has gone
the length of making experiments upon
the paste in a pure state, so as to ascertain
the Raving which would lie made in the
transit of provisions in time of war. by
giving this beverage to the army. It is of
great service for purifying the foul water
which is so prevalent in hot climates; this
will be the preventive of many diseases,
especially to Europeans. It has also been
found very useful in clarifying beer and
spirits, acting much like the white of an
egg, or isinglass. A comparison between
the composition of kola, tea, coficc and
cocoa shows that the proportion of caffeine
is higher in kola than in any of the others,
and it exceeds cocoa in the obrominc.
Just as with tea among old ladies, the kola
maintains the health and strength of the
body in an equal degree upou a smaller
supply of ordinary food, and arrests the
waste, enabling the less energetic powers
of digestion to supply as much as is needed
to repair the wear and tear of the solid
ti»ues. The obromine of cocoa resembles
the theme of tea and the caffeine of cocoa,
and contains even a larger quantity of
nitrogen. This clement in the kola is also
very active, exercising an exhilarating
and" soothing, hunger-stilling and waste
retarding effect upon the human system.
Dr. Nachtigal gives some interesting in
formation about the kola nut from personal
experience. Me tried it for some time
himself, and, in his book on the Soudan,
bears testimony to the great power it has
over the system. The craving for it be
come- more intense than that for either
tobacco or alcohol ; and he had great dif
ficulty in giving up it- use. In some places
the nut i- -o highly prized that for the dry
powder of the nut an equal weight of gold
dust is given in exchange. Kola, too,
works a wonderful social charm among the
Soudanese. An interchange of white kola
between two chiefs, i.- like the snuffbox be
tween two Highlanders — the mark of
friendship and peace; but red kola sent is
indicative of defiance. When a young chief
has made up his mind that ho would like
to marry the princess of another tribe, he
reads to her mother a present of white
kola : with anxiety lie awaits in return the
arrival of the white kola, as a symbol that
his suit lias been accepted, or the red kola
a- a hint that hisMih has been gracefully
rejected. Marriage rejoicings would be
postponed or stopped if it was seen that the
white kola was wanting among the bride's
presents. The negro of western Africa
takes the oath with intensified solemnity
if he stretches out his hand over kola
Distribution of the Megalith.
Nothing in the ancient history of man
is of more considerable interest than are
tlmse monuments, at once rudely grand and
mysteriously simple, which have been
designated megalithic. They may be
simply raised stones, isolated menhirs,
cromlechs arranged in a circle, or artificial
caves formed by placing Hat Hags horizon
tally on standing supports. Dolmens or
covered passages were usually buried under
iii:i.«is of earth or stones so as to form a
veritable tumuli; but they always present
the common character of being constructed
in rough block, virgin of all human labor.
Megaliths are important on account of
their number and their dispersion. They
art- to be found, with a likeness running
through them all, in places most remote
from one another, qn different continents.
At Carnac ami at Kermarin are immense
rows of stones, of which the menhirs of
the Khasiasof India appear like exact
copies. Similar dolmens arc standing
in Palestine, Ireland and Ilindostan.
Megaliths can be found in Peru, and
among the aboriginal monuments of
North America, in Spain and Denmark, in
tlic Orcadeß and the islands of the Medi
terranean, on the shores of the Dead Sea
and of the Baltic, at the foot of Mount
Sinai, and in Iceland. The dolmens raised
upon the top of a tumulus in Algeria may
be compared with those standing in the
department of the Aveyron or with those
in Kintyrc, Scotland, and Koskilde in
Scandinavia; the cromlech of Mavtura, in
Iceland, with that at llalskov, in Pen
mark ; the circle at Peshawur, in Afghan
istan, with the circle of Stennis, in one of
the ( )reades : the tombs of the Neilgherries
with the chondets that are found in
Africa ; the cromlechs of Algeria, with
those of Aschenrade, on the Dwina, the
triliths of Stonehenge with those of Tri
poli, or those mentioned by Palgrave as in
Arabia. Even a superficial study will dis
close tiie relations that exist between the
covered passages of Provence and the
megaliths of Brittany, and between these
and analogous constructions in Spain and
Algeria. A common thought, and an
identical funeral rite, are revealed. — Popu
lar Sdenet Monthly,
General Howard ou a Roached Mule.
A singular accident occurred to me on
my march across the sage-brush deserts
lying l>etween the Malheur Agency and
the Owvhce river. I had a very tall white
mule which served me instead of a saddle
horse. He was a very sensitive animal,
and much to the discomfiture of the officers
and men who followed, he took as an ha
bitual walking gait a very rapid and
lengthy stride. lie had large ears and
probably at some time a mane. But to
beautify him in frontier style the mane
was coached (shorn) as closely as possible.
As we were walking along rapidly, my
staff officer near me, Colonel K. t'. Mason,
my inspector, was riding a few steps to my
left and rear. Suddenly he cried out as
we were panning tome dry, heavy knots of
sage-brush lying in the trail: ''Oh, Gen
eral ! General! your cinch f My large
eared mule hail at that instant caught sight
of that same cinch (girth), or rather the
shadow of it. The fastening had given way
and it was loose and pendent. Of course
there was nothing to hold my saddle, and
there w.vs no mane for my bands to seize.
The mule bounded through the air like a
frightened Jeer, and sent me. si.idle and all.
head lirst to t.'je ground. I landed upon
some heavy saire «uots, one of which struck
my side, injured ft?y ribs and bruised me
badly. At first, wit. I.*1 .* the breath knocked
out of my body, I coul.'l not move or speak
and I bettered my ril>swere broken. Very
soon, however, by" the kinaVy help of those
around me, I was on my feet, and then my
mule being stopped in its wild flight and
resaddied. I was lifted to his back and again
continued the day's march. It was some
time, however, before I recovered from that
heavy fall. And since that time no de-ire
for extraordinary ornamentation ever leads
me to believe in " roachine " a mule, for
a reasonable mane would have saved me
from the fall which nearly cost me my life.
— O. O. lloivard, in December Overland.
Muller at Issue With Darn in.
While our author declares himself to be
an evolutionist in general, certainly in the
science of language, he brings out as a
prominent consequence of the truth of his
theory of thought, the untruth of that par
ticular doctrine, commonly known as the
Darwinian — namely, that man is descended
from lower forms of animal life. This Pro
fessor M tiller asserts to be impossible; and
the proof is that animals have no language
or any capacity to form language. '"If
concepts are impossible without names, *
* * we then have a right to say that the
whole genus man ]>ossesses something —
namely, language, of which no trace can
be found even in the most highly-devel
oped animal, and th:tf therefore a genea
logical descent of man from animal i im
possible.' 1 It may be admitted freely that
animal- h.ive-ensations and percepts : they
feel, they perceive, they remember, they act.
But concepts they do not have. They are
without the power of forming general' no
tions. This is evidenced in the fact that
they are without language, concepts being
impossible without names. Now, it is
quite obvious, to the casual reader even,
that Professor Mullcr has destroyed his
own argument on tin- point by bis previ
ous positions. For he takes considerable
pains to prove that percepts are impossible
without concepts, and -en-atious without
percepts. He maintains that no percep
tions occurs without a generalizing move
ment. "All percepts are conceptual."
This being so, what becomes of the claim
that brutes, with feeling and ability to
perceive, do not form concepts? And if,
as the author reluctantly does in one place,
»■«■ concede thai perception may exist with
only " incipient concepts," what should
prevent the development of the generaliz
ing power in successive individuals to the
degree that it is found in the highest in
telligence? — Daniel Greailtqf Thompson in
Popular Science Monthly for December.
Good Imllaus mid Bad Whites.
Major Sanford also bad a story to tell.
an interesting reference to which is record
ed in his report lie says: ".Inly 18th I
received information from Lieutenant
Williams in command of Nex Perce scouts,
that while in camp on the Daley road [a
place not far from I.adds canyon] he had
been fired into by a party of white men, and
one of his Indians mortally wounded.
The other Indians were very incensed at
what they considered a wanton outrage,
and determined to return home.' The
parties who did this foul deed asserted
that they saw these friendly Indians, and
noticing their dress, their manner of going
from place to place, and the subtleness of
their motions, they came to the conclusion
that they were Indians and belonged to
the ■•Snakes.''
The smuts could never he made to be
lieve but that these rough white men had
intended to murder their companion, who
lived but a short time after lie was wound
ed 1 . They at first insisted on returning to
their agency, but remained a while longer
from a singular circumstance. These S'ez
Perce Bcouta were Christians, the wounded
Lndian sent for his enemy, that is, the mail
who shot him, and talked with him, took
him by the hand, looked him in the lace,
and told him that he forgave him, and he
besought the other scouts to forgive him
also. Alter lie was dead, the scouts them
selves gave the deceased a marked hut
simple Christian burial. They had prayer,
repeating of scripture, and solemn songs
before they committed him to the earth.
The whole bearing of the wounded scout
and of his companions was n remarkable
lesson t'> our white men who were engaged
in the conflict, and wh<>. though nominally
Christian and better educated than the In
dians, yet were far move careless in Christ
ian conduct and less thoughtful of Christ
ian observance. — Mcyor-Qeneral ". 0. How
ard in l)cr-~mba- Overland.
Man's I'ower Over Nature.
Nothing, perhaps, so strongly character
izes this century as the advance man is
making in exploring, understanding and
obtaining a mastery over Nature. This
process of mastery could scarcely proceed
in a more instructive way than by tracing
its stages in the instances we have consid
ered. The Alps ami the two Isthmuses
illustrate it in a not unfitting way. It is
safe, probably, to say that the power to ex
cavate earth, to excavate and blast rock,
is from live to ten time- as great as when
a man, wholly unknown to fame, landed
with a handful of his countrymen where
the city of I'ort Said now stands and be
gan the excavation of Suez. In regard to
the present enterprise upon the American
Isthmus, if we take into account its magni
tude and the difficulties involved, it repre
sents without doubt the greatest elibrt in
the line of industry and peaceful achieve
ment man has yet put forth. De Molinari,
the Belgian economist, computed that the
stock of machinery for the excavation rep
resented the labor of half a million men.
Such a fact indicates how far the process
of conquering Nature has been carried.
The world is watching, with no doubt a
degree of skyptici.-m, the way in which
the remaining work is being done; and in
scientific circles especially an eager inter
est will continue to be manifested in this
great struggle ot skill and inventive ge
nius against the forces and obstinacy of
Nature. It may be protracted, but it must
be in the end BUCCeWuL — Stuart F. Weld
in Popular Science Monthly for December.
Storms and Steel Hails.
A singular theory has been promulgated
in Mexico concerning the alleged relation
between the steel rails of railways and the
prevalence of storms. The northern sec
tion of the Mexican Central road ha- been
seriously damaged by washouts, and peo
ple who observed the phenomena express
the opinion that the -waterspouts which
burst on the track were attracted by the
rails and the telegraph wires. An electric
current, they say, runs along the track,
which makes a convenient avenue for
storms. This would appear to be a sonie
what fanciful conjecture, but the engineers
employed in building the Guadalajara
branch of the Mexican Central Railway
oiler testimony which gives it at least an
air of plausibility. They state that as fast
as the construction advances rain follows,
and they lielieve that it is due to the large
quantity of steel rails on fl»t cars which are
carried forward ;w fast as the work per
mits. The country, according to their re
port, is dry in advance of the construction
trains, and also behind them many miles;
but in a circle a few miles in diameter,
having its center at the point where steel
rail? are. the rain comes down in torrents.
It appears that enough importance is at
tached to these theories to induce scien
tific men to make them a subject of study.
We do not, however, anticipate any imme
diate practical results of great value. With
all the skill and knowledge which the
Government can bring to bear, it has not
yet succeeded even in predicting storms
with such certainty as would be desirable;
and when it comes to producing or pre
venting them, we shall probably have to
wait some time before the matter assumes
the character of an exact science. — Me
chanica! Neat.
A Simple Test of Kerosene <»n..—
Take an ordinary pint tin cup. Fill it
within an inch of the top with water
warmed to the temperature of 120° Fahr.
Pour on this water three or four table
spoonful* of the oil to be tested. iStir the
oil and water together and wait a short
time, say a minute or two, for the oil to
collect on the top. Try the the ther
mometer again, and if the temperature is
more than one degree from 120° Fahr. add
a little cold or hot water, as the case may
be, so as to bring the temperature within
one degree of 129° Fahr. Then stir again
aad _ive time as before for the oil to come
to the top. Now apply a burning match [
or lighted taper on a level with the top of .
the cup, say within half an inch of the j
oil. If within one second no flash occurs, I
the oil is reasonably safe; if otherwise, it j
is unsafe. Purchase four or five gallons of ;
oil at a time, and apply this test at each !
purchase. — Wood and Iron. i
Address by Elwood Cooper Upon Their
Culture and l*«e.
President Elwood Cooper, of Santa IJar
bara, read a short essay on olive culture
before the State Fruit-growers' Convention
last week. He recommended at the out
set the reading by those who desired infor
mation about olives of his essay which was
read in Sacramento in 18S5. He suggested
•bo the reading of pamphlets by K. Pohn
durfand Adolph Flaiunuuu. In liis late
experience in planting he had found that
trees should be planted far apart, nearly
thirty feet. His trees were planted twenty
feet apart, and recently every other row
was removed. Trees might be planted
twenty feet apart if desired, furseveral crops
may be gathered be&te removal, a- some
of the trees will have to be removed.
Mission olives only are cultivated on Mr.
Cooper's place, and he admits having little
knowledge of other varieties. The olive
will flourish in all parts of California,
and so far as product is concerned Mr.
Cooper will defy the world to equal the oil
produced on his place. The crop is sure
and profitable, but trees require care and
cultivation. He recommended those con
templating olive culture to plant different
varieties and await results. The best re
mit on his place was 10.56 pounds of olives
to one bottle of oil. The poorest result
was a bottle of oil from 12J pounds. In
response to questions Mr. Cooper explained
regarding the drying of the olives prior to
making the oil. The olives are picked
early in December when the fruit is half
red. half green. Pruning is begun in the
second year. It is a good plan to let all
the small branches remain until the tree
i-- live or >ix feet high. High pruning is
better than low pruning for o>;im counties.
Mr. Cooper never heard of any olives being
Bun-burned. Ho lias no black scale on his
place. The method of lopping off perpen
dicular shoots and "inside pruning" rec
ommended by French experts is unneces
sary in California. Let the tires glow up
straight, cutting oil' some of the Outside
branches, and by and by when the trees
begin to bear the branches will fall over
outward. Cuttings ;iboutJl4 inches long
from : ; to l\ inches in diameter, the ends
sawed with a sharp saw, are generally
planted. They are planted in the nur
sery in rows live feet apart and live or six
inches in the rows. They are planted
slanting, heading north. Nothing on Mr.
Coopers place is ever irrigated. Cuttings
are planted both in the nursery and in the
In Id, and then the nursery cuttings are
used to replace those that fall in the Held.
The olive orchard should be searched every
May, usually for traces of the black scale,
which is tiii- one great danger to which
olive orchards are subjected. Mr. Cooper
expends about $l- r >o yearly in fighting this
scale. The trees require three or four
washes yearly. One Laborer can pick 300
pounds of olives daily. Trees are picked
dean of all fruit. A heavy clay subsoil i>
not good lor olives. The ground should be
cultivated ami warm, not wet, when cut
tings are planted. Cuttings do best when
planted in March or April. — S. F. Bulletin.
■What Am I to Do?
The symptoms of Biliousness are unhap
pily but too well known. They differ in
ditlerent individuals to some extent. A
Bilious man is ? e!.!.':n a breakfast-eater.
Too frequently, alas, he has an excellent
appetite for liquids, but none for solids of
a morning. His tongue will hardly bear
inspection at any time ; if it is not white
and furred, it is rough at all events.
The digestive system is wholly out of
order, and Diarrhea or Constipation may
be a symptom, or the two may alternate.
The .-re ai > ■ often Hemorrhoids or even loss
of blood. There may be giddiness and
ofto.i headache and acidity or flatulence
and tenderness in the t.it of the stomach.
To correct all this, if not effect a cure, tiy
Green's August Flower. It costs but a
trifle, and thousands attest its efficacy.
Rabbits in Cossets. — An American
doctor has been telling the International
Medical Congress of the results of tight
lacing when applied not to women, hut to
ruMiit... The consequences were certainly
startling, A bandage "with moderate
pressure" caused tlie death of one animal
in four days, while the same effect was pro
duced in twelve days by a bandage " with
very slight pressure applied around tin;
chest and abdomen of a well-nourished
white rabbit." After a considerable num
ber of experiments the doctor found that
the " fatal result was uniform in all cases,
even when the bandagdf produced hut a
Blight pressure." Dr. Neftel is convinced
that the ordinary dress of women in civil
ized - icietyonly fails to produce an equally
disastrous effect from the fact that the com
pression is gradually applied as grow
up, so as slowly to change the natural
shape of the internal organs. '"It would
be quite impossible for any one, unaccus
tomed from childhood to female wearing
apparel, to bear it for a single day
without great discomfort" lie lives in
hope that a Cojnmission composed of
physicians, professors, artists and culti
vated ladies of all countries will shortly
dethrone the Paris clique of uneducated
dressmakers, and introduce an interna
tional system of rational dress.
A Mit.t.f.r's Ecckntbicities. — Near
Proctorsville, Vt., is a buryingground that
contains a monument erected to himself by
an eccentric character named Ordway,
who paid a clergyman $100 for conducting
his funeral while he was alive and in L r '"Hl
health. The funeral was characterized
with solemnity, the [preacher standing be
side an empty coiiin and Mr. Ordway sit
among the invited guests, enjoying his
own eulogy, and the coffin was Kept in the
house until the time arrived for him to till
it. when burial took place in due form.
and the date of his death was graven on
the back of the monument. The shaft
stands on a big mill-t me, for Mr. Ordway
was a miller, and the inscription written,
and 1 believe, carved by himself, read as
follows: Tb.o I am dead yet gpeaketb for
here is rest upon this millstone top ] set
this noble block to let the world know what
1 have done, it has ever been my heart.-des
ire to do unto you as 1 would that ye
should do unto me, so cast the beam out of
your mra eye and let me lie in peace: and
siiil; my redeemer's love, come my sweet
companion meet me here. David Ordway,
1884."— Brooklyn Emjle.
A Bco Duo the Grave. — A party of
young people witnessed a very interesting
performance in a yard on School street on
Friday afternoon. A dead mouse was
thrown out into t lie yard by a party read
ing in a house, the body falling near a
lan;' 1 beetle bug which cham-ed to De stroll
ing through the grass at the time. The
bog seemed to he Bomewhat surprised at
having something come so suddenly upon
him, and stopped on his way to investigate.
Finding that there was no life in the body,
the insect at once commenced operations
to bnry it. It dug a hole near the under
pinning of the house, anil then walked
around to the opposite side of the dead
mouse, and putting its head under the in
animate body it worked his body slowly in,
and in this manner got the mouse over to
the place dug. After (getting the body to
the hole it found thai it was too big to go
in, so it commenced to heap dirt on it till
it was all covered up. Whin thi- work
was done it crawled away, seeming per
fectly satisfied with its job. Whether the
hurial was out of sympathy or for further
use the party who witnessed it could not
tell, but be that as it may. it was an inter
esting event. — Newbvryport Net*.
li:mai.k Education in France. — An
ex-Depaty, M. Gamille See, the author <>f
the law now in force for the higher in
struction of girls, states in a work on the
iyceams and colleges for girls that there
are now in working order in France twentv
three of the former and twenty-six of the
latter, lx-sides a normal school for future
teachers in them. There are also two pro
visional lyoeums, and three are being built.
The creation of others is being demanded by
twenty-nine chief towns, and municipalities
have never shown themselves more liberal
than in voting funds for these .schools. M.
Camille See believe- that if the cramming
system 1 c kept out of the girls' colleges
■ and Iveeums France will keep her old rank
at the head of European civilization.
Thorn who give Howl's Sarsaparilla a
lair trial arc- soon convinced that it ig a
peculiar and an honest medicine. Its posi
tive merit is manifested by the many re
markable cures accomplished.
Ail vice to Mothers. — Mrs. Wliihlovc's
SOOTHING SYRUP should always be used when
children are cutting teeth. It relieves the little
* sufferer at once; it produces natural, quiet v »-p
by relieving the child from pain, and thu little
cherub awakes as " bright as a button." It is
very pleasant to taste. It soothes the child,
softens the gums, allays all pain, relieves wit.: ,
regulates the bowels, and is the best known
remedy fordiarrhoea, whether arising from teeth
ing or other causes. Twenty-five cents a bottle.
ir afflicted with Sore Eyes use Dr. lunar
THOMPSON'S EYE WATER, Druggists sell it
at ;:5 cents. 015-lyB
Only One.
There is but one SOZODONT. It has no coun
terpart. No other preparation for the teeth,
either compares with, or resembles it. Recom
mendations of anytbing in its place should t-»
discredited. Demand SOZODONT. I on't be
put off with substitutes. ly-TuTh3
Illy- Cream Hal in cured me of a very
disagreeable disease which I supposed to be
catarrh. I think it is one of the best of remedies
lor any complaint of the nasal organs.— F. W.
Otte, Anaconda, Mont.
I have used ELY'S CREAM BALM for catarrh
in head and have been greatly benefited by it. —
Mrs. Susie Morgan, Connor Creek, Or. ]y
The tast place in California to hive yocr printing doas :
A. J. Jotuuloc & CVr, 420 J St., Saciaraesto.CaL
If you want a Number One Carpet
woven on short notice, send ittoMAKYS. COW
GER, SO2 M street. tf
'-. V. * £. ti. Soullvwartli. Dentists, r-c
OKDEK BOOK belonging to the Nicolaus
Stage Company. Leave the same with the
owner, W. H. Ewen, at Nieolans, cr at Western
Hotel. Baeramento, and b<- rewarded. dS-6t*
VV per acre; also, men to chop wood; 6 men
to plow, fc>6, men for dairies; 2 waiters; a cook,
$10. Female— l"i girls for various work. Apply
to Employment Otlice, Fourth and K. ttreets,
Baeramento. n'2s
VV of employment) to begin ou fair salary
ami work himself up, representing, in his owu
locality, an old estabUthed house. References
exacted. American Manufacturing Horn
Reade street. Xciv York. au'29 4wM
u'ork at their own homes (town or country)
by a wholesale house. Prolitable. genuine. Uood
pay can be made. Everything furnished. Par
ttcnlars free. Address Artistic Needlework Co.,
hth st. . New York City. nU-flrnM .'. r
* teams; will haul sand or roal ashes. Call
ar.d get my prices. D. GARDNER. 401 I fit. tf
Tntfs Pills.
J. 11. ATHKY, a prominent drupKist ol
Holly Springs, Mifh., cay-: " Your Pillg are
ftolng noudera in this S:ate.
The sale of Tiitt's Pillls exceed those
oi all others combined.
They arc pecu'iariy adapted to malarial
diMases. Our phyKlciaug alt prescribe
Office, 44 Murray street. New fork.
If yon ar3 afflicted, nse without delay
For the relief and cure of all diseases
of tlio Stomach, Liver, Kidneys, and
Bowels, the value of Ayer's Cathartic
Pills cannot be over* stimated. This
remedy is also unrivaled in curing
Rheumatic and Neuralgic affections.
For keeping the Stomach, l?owel«,
and I.ivi v in j;c.<.d working order, I have
never found any medicine equal
Ayer's Cathartic Pills. I always use
this remedy when occasion require
Randolph Morse, Lynchburg, Va.
About five years since, my son became
a cripple from Rheumatism, lli.s joints
ami limbs were drawn onl oJ shape by
tlie excruciating pain, and bis general
l:i alth \v;is \ cry much impaired. Mcdi
■ im a did not reach his case until he
commenced taking Ami's pun.
I ixea of which cured him. He is now
: free from the complaint .-us if he bad
in :•■•.■ had it and his distorted limbs
liavi recovered their shape anil pliancy.
--William White. Lebanon, Pa.
\ftei- snff, iinir. for months, from ■:..-■.
• f the Stomach and Liver, I took
Pills. Thn c. boxes t\vfii we —
'■■ •'• r"ii kthall, Mathias, Me.
Ayer's Pills,
Dr. J.< !. Ayi •\ i ' . ! well, Mann.
' ' :: ' ■-■ ■:- ■- mil Dealers Id Medicine.
l;madefrom JVWc Materials, contains no Acids,
Sard Grit, or injurious matter.
It is Ptbi, Bxfinxd, Pbkfect.
NOTnnfo Like It Ey*k Kkowh.
From Scnntnr <'ocseiihall.—"ltaknpleas
..>■ In recommending Zuuwclss on account of lti
THraey and purity."
From Mr«. Gen. Logan's DentiHt, Dr.
F.. >«. Carroll. WMhln^on.D. C— "l have hail
£nnw!<bw analyzed. It Is tbe most perfect, Uentf
frlc"' I have «ver wen."
From Hon. Chn». P. Johnaon. Ex. I.t.
faoy. of Mo.— "Zonweliss clcanaui tin- tpcth thor
oughly, 1» dellcatp, convenient, verj' pleasant, and
no after taste. Bold bt allbblooistb-
Price, 35 centa.
Joasaou & JOBViOS, 23 C«dar St., N. Y.
Many persons k>se appetite and strength,
Become emaciated, tufler, and die, because
ijf defective nutrition, who might have
been restored to health by Ayer's Sarsa
parilla. This medicine acts upon the
digestive organs, through the blood, and
lias eflbcted many wonderful cures.
For yean T suffered from f.ossof Appe
tite aii«i [ndigestion, ami failed to find
relief, until I began taking Ayer's Sar
laparula. Three bottles of this medicine
Entirely Cured
me. anil my appetite and digestion are
now perfect.— Fred <;. Bower, iw
Seventh st., South Boston, Mass.
I have, for years, suffered acutely from
Dyspepsia, scarce}; taking a meal, until
within the pttt few months, without en
during the most distressing pains of
[ndigestion. My stomach sometimes re
iected all food. I became greatly reduced
in strength, and very despondent. Satis
lied, at last, that my trouble was of a
scrofulous nature, I began taking Aver*
Sarsaparilla, and believe it has saved my
life. My appetite and digestion are now
good, and my health is perfect. — Oliver
T. Adams, Spencer, Ohio.
Ayer's Sarsaparilla,
Prepared by Dr. J.C. Ayer&Co., Lowell, Hum.
Bold by all Druggists. l>rice tl ; six boules, %i.
0 0. D. Wood Yard, Fourth and I sts.
The t« pbca in C»lifr»il» to bjTt y<n»prt«dpg doaea
». J. Jphastea & Co\ 419 1 St , Saqrameaa, Cat

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