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jrtOK THE NAtlONAt-lNTELMGENeKtl.
The. NEW WORLD. No. 111. An enquiry into-the NatxonaI Charac PeoFU or the United TEH or Stai'es or America. THE We have seen that the illustrious discoverers T>f America were enterprizing natives of dis tinguished Italy —of Genoa, of Tuscany and of Venice. The sentiments on the northern section of this continent, which were within the limits of Cur present dominions, or may be considered as near enough tb have influenced our charac ter, were made under the auspices of various European powers, and were originally compo-. «ed of their citizens and subject-, in the course of our growth through infancy and youth to our present manhood, migration to America has takeh'a much'wider range. We have seen, xve'have felt the influence of the minds, the hcUrts, thé maimers, and the habits ef man ftom every civilized society, and every church. Let tls'calmly'revise <he facts, which relate Jo our settlements, and to our constant accessions ol people front abroad ! The establishment of stations for settlement and commerce was commenced by the French in the provinces of Canada and Acadig or Nova Scolja in 1 bOS "and 1611. The discovery of Louisiana in 15*41, was folloxved at later peri ods by considerable F retich migrations. 'These two colonial establishments of I-'ranee became incorporated with the American states of our late empire by the treaty of Paris in 17f>3. Ma ny oClhe A cad' ans were transferred by England ihm our provinces. At the peace of 1788, Canadians came into our country as permentel citizens, and Americans passed over sett nato ih'tlie two Canadas. The French revocation of their edict of Nantes had scattered the follow ers of Calvin , under the name of Hugunots over the face of our country. The names ' of Jay, Boudinot ami Laureos, clearly descended from that stock* will be found on the short list of our Presidents of Congress in the first ten years ofour-revolutionary history. The names of Jay, Gailiard, Bovdoin, de Lancey'and ethers, are on the list of the governors in the firnes of the provinces and of the common wealths. They appear olten as members of our legislatures, and as ministers and officers **■ vinous rcligioas societies and guardians of our seminaries of learning in many of the states. As th* French have always rejected the preference of the eldest son in the disposi tion of intestate property, as these F'rench sought this country to preserve the rights of crin sc'cncr. as they introduced a number of valua ble books, and their modes of business, educa tion and worship,-it cannot be supposed that the. have not contributed to form the actual cl.it' ar t r of the existing American people. In tin i •-■•••riiou of all th'tigs, which interfere with th»- rights of conscience, in the rejection of the Fig«-» <>f primogeniture, and in the rejection commerce in the human species, the de nt:! of the French in united America o - SC to*''* 'n.'.r.'u it«<] the gcncial characteristics of of of ed out U'fnn. ' Swedish an ! Danish blended settlements w ■•-..! our present dominions coiisi'letvble for that time. ere early and They purchased ndians all the country, bn botn sides of the Delaware, calling it the New Suede.land ■iun. and made settlcmcriis on both sho that river and of its extensive bay. They sca'*«t;cd themselves on tile various' streams wfitcli the Delaware receives. oft S '.7 01 The states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware, con . tain a number of Swedish churches, with mill isters derived from that of episcopacy, at this <!->•• They arc very"similar to the other mem bers ol the Lutheran church i» these states. The ground plat of the city anJ Iibertiesof Phi ladelphta were compromised) in part,-with the Swedish settlers by William Penn. The an •• cient town of Nevr-Castle on Delaware was founded by the Swedes more than fifty years of Hen "7 lva " la ' a ' , ' t l was th«n s: quevn of Sweden. The settlements ofthat na tu n on the waters of the Delaware, at the time that the Dutch acquired them, were greater than tiny other colony of the Swedish nation. Except indeed the purchased island of Saint Bartholomew, it is not remembered that they have had any other permanent colonial estab lishment. The civil law which prevailed in Sweden and the principles of which were high ly influential in Denmark, did not favor the idea of au y right from primogeniture, the pre , vailing spirit of the American law of descents. Having no sugar colwiics at the time of their **" settlements adjacent to the Delaware, the Swedes and Danes had little information practice in the slave trade, and have contribu ted probably to facilitate the or early and known opposition lo that trade, which arose in ihe middle states. 'Th ; enterprize, the wealth, the freedom, b;iety and the religion of the Dutch der their e ,'v and prosperous settlements in tins part ot America particularly worthy of consideration 1 heir forts and marts extended from the .western bank ol Connecticut river, and tlie city of Albany to Hoar kiln or Lewis town, iivar the southern cape of De aware bay. I hr y had acquired the town of New-Cnstle or Stockholm, from the New Amsterdam. the ren ■\ Swedes, and called .h 1 hejr settlers had extended w York, Connecticut, east New Jersey, • aw Jersey, Delaware, the south western IT west ewajej cfPtamsjWiaU, slid the aasMu shore' of Maryland, wher, their »hole possessions-in middle states, called the New Netherlands, conquered by Great Britain in 171)4, and 11 ... ! our were Were divided under charters to the American provinces of Connecticut, New-York, New Jcrsey,' Pennsylvania and the lower-territory' of York and Penn, known at present as the De laware state. The influence of the Dutch, af ter this conquest, continued to be such that there were seven governors of New-York of that s'oek, and one of N«?w-Jersey. There are at this time not less than eighty Dutch Calvanis tic churches in the Doited Slates. They are as zealous friends of religious liberty as the rest of the Americans, and the New-York and New-Jcrse.y legislatures in which they are most numerous, corrected the English law of de scents, as soon as the separation from Great Britain enabled them to give to the laws the proper spirit of our nation. The German people, having little concern in navigation, there has not been, at any time, a commencement of a separate German colony within Our present dominions. But great num bers of the natives of the protestant and ca tholia states of that immense confederated em pire have migrated hither in search of liberty oj conscience, and establishment in life. \Y illiam Penn made Europe, with a view to inform the German people of his new and liberal cstablisment. The agitations of Europe in consequence of the struggles of the followers of John Hus ,, Lu ther, Calvin, Menno and other* of less note in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and of the counter exertions of the church of Rome and its powerful supporters, rendered even the wilds of America more lovely than the most cultivated scenes of persecuting Europe. In regatd to the prospects of a comfortable estab lishment, fair accounts of this country seemed to render it a second land of nromisc. The vast number of German emigrants which have re sorted to our shores in a term of more than one hundred and twenty years, has exhibited the persons, the language, the habits, the churches, and some of the spirit of the laws of that great and ancient empire. It is not ascertained xvhe ther the wise and excellent founder of Penn rly visit to the continent of eu sylvania derived from his own wisdom and vir tue his celebrated modification of the law ot descents, or whether his respect for the law of Moses or bis visit to Germany, where be found the great opposition between the English la'tv and the Justinian system in that respect, occasioned him to adopt the idea. Certain it is that in this respect, as well as in their pur suit of religious liberty, the migrators from Germany must have attached themselves to these two objects, which are so conspicuous and influential in our national character. Germans, like the Swedes, had no participation in sugar colonies, were consequently fiee from interest and practice in the slave trade, and were ready to co-operate in its decided arresta tion. From this stock, we have had an illus trious President of our Philosophical Society, eminent professors in tha medical department or one of our Universities, ministers of nearly two hundred churches of the Lutherans, Cal vinists, Raman C*'holies, Mennonists, Mora vians, Ttinkers, and soin» other religious so cieties. A governor and a vice-president of a state, many generals of the militia, speakers of the-national and state legislatures, and ot her members have also been drawn from the natives of Germany or their numerous descendants. The theology, the language, the arts, the "manufactures and the typography of the Ger mans are very conspicuous and widely extend ed in the United States of America. COLUMBIAN US. r»e of l The English, in all their impositions up. -on America, whether it relates to tile tackihgof our vessels and murdering their crews, or to the destruction of our com merce, have invariably found encourage hä, Sr ctn r federal tdi - h U d StatC *' As From the BOSTON CHRONICLE. Our cotivrnience must yield, to Britain*« rig/tt to exist S*— See the Repertory of the Gth inst. at soon as tney have committed an outrage, they have on ly to refer to particular newspapers printed in the United States, not onlv for an entire justification, hut for proof that they entitled to our gratitude for not proceeding to greater extremities i It seems that these men have been informed by their liritish Correspondents , that England will shortly issue a new edition of the Orders in Court, cil, corrected and improved , by' their au* thars, with great additions, alterations, & 1 . In other words, that the Orders in Couuctl, annihilating the commerce of the U. States, are shortly to be followed by others, For the indiscriminate seizure and plunder of A merican property wherever they take it_ No sooner do these receive this inféinva tion, thau they immediately commence the degrading task of defending it, and of en deavoring to reconcile the merchants of the U. States to the loss of their properly.— 1 hey advance, in support of their doctrine, the following unprecedented and inadmissi ble position. " Self preservation, with nations as with indi viduals, takes precedence of every other print i pie of. natura I law. (t will justify any thing that becomes necessary to that object. "A nation s rights raise as her danger increases, unproductiveness Or the devastations of were of or .h If from the an ene »>, , V.Sr. ; -< , :.m:1ir.emo -Inr <«*»!•« .<*: »< i J. plying myself, I lave a tight to demand what is necessary, of him who posfesses.it. II he will accept any thing .1 can »pare m exchange, it is ! we il. If he w.ill not, I »tn ju-nhed in u*mg sû peiior force, if I possess it, it) obtain relief. Id'» convenience ptust. yield to my right to (list. ific law of nature goes one step fuither. In the last extremity before 1 perish. 1 have a right to use my force—nid if resisted, to destroy him who withholds from me what is »essessaiy to my istencc." -, Here G. Britain is informed l*y a publi cation in one of otir most populous seaports, that she has a tight to " demand what she wants of us who possess it." 1 hat when she meet* our vessels on the high seas, if thev refuse to tasign themselves into her hands quietly, she has a " right to use her superior force té compel it"—And that " they resist, she has a right to destroy them —and will ht justified in doing it." II the writer means thar Ci. Britain wtllbe justified in this conduct by any law cither of nations or of nature, it is very much doubted : nor shall we be inclined to believe it, until he produces his Authority, to inform us that he intends to justify it, it will be nuthing uncommon or unexpected. No doubt that the men who have heretofore" justified the murder of our citizens, who have justified the impressment of seamen and the Orders in Council, will nuw justi fy *ûd encourage the English in '.heir con templated plan of deprecation on American property. VVc condemn the Algerines and Tripo litans as pirates, but if this doctrine is cor rect, could they not plead necessity as an excuse for their depredatory conduct, as well as the English ? Mis Algerine Excel lency might say, that from the depredations of his enemies, his funds were greatly redu ced, and he was therefore compelled to seize our property to supply himself. If the state of Tunis should be threatened bv its foes, the Tunesiaus might declare, while pouring there broadsides into the American ships, that our *• convenience must yitkl to their right to exist. What say the merchants lo this doctrine? Will they subscribe to its orthwd ,xv ? Is it cousooent to their idea»; of justice, that when they- send out a vessel, the British, or anv other nation, have a right to take pos session of her for their own use, and that if she resist, they have a right to fire upon and destroy her ? Will they continue to en courage a paper which advances tenets so repugnant to every principle-of justice, and so hostile to their iuterests and the inter ests of the country ? n ex« if But. if he wishes •> From the Same. AMERICANS !—fhzare of IVulvcs in S/icCfi's clothing. The last loyal Repertory says, that " from unimpeachable sources of information, it is well known that the Canadian people are perfectly satisfied with (lie government under which they live ; that they know too well how to appreci ate the blessings ol the Jlritish ConstilH'ion, to be willing to barter their advantages aud happi ness for any other." W hetiier such things as these arc written in Nr-c-England, Old-England, adjacent provi l he intention of the author is evident, he wishes to make the people <d the United States believe that the British Constitution is preferable to the .i/m nenn , he may give up his enterprize in the beginning. The American people too well appreciate tiie blessings which result iron) their flee, Republican Constitu tioi.s, to indulge for a moment the most distant i-ka of exchanging them for Monarchical Aiistorrntical Systems. \Y c recollect the remarks of the Repertory, upon the Oration of Y\ m. Ch. White, Flsq The Constitution of England was then held up, to the people, doubtless with the view of ex citing their approbation, ed with the promise of some extracts from this inimitable. Constitution—but which, however, have not yet appeared, if the Repertot-y pects to convert lilt partiality of the people of these States for republicanism, into a venera tion for monarchical institutions, it has under taken a Herculean task, in which it will never succeed. or bis Majesty's no difference. it makes c* But if or \\ e were also fuvnr ex* I'.ven with All the uid of its Canadian Correspondent St (Ofiiccrs of the Crown, miques tiûiiâbly,) it will tail infinitely short of the tempiated object. The " ' con Corntnunicafiun ** signed" VenAx,**in the last Repertory, is an additional proof of the s * The Repertory, in the introduction to this Communication, unblushingly confesses that it was received from a Correspondent in Ca ada ! The people of the United States must feel them selves under infinite obligations to his Majesty's officers in the neighbouring provinces for tluir great kindness in sending political lions to their agents in the United States for puhlicatidn! In this communication, the Con stitutionalists of die United States, the filends of their country and its government, are stig matized as " demoralising tiemagoguesf a de ceptive epithet, which they leant from their Junto friends in this quarter. The British Con nti'inion is Held tfp as the model of all that i* perfect in ihc science of çotitniu/aca government—and much abuse is lavished upon the Chromecfe. claw tunt-e* '»■■!' i'il'/'-i , am', the. _%*/•»/•> «rtf ujjinrs ol 1 Ciingii/i. It ifiv'i «tiohgly" to prove, .that tij Snrtbern C suffit ta.cy, (compiled of I'.nplid, agents in- Cwt*dh,. and AhV.lo-Americans in the . Tluir i-nuv c. •I '• ■it, n a-e Northern States,,) is still tn existence, cloven foot was.disco'.ei able, wl.ct they-took advantage of the. embargo, atld threatened (what their weakness jdonejirevcntt'd thttn from ) a separation of the states. ■ executing ■ From the BO .i-N PATRIOT. THE BAIT. fif we are to judge from outwärd appearan ces, the " Copenhagen .faclson xvill be-as ci vil and pacific as a fish-hook! We do,not pre tend to judge whether the following is extra ordinary, or the ordinary recommendation of diplomatic characters. If, however, this kind . of court plainer do not prove that Mr; Jackson, or his master thought him"a subject of suspi cion, it "ought perhaps to induce-us to supect that either or both wish to |dar upon opr ere- j diility. It is sufficient that Mr. J's business lies between himself and our executive, in whom we have full confidence, and that such are the impressions on the public mind, that be xvill find it too late lo open n separate négo ciation with the peopie of America in any sec tion of the union—even should his majesty's papers in New-Englan,d become again the en gines of correspondence for the ministers and *- : their minions.] their minions.] EXTRACT OF A LETTER From a distinguished character of the Society - of Quakers, in England, to his frielid in Cam bridge, (Mass.) dated July. 5th, I 8 O 9 . " Although some years have elapsed since • our last meeting at my house in Cla/i/iam, yet in hope tbit those agreeable da'ys of old are not entirely forgotten, I beg leave lo introduce my resrieéiable friend Francis J. Jackson, re cently chosen to be our Minister Extraordinary to the Unit'd Slates, as a gentleman of high character and talents, with whose family 1 have been long acquainted. Believing as ( do, that 7 he comes to you in the " spirit of /:<■««■, '' and so confident in the hopes of applying an healing ) plaister to the recent wound, that lie takes over., hi* wife and children ; I cannot hut wish wjjIJ, to such a mission of peace. It has ever,beep my fervent wish to witness a perfect harmony, between the two nations, founded on a rccipro-' city of interests. I have therefoie given him letters to my friend Gore, and to such others whom Tmost esteem m Nev-Yurk and Phi!a* ddphi a .* ; "Ere this, the public prints have probably informed you of the decease of my beloved and venerable uucle David Barclay, alossirreh parable to his family and numerous connections to whom he afforded the highest example .of human perfection He closed Itis long, honor able and useful life in as sudden and easy a man ner as could be w ished ; his illness not lasting an hour, when hr ceased to live without sigh pt struggle. His plans were congenial with those of (by invaluable relation Dr. F otliergill, espe cially in that of living rather than dying rieh, and in being lira own executor." • - ['lx it probable that a man, like the vxtriter.ef the above, distinguished not merely for opulence, but weighty, and worthy, and veneraltd in point of character, would have spoken tlvus ol u CV penhagen Jackson," il he did not know him to be » man whom a Quaker of the tir»t tank would not fear to recommend. Ccniincl.] From the Democratic Press. The " distinguished charactei" who il Hie author of the above letter, is Mr. David Harcfatjt a brewer in London. Onc ol" the most devoted tools of William Pitt when living, and now equally devoted to Canning and Dnnilas, He lms some influence and-it was on account pf that influence that Pitt, Dundas and Co. used toVuit his brewery, and there eat btefiteakes and drink port wine. The above letter is oniy one copy of a circular which was sent to a great number of persons in the cities of the United States. From what we have heard on the occasion it is proba ble that no minister ever brought from the coun try which sent him, so many letters of introduc tion to the citizens of the country, to whose gov ernment he was accredited as Mr. Jackson. So great has been the number, that Mr. Jacksoo despaired of ever delivering them in per»oq i and sent them on to the persons,to whom they, were directed by his servant.- —We congratulate gover nor Gour on this new link in the chain which binds him to the mother country, and stimulates him to the unfurling the' banners of the Ameri Republic against those of imperial F rance. can d)e dSasette* Wilmington , October ! 8, 1809. MARRIED, Gn Thursday evening last, by the Rev. Dr. Read, Mr. Henry VTniNg, Printer, to Mb* Rebecca Lyle, all of this town. Same evening, by the Rev. Dr. Read. Mr George Hantno, to Mis. Kesiah ARciiUi both of this place. A late London paper gives a detailcf*' statement of the French-naval force, iV<' m which it appears that France has yet, not withstanding its diminution by capture, « formidable navy, consisting of six vcsm ■ of-120 guns, sixty one sail of the line, a'-' u forty eight frigates ; at.di is supposed to be under rated. mf