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THE REPUBLIC. LITERARY NOTHES. cixavnob: a I'kai.euy. By George H. Borer. Philadelphia: Published by E. H. Butler A Co. A successful tragedy from an American pen is a novelty which must not be suffered to pass unnoticed. "Caluynos" seems to have been published without any immediate view to its pioduciion on the stagei Perhaps the author was indifferent to the histrionic test; and perhaps he despaired of interesting managers in his behalf. A stray copy, however, attracted the attention of Mr. Phelps, a tragedian of considerable repute in London. He discerned the merits of the play, and brought it out last month at the Sadler's Wells Theatre, person uting ihe part of the hero himself. The English papers inform us that the success of "Calaynos" was decided and complete. At the end of the fourth act, Mr. Phelps was summoned before the curtain to receive the congratulations of the audience; and, | at the fall of the curtain on the fifth act, he was again called out, when he informed the audience that the play was the production of a Philadelphia gentleman, who would doubtless be as much surprised as gratified at hearing of its successful representation. The favorable reception of an acted play, however, is far from being an earnest of qualities of plot, language, and action, that shall claim the attention or gratify the taste of the literary reader. A drama, which has the stamp of genius in every line, and which fulfils in all respects the conditions included in the most comprehensive definition of the term drama, may yet fail utterly on the stage ; while another, that shall seem in the perusal wearisome and deficient, feeble in plot, and ordinary in style, shall yet, from the happy disposition of some purely mechanical coups de theatre, or the adaptation of particular characters to the idiosyncrasies of actors, receive a life not its own from the representation : and. thoue-h rejected from the close! of the ? unprofessional reader, find a prominent place on the prompter's book-shelf. Can a play, then, be essentially dramatic?does it answer the very conditions of a play?if it be not suitable for successful representation ? Undoubtedly, yes. A play may deal in events, and characters, and utterances, at once true to nature and to passion, and which, in the reading, are of an order to move the profoundest sympathies of our nature, and hold the attention captive, but which, nevertheless, disappoint us greatly when embodied on the stage. We have rarely met with a person, who had given much study to the tragedy of "Hamlet," to whom any personation of it he had ever witnessed was satisfactory. Still, to many, the "Hamlet" of even an indifferent performer would seem dramatic, inasmuch as his impersonation would rise above the level of their conception of the part; and this is the reason why "Hamlet" is so popular a play in the acting with the many, and so distasteful to the few. As there are some plays and characters, which, though fulfilling the dramatic conditions, are un suitable for the stage, so there are many, not excepting even some of Shakspeare's, which are much heightened in their effect by good acting and appropriate scenic illusions. It was the fashion during the rage for Mrs. Butler's "Readings1' at the North, for some of her admirers to profess themselves more moved by her reading of a play, than they could be by its representation under the most favorable circumstances. For instance, of her If recitation of Rumeo and Juliet, they would say, "how much better it was than any representation on the stage, however perfect; since every part was adequately filled, and every line spoken as it should tbe." Such eulogists must have seen very little good acting in their day, fur, admirable as the lady's elocution and action were, wh4U*at was competent to 8peak on the subject, could say, that, sitting in her chair and reading the part of Mercutio, for instance, she could lend to it the spirit, the sparkle, the effect, which her father, Charles Kemble, in his personation of the character, was wont to give. There are many great points even in Shakspeare, which are not obvious in the closet, and which the traditional interpretations of the actor and the mechanical opportunities of the stage can alone bring out. And again, there are points to which neither the stage nor the actor can do justice. But it is with "Calaynos" that we sal down to deal, and we are gratified in being able to nay, that whatever may have been lta aucceas on the stage, it deserves a higher "quotation" in the literary than in the theatrical market. The subject is a Spanish one?whether purely fanciful or in any degree historical, we cannot say. We will not attempt an outline of the story ; for the most faithfully drawn outline must generally convey a meagre idea of the sulistanlial, well-proportioned original. The plot is evolved gracefully and easily to its tragic termination. Flaws may be detected in it, no doubt, and some incongruities; for adequate causes are employed to bring about great results; and we are left in doubt as to whether the heroine is a monster of iniquity, sacrificing her husband's peace and honor for a cause which includes no pallianon of her guilt, or whether she is the victim of circumstance and violence. But through all these defects runs a vein of the pure ore. Flashes of true dramatic power, happy presentations of character, choice and pithy turns of language, and scenes of genuine interest abound in the tragedy, and evince that the author has not mistaken his forte. Wc add a few detached (manages from the play, with which we must close the book, and lay down our pen. The wife of Calayrwn is persuading him to take her to Seville, of the gayetics of which city her maid, .Martina, has given her glowing accounts, Calayrwn replies: " Martina told but half:? Or did she tell b?>w -loth nd lirtrirary, Cloudy attended by their handmaid vice, I | Stare. with lack-lustre and ferocious cyw, [ ' Into the p?>r< b of every palace gate' I How want creeps forth at night with tottering I P"""' I And ' trains! the window* of the reveller* I Klrttti n* ju pirn b< d and wasted features out, | Cursing the feasts, for which om-lialf tin worli Ijubor* unpaid ?" Here ia n knave's speculation on the probabilii] of his being detected : " This fdlow look* through loth of us like ylass; He's keener than my lord, and wist far: Some sunny day we'll both pitch o'er the* walls. And he will Is- the man that breaks our ne< k*. Ah! 'tis a sad thing, Sito, very *a<|, To Is* ku,tie's knave, e'en thouirl, I,/ Is ., II,,, To take the peril, and do all the work, Then, at the laal, come in for all the ki< b." J Oalayno* naya: o Why did I hide rny hirih ? Ah, who run tell how noon one need of din. Which we dhort-?ijrhted mortal* think d< troyed, May uproot and bear, and xhakc it* no*jo fruit I.'(ton <air head*, when we ne'er dream of ill; For naught that in can ever pa*? away!" Atrain : t!om* forth, thou minister of bloody dee'da, That biased a < omet in the v an of war, I'riniiyinf death to man, and t?*ar* to earth ; Pale, (flearninir tempter, when I clutch th I ii tnua, Thou,of thy*e|f, doet (dead that murder'* rijfl i m half bt Hm It luxury " I ????????I And to conclude: " All nature erica- Whatever is must be! Earth's tonus may change, but tiiue can ne'er destroy The smallest atom ill the universe; Much less this life of intellect, the soul, Whose very form is changeless.?Death is not! Serene and calm ami indestructible, Above die touch of chance, or sin, or time, On these Heaven-scaling attributes shall soar In infinite progression towards their source? In death is knowledge." We are pleased to learn, front the Philadelphia pa}>ers, that "Calaynos" hus reached u second edition, and thut the author is engaged upon u new play. " European Life and Manners, in Familiar Letters to Friends. By Henry Column, author of European Agriculture, and the Agriculture of France, Belgium, Holland, and Switzerland." Two verv entertaining- and instructive volumes, under the above title, huve been recently published by Messrs. Little & Brown, of Boston; The book is u good one, and not to be confounded with the crudities under the name of "Travels," with which the American press has swarmed during the last two years. Mr. Column writes with the unaffected ease of one who utters his own thoughts in his own most natural way. In addition to the extracts which have already appeared in our columns, we quote the following passage, descriptive of the French?so unlike the stories which other tourists have given us: " For sobriety, industry, and frugality, the French serin to ine to excel all others. I make no exception. I never knew a people where there is so much charity to the poor; and as to church-going, so far as that constitutes religion, no people go liefore them; and in no places of religious worship have I ever seen more attention, more decorum, or more apparent devotion. I should as soon think of seeing a dead man sitting erect in a chair at church, as seeing an individual in the congregation asleep. The churches, too, are all free. You may make some contribution at the door if you choose, but nothing is demanded. In the Protestant churches the congregation are all seated in chairs, and there is no distinction in seats, so that a gentleman or lady of the highest rank will be found seated alongside of the most humble laborer, who goes in his frock; or, if a woman, in her cap. * * As to domestic attachments in France, I believe there is a full share of fidelity and domestic comfort; and wherever I have been admitted into (heirsanctums, land in no country is it more difficult to get into their home retreats.) nothing can bo more charming, and no| thing more affectionate." IRELAND REDIVIVl'S. < Jerrold's Weekly News contains a notice of a book just published in London, entitled "Rizzio; or Scenes in Europe during the Sixteenth Century," by the late Mr. Ireland. The author of this work is the William Henry Ireland who acquired so much notoriety, about half a century ago, by the fabrication of documents concerning Shakspeare; and also by the composition of two whole plays, "Vostigern"and "Henry II.," which he endeavored to persuade the public were genuine productions of the great poet, and by which he succeeded in making numerous dupes among the literary and critical circles of the day. Ireland afterwards published a confession of the fraud. He died in 1834. Mr. James, who has edited the present production, speaks of it thus in his preface: "The manuscript was sold by public auction to a highiy respectable bookseller ; by him it was transferred to another, who laid it before the present editor. That editor found the style antiquated, and the expressions often of the worst style of the novelistic school of thirty or forty years ago; but in the work itself there is a very curious and minute picture of Europe in the age to which it refers. It nas evidently been the fruit of much severe reading, and the author's introduction shows that the propensity to fabrication, in which all young Ireland's misfortunes began, had not even yet entirely left him. That he intended to pass this off as an authentic autobiography of David Rizzio, I do not mean to say; but he certainly had a great inclination to leave it doubtful whether the work was authentic or not." "Rizzio," says the.Vrtcj, has little or no merit as a literary composition, but is full of evidence of the imaginative faculty of the writer, and of his familiarity with the great historic facts, and some of the minnr rwrnliAritifh nf thf- mrp th#?. r\niinfri#?? nf which ne treats. The author ha* contrived to bring Rizzio in personal communication with almoatevery remarkable personage of hi* time?Henry VIII., Wolsey, and Anne Boleyn, Francis I , Henry II., Diana of Poictiers, and Catherine de Medici, Charles V., and Philip II., and of course Mary Queen of Scots and Darnley. Beside* these persons, he introduces the reader to Raphael, Michael Angelo, Correggio, Rabelais, and the famous Lord Surry and the infamous Pier Leugi Farnese, Duke of Piacenxa." THE TOP OF THE GREAT PYRAMID. The top of the pyramid i* scribbled and scratched over with the name* of the travellers, considerably more than an average proportion of which are Frenchmen. We English have received the character (or, perhaps, have given it to ourselves, for an affectation of humility is one of the features of our pride) of being a scribble some people. But not altogether, I think, with justice; for, at least, among the higher clause*, it strike* me that the French are more open to the imputation than ourselves. So essential did M. Chateaubriand consider it that his name should be inscribed upon the top of the pyramid, that, not being able to make the ascent himself, he commissioned a friend to do it for him. And we meet with the names of Lamartine and Lalionfe, (and worthy names they are,) scrawled upon the doors of convents, and cut even on the cedars of Lebanon, to the horror of our modest English travellers, one of whom, Lord Lindsay, says, " I would as soon cut my name on the wall of a church;" and Mr. Warburton expresses the same sentiment in a rather aueernr form. "I would as soon," he says, "have thought of carving my name on the skin of the venerable village Sheik." And yet, methinks, both Lord Lindsay1* and Mr. Warburton'* are names that would not disgrace even the cedars of Lebanon. We were now joined on the summit by several other Arab#, who forthwith began to display their store# of worthless curiosities, which traveller* are in the habit of buying for the abstract sake of doing business on the top of the Great Pyramid. One of them kept refuting at regular intervals the following sentence:?"fine Arab,?top B< Izoni's pyramid,? five minutes." "Old her" said I on the first recital, thinking he was telling me a story, " very quirk work it was, and an active fellow he must nave been." Presently it came again, "One Arab,?top Belzoni's pyramid,?five minutes." "So you have just told me," replied I. "One Arab,?top Belzoni's pyramid,?five minutes." "Will you hold your chattering tongue. You have told me that twice already. Again it came, but this time, with an addition. "One Arab,?top Belzoni's pyramid,? five minutes.?one *M/ing." This exnlnined the matter He was the "one Arab," and it was not ' a narration, but n proposition. He, the said "one Arab," for the sum of one shilling English money, or five piastres Egyptian, covenanted to ascend to the top of the pyramid of Ophrrnes, alias of Sensiiphis, alias of Beltoni, in the space of five minuses. So the bargain was struck, and off he set, r and in the course of a few minutes was seen, like a fly. creeping up the sides of the pyramid. The ascent of this pyramid used to be an affair of some I difficulty, owing to the overhanging casing at the top, and some travellers have taken great credit to themselves for accomplishing it. But it has recently 1 lieen very much facilitated by the cutting of notches in the smooth casing stones, so that it requires nothing more than s steady head, whirh is not one ol my accomplishments, or I should have certainly < attempted it. In the mean lime an Indian officer who had joined us on the top, had hern trying th* exfieriment of throwing a stone from the summit sc I -I .L- I ?L..L I I . ?A U. f u? cimr inr imiw, >* men n?u? iwen umimj u/ i* 1 impossible, but which, however, was, with a suitable atone, accomplished in the present instance.? Presently the Arab returned, having performed tht feat within the stipulated time, to receive the prv> mised reward. How practice in any thing makei perfect! Pyramtd-climbing is the trade of the** r men. Like the guides of some Alpine mountain they live at the foot, and watch day by day to con us duct travellers to its summit, ana into the cavert upon its side. TMr. OrsTrs.?M. De (^uatrefages hasrecen'l] ascertained that, contrary to the common opinion the sexes are separate in the oysters. M. Blan chard's observations confirm those of M. deCt.ua trefages. Iri his investigations into the nervou system of Mollusca, he has had occasion to ex amine a great nnmticr of these antmala, arid in th it, proper se.aaons he has always found the eggs ani the spermnto/ji isolated in different individuals. THE REPU B LIC. WASHINGTON: WEDNESDAY MORNING, JUNE 20, 1849. OFFICIAL. APPOINTMENT BY THE PRESIDENT Hon. Daniel M. Barking kh, of North Carolina, to be Envoy Extraordinary and. Minister Plenipotentiary to Spain, in lieu of Hon. William A. Graham, who declined the ottice. Mr. Saunders, the present Minister, having been recalled at his own re quest. The Executive Mansion, the Capitol, and the buildings of the several Departments, are ordered to be closed this day, and shrouded in black in token of public grief. A darker and a more impenetrable veil has obscured from mortal gaze a distinguished citizen who lately tilled the highest destiny known to human ambition. VVhe'n those sable tissues which droop in witness of the general gloom shall be removed, the stately piles will look as though there had not been sorrow in the land; but the pall that covers in darkness the work of the Creator will remain forever. Here where Ex-President Polk stood, so lately the representative head of a mighty people, his death has produced, as well it might, a profound sensation. To HIM who holds the issues of life and death, it matters not if he lay his hand upon the great or the small. It is a soul called hence to meet the reward of deeds done in the body. To mankind the passing away of a life like this produces a chasm which startles the understanding. It brings closer to the apprehension the feebleness of our hold on life. All that man could do, all that a nation could bestow, was frail as a web of gossamer against the shaft of fate. They could not add a span to the length of his days. He faded from the earth like a transient glimmer. Whatever the difference in the condition of men here, in the grave all are equal. Whilst we contemplate in wonder the .extinction of a shining light, it should teach us to know that, in the economy of nature, men are nearer equal than the observances of society would imply. If humbleness has its wants, greatness has its cares. There is that which qualifies whatever seems enviable. Much is exacted from those who are exalted above the rest. Popularity is at best a task-master, requiring more than it bestows. Good deeds done in high places will oft-times bring reproach upon the doer; bad ones as often are applauded of men. This should be an admonition; all situations have their cares, their duties, their blessings, and their burdens; and they act wisest who win content by following the path of duty in meekness and thankfulness of spirit WAR NTF.AMRR8. .The British navy has lately received an important addition of an iron steam frigate, the Greenock of 1413 tons burthen, launched into the Clyde on the '20th of April, constructed on the principle of our far-famed Princeton, with a screw propeller of the same size, 14 feet diameter ; a sliding chimney, capable of being depressed or elevated at pleasure, similar to that of the Princeton ; and with engines placed in the bottom of the vessel, out of reach of shot. England having got the start of us in the construction of ocean and war steamers, by at least a dozen years, we have reason to feel proud of having set her an example in the art of constructing the latter. Those of our readers who are not familiar with naval matters, may not have reflected that there are three essential conditions that must be fulfilled to produce an efficient war steamer. Firstly, the propelling instrument must he capable of operating under water ; secondly, the steam machinery must be placed below water-line, out of reach of shot; and, thirdly, the chimney must be capable of being struck, and the combustion in the boiler furnaces sustained independently of the ordinary draught. All these indispensable conditions are practically fulfilled in the Princeton, and the American navy can boast of having produced the first war steamer cajole of encountering the thunder of an old fashioned fighting ship, without fear of being crippled at the first broadside. Our friends on the Clyde must not in their exultations forget that their formidable (irrrnork is, after all, in every i I 'a __ 1 ' essential point, oniy a copy 01 a certain ship built on the Delaware, and well known, having .ho frequently exchanged friendly salutations with Her Majesty's navies in the Gulf of Mexico and in the Mediterranean. winistkh to hpaix. The President has appointed the Hon. Daniel M. Barring er, of North Carolina, 1 Minister to Spain, in the place of William A. Graham, late Governor of that noblf Whig State, who declined the office. Mr. Barringf.r has been long a dis ! tinguished member of Congress, and hii < appointment no doubt will, as it should , give general satisfaction throughout tht Union. 71 Mr. Saunders, our present Minister U 1 Spain, has bten recalle<l at his own re ~ quest. Nrw HAMF-sMisr.. ?The I^eislntur* on Wfdnes e day elected Thomas P. Treed well, Secretary o rl State, John Alwood, Trcnenrer, and Butterfiefd A Hill, State printers, the former incumbents. THE REPUBLIC. OFFICIAL. punbrbal ob8brvancrs in honor of bx-phrsidbnt polk. The President, with deep regret, announces to the American people the death of James K. Polk, late President of the United States, which occurred at Nashville on the 15th instant. A nation is suddenly called upon to mourn the loss of one, the recollection of whose long services in its councils will be lorever inscribed on the tablets of history. As a mark of respect to the memory of a citizen who has been distinguished by tiie Highest honors which his country could bestow, it is ordered that the Executive Mansion, and the several Departments at Washington, be immediately placed in mourning, and all business suspended during to-morrow. It is further ordered, that the War and Navy Departments cause suitable military and naval honors to be paid, on this melancholy occasion, to the memory of the illustrious dead. (Signed) Z. TAYLOR. Washington, June 19, 1849. State Department, June 19, 1849. In pursuance of the President's order of this day, the State Department will be immediately placed in mourning, and all business will be suspended during to-morrow. JOHN M. CLAYTON. Treasury Department, June 19, 1849. In pursuance of the President's order of this day, the Treasury Department will be immediately placed in mourning, and all business will be suspended during to-morrow. W. M. MEREDITH, Secretary of the Treasury. U. S. REVENtB MARINE. GENERAL ORDERS. Treasury Department, June 19, 1849. The President has, with deep regret, announced the death of James K. Polk, late President of the United States. As a tribute of respect to the memory of the deceased the officers of the Revenue Marine will weir the customary badges of mourning for the period of six months. At dawn of day 13 minute guns will be fired, and afterwards, at intervals of 30 minutes between the rising and setting sun, a single salute of 30 minute guns will be fired, on the day next succeeding the receipt of this order, by such vessel in commission, and'the colors hoisted at half mast. W. M. MEREDITH, Secretary of the Treasury. GENERAL ORDERS?No. 34. War Department, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, June 19, 1849. I. The following order of the President of the United States and Secretary of War communicate to the Army the death of the late Ex-President James K. Polk: The President, with deep regret, announces to the American people the death of James K. Polk, late President of the United States, which occurred at Nashville on the 15th instant. A nation is suddenly called upon to mourn the loss of one, the recollection of whose long services in its councils will be forever preserved on the tablets of history. As a mark of respect to the memory of a citizen who has been distinguished by the highest honors which his country could bestow, it is ordered that the Executive Mansion and the several Departments nt Washington be immediately placed in mourning, and all business be suspended during to-morrow. It is further ordered, that the War and Navy Departments cause suitable military and naval honors to be paid, on this occasion, to the memory of the illustrious dead. Z. TAYLOR. Washington, June 19, 1849. Was Department, June 19, 1849. The President of the United States, with deep regret, announces to the Army the death of James K. Polk, our distinguished and honored fellowcitizen. He died at Nashville, the 15th instant, having but recently left the theatre of his high public duties at this Capital, and retired to his home amid the congratulations of his fellow-citizens. He died in the prime of life, after having received and enjoyed the highest honors of the Republic. His administration was eventful. No branch of the Government will be more intimately associated with it in history than the Army and its glorious achievements. Accordingly, the President orders that appropriate military honors shall be paid to his memory by the. Army of the United States. The Adjutant General will give the necessary instructions for carrying into effect the foregoing Orders. G. W. CRAWFORD, Srcrrtary of War. II. On the day succeeding the arrival of this "firntrnl (hder" at .each military post, the troojis will lie jmraded at 10 o'clock, a. m., and the Order read to them; after which all labors for the day will cease. The National flag will be displayed at half-itiifl At dawn of day, 13 guns will l>e fired; and after- | wards, at intervals of thirty minutes tieiwean the rising and setting sun, a single gun; and at the close of the day, a national salute of 30 guns. The. officers of the Army will wear crape on the left firm and on their swords, and the colors of the several regiments will be put in mourning, for the period of six months. By order: R. JONES, Mj't Gm'L UPARRAIi ORDER. Navt DaeARTMENT, ./une 19, 1849. The President of the United States, with deep regret, announces to the Navy and to the Marine . Corps the death of Jamet K. Polk, our late distin^ guished and honored fellow-citizen. He died at Nashville, the lf?th inst.. having but ' recently left the theatre of his high public, duties at this Capital, and retired to his home amid the congratulations of his fellow-citizens. He died in the ) prime of life, after having received and enjoyed the highest honors of the Republic. ' His administration was eventful. The Navy and the Marine Corps, and their glorious achievements j. were intimately associated with its history. Acr cordingly, the President orders that appropriate military honors be paid to his inemOry at each of the Navy Yards and Naval Stations, and on board all the public vessels ill commission, by firing 30 minute guna, beginning at 12 o'clock, m., on Uie day after this communication is received; by carrying their flags halt-moat for one week, and by the officera wearing crape on the left arm for six months. WM. BALLARD PRE8TON. Post Ok net; Dkfaetment, Tuesday, June 19, 1H49. In testimony of respect for the memory of the late Ex-President Polk, who departed thia life on the 15th instant, it ia ordered that thia Department be closed, and the business of its several offices be suspended to-morrow, Wednesday, the 20th instant. J. COLLAMER, Postmaster General. Department op the Interior, Washington, June 19, 1849. As a mark of respect to the memory of the late James K. Polk, Ex-President of the United States, and in pursuance of an order of the President, the Department of the Interior, and the several bureaus thereof, will be immediately placed in mourning, and all business will be suspended during to-morrow, the 20th instant. T. EWING, Secretary. MUSIC AT THE CAPITOL. We are requested to state that, in consequence of the Capitol building being closed, on account of the death of Ex-President Polk, there will be no music at the Capitol grounds this evening. THE "EXPRESS" BUSINESS OP THE UNITED STATES. The Express business is one of the most r>nrmna nf A mormon on^ompiuoa vuiiv/un ui iiiixviivau ioi>o, i ucic are now three great houses in this country, to whom we owe the foundation and the advantage of this business. Wells & Co., Harnden & Co., and Adams & Co., whose principal offices are in the city of New York. These companies operate between Boston and New York, New York and Washington, and New York and Albany, Montreal, Buffalo, Cincinnati, and Chicago. They all have agents, who are travelling night and day over their lines, which not only connect these distant points, but have numerous off-shoots and branches to every town of consequence in the Atlantic and Western States. In New York they take orders from their customers to call and receive their packages. These are collected in wagons, and brought to the offices, receipted for, marked, entered on way-bills, and despatched by the first boat or railway train after receipt. The messengers travel with these goods, having iron safes, on board the steamers and railway cars, besides being well armed. The charges are v-ry moder ate, and the expedition is great. On Wells & Co.'s Northern and Western line large amounts of money are annually carried?at least the sum of twenty millions a year?consisting chiefly of the remittances and exchanges of banks, brokers, and merchants. This company pays about $100,000 per annum for freights, and about $'20,000 more to agents and clerks. They have, in the last two years, extended their operations abroad; and as they are, perhaps, more enterprising than com mon, they have established their own firms in Paris and London, and have agencies in all the principal towns of Europe, and an express line between New York and California, with a resident agent at Chagres >kf\/l Unnomo f n Porm Vw? tr Kotrn tkn itnui (lliw 1 41 II (XI I 1(1. Ill 1 (Xiao XII* y I I (X T Vy XII* IlllCtSl office in that city, and maintain a free reading room for the benefit of the Americans there. In London they have a place of business equally useful. They receive orders for the purchase and transportation of every kind of goods. They will carry a paper parcel as large as your hand, or fill a vessel with tons of freight. Money is remitted by them in all directions, drafts are bought and sold, collections made, and every advice and assistance given to travellers. The convenience of these arrangements is beginning to be felt by the public. The effect of these Express lines upon the business of the interior is a curious one. Instead of our country merchants purchasing heavy stocks in the spring and fall, they now purchase principally for cash, and all the time, whatever articles they want; thus proportioning their outlay to their business. One of the richest dealers in wool in the city of New York said, 1 he other dav. that with the Teleeranh and Express lines he did not want a store any longer. His immense operations were conducted in a small office. Both the late and present Secretary of the Navy have found these lines the most convenient and economical medium of forwarding their despatches to the Mediterranean; and we trust that they will, in time, be favorably noticed by all the Departments. Wrfrk on I?ake llnrnn. Detroit, Michioan, .Ame 17. Captain Gage, of the steamer Albany from Chicago, reports that the steumer New Orleans, while on her way up with a large number of steerage passengers, ran nard on a reef of rocks on Thursday evening last, on Sugar Island, in Thunder bay. The boat will prove a total wreck No lives were lost, the passengers being brought ashore in fishermen's boats. Her cargo was mostly saved with but little injury. The hull is lying up to the deck in water. The passengers were on the island waiting conveyance up the Lake. Cholera In M. I<onl?, St. Louis, .Awe 16 The cholera is increasing here. In nine came teries, on (he 14th, there were 87 interment* reported, 69 being of cholera; on the 15th, in seven cemeteries, 57 interments, 47 being of cholera. During the week ending Monday last, the number of interments, was 5JH2, 191 being of cholera. The weather is very warm. Qiiehec and Halifax Teleoraph.?The stock for the construction of the electric telegraph from Ciuehec to Halifax has been subscrilied for, and the line from Halifax to Father Point, on the St 1 jiwrence, is commenced.? hvfitdn ("mmerrial. NTATK OK PARTIKH IN KHANCE. In a letter from Paris, under date of May 24th, to the Courrier des Etatn-Ums, M. Gaillardet gives the following clear statement of the condition of parties, which the recent election has developed: " Hardly a month since die Moderate parly believed itself absolute master in France. It appealed to die coming elections for the confirmation of its triumph and the exclusion of its enemies from the parliamentary arena. The latter, sharing the same conviction in regard to their approaching doom, retarded as much as possible the grand test of the ballot-box. And lo! the hopes of the one and the appBehensions of the other have been alike deceived by the mysterious decree thut has gone forth from the electoral urn. This decree has thrown one party in France into a stupor of amazement, and another into an excess of exultation ; thai is to say, while the result leaves still a considerable majority to those who thought to have all, it has placed the minority, who did not hope for any thing, in a position more imposing, more formidable than ever. In a word, the Montagnard and Socialist party will count from two hundred and fifty to three hundred members among the seven hundred and fifty, who will compose the next Assembly. As a mere political opposition, this will be of less account than that which existed in the last Assembly, where the Assembly was evidently hostile to the opinions represented by the ministry ; but as a socialist symptom it is much more, because the actual opposition was simply democratic, while that of the new Assembly will do battle openly under the flag of Socialism, which now becomes a regular element constitutionally represented in that body, and on which consequently it will be necessary to reckon. The struggle must henceforth be between two extreme points. The intermediary party, represented by the National and the Siecle, has almost entirely disappeared, crushed as it has been between two mill-stones?adventurous progress and resistance to it the most deadly. " Party lines must now be more distinctly drawn. Yesterday, and there were people in plenty who dreamed of a return to effete institutions, whether for the profit of the empire, of the Orleans regency, or of legitimacy. All these dreams are on the eve of hemp- d'Hsinnted. and thev will leave but one secure O 1 ? J ground on which to find aaylum and safety?the ground of the Republic and the Constitution. "It is there that all the men of order must meet to abjure their resentments and contract alliances; to counteract the fusion of strength which the ranks of their adversaries have received. For some time Socialism has seen the Mountain coming to its embrace?the Mountain by which it was at first anathematized; to the Mountain has succeeded the katiunal, which has just shaken hands fraternally with the Peuplt of M. Proudhon. Every question having but two extremes, France must soon see itself divided into two camps: the one having property inscribed on its banner, and the other Socialism; which last is merely the antecedent of Communism. The future lying thus before us, it would be as great a fault to let such men as Cavaignac, Lamoriciere, and M. Dufaure, seperate from the camp of order, as it would be greatly criminal in them to refuse to enter it. If this sacred alliance of all the men of sincerity and of progress can be accomplished, its mission may lie briefly stated. It must resolutely take the initiaiive in all possible, all necessary reforms. It is with their own weapons that the Socialists must be resisted; and they must he deprived of their assumptions as the exclusive defenders of the popular classes." __________________ From the Alexandria Gazelle. Ia the opposition to the present Administration a jual or a reasonable oner This ia the question now before th' people of thin country for their consider* ation am) decision We omit any reference at this time to the other question, whether the lone and manner of the opposition can be excused?but we limit the inquiry to the interrogatory first out. Let it lie remembered that the opposition on the part of the leaders of the ejected dynasty was quite as intense and bitter on the fifth day of March as it is on the eighteenth of June. Some of the more wily presses, it is true, for a few days, pretended "to hope better things" for themselves and their friends from the President. But the veil was thin, awkwardly worn, and soon pulled off, as inconvenient and useless. The system of opposition was plant ed and organized in advance of any declaration of his course of policy by President Taylor, and tiefoie any action with regard to gubltc affairs was taken by himself or the Cabinet. It would have tieen the same had other gentlemen than those now occupying the 1 lends of Departments lieen selected foi those offices?and it would have Iteen just as intense and bitter had the removals from office been limited to a very few. Do we want proof of this? We refer to the files of the Union and its affiliated journals throughout the country. When Brown and McCalla were justly removed from of fir*, for gross and continued "interference with the freedom of election*," a* loud a wail went up, and as malignant comments were made, as if the "innocent*" had really been slain; and had these two alone been the "victims" of Executive reform, we should still have heard the shouts of "proscription," listened to the moans of affected grief, and been threatened with the retribution of indignant revenge We hold that an opposition thus contrived and planned, determined upon its course, per fax out ntftu, is not either just or reasonable, and ought to be discountenanced and condemned hy the American people. We. contend that, elected a* General Tay or has been, by the people of the country, without regard to sectional divisions, and in consideration of his life and conduct, and his illustrious services, it is but right he should have a fair trial, and not be subjected to the predetermined hostility of a political party, organized to break down and deatrny hia own fame and the character of hia Administration. Let ua have juatice. G neral Taylor himaelf, we know, aska no particular favors at the handa of hit opponents Coming into office the Preaident of the nation, he may not have expected that the leaders of the political party opf?o*ed to his election would have pursued precisely the course they have done. But their action docs not swerve him from the line of his duty. He has faith and confidence in his countrymen. From the Ptnnsylrimia Inquirer. A contemporary remarks that " anonymous letterwriting is nearly as l>ad as murder." This is strong language, but we really lielieve that, in some rases, this cowardly system of insult and annoyance has produced anxiety, illness, and death. We can conceive of nothing more atrocious than for an individual to sit down, coolly and deliberately, and inflict a stab upon the peace or reputation of another from behind a musk. We speak thus strongly, because we believe that many persons foolishly indulge in this vice, this crime, without an adequate conception of its enormity. They mistake for jest what is in reality malice. They attempt to deceive themselves into the lielief that they are only indulging a propensity for humor, when, in fact, they are giving vent to malignant and vindictive feelings Years ago we heard of a case in which a gentleman of thiM city was devotedly attached to his wife, who was hs pure and faithful a woman as ever breathed. A happier couple could not he found in society. Their very hnrmony of aoul and of sentiment annoyed some of the envious and malignant, or at least one of them, and an anonymous letter, artfully written, and assiduously assailing the. conduct of the wife liefore marriage, was addressed to the confiding huslmnd. He believed the allegations to l?e vile and alanderoue, and yet such was his nature that he was annoyed, inflamed, and maddened. He exhibited the dastardly epistle to the wife, and she, although entirely innocent, was unnble wholly to convince her husband. The wound, thus inflicted by a concealed hand, rankled ?distrust was caused?nnkindness and inattention followed?and finally a separation was determined upon. And all from an infamous anonymous letter ! What punishment too severe could be accorded to the author of such cowardly villany? Srvatob Rknton fob thb Pbmimvct.?A Locofoco convention in Walworth county, Wisconsin, have put up "Old Bullion" for the Presidency. KHUN THE GOLD HKGIONH. ' f > 4 The following teller, which we condense from the New Orleans Crescent of the 11th instant, will be read with interest by many of our readers: Correspondence of the Ma California. Sacramento citt, March 28, 1849. Winter, with its "heavy wet," is about over, and spring, warm, genial, and soothing, has opened upon Sacramento. A warm sun and mild southerly wind have, during the past month, worked wonders. The roads from this place to ditferent parts f of the placer are rendered passable, and communi- ( cation with all points is eusy and frequent. The spring season, "the opening of the ball," f having returned, spring trade may be considered fairly commenced; and this was announced last week by divers arrivals from, and sundiy departures for, the various "diggings" of the great placer. Fuck-horses und pack-mules, heaped upon by loads of supplies and merchandise, might have been seen grouped about stores and landing places, or jogging on along the rouds leading hence to the different mountain'"diggings.'' Gray clouds of dust in another direction proclaim fresh comers at hand, eager and sharp-set for trade Yesterday witnessed the arrival of schooners "Catherine" and "Antonila," each of forty tons burthen and upwards, and also of three launches at our Embacadelo, all from San Francisco; it also saw the depurture from the fort of eighteen or twenty heavily loaded ox wagons, all destined for the North Fork (American river) and Dry Diggings adjacent. But it is Stanislaus that has gathered the floating population of the mines during the last month: "Stanislaus," whose waters, it is said, have washed out the shining, beautiful gold, as it was never washed out before. The borders of this Stanislaus stream form an inexhaustibly rich portion of the placer, though because it is at this time "o'erflowing full," the heavier depositee cannot be reached, and labor generally is suspended in consequence. The Sierra Nevada, as seen from the Fort, is covered with snow. A sublime feature in the scenery of Sacramento ig this range of mountains , This great body of snow has yet to And the ocean through the various streams flowing to the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, and the waters must remain high until May or June. The general health of the mining community, and of our thriving Sacramento city in particular, remains good, although a number of cases of actual scurvy are reported in the several "diggings." An entire absence of vegetable food, and coarse, irregular diet, have produced this disease. Sacramento city is building up rapidly, and its "manifest destiny" is too perceptible to require comment. Its worn and crumbling Fort Sacramento has been con vtncu iniu an iiiuiicuac mart aiiu uusmeas centre. Houses are erected about us when the means of building are attainable, and canvass is substituted where not; it is by no means rare to see a frame house shingled with canvass hereabouts. The printing office ol the "Placet Times," a little "weekly," to be published here, is nearly completed, and the first number will be issued in a few days. The mania for making cities (on paper) in this section of country is quite as extravagant as that which pervaded the people of the Western Slates in 1837 and 1838. Several new town sites have ; been actually surveyed and regularly laid off, each claiming of course prior and superior advantages over each and all of its competitors. ' Among novelties, first and foremost, however, comes an application of the diving bell to gold gathering. This is seriously intended, and the bell is now being constructed at this place by the projector, a practical mill-wright, and who is very sanguine of success. Scuttles and "cradles" will be entirely superseded by this ponderous machine. Companies are forming, and making preparations to bring the hidden treasure within human grasp by diverting the course of the streams in many places from their natural channels. It is supposed immense wealth will be realized from the rivers' ? beds. In a few days this place will resume its wonted business bustle, when rare times are anticipated. We will have but little rain from this time until the setting in of another winter. Goods are plenty here, and the advance upon San Francisco prices is but proportionate with the times. Lumber is with the greatest difficulty obtained, although the Culloma suw-mill is running incessantly; eighty cents per foot is not balked at in many instances; we should marvel not to see it at one dollar. Horses are worth from ?200 to $300 each. Oxen bring $200 per yoke. Freight from this place to the Dry Diggings is $30 per hundred. Flour sells at $30. Beef on the hoof $45, (scarce,) and dried beef $75 per cwt., etc Board at this place, exclusive of lodging, is $20 per week. It would be well were one of those boarding-house vessels, advertised in the United States, to arrive. We would undertake to ensure her owners a fortune "up Feather river," as the saying goes. , FROM MKXICO. The schooner Renaissance arrived at New Orleans on the 11th instant, from Tampico, bnnging accounts from that port to the 23d ultimo, and from the city of Mexico to the 19th ultimo. We copy from the New Orleans Picayune all the news of importance: The war in the Sierra is yet far from being extinguished. An agreement to suspend hostilities had been signed by Gen. Bustamente and Don M. Verastegui, the latter in the name of Don E. Uuiros, a chief of the rebels, and the document hnd been brought to the capital by Col. Robles for the ap prov&l of the President. Subsequently, fresh hostile demonstrations had been made by the Indiana, in the direction of Sen Luia Potoai. The Miniater of Finance, Senor Arrnngotz, has submitted to Congress a project by which oermia- ' aion will be granted to foreign vessels calling at any of the Mexican porta, on their way to California, to ship passenger* and merchandise, under certain cuatom-house regulations. It will undoubtedly be adopted, and will facilitate commerce both in the Republic and the United Statea. Four steamer* and three sailing vessels, armed with S-pounder*. each having a crew of thirty men, are to be purchased for the protection of the roasts of Mexico, and for the prevention of smuggling. The project of uniting the two weans by a railroad from Vera Cruz to Acapulco has I wen adopted by the Senate, and is now before the Chamber of Deputies. ' There was a tremendous catastrophe at the mag- ? azines of the famous mines of La Luz, on the 8th . nit., caused by the explosion of 1,800 arrobas of gunpowder. A considerable quantity of property x was destroyed and many lives were loat. In various parts of the Sierra Gorda, hitherto freefrom commotion, there has been a general riac/W the Indiana, caused by the withdrawal of the government forces. The insurgents are directing tneir ? way to Guadalcazar. The whites were emigrating in crowds, and taking refuge in San Luis Potosi In Chihuahua the Apaches and other wild In- ' dians continue their ravagea. The appointment of Senor Lacunza to the office of Minister of Foreign Relations, has liecn received with great satisfaction by all ranks of tin population. I t I.. : :i ? mi rjnmivr privilege lor ten yoars nns net granted to Henor Don J. de la Qranja, for the estalvlishment of an electric telegraph throughout the Republic. Steamboat* will in the courae of a very short time?a month or two?be on the lakae in the vicinity of the capital. Much interaat in displayed by the population throughout Mexico, in the recent discovery of gold depoaiten in California; and on the Pacific coant considerable bodies of men have moved olf tow ard that territory. CoLowiitmn THr Aucslavp Isi.Awn*.?We learn from the late English papers that the subject of the Health Hen Whnb Fishery is exciting considerable attention in England. It in represented that the % fact that the United States have fiOrt vessels engaged in that trade, while England has less than twenty > the southern whaling-grounds, has for some time been felt as a reproach to that country, and llntish enterprise is now about to attempt further efforts in the antipodean seas. It is suggested that the want of n proper station tins been a cause of delay ; but Mr. Enderhy, late M. P. for Greenwich, whose name is already associated with sntarrtir discovery, has just obtained a grant of the Auckland Islands, on condition that government be. called on for no portion of the incident expense. Thin group of islands lien to the south of New Zealand, and is said to be well suited for a depot, both as regards climate and situation ; and a successful trade is anticipated, as the vessels engaged in the capture of whales will be soared the long voyage to Fiu-lm d as at present. No special inducements sre to be held out to colonists, as it is believed that a enmmknity will naturallv eatablish itaelf in the islands in course of time. Mr Enderhy himself will go out to superintend the arrangementa.?Ronton Journal. Tiif A?tos PiArr Riot. We understand tha' the grand jury have indicted four persons for being , concerned in the Isle riot, and two of them have I teen arrested and held to bail.?N. V. Mirror.