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The republic. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1849-1853, June 28, 1849, Image 2

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' ameter, the fire lube* four feel in diameter, and the
! lengths being 34 feet.
The following regulation# were adopted, viz :
The coals were weighed out every twelve hours.
The clinkers and ashes were weighed every
twelve hours.
The temperature of the feed-water was taken
. every hour, day and night.
The water was measured by a metre into the
boilers, and the counters were taken every twelve
hours ; the counters of the engine being taken every
twelve hours also ; for as the weight lifted by the
I engine every stroke was the same, its working
formed an admirable check upon the other observations.,
1 made several experiments u[K>n the consumption
' of fuel with different quantities of air adfoitled into
' the due through the bridge, and the one recorded
was the best, each opening in this case being equal
to nine square inches, or in the aggregate 27 square
I inches.
The two experiments recorded in detail were,
first, with three boilers, without the new furnace;
and secondly, the same boilers with the new furnace.
The coals used were smutl Newcastle cools, of
iq/trior quulity.
Report upon mi liupl?> tiucut In SileaiuBoiler
Furuurri, by Henry V linker, of
Boiton, N*?w< liu>rlt>i by Tliomu Wlck leed,
Civil Kuglnttr, Hon. Mem. Royal
Cornwall Polytechnic Society, etc., Jnut
41, 184H.
New York, Sept. 1, 1848.
Sir: 1 have perused with much interest Mr.
Wicksteed's report on the new steam boiler furnace,
which you kindly presented to me yesterday.
I congratulate Colonel Baker, and, indeed, every
one connected with steam, that you have succeeded
in bringing this important improvement under the
notice of Mr. Wicksteed.
As engineer ot one of the principal railroads
of England, which intersects the East London
water-works, I became personally acquainted with
that gentleman several years ago. He is a man remarkable
for accuracy and system in all matters
relating to engineering?so much so, that on a
practical subject, like Colonel Baker's furnace, 1
would submit to his decision in preference to that of
any other engineer in England.
It was to be expected that Mr. Wicksteed would
make a report accurate in every respect, and leaving
no important point undecided ; but I confess I was
not prepared for so much liberality towards the inventor.
Mr. Wicksteed might very properly have
terminated his report by staling that he had ascer
laineu tne saving to oe u .ou per ceni. tie uoes
not do so, however, but intimites that but few boilers
are of such a perfect construction as those he
tried Colonel Baker's improvement against. This,
unquestionably, is the main feature in the matter.
Colonel Baker's improvement does not call for a
fresh outlay of millions; he takes our imperfect
boilers as they are, and applies his furnace^und effects,
simply by the introduction of a more perfect
combustion, wrhat we now attempt to effect by a
costly, bulky, and complicated structure.
I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. Amort, Esq.
Upon the 6th uIl, Mr Amory, agent of the trustees
of Baker's Furnace, called upon and showed
me drawings of the above furnace, and gave me a
pamphlet to read which contained a general description
of the furnace, and also certificates from
several American engineers, testifying the great
economy in fuel obtained wherever the new furnace
had been introduced; and wished to have my
opinion as to its superiority over the furnaces in
general use.
I told him that the introduction of "the semi-elliptical
chambers or retorts," (instead of straight
bridges,) causing "the fire" to be "reverberated
upward and backward," was new to me; and that,
inasmuch as it checked the draft and retained the
heat for a longer period at that part of the boiler
where it would produce the greatest etfect, I thought
a great saving might be obtained over the furnaces
in ordinary use.
That, in fact, by this plan, it appeared to me that
a simple cylindrical boiler of 30 or 40 feet in length,
with the chimney immediately at the end of the
Jirst flue, the same effect would be produced as in
the Cornish boilers, where the flues were carried,
through the inside of the boiler to the farthest
end, thence along the sides, externally, to the front,
nnH ihpnrp imrk no-nin nlnna thp unri<-r riHa r%f f
boiler, to the chimney; the flame or heated air
having, therefore, to traverse the boiler three times;
and that, if this were the case, the saving in ihe
first outlay upon boilers and buildings would be very
considerable, in addition to the annual saving in
Mr. Amory was very desirous that I should try
the new furnace upon the Cornish boilers belonging
to the East London Water-works Company.
1 suggested that, as the principle of slow combustion
had been carried out so much farther than usual
in the furnaces at Old Ford, it would scarcely be a
fair trial, because the combustion was already so
slow, that while the fire-doors were open for firing,
the flame and smoke came out into the stoke-hole ;
but that, if he was determined to have a trial made,
he must not expect the saving, if any, to be at all
equal to that obtained by the introduction of the
new furnace into works of the ordinary construe- J
tion. He, however, resolved to have the trial
made ; and the result has proved that a consider- i
able saving has been effected, and that he was,
therefore, wiae in trusting to this trial.
I may here observe, that the statements published 1
in the pamphlet referred to, showing the very great j
saving effected in America, should not be rejected j
without examination, because they show very great I
4 and, perhaps, to some, almost incredible results.
The question is npt what per cmlagt of saving has
been effected, but what is the amount of the ultimate
result obtained. If this be greater than experience
has hitherto shown, there may be some reason for
doubt; if it be not, why should the statements of
saving be considered incredrbler Now it appears
that at three trials, made at three different works?
viz., 1st, at Messrs. Hey wood & Carrie's establishment,
in Charlestown; 2d, at the dry dock, navyyard,
at Charlestown; 3d, at the Portsmouth Cotton
Mills?the weight of water evaporated from
/ 212? was, be/ore ana after the introduction of the
Patent furnace, respectively, as follows :
Btfort. 'IfltTNo.
1?7.367 11 890, showing a saving tn
fuel of 61 per cent.
No. 2?7.558 8.782, showing a saving in
fuel of 16 per cent.
No. 3.?6 260 8.500, showing a saving in
fuel of 35 percent.
In the two first experiments, the coals used were
anthracite, and the mean of the two trials will show
that 10.336 lb. of water were evaporated from a
temperature of 212? by 1 lb. of antnraritg coal; in |
my exfieriinents, published in 1841, 10 203 !h. of
water were evaporated from a temperature of 212?
by 1 lb. of anthrncite coal. According to the first !
report of the Royal Commissioners "upon coals
suited to the steam navy," lately published by Parliament,
it appears in table No 6, page 15, that they
found that ] lb. of anthracite coal evaporated 9 46
lb. of water from 212?; and they furtner observe,
that a Cornish boiler may evaporate 20 per cent. I
more than the one used by them in their trials. If I
this be correct, the water evaporated would be (see
Table X., appendix to ihetr report) equal to 11.34
lb. Now, taking the average of my experiment,
the commissioners, and the Cornish, the result will
give a mean of 10.331 lb , which happens to be
identical with the mean of the two Amt-m-an tria's
As regards No 3, the description of coals ta notgiven;
and in (he account of the trial made at the Eagle
furnace, in Albany, the work done previous to the
introduction of the new furnace is not given, and
therefore no comparison can be made; nor should
1 be satisfied with the accuracy of a result obtained
upon so shorts trial as one of thirteen hours' duration.
As the ultimate amount of evaporation, given
in the three experiments quoted, is therefore not
improbable, there can l<e no reason for rejecting
those statements bfxautf the saving obtained is so
considerable, even as much as 37 per cent upon the
average of the three trials.
Having undertaken to try the effect of the new
furnace, as regarded the saving of fuel to be obtained,
I have been several weeks prosecuting the inquiry,
which wns fierliapsa longer time than might
be considered necessary; but having from experiener
ascertained that tkorl experiments are comparauvely
valueless, I would not undertake to give an
opinion without ample time being allowed me-, and
when it ia considered that a variation in the qunlity
of coals from the sume heap, their state <>f dryness,
the level of the water in the boiler at the beginning
and termination of an experiment, (which, in s
high-pressure boiler, and when supplying a steamengine.
is, from the oscillation that takes place,
very difficult to determine with accuracy,) the slate
of combustion of the fuel at the beginning and end
of atrial, the temperature of the feed-water, Ac.,
may and do lead to the most erroneous conclusions,
I think it will appear evident that but little
reliance can be placed upon short trials, and that
wnerr weir nrr >) m.iny poirim iu uv cumunjf mtended
to, the longer the duration of the experiment*
the greater will lie the accuracy obtained. The
ihortnesi of the trial*, made preriotu to the adoption
of an invention, account* tor the constant disappointment*
that manufacturer* are exponed to, when
after expending large *um* of money with the view
of obtaining an advantage, they find, after a longer
trial and further experience, they have not obtained
the promoted advantage*. A *hort trial laiherefore
an injuance to the manufacturer, and it m equally ao
to the honeat inventor, whose plan* may thu* be rejeeted
on' too alight grounda I have made theae
remark* at thi* length, in order to *ati*fy the panic*
for whom I have been making the experiment*
herein reported; and,although I have been cautiooa
in experimenting, and perhaps also alow in Moving
that any aaving of lue! could lie made by introducing
their furnace into the boiler* in question,
nevertheleaa this precaution will be of ad vantage to
them, for I think they may fairly conclude hereafter
that, 'if in some instances no l*ncfit i* derived from
the introduction of their furnace, in *ttrh case* the
failure may he attributed to aonic other cauae than
a defect in the invention.
The experiment* were tried upon three Corni*h
boilers, tht outer case# being six feet %ix inches di
Si ii
' = S Sv2
? ? .
: a? s*
te- 5 c a
| ?0 c u- .
I. Duration of experiment ! 207 hours 108hours, j
'2. Coals consumed - 64,940 lb. 31,64*2 lb.
3. Ditto, per hour - - 313 lb. *293 lb. {
4. Water evaporated - - 449,3*20 lb. 243,680 lb.
5. Ditto, per hour - - 1 *2,170 lb. 2,256 1b. ;
6. Temperature of water be- J
fore entering: boilers - I 95.5? 90? j
7. Water evaporated per lb. |
of coals from initial
temperature - - 6.919 lb. 7.701 lb. j
8. Ditto from 21*2? (latent
heat 1000?) : - 7.7*25 lb. 8.640 lb.
9. Clinkers made - - '2.597 lb. 1.4*28 lb. j
10. Ditto, per hour - 12.5 13 lb. j
11. Per centage of clinkers i
to coals used - - 4 p. c. 4.5 p. c.
12. Ashes made - - - | 1.298 lb. 731 lb.
13. Ditto, per hour - - 6.25 lb. 6.75 1b.
14. Per centagc of ashes to ,
coals used - - - 2 p. c. 2.33p.c.
15. Coals minus clinkers and
ashes- - - - 61.045 1b. 29.483 1b.
16. Water evaporated per lb. \
of coals minus clinkers
and ashes from initial '
temperature - - 1 7.360 lb. 8.265 lb.
17. Ditto, from 212? - - j 8.217 lb. 9.273 lb.
A reference to the fifth line in this statement will
show that the quantity of water evaporated per
hour was somewhat greater with than icithout the
furnaces; but it should be remarked that, had it ;
been necessary to work with the dampers wide j
open before this invention was applied, this could
not have been the case, as there is no doubt that a t
greater draft will be necessary where the new furnaces
are applied, and in this case it became neces- :
sary to open the dampers wider.
The seventh line shows that, when taking the I
coals from the heap, without the furnaces, 1 lb. of,
coals evaporated 7.725 lbs. of water from 212?, and ,
urilh the furnaces, 8-640 lbs. of water, or 11.8 per i
cent, more than without. And the seventeenth line '
shows, when taking the coals, minus the clinkers \
and ashes, that, icithoul the furnace, 1 lb. of coal
evaporated 8.217 lbs. of water from 212?, and with
the furnaces 9.273 lbs. of water, or 12.8 per cent,
more than without.
In the experiments I tried, for the purpose of as- !
certaining what sized opening for admission of air
would produce the best effect, I found when any of
the air-holes in the bridges were increased rather
more than one-third beyond those recorded, (27
square inches,) that the reduction in effect was 5J
per cent., and when reduced rather less than onethird,
the reduction in effect was 2 J per cent, as regards
economy in fuel; it would appear, therefore,
that the areas recorded are about the best.
Jfter this trial, which exhibits a saving of 11.6
per cent, of fuel in the Cornish boilers, 1 can have
no hesitation in declaring, that the saving of 37 per
cent, upon the average, stated to have been effected
in the American establishments, has been effected,
and that there are numberless cases in Great Britain
where a similar saving might be produced.
1 have thus far reported upon the advantages of
the invention as an economizer of fuel, and not as a
smoke-consumer or preventer ; for although the
smoke is undoubtedly diminished, not only on account
of the reduction in the quantity of coals used,
| but owing to the air admitted through the bridge ;
I yet there was not a fair opportunity of testing its
j merits as a smoke-consumer or preventor, on ac|
count of the arrangement of the flues of these boilers.
1 believe, however, that with the one straight
flue to the chimney, as in the American furnaces, a
much greater reduction would be effected. It may,
perhaps, be as well to remark, here, that the gen- ;
erality of boilers and furnaces are so badly con- I
structed that the waste of fuel and consequent
increase of smoke is enormous. In any case, therefore,
where the only objection to using any apparatus
for the purpose of consuming or preventing
smoke is the extra cost of fuel, this would be more
than compensated for by an improvement in the
furnaces and boilers ; and if a reduction of fuel were
effected by introducing slow combustion generally,
I have no doubt there would be an average saving
of 30 per cent, of fuel in the manufacturing establishments
of this kingdom. This would cause an
actual reduction of smoke in proportion to the fuel;
but there is also no doubt that the reduction of black I
smoke evolved from the chimney* would be in a
much greater proportion thah the reduction in the
quantity of coals, in consequence of the slow combust
Engine er.
East London Water-works,
Old Ford, June 21, 1848.
Job Cutler, of Birmingham, civil engineer, for
I "certain imororemtnls in welded iron pipes or tubes to
be used as the flues of steam-boilers.?Granted January
13?Enrolled July 13, 1848.
The object of the patentee is to produce lapwelded
iron tubes or pipes, so formed as to give inj
creased strength to those part* whieh are exposed
to wear, without additional weight to the entire
length of the tube, and thereby to obviate the evils
to which boiler tubes are st present exposed. He
makes the internal diameter of the tube greater at
one end than at the other, instead of its being the
same, or uniform throughout, as has hitherto been
the case; the external diameter remaining, however,
the same, and uniform throughout the entire
length of the tube. The tube will, of course, be
cylindrical upon the exterior, and conical upon the
interior surface The increased thickness of metal
at the one end is to be drawn from the remaining
nortinn of the enlire length of the int?e Anrl fur.
titer, toe operation i? effected at one heat, ao that
the ductility of the iron of which the tube* are composed
shall remain unimpaired.
The modus i/ptraruh is aa follows: The patentee
employs a aeries of grooved rolls, moved by suitable
toothed wheels and a mandril, with a conical bulb
or head, the stem of which is of increasing diameter
towards the opposite end. The skelp, after
being properly prepared, as is usual in the manufacture
or lap-welded iron tubes, is heated and passed
between the first of the series of rolls. It is
then welded over the conical bulb, and forced, at
the same time, over the stem of the mandril This
mandril is held by a grip, attached by a hinge thereto
in a stop, ao aa to allow of its being lowered and
passed, after the conical bulb has been removed between
tne second series of rolls, the diameter of the
groove of which is smaller than that of the first series.
The tube, wub the mandril still inside, is
then passed through the third series of rolls, the
groove of which is smaller than that of the second
series. The object of these successive rollings, after
the ekelp has been welded on the mandril, is to
remove any irregularities upon either of the surfaces,
and to make the edges of the tube perfectly
smooth and uniform. The tube is then taken to
the drawing bench, in front of which is a stop, and
against which the pipe rests. The stop is furnish
ed with a hole to allow of the paaaage of the grip
of the mnndril, which la held by a pair of pliera;
and, the bench being made to move while the pipe
remain* atationarv, the mandril i? withdrawn.
When it happen* that the mandril adhere* too lightly
to the tube, it la propoaed to heat it in a muffle or
bitnare, then to cool the end which reat* againat
the *inp, and repeal the above operation, or to roll
it cold Iteiween three roller*, aa ta ueually done in
atraightening shafting?Ihid.
Improttmmtn in thf makr of Iron ?The astonishing
increase in the produce of the furnace* in the
bituminoii* diatriet, take* it* origin from the application
of aienrn arid engine power, to the production
of a continuous stream or pillar of blast, in place of i
the puffing of the old-fashioned wind bellows, and, j
furtner, to a discovery of my highly-valued friend, j
Anthony Hill, esq., of the Plymouth Works, Merthyr-Tydvil.
It is to the science, energy, and research
of this gentleman, that the iron-trade is
indebted for the practical discovery that the cinders
produced in the various stages of converting, in
our forges, crude or cast-iron into wrought or malleable
iron, were capable of being resmelted and reconverted
in the blast-furnace, and the iron they
contained (amounting to 50, 60, and 70 per cent.)
profitably extracted from them. These cinders
were formerly thrown away aa refuse, or used only
for the repair of our roads and thoroughfares?they
are now eagerly sought after, and purchased at
values as high as some of our richest iron ores.?
To Mr. Hill a debt of public gratitude, and something
more, is due, which I should rejoice to see
properly acknowledged and paid. Mr. Yates, of
Rotnernaro, Yorkshire, has at his works at Wingerworth,
near Chesterfield, erected blast-furnaces
of an entirely different construction from those
in use in this district, and the plan of which he
has patented. They are about 520 feet in height,
of a peculiar shape, and are blown with a soft fanblast.
When I visited them, a few months ago,
they were working admirably, and producing excellent
pig-iron, at the rate of 120 tons and upwards
in a week, at each furnace. These furnaces, and
their blowing apparatus and appendages, appeared
to me ho simple and inexpensive ot construction in
comoai ison with the huge piles of masonry and
ponderous machinery of our blast-furnaces and
engines in Wales, that I imagined they would
create a perfect revolution in the iron trade. In
the anthracite districts of our mineral basin, the
improvements effected by the late Mr. Crane, and
the application by him of hot blast to the smelting
of iron with anthracite coal, were acknowledged,
certainly not more gratefully than they deserved to
be, by those who are interested in the mineral productions
of the anthracite districts, wherein the deposit
of ironstone or ore is enormous, but its reduction
with its acompanying fuel almost new. The
recent improvements of Mr. J. Palmer Budd,
adopted at his extensive works at Ystalyfera, near
Neath, and patented by him, are worthy of the
greatest attention. Mr. Budd, who read an admirable
paper explanatory of his improvements, to the
chemical section of the meeting at which my uddress
was delivered, and with the kindest liberality
invited the members of the association to visit and
inspect his works, has succeeded in economizing
the use and consumption of an expensive and valuable
fuel, and in preserving from positive waste,
and applying to profitable use, volumes of heat
evolved in the process of smelting, heretofore allowed
to escape.?Engineer and Architects Journal.
Hnr.. ComparaVesaele.
Tons. Builders. _?_.r Engin'r. live powP?wer
er to
Termagant 1600 White 620 Seaward 1 to'2J
Encounter 900 Fincham 300 Penn 1 to 3
Plumper 480 " 60 Miller 1 to 8
The Plumper, achooner-rigged, with guns and
tores on board, was first out of harbor, soon fol*
lowed by the Encounter, with no stores or guns?
the three lower masts in, but no other spars on
board ; her draft of water 11 feet 1 inch forward,
13 feet 4 inches aft. She was followed by the Termagant,
having only one of her lower masts, (the
foremast;) she drew fifteen feet forward, and 17 feet
4 inches aft. She made with her engines 33 revolutions,
which, with a multiplying power of 2, gave
66 revolutions per minute to her screw?her engine
kept a terrible noise, but this will decrease wnen
the engine has been used for some time.
The three steamers were first tried along the measured
mile in Stokes Bay. The Encounter did the
nautical mile in six minutes, and the Termagant was
something more than that time in running the distance.
The Encounter made good ten knots per
hour, and the Termagant, eight knots nine-tentns.
The speed of the Plumper, with her auxiliary power
of only 60 horse, could not be expected to compete
with the other vessels; she made something
better than six knots. They were now tried, starting
from the Powerful, at Spithead, and going round
a vessel anchored at the Motherbank, three times.
Their relative steam was in this trial about the
same, the Encounter making ten knots, and the Termagant
nine. The Board of Admiralty visited each
of these steamers while at Spithead, and minutely
watched and inspected the working of the engines ;
on the whole, the Encounter was the favorite vesael.
At three, p. m., the Encounter and Termagant
returned into harlior, and the Plumper soon followed.?
The .frtizan.
sjurvetor of the customs.
William Y. Leitch, Charleston, South
Carolina, vice Myer Jacobs, removed.
The L'nivn, a few days since, contained
a leading article headed "An Age of Brass
and a Brazen Face." Never was there a
more appropriate exordium to such an essay.
In this article it alludes to a statement
made by our highly esteemed contemporary?the
National Intelligencer?
to the effect that Count Bulow, President
Gagern, and M. Duckwitz, had expressed
their satisfaction with the course
adopted by the Secretary of State and the
Administration. To this the Union re
"Very likely Mr. Clayton and the Cabinet played
directly into their handa. In their zeal to disgrace
the preceding Democratic ad mi mat ration,
and to show to the struggling patriots of Europe
that they had nothing to expect irom the friendship
of the American Government, they had unwittingly
played into the hands of the Kirig of Prunsia in Ins
scheme to break up the German Empire, in the iuo
ceaaful establishment of which he saw an ultimate
confederated republic. Truly, both he and his
ministers should have (men gratified when they saw
their own (mind scheme eo efficiently aided by the
gross blunder of the American Administration, committed
in its zeal to reflect upon its predecessor, and
to discourage the popular cause in Europe Besides,
even if they really had any particular desire
to build up a navy for Germany, monarchists aa
they were, and in favor of the old state of things, (hey
were willing to forego the lesser advantage for the
greater one, of having (he American Government
on their side against the popular movement, which
ihey had the greatest interest in suppressing "
These remarks prove one of two thingsthat
the Union has never read the corre
spondence recently published between
Baron RoEwnE and the Secretary of State,
or that it is guilty of wilful misrepresentation.
The distinct allegation of the Union
in the same article that Messrs. Bulow,
Gagern,and Duckwitz, were "distinguished
ministers of the King of Prussia," betrays
either gross inaccuracy of information
or gross audacity in misstatement.
Of the latter quality we can never suspect
a journal which rejoices so in moral issues
as the sole organ of the Opposition.
n : j a t' * * i f 1/
rr'hiunii wa'.kk^i h mimnifrui mc j*ing
of Prussia! President Gagf.rn was the
president of the Frankfort Parliament, and
a* such at the head of the Liberty party in
Germany. This is the noble patriot who,
with one hundred other true friends of
German liberty, has now removed from
Frankfort-on-the-Main to Stuttgart, in
Wirtemburg, where he stands almr4fc as
conspicuous m Hancock was in the days
of our Revolution, at the head of the party
defending popular rights.
M. Duckwitz a minister of the King
of Prussia ! M. Duckwitz wait the minister
of Commerce and Marine of the German
Confederation?not the minister of
; the King of Prussia.
Both President Gageiim and M. Duckwitz,
as well as all other true friends of
German rights who are known to have expressed
themselves on the subject, have
declared that they entirely and highly approve
the course pursued by Mr. Clayton,
under the neutral policy of the Administration.
This is not the approval the President
sought?it comes unsolicited. He
desired only the approbation of the American
people. He has obtained not only
their approbation, but that of parties which
L ~ J* I A. l!_!x I !i * L!_ A.
lie uiu itui somcii, oecause u is ins amy 10
execute the laws of his own country without
reference to the favor with which his
policy may be received abroad. If our
policy had been as odious to the German
authorities, as that of President Washington
or that of Mr Secretary Jefferson
was to Citizen Genet, that fact would not
have disturbed the course which President
Tatlor and Mr. Secretary Clayton felt
it their duty to adopt.
The policy of the Administration on one
great subject of national interest may be
stated in two brief phrases : in our domestic
relations, concord?in our foreign relations,
amity and neutrality. In the words
of an English philosophical statesman,
" The proposition is peace. Not peace
through the medium of war ; not peace to
be hunted through the labyrinth of intricate
and endless negotiation ; not peace to
arise out of universal discord, fomented
from principle in all parts of the empire ;
not peace to depend on the judicial determination
of perplexing questions, or the
precise marking of the shadowy boundaries
of a complex government. It is simple
peace ; sought in its natural course and
in its ordinary haunts. It is peace sought
in the spirit of peace, and laid in principles
purely pacific."
If the Union is very solicitous to learn
our commission to proclaim this as the
policy of the Administration, it may consult
the first Alison letter, the inaugural of
President Taylor, and the correspondence
between Baron Roenne and Mr. Clayton,
in regard to the war steamer, the United
In its published prospectus the Union
announced itself, a few weeks since, as
the "sole organ" of the "Democratic party"
at the seat of the Federal Government.
This is an interesting relation to a
great party. We suppose it is all right.
But we are somewhat distressed at the
equivocal appearances of the "sole organ;"
and we are a little desirous to see the commission
that constitutes the Union what it
purports to be. We are not in the habit of
asking or answering impertinent inquiries,
but since the Union seems to have a penichant
for the witness-box, we suppose it
will submit itself, without reluctance, to a
little cross-questioning. It is a very Yan- |
kee fashion, the Union knows, to answer 1
u.. iL
unc ijucsuuii uy jiuuuig auuuier.
Will the Union have the kindness, then,
to produce the papers? I^et us have a look
at the parchment and the wax. Where
are the credentials by virtue of which it
claims to be the sole organ, or any sort of
an organ, of the Democratic party ? It is
obvious that we cannot treat with it in its
assumed character, unless it shows fair and
honest title to the position it assumes.
Once more: Of which wing of the Locofoco
party does it claim to be the sole
organ ? Is it the sole organ of Mr. Calhoun
and his followers, or are they without
the pale of the great Democracy ? Is
it the sole organ of Mr. Benton and his 1
friends; and, if so, why is it afraid to say
Mr. Benton in its columns? Is it the sole
organ of that "sweet little fellow," Mr.
Van Burin, and the "virtuous" B. F.
Butler, and the coalition of Barnburners
and Locofocos in Wisconsin, Vermont,
Connecticut, and New York? ? If yea, why
does it not republish the coalition resolutions
of the New York Locofocos, and the !
elegant extracts from the Union of 1848, 1
discussing the merits of a certain "disgust- '
ing coalition" which took place about a
twelvemonth since? Or is it the sole organ
of the Locofocos who have been turned
out of office ? If so, how happens it that
even some of them repudiate it t We un
derstand that Mr. Eli Moore himself no
longer swears by the Union; and, by the
following letter, which we copy from its
columns of yesterday, we find that it has
undertaken to speak for at least one re- i
moved Locofoco without authority:
Coumsna, Mist., June 15, 1849.
To Ik* FdUor? of tit Union:
Gcmti.kmrn : Or observing, a few daya since,
the official notice of my removal from the office of
United States attorney for the northern district of
Mississippi, I immediately addressed a note to the
editor of the Democrat of this place, requesting
him not to indulge in crimination or complaint on
account of my ejection My reasons stated for
such a request were these: Viewing the course of
the Administration, I anticipated that which has
occurred the more certainly, as I had positively refused
the assistance of many leading Whigs in the
district, voluntarily tendered, to retain me in the
place ; and that I was unwilling to become the object
of newspaper notoriety or controversy about a
matter of so little personal interest to me. Judge, ,
then, of my regret on observing the very kindlyintended
article about myself which appeared in
your paper of the'8th inst To correct the mistakes
of that article?liesed upon incorrect information?is
the object of thia communication
It is true, I commanded a comfiany from this
place about nineteen months during tnr war with
Mexico. 1 was not amongst the first' to rush to
the rescue, my health at that time preventing. ,
Neither was I a inemltas of the first Mississippi
regiment, nor at the battfts of Monterey and Buenu
Via ta.
I would further atale, that I know of no unusual
bond of sympathy that ever existed between Qen.
Taylor and the regiment to which I was attached.
He certainly waa under no obligations to me, unless
experience shall have taught hint that those were
his best friends who labored most assiduously to
prevent his occupying the seat he now does. 1 do
not censure the Administration for its course towards
me, as I conceive I have no personul cause.
Again expressing my repugnance to this character
of notoriety, permit me to add my grateful acknowledgments
for your kind intentions.
If it is not the sole organ of any one of
nQpfiau i u if f Ko unlo or/vn n rvf IV/I r
kMvuv ma a v ov/iv ui an Ui mi
Cass?who differs a little in his views
from both Mr. Benton an^Mr. Van Buhen
Again: A section of the Locofoco party
is in favor of Harbor and River Improvements?a
section is opposed to them. Of
which of these interests is the Union the
sole organ ?
Once more: A portion of the Locofoco
party is in favor of modifying the Tariff.
The Pennsylvania Locofocos, Dallas and
all, went in for the Tariff of 1842. A
portion of the Locofocos is opposed to any
change in the Tariff. Of which of these
interests is the Union the sole organ ?
Now if the Union is not the sole organ
of any one of these interests, how can it be
the sole organ of all of them put together ?
If it pares off all of them from the party
of which it claims to be the sole organ,
how much of that party is^ft ? Or, by
wnat autnority does tne union issue its
I own manifesto o( principles or dogmas,
and by virtue of its " sole organism " undertake
to reorganize the Locofoco party
on a basis which no one section of it has
sanctioned, and in which no one section
of it acquiesces ?
We perceive the difficulties under which
the Union labors, and our respect for the
unfortunate induces us to sympathize with
its afflictions. It is unpleasant to measure
! a neighbor's pretensions by the realities
of his case, and find them so far from coincidence.
The organism to which the
Union can lay just claim seems to be only
a sort of residuum of its relation to the
late Administration. It seems to be playing
the part of an executor in his own
wrong, with the effects of a subverted
dynasty; and as far as it can realize any
thing out of such unsubstantial properties
^as broken laws and unpaid debts, we have
no disposition to interfere with it.
The Union will please to take notice,
that the " country demands " an answer
to the several interrogatories that we have
propounded. And it will please to observe,
further, that unless it gives us categorical
answers, and produces the documents, it
will subject itself to several severe inflictions,
not the least severe of which will
be our own serious displeasure. The
Union must produce the credentials constituting
it the " sole organ " of the entire
Locofoco party, while it is repudiated by
every section of it?or own that it does
not possess the credentials. In the latter
case, it is obvious enough that it will not
be worth while for us to waste time in
discussing its assertions or its denials, or
to ask it any more questions. Assertions,
denials, statements, or arguments, in the
Union's eyes, can be of no manner of
value in political discussions, unless the
disputants come before the public with
?U J
collars auiy inscrioea?
" I'm Bobby Shafton's dog,?
Whoae dog arc you?"
Since the Union is in the catechizing
vein, we suppose it is as ready to answer
as it is to ask questions. Now, we have
a serious inquiry to put to the "sole organ"
of Locofocoism at the seat of Government.
A few days since the Union
called President Taylor a "Nero." Yesterday,
in its leading article, it called him
"an honest old soldier." We wish to
know by which of these opinions it intends
to stand.
If we know the particular Nero to whom
the Union refers, he was any thing but
an none01 oia soiaier. Me was an old
fiddler. He was an old debauchee. He
was an old murderer. He kicked one of
his wives and killed her He caused an
other of them to be put to death. He assassinated
his mother. He poisoned sundry
of his friends and counsellors. All
this he did before he reached his thirtyfirst
year, when he died by his own hand.
This is the gentleman of whom the Union
declares that Gen. Taylor is another of i
the same kind.
We therefore call on the Union to ex- 1
plain. Did it call General Taylor a Nero
in a Pickwickian sense? Or is the Union
really under the impression that Nero was
"an honest old soldier?" We pause for a
We understand that, by a new regula- j
tion which has been adopted at the Phila- i
delphia mint, with the concurrence of the
secretary ot the treasury, and which is
to take effect on and after the first of July,
gold combined with silver will be parted
at such rates as will yield an increased
return to depositors. The California gold,
for example, will pay about a half of one
per cent, more than heretofore, and the
return upon pale doubloons, Bechtler's
coins, and most of the gold of North Carolina,
will be somewhat greater.
The sole organ of the Opposition cannot
conceal its disgust at the mode in
which removals are about to be made. It
understands that printed circulars are to be
issued, and this reminds it of lettrea de
cachet and the Bastile. It calls for a copy
of the circular. It is very difficult to take
the sting out of a removal from office.
Suppose it were to come in the shape of a
billet doux, does the Union imagine it
wpuld be any the more agreeable? Does the
sole organ imagine that men in their senses
are to be moved by such arrant nonsense?
To set this matter right and at rest forever,
we will copy the paragraph of the
Premeditated Proscription.?We are informed
thai the heads of Departments have had a large
number of blanks primed, to be used for notices to
those clerks, and other persons in office, whom
they design to remove. We understand that this
is tne first time in the history of our Government
when prinltd notices have been required by lite urgency
of proscription, and the number of victims
destined for butchery. It shows that the system of
proscription is premeditated, and will be sweeping.
If any of our friends will furnish us with a specimen
of these modern "lettres de cachet," so common
during the reign of the Bastile in France, we will
give it to our readers. When such preparations
are made for wide and sweeping political butchery,
how can the mendacious minions of this corrupt
Administration have the hardihood to ussert
that removals are made for causes other than political?
How much more manly and honorable it
would be if they would come out and frankly admit
that they want the offices, and therefore they remove
their opponents.
The circulars to which the Union refers
were prepared in the Treasury Department,
by the order of the late Secretary,
as long ago as the 24th of January. They
were printed by his employes, and delivered
on the 6th of February. The whole matter,
then, it seems, was begun and completed
by the last Administration. The
present heads of Departments have had
nnthintr tr> <ln with thorn Will th? IJni/vn
correct its statement?
The Whigs have nominated, for Governor, John
Owen, of Detroit; for Lieutenant Governor, Geo roe
A. Coe, of Coldwater Branch county; for State
printer, Hubbard H. Duncklee, of the Detroit
The name of John Owen, on this ticket, will be
hailed by the Whigs of Michigan as a tower of
strength. He is one of the most eminent merchants
of the West, always devoted to his business,
wherein he has gained a wide and honorable reputation.
Fie is a gentleman who has grown with
the growth of his State, has held a prominent place
for many years as one of the regents of the university,
has made himself beloved and respected by all
who know him, who, 1f elected, will do more to
bring prosperity to that young Slate of Michigan
than any other man in it. Mr. Coe, the candidate
for Lieutenant Governor, has at various
times represented his district and county in the
Senate and House of Representatives. He is a
lawyer by profession, well understands the interests
of the Stale, and will prove an able ally to
the candidate for Governor, if our friend succeed in
securing nis ciecuun. iwr. l/uncklei, wno is a
candidate for an office never before elective in that
State, will receive, aa he deaervaa, the full strength
of the Whig party. With such a ticket, we are
confident that the Whiga of Michigan will not be
eaaily defeated.
The Free-Soilers and Locofocoa have nominated,
for Governor, F. J. Flavioua, of Allegan ; for Lieu*
tenant Governor, Auatin Blair, of Jackaon ; and for
State printer, Eraatus Huaaey, of Calhoun.
A friend writea ua from hia Iron Worka in Pennaylvania
as follows:
" The late change in the iron buaineaa in England,
I fear, will Mop all our establishments.
Our R. R. Companies are now able to contract for
the English bau- at |42 50 per ton, at which price it
eannot be manufactured in this country; and, although
the quality of the American bar is so much 1
superior, yef they will all buy the English iron, unless
furnished at the same price. This condition
of things arises from the want of a continental do- i
mand ; and hence their surplus slock is sent to our
market, and sold at anv nrire that it will brine.
ThB PoiTMAITtl GbNBRAI. Km adopted the I
name of M%uralinr for the (mat o(R e rerently known 1
m thnt of Rlnomingtun, Iowh ; th' name of the ,
place having been chunked I
We understand that the Hon Wim.um Hamiltom
Mf.rritt, one of the chief oflirera of the Canadian
government and a dmlinguiahed member of ita J
Parliament, ia now on a viait to thia city.
Sir George Head haa lately published a very I
clever hook under the title of ' Rome, a Tour of i
Many day* " i
We place in our first column a report of the celebrated
engineer Mr. Wick?ts*d, in regard to the
operation of the furnace patented in thia country
and England by Henry F. Baker, esq., of Boston.
We understand that this furnace has been lately put
in operation at the Navy Yard, in Washington ;
where the saving effected over the old plan of furnace
is 15 per cent.
? ?
Bishop Hughes has addressed a letter to the editors
of the New York Courier and Enquirer, complaining
of injustice done him by the Tribune
newspaper, in slating that the collection to be taken
up in the Catholic churches on Sunday next is for
the .relief and support of Pius IX, in hie present
struggle against the Roman Republic. The Bishop
obiects to the words marked in italics, which, he
says, express an idea that has not entered into
his mind ; and adds, that the collection is simply to
relieve the present wants of the Supreme Biahop of
the Catholic people ; Popes, Cardinals, and Secretaries,
being, like other men, under the necessity of
having something to eat, and something wherewith
to be clothed. Concerning the Roman Republic,
the Bishop expresses himself in the following language
" A revolution has indeed taken place, but there
is no evidence that it is the work of tne Roman peo pie;
whilst it is certain that to a great extent those
who have taken part in it are strangers to Rome,
who found other parts of Italy and of continental
Europe unwilling to receive or retain them. They
have succeeded in expelling the government whicn
had given them hospitality. They have established,
according to what 1 regard as the truest accounts, a
reign of terror over the Roman people, which they
call a government. They have orolten and burned
the carriages of the Cardinals, as if that were heroism.
They have plundered the churches?they
have extorted money from the people?they have
almost legalized assassination, wherever their authority
prevailed. And this is the phqlanx recognised
by Mr. Qreeley as the Roman Republic!
Yet no ambassador from foreign countries nas recognised
such a Republic, except it be the female
plenipotentiary who furnishes the Tribune with
diplomatic correspondence."
An opposition paper calls the late movement of
n : j ? a nr* !
rresident a ailur, in preventing an inirocuon oi our
laws in the cane of the war-ateamer United Statea,
a "blunder." Then it waa a very fortunate and
a very creditable blunder. The chief complaint
against the late adminiatration waa, not that they
sometimes did " wrong by design," but that they
seldom or never did " right by mistake."
Georgia Manufactures and Railroads.
Within a few years mat, says the Savannah Republican,
the State of Georgia haa at one bound
placed herself indisputably in advance of any other
Southern Slate in manufacturing enterprise and internal
improvements. We have between forty and
fifty manufactories with from one to five hundred
spindlea in each, in operation in this State. Our
mines have been partially explored, and we are producing
similar railroad iron, castings, marble, lime,
at a price so low that it is used in considerable quantities
to revive the worn out lands of the Stale.
The eternal fields of cotton, and nothing but cotton,
no longer appear is the up-country, except to a
limited extent. The cultivauon of that staple in
the northern counties will comparatively cease in a
few yeaft, and be transferred more and more to the
fertile bottoms of southwestern Georgia. The hill
sides in the Cherokee region and middle Georgia
are now smiling with green crops of wheat and
other small grains. There are flouring mills, as
the Etowah, Lebanon, Columbus, those in Clarke,
and elsewhere, where the wheat is purchased at a
liberal price and converted into flour, which has,
some lime since, found its way to the Atlantic markets,
while some has been exported from this country
to Brazil and other countries. The article of
We have our Rolling Mill in operation, and every |
thing world like a charm, but we ahall not continue
long at work if English prices do not advance.
We cannot reduce the labor Imctr than it is new,
and no good A men can ought to desire it. I shall
write you, ere long, more fully upon this subject.
" We manufacture now so near to the English
prices that a slight modification of the tariff would
give us all that we desire."
urriifo vkiu.
The Union promises to unveil the character of
the Whig party and the Administration. This was
done with the leaders of the Locofoco party before
me ia? election, and the people voted them such a
congregation of " ugly muga" aa deserved to be
turned out for their looka. When the next election
cornea about, they will be prepared to vote that
such men deserve to be kept out for their deeda.
We imagine that the sole organ will get ita vocabulary
of vituperation pretty well aired before
the aummer ta over. It now styles General Tavlob
a " whitened sepulchre." To-day, Nero; to-morrow,
a " whitened sepulchre next day, * a brf ve
old soldier." Make a note of it, and see what the
pepper-box will nprinkle the next time it is turned
We have received from Mr. Johm T. To*km,
the publiaher a copy of "The Register of the Elec
tro-Magnetir Telegraph Compeniea in the United
Stale* and the Canadaa,*' hy Alfred Vail. The
work ie a handaome quarto, well gotten np, and ia
rreditahle to the preaa of Mr. Towera. It contain*
valuable information, and will be uaeful to all who
have btiaineaa with the Telegraph.
* An Editorial State Convention ia to be held in
Harriaburg, Pa., on the 8th of November ne*t, to
oonmder the aubjert of Pontage Reform, and other 1
mallrra afTarltn# I ha inlAroala nf ik* Croaa
northern Hour is almost banished from thu market.
One year the Central railroad conveyed into the interior
6,000 barrels of northern flour; the year following
it brought down 6,000 barrels of Georgia
flour, the upward current being completely turned.
These manufactories and railroads have created
home markets. They gave employment to the farmer,
carpenter, the mason, the tanner, the miner, and
in short to almost ail who follow the various and
devious ways of human industry. The moral and
physical influence of our railroads in bringing about
this order of things is not sufficiently appreciated.
The up-country is now no longer a sealed book.
The travel on the State road has probably quadrupled
since it was opened to DaJton. It will increase
vastly more when it is completed to the Tennessee
It has been estimated that, when the Nashville
and Chattanooga railroad is completed, the Georgia
road will require four times its present locomotive
power. Our great work has already paid back to
the Stale the cost of its construction in the shape of
a mulutude of benefits, beyond the power of calculation,
and it is not a daring prophecy, to make, that
in less than twenty-five years it will pay all the
debts of the State?principal and interest?and relieve
her citirens from all taxation.
Indiana.?The Whigs of the eighth (late Pellit's)
district have nominated Col. Henry S. Lane, of
Crawfordsville, as their candidate for Congress.?
We suspect this nomination is made to win. Col.
Lane was a member of the twenty-seventh Congress,
and has since served in the Mexican war.
He is eloquent and popular.
The nominations for Congress are now completed,
and the canvass has fairly begun. The following
table affords a bird's-eye view of ths whole
Whig, Locoroco. Fas Soil.
John A. Malawi, Joa. A. Wright, Ju H Craven*
Litul. Governor
Thoa. 8. HtanAekl, Jaa. H. Lane, Joa. W. Wright
Vole for Prttidtni.
Taylor. 69,907 Caaa. 74,746 V. H.. 8,100
Dial. Wmo. T*tlob Vot?.
1. 'Eliaha Embree - 7428
2. Wm W Dunn . . - 7463
3. Joa. Robinaon ... 8122
4. Sam'l W Parker - 48?6
6. Wm. Herrod - - 7148
6. Jno. 8. Watla . 7202
7. E. W. MoGaughey . 7118
C. C. Nare (atump)
8. Henry 8. Lane - . 6914
9. mil''*'"''* Wright - - 7614
10. David Kilgore 6182
Caaa V. B
Dial. Loco. Votb. Toti
1. Nath'l Albertaon 7863 94
2. Cyrua 8. Dunham 8248 363
3. 'Jno. L. Robinaon 8236 684)
4. fOeo. W Julian 38*9 1688
6. Wm. J. Brown 8814 613
6. Willi* A. Gorman 8097 233
7. 5742 278
8. Job. E. Mi Donald 84)77 1101
9. Graham N. Fitrh 7846 1349
10. Andrew J. Harlan 7614 1616
Meinberaof the laat Houae two only in nomi
fFree Hoilcm, but supported as ahnve arranged ?
?V. Y Tribunt.
The Pittsburg and laic Royal Company hare
bean in operation about three yearn, and are doing a
rood business They hare mode one shipment of
Smelted Copper, and hare more ready to ahip.
Siaroroil Mining Company hare about 30 men at
work; they commenoad thia spring, and hare made
a small shipment of Smelted Copper. The prospects
of theae companies are eery flattering.
Ohio and Isle Royal Company hare employed
shout twenty-fire men through the winter, and their
force will be increased this snmmer. Minesota Min
ing Company, on the south shore of the island on
the Ontenagon neer, are in encoeeeful operation;
lit. -I... L. -- ? 1
employ a large force ihia nmimr. All th? abort
oompaniea are doing a profitable buaineea. And,
ilthough rapper ta not geiUL it ia thought that it will %
[trore full aa profitable to the "diggera,* aa the gold
fninea of California to the fi/ttn + *
Growth or WiicoNinr.?Orer two thouaand
laaeengora diaembarked at Milwaukie in eight daya
loawg on the 4th inat.?890 cabin, 1979 ateerage
The poaitire increaae thereby of the population of
Wtaconain can hardly fall ahort of fifteen hundred.
Probably one thouaand more landed during the
atme period at Bhebayan, Green Bay, Soutnport,
ind Racine.
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