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The republic. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1849-1853, July 07, 1849, Image 2

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In the recess of Congress, whilst we are at peace
with ihf world, and wttii little to interest the public
mind, the matters of greatest concern seem to be
removals from and appointments to office.
These now form the staple of the public press,
es|tecially on the Locofoco side, whose clamorous,
factious, overwrought lamentations and denuncia- J
tions, produce more of disgust than any other feeling.
It must be expected that the acls of Government
will be narrowly scrutinized, and independently
judged and condemned; and along with the
fullest and freest discussion and criticism there
should always be allowed "dignified castigation,"
wherever merited.
But, at the present time, there is a predetermination
of opposition and a recklessness of abuse, not
simply censure, most deeply to be deplored by
every right-minded man. These, however, art
mitigated by a querulousness truly amusing, and
afford the consolation that their own intemper mce
"overshoots the mark," and will cause them to recoil
upon their authors.
To me it appears that the Administration of Gen
Taylor has, in the main, acted with commendable
and unwonted care, circumspection, and forbearance,
in the removals from office. They have, too.
in tome instances, passed by crowds of eager applicants,
and selected proper men, without their knowledge,
and sometimes without the appointees accepting
the offices tendered them. This independence
on solicitation and importunity is worthy of
all praise; and long may such a course be combined
with that due deference to well grounded and wellattested
claims to public office, which this Administration
have also evinced.
noi uniy can every removal unu me numifiisiralion
have made, and far greater changes ihan it is
believed they contemplate, be fully justified, both
by Democratic theory and practice; but, farther
and better than this, by true theory and principle,
j do unhesitatingly assert this principle to be, that
the Administration in power are entitled to a fair preponderance
in the appointments to office, it being their
duty, in making them, to select the most competent,
honest, and faithful agents they can obtain. How is
this preponderance to be obtained? It is universally
conceded that, where an actual vacancv occurs, a
friend of the Administration should be appointed;
and there is some such fairness of admission even
where a commission expires But let a removal be
made, (even for good cause,) and the hue and cry
01" "proscription," "broken pledges," dtc., &c.,
swells the throat of every Locofoco welliugh to
As to vacancies: It is as true now as it was in
the days of Jefferson, that "few die and none resign."
And as to the expiration of terms of service?these
would, in many instances, run nearly
through a Presidential term; and, besides, the nonappointment
of a Locofoco is, with the great mass of
unconscientious partisans, as bad as a removal
The Administration should, then, without tbe least
regard to these factious clamors, proceed steadily to
secure a fair preponderance in the offices of Government.
This it need not do arbitrarily nor proscriptively.
Let it thin and weed, as a judicious
farmer does his fields; and its harvest of usefulness
and honor will be the more plenteous. Let it fearlessly
remove respectable incompetency ani mediocrity; '
and, by the bye, there is very great reverence enterLftned
about here for these high qualifications!
Let it remove the favorites, whose only qualifications
for office were sycophancy und time-serving.
Lei it remove those who, from misfeasance or malfeasance,
deserve no favor at the hands of honest
integrity; and fill the places of all these with its
own friei?ds?the friends of country above party,
who are most worthy of public trust in a matchless
free Government; and many righteous steps will
have been taken towards that preponderance which
is its lawful right.
But this is not all. Are there not many important
offices which sustain such a relation to the Government,
in its various departments, that to leave
them in the hands of opponents would be as reasonable
as for Washington to have continued Arnold
ai West Point' The great cry of the Locofoco antiproscripuonists
is, that the officers of Government
are ministerial, and hence removals are wrong- If
they were merely ministerial according to the theory
of the Constitution, they are not so and cannot be
so in practice. They arc political to a very great extent,
and can be and have been made political engines?even
to the levying of black mail in order to
secure them. There are, however, claaaea of office*
which cannot be termed ministerial, but are essentially
political; and for them to be held by opponents
of the Administration would be as sensible
as if the chief subordinate* of a general were his
opponents, distrustful of his abilities and censorious
of his plans and policy. Ministerial! and yet
coMtantlv called on to execute, with alacritv. fide..
ity and 7.r.aJ. what they are taught to regard aa injiirtoua
to the beat interest* of their country , and
the Democratic press, whilst asserting their claims
to a continuance in office, are moving " earth urid
the thing* under >he earth" to villify and disparage
the Adminj*tration under whom these friend* of
tht-irs would have to serve. Thus, whilst endeavoring,
professedly, to retain their own political adherent#
in office, they are busily sowing in their
minds distrust and disresjiect, and strengthening
them in their opposition, which renders them unfit
to lie retained, and little likely to be efficient in the
discharge of their duties if retained. Look, for
example, at the very conciliatory course of the
"Thug of Bundlecund," as the Whig styles the
asaoriate editor of the Union. VN hilst this and
other editor* of hi* kind are doing all they can to
exasperate and inflame, they are using for this purpose
the most unfair means?even putting into
Gen. Taylor's letters expressions of pledges which
he never made, and giving to those which he has
nade false and insincere interpretations, to subserve
thrown narrow parry enoa nureiy, uen. i aylor
is not the man, nor is he surrounded by men,
to regard Mich effort* as the*. Let the Administration
fearlessly do what it beltevra to be right,
and the people will austnin them, though theae
?* (triform may groao " I hare asserted that the
AQ nrunmiration in power should have the preponderance
in the public offeaa ; and why- The people
of tl')ee< I mod Sintes have nuilmnlly rhnngrii
their ruling powers. by the elevation of Gen. Taylor
Ui the presidential chair, (low are the views,
principles, and measures, which they have thus
sanctioned, to lie carried out?to find expression.'
Every administration must find expression? it?
outward manifestation?through its .tuihonred
agents. Its moral, ila intellectual, it* political, m
energetic,its true?all are exhibited and rrndered ef
ficient through Us employees. Would the outwan
expression of a Democratic administrauon reaem
hie that of a Whig administration ? Should it
Not at all And why, then, should the genuiri
wid real exhibition ofWhig principle*and agenote
lie impeded by having, in the main, to pass throug
ban nets or agents clogged with olmtaNe*; Ah
, it will lie said, this is rank proscription. I
is ho such thing ; it it* right, and it is inevitable.
There might be proscription in ike mode of obtaining
tliis preponderance, und in the extent tti which it
might be carried ; and the Locofbco (tarty have
never failed, in the last sixteen years, to be proscriptive
both ill mode and degree. And it might be
laid down as almost a general rule, that those who
were most loud in vindicating the acts of the last
| four administrations, in regard to appointments to
office, are now most loud in denouncing the few removals
thut Gen. Taylor's Cabinet have made.
| Even if there were proscription in the view I am
taking, the victims of it now are as little entitled to
sympathy and consideration as were those ui
France who, having unmercifully guillotined so i
many themselves, at length }>erished by the same
instrument. They may try to make themselves
martyrs, but the people will care us little for them
and their plaints as did the British nation for
"Fox's martyrs," over whom Pitt triumphed m
But 1 am no advocate of proscription. I detest
it. 1 only contend for what would scarcely admit
of discussion, if the preceding administrations had
done what was right. If they had gone only for
a fair preponderance, the number of competent
Whigs already in office would be so great that there :
would be a necessity for comparatively few changes.
But theirrule having been a monopoly?"to the victors
belong all the spoils"?they have filled every
nook and corner of the country with their own officei.
.i.i i ..... ..j.. r.. .u. a.i
nuiucra, ttiiu uuw, 111 tuuci nu uic picsciik nuiuur ,
istration to assert its justest and most restricted
rights in regard to removals and appointments, a
considerable number of changes must be made.
However few these changes might actually be, they
would still be sufficient to arouse the ever restless I
spirit of Democratic clamor and opposition, which
being implacable, unreasonable, and insincere,
should be forever and totally disregarded.
Prom the former connexion of the senior editor
of the Union with this city, and the relation between
the editors of the Enquirer and Union, these
two prints have been over zealous in their denun- '
ciations of the President and Cabinet for the removal
of the collector of this port. 1 have nothing to
say against Capt. Nelson. I respect both him and '
his successor; but I would never think of uniting, |
as a Whig, with those who are aiding and abetting
the Enquirer and its clique. I believe the Admin- |
a * 1 J. L? 1 I ... t
isirauou uimeu 10 uo rigui, aim am oy no means i
convinced that they have not don# right. Upon
the principle that they are entitled to u fair preport- j
derance, there would be no just objection to more
changes than have been made.
How stand the federal offices in and about Rich
mond ? The Federal court here is presided over by
Chief Justice Taney and Judge Haliburton, both
Democrats. The United States attorney is a Democrat,
(and the son of a State Judge, a Democrat, and
who has appointed, in succession, two Democratic I
orators and politicians the Commonwealth's attor- j
ney for his court.) The marshal, deputy marshal, j
and clerk, are all Democrats. The collector and
all, or very nearly all, the custom-house officers j
were Democrats, till the late removal The post- j
master here is a Democrat, and has been reap- |
pointed; which, even with the Enquirer, ought to
have been an offset for the removal of the collector
In regard to the office of postmaster, it had been held j
for some years by a Democrat, when Gen Harrison,
no doubt thinking there ought to be at least j
rome Whigs in office in a Whig city like Rich- <
mond, gave it to a Whig, who proved to be exceedingly
efficient. What other changes Gen. Harrison
would have made here cannot be told. His
successor, Mr. Tyler, so soon deserted the Whigs
that he made none. The Democrats in office proved
acceptable to him, and he forbore to temove the
postmaster. But Mr. Polk, though his partisans
were in all the other offices, was hardly seated in
the Presidential chair before he removed our very
able postmaster, and appointed a Democrat; thus
restoring, not a fair preponderance, but that monopoly
which they have here and elsewhere insisted
Besides the office-holders above mentioned, there
is a judge of the U. S. Supreme Court resident here,
known to be one of the real unterrified Democracy.
Judge Mason, late Secretary of State and Navy,
Attorney General, dec., is here in a good State office,
with its honors and two thousand a year, to lend
his aid and influence to the opposition to Gen. Taylor's
administration. Surely an administration
needs esprit; it needs momentum. If the sap from
the roots and trunk extend not to the branches, there
is no healthful vigor in the tree The Whig party
I have always believed to be jjst and liberal, and
tolerant. But in it* liberal toleration to foes let it
take care to be just to itaelf.
I do not ask you, Messrs Editors, to adopt these
sentiments, though I should be pleased if you approve
them. They are deemed to be right and
proper by RICHMOND.
Richmond, (Va ,) July, 184.1.
For the Republic.
Extract from the Journal of a Chaplain' in the Conlinrntal
I775, Cambridge, Mass., May 9 Capt. Goodrich
marched his company to Dorchester Point, on
the presumption that the regulars would attempt to
take possession of it in the night
Rev Mr Emerson, from New Hampshire, came
to ramp tfeday with a number of soldiers.
May II. A provincial fast was held to-day I
preached on the common.
May 22. A detachment of militia marched yesterday
to Weymouth, and burnt a quantity of hay
which the regulars were about to carry to Boston.
They were fired upon by the enemy, but received
no injury.
May 25. Six hundred regulars took possession
of Noddles1 Island, in Boston harl>or. Visit the
hospitals and pray with the sick daily.
May 28. Yesterday a number of our army
went upon Noddles1 Island to take off live stock
Being repulsed by the regulars, they retreated to
Hog Island, where a number of our men hud taken
the ground and got off stock. The regulars pursued
and fired platoons upon us. The British
schooner Diana, with a number of barges, then
came up and began their fire. Col Putnam and
hi* men now planted themaelire* in a ditrh near the
ahore, and reaerved their fire till the liarge* came
within reach of muaket-ahot, when a hot and briak
fire commenced on Ixrth aide*. The regular* finding
too warm a reception, tried very hard for our
boata, but we happily aemred them. Upon thia
the achooner and l?arge* retreated, and were engaged
with great fury by our men along the ahore
with muaketry Capt. Foater, of the train, now
came up with two three-poundera, and with one
ahot of double charge cleared the deck of the Diann,
and ahe drove and lodged on the ferry wharf. f>nr
1 men then took bundle* of hay, came up to her alern,
broke oj?en the window*, threw in the hay, art it
on fire and Inirnt the achooner down to the water.
While we were doing thia, three cannon played
upon ua continually from the lop of Noddle*1 la;
land. A aloop came to the aaaiatance of the Diana.
Capt Foater gave her a ffew ahot*, which *o wound'
1 ed her that her hand* were obliged to tow her off
to the shipping. The en< my got off moat of their
i killed and wounded. Col. [afterward* Gen . j Putnam
and a few other* returned to Cambridge in
^ high spirit*.
i- * Rev. David A very.
; 1 _
? The Baltimore Life fnauranoe Company ha* dri*
clared a half-yearly dividend of four per cent,
h The BaUunor? & Frctiericktown turnpike Com!
pany ha* declared a half-yearly dividend of three
It ( ijuartera of one per cent..? /(,,// . imnunn
The opposition press labors in vain to
get up aii excitement against the Administration,
011 account of the prompt action of
President Tavlor in vindicating the neutral
rights, and preserving the good faith
of tin- 11 :itiiin_ ill the matter of the war
steamer u United States." Such had
been the meddlesome and turgid spirit of
preceding Administrations, such the deference
paid to the swollen and belligerent
demagoguism of professional agitators,
that the people?the laboring and peaceful
millions?had nearly despaired of seeing
a Chief Magistrate possessing firmness and
moral courage equal to the duty of maintaining
the public peace at the hazard of
offending the restless and intemperate
portion of the community. The fitting
out of the war-steamer " United States"?
in violation of every principle of internaA*
II V _ A A. f il ' 1
uonai law?in coniempi 01 me interpretation
given, by the highest courts of judicature
known to the country, to our own
statutes?in defiance of treaties solemnly
ratified, and against the policy handed
down to us from' the founders of the Government?was
a direct surrender, on the
part of the last Administration, of the rights
and interests of the laboring classes ; nay,
more, an abandonment of the duties and
responsibilities of Government to the
caprices of the self-constituted guardians
of Christendom, who claim the right to
take care of the world because they have
nothing else to take care of. The farmer,
the mechanic, the artificer, the miner,
the herdsman, had no voice in the clamor
wVlirh startlf'ft finvernmonl
propriety. Neither they who dig wealth
from the bowels of the earth, nor those
who feed flocks and reap harvests on its
surface, were represented in the medley
of lawless interests which found in- the
Government an effective and obedient
was a spectacle to gladden the heart
of the nation, to see a President of the
United States exercising the power vested
in him by the Constitution, in behalf of
the law-abiding and peaceful citizens of
the Republic. It was a novel as well as
an imposing sight. It was for the hus^
Landman, remote from the centres of agitation;
for the men of toil, who seek repose
from honest labor whilst confederate mischief-makers
brood over schemes of blood;
for those who love liberty for the blessings
it conler>, for the dignity and good faith
of the nation, that this power was exerted.
Had the Administration sought that kind
of popularity which fills the air w ith boisterous
prai-es, it would have pandered to
the pas-ions of boisterous people. This
was no part of the policy of General
Tatlor. In the sense of security against
intemperate counsels which possesses the
country; in the confidence which all good
men feel in the preservation of peace; in
the impulse which this sentiment, as it
spreads throughout the land, w ill impart
to the industrial energies of the country*
the Administration looks for its reward.
From every section of the Union we
meet with the evidences of an improved
state of public feeling. During a presidential
term, at least, there w ill be a season
for the cultivation of the ennobling
arts of peace?a period for the expansion
of domestic policies, having for their end
the knitting together in closer fellowship
the several parts of this Confederacy. It
is to check the growth of a sentiment so
conducive to harmony and progress that
the Locofoco press attempts to connect
the infraction of the law , in the case of
the "United States," with the struggle
for popular liberty now going on in Europe.
The considerate souls who waste their love
of freedom in getting up political excitements
three thousand miles distant from
the scene of freedom's battles, must lie
encouraged to close quarters by turning
their denunciations upon the President of
their own country. As yet, the excitement
is confined to those who had something
to hoj?e from an unsettled state of our
foreign relations. The country reposes
in security; and, as the laborer gathers
together the fruits which have been
ripened by the sweat of his brow, he enjoys
adeefier content at the reflection that
the plenty which surrounds him will be
blessed by continued j?eace. This is the
glory which a wise administration desires,
and this the guerdon which a good one
will receive.
1'iuw itir
A person who was not familiar with the
tactics of the Locofoco press would naturally
suppose, from the outcry which has
been made over the removals which have
taken place, that there was not a singly
office-holder under the last Administration
remaining in office. The present Administration
has been denounced as the most
proscriptive that has ever exercised jsiwer.
Wholesale sweeps have been announced
time and again, whilst the Post Office Department
has been held up as particularly
bloody-minded in this age and reign of ter.
ror. And yet, titer .ill the removals that
have taken place, in this bloodiest Depart
meat of a sanguinary dynasty there are,
at this day, nearly three Locofocos to one
Whig. In the building occupied by Judge
Collamer there are still tfuee employees
of hostile politics to one of his party, or
nearly that ratio. Nevertheless, the Postmaster
General is held up to public reprobation
as the most cruel and relentless
member of a cruel and relentless Cabinet.
If the country will bestow a moment's reHftf.tiftn
nnnn utKaf Oin f apaIapa "t?_.
n IIUl VliV uv/v UIUVV f'l V'.l.l 10
constantly saying aiid the fact here presented,
it will form some estimate of the
persecutions which the Whig party have
suffered for the last twenty years, and a
better estimate of the. value of Locofoco
assertions in this behalf. If, after what
the Union pronounces to be the most relentless
proscription ever known in the
history of the Government has taken place,
there yet remains nearly three Locofocos
to one Whig in the most prescriptive De
partment, the Whig party must have been
treated as aliens in their own country;
and had the Administration continued the
proscription, it would have perpetuated
oppression and tyranny. The least that
I the most anti-proscriptive men could require
of the Government would be an
equalization of the offices. We are speaking
of principle?of a rule of action based
upon anti-proscription. The Administration
has not yet nearly equalized the offices,
as has been shown ; it has not come
up to the requirements of an anti-proscriptive
rule. We do not urge removals, and
have not: but when the Administration is
denounced and particular members of the
Cabinet assailed for making too many, we
must be permitted to say how far the)
have gone, and how far justice and right
urge them to go. We are not defending
the Administration for what has been
done; they have done nothing to need defence.
When the bounds of equal-handed
justice are overleaped, it will be time to
consider how far and in what way the
principle adopted by the last Administration,
in making " political agencies" of
1_ 1 * /** * ~
puunc oinces, rimy intcrlere with the conduct
of business. Meanwhile, here is a
letter of Arnos Kendall, upon this subject,
which we have not seen in any Locofoco
paper for some time. It was once held in
high repute by the opposition. We are notprepared
to go the length of the writer.
We publish it because it is a neat composition:
"Franklin Mills, (Ohio,) Sept. 9, '29.
"To reform measures, there must be a change of
w?." " Without u change of men, fraud cannot
be punished ; delinquencies cannot be detected ; unlawful
allowance* cannot be stopped; improper
modea of doing business, and irregular practice* in
office, can never be corrected. Do not all offices
belong to the people? What right have the incumber
ts to them more than others? No wrong is
done to the man who is removed, for he is deprived
of no right, it is the duty of the President, and
all others to whom the people have entrusted the
power, to remove their subordinates whenever they
believe the public interest requires it. So fascinating
is power, and so corrupting the long possession
of office, (hat 1 believe the chances for a pure
administration would be much greater, were a
limit of eight or ten years prescribed, beyond which
no man should be competent to hold any of
the subordinate office* at Washington. It is
the policy of office-holders to create an impression
that their offices are private rights; that
they are wronged when removed ; that they have
a right to demand the reasons for their removal,
and have them formally set forth When the
people assent to a doctrine like this, you may
bid farewell to all hope of reform, however
great may lie the abuses of our Government.
We shall have Clerks, Auditors, Comptrollers,
Registers, Treasurers, ai d Secretaries for life; bad
customs will never be corrected ; erroneous principles
will prevail forever; precedent will take the
place of laws; (he official corps at Washington will
govern the Union; and if we do not have Pre si
uchm iur me, wr hiiu.ii nave etiiailcu upon us forever
a succession from one office to another, preserving
the unity of the official phalanx, and
( crpeiuating all their opinions and abuses. In my
opinion, the people have more cause to fear too few
removals than loo many."
Initial! \kiiiiI<< Iii California and \r?
The I'nion has made a terrible ado over
certain Indian Agencies appointed by the
Government for New Mexico and California.
Its accusations against the Cabinet,
as concerned in fitting out gold mining
expeditions at the expense of the Government,
are beneath notice, as they would
be below admission into the columns of
any pajier which did not regard the fabrication
of a calumny against an opponent
a* the highest achievement of intellect.
There has been one full Agent appointed
for California, and one for New Mexico,
one of them to be located at Santa Fe,
and the other at the 44 Great Salt Lake."
i This is not an increase of the number of
Agents in the service?the two Agencies
having been transferred from the Upper
Missouri river, where they were of less
importance, and where their places could
easily be supplied by sub-agents. The
transfer was made under the authority
given in the 7th section of the act of June
30, 1H34, organizing the Indian Department.
The same power was exercised by
President Polk in transferring the Agency
at St. Peter's, Minesota, embracing the
Sioux, to a point higher up the Mississippi,
to include the VVinnebagoes and Chippewas?a
sub-agency being substituted at
St. Peter's for the Agency thus removed.
The interests of the public service required
the change, and President Polk had
it made.
There have been three sub-agents appointed
for ( alifornia and New Mexico,
and thjs was done by the same authority
under which President Polk appointed
three for Oregon last year?the 5th section
of the act above named, which provides
that a competent number of sub-agents shall
be a|>pninted by the President, to be emI
ployed and to reside wherever he may dii
rect. The transfer of the two Agencies and
the appointment of the three sub-agents
were absolutely necessary for the management
of our Indian relations in those two
Territories. Indeed, they are not sufficient
for that purpose; and Congress will, no
doubt, at an early day see the necessity
of making more ample provisions for that
portion of our possessions. They were
I specially required to aid in fulfilling our
obligations to Mexico under the late treaty
? Ji < "
keep the Indians within our limits from
going into and making depredations upon
her's. The appointments being thus authorized
and legal, their compensation being
taken from appropriations made by
Congress therefor, and the interests of the
public service requiring them to be made,
the country will be satisfied, if the Union
is not, that there have been no illegal
and unauthorized appointments of Indian
Agents and sub-agents in New Mexico
and California.
The remainder of the Union's denunciations
against the Government in connexion
with this subject are as absurd as
spite and misrepresentation could make
The Board of" Health have reported the
appearance of this fell scourge in this city.
Since the 25th of June last there have
occurred thirteen cases and seven deaths.
Rumors of deaths from cholera have been
circulated in the streets for several days,
but upon such vague authority that we did
not feel authorized to make them the basis
of a formal notice. There can be no doubt,
now, mai cnoiera, in some one 01 its
many phases, is here. Though this should
have been expected, yet the proclamation
of the fact will produce surprise in many
minds. It is scarcely possible to be fully
prepared for such a visitant, however its
coming may for a long time be looked for.
We would caution our readers against
undue alarm; for of all the diseases which
afflict mankind, none is so apt to attack
the timid. Prudent living and a cheerful
and confiding spirit are the best antidotes
against pestilence of any kind. The first
symptoms of an attack should be met by
medical advice; tor what are called premonitory
symptoms are the disease itself in
its incipieat stages. It has been our fate
to be in many places where the cholera
was raging, ana wnen it was at its worst,
and our experience enables us to say, that
an equable and confident condition ol* the
mind, cleanliness of habit, temperance in
all things, and especially carefulness from
exposure, and in having every article of
wearing apparel well dried before using it,
almost invariably furnish a security against
those violent and sudden attacks which
bathe medical skill.
We publish this morning an official notification
of a state of war and belligerent
blockade, declared by the Commander of
the French Squadron, against all that portion
of the West Coast of Africa lying between
the (irand Bassain and Assinie
NfW? of the ( niiniln.
The unexpectedly gratifying news brought by
this steamer has induced the whole community to
expect nothing less than perfect success for the
Hungarians, the condition of the affairs of whom
engrosses even more attention than have the disturbances
and almost revolution in Paris. It is,
however, to be regretted that the advices are not
definite, and that the victory said to have been
gained by Gorgcy, over the imperialists under
Haynau and Rudigcr, is not placed beyond doubt
Yet it is evident that the battle near Raab has been
serious, and that the loss of the allies has been immense.
The system of censorship kept up by the
Austrian Government renders it likely enough;
even though private accounts had been received at
Vienna, no journal would venture to allude to it.
-ri i ..i- o L? ?:.i .-i?
j iic i?ntiic r?v VM/Iiiia wiinum unu'H, in vim
place, and the Magyars have been successful. The
system upon which the Hungarian genirals seem
disponed to act??of avoiding pitched battles, but
fighting by detail the various detachments of the
Austrian and Russian army?is certain to insure
success. On the other hand, every effort will lie
made by the Imperialists to bring on a general engagement,
in which case the discipline of veteran
troops would not unlikely triumph over the enthusiasm
of the levies of Kossuth,
The French expedition to Italy is still m permanence
before Rome, and the energy of Mazzini and
his associates seems likely to keep them yet longer
at bay. Nothing is more likely than that a collision
between the outlying posts of the French army
and those of the Spanish and Neapolitan forces
under Cordoba, at Fiumecino, may occur. Should
this lie the case, a commotion would certainly ensue,
which would be the signal of a general war.
The turmoil in Paris seems to -become daily
greater; and the determination of the party known
as the Red Republican to unseal the Government
becomes every day more evident. The bayonet
alone appears to be relied on as the means of suppressing
commotion, or preventing difficulties;
nnd there is renson to think Lhis will eonlinne l<> lie
the case, until the whole nntinn shall have its energies
and ambition aroused by some interest beyond
the frontiers of France. The plans of the lied
Republicans appear to have been well laid, from
the fart of the simultaneous outbreaks at Lyons
and at Marseilles. The troubles at the latter city
will rerall unpleasant associations connected with
the first stormy revolution in Franoe, during the
darkest days of which it was abserved that disturbance
in the capital of the South was a sure
herald of dreadful commotion in Pans. The troubles,
both at Lyons and Marseilles, appear to have l?een
foreseen?the authorities of those cities having replied
to an order to send troops to Paris, that not a
man could be spared. During the course of the
day, minuter aceounts will probably be received,
making more plain the doubtful points fif this very
interesting and important intelligcnee.
A chapter of Fourth of July (incidents will lie
found in the letters of our correspondents from
northern cities.
o F F i C IA L.
"U. S. Brig Bainrridub,
"Monrovia, May 22, lb49.
"Sir: 1 have the honor to luy before you a communication
front the coininander-iii-chief of the
French naval forces on the weal coast of Africa,
relative to u blockade est.tblished by him, extending
from the 'Grand Basaam' to the Assmie river, on
the Gold coast.
"I ant, sir, very respectfully,
"Your obedient servant,
"Hon. VVm. Ballard Preston,
"Secretary of the Auiry, Washington City "
El Mina, March 28, 1849.
Mr. Commander: The natives of the territory of
Acka, comprised between the rivers Grand Bussam
and Assinie, having violated the treaty which they
concluded with France in 1844, and stolen French
merchandise, I have the honor to apprise you that
I have declared and waged war against them.
In consequence of this rupture, I have established
a belligerent blockade of the coast comprised between
the snid rivers. I therefore request that you
will have the goodness to notify the vessels of your
Be pleased to accept, &c., &c.,
E. B.,
Captain and commander-in-chief of the
Squadron of the W. coail of Africa.
P. S. 1 notify the Commodore of thia decision.
Recent explorations in the copper district of
Luke Superior have brought to light some interest-1
ing facts in relation to the minerals of that country.
Irrefragable evidence that at a very remote period
they were worked has been discovered. A very
large piece of copper has been found in the vicinity
of the Ontonagon river, on the south shore
of Lake Superior, some twenty-four feet below the
surface of the ground. Around this were discovered
copper tools and stone hammers, proving that
miners had been to work there full three hundred
years ago, as further indicated by t|ie concentric
circles of massive trees that hud grown over it.
More recently similar discoveries have been made
on Isle Royale, situated in the northern part of
the Lake, on the location of the Siscowit Mining
Comftany, showing thut the mines there were
worked full five hundred years ago. It is most
probable that these mines were worked by some
adventurers from that immense city, the ruins of
which are visible at this day on the Rock river,
west of Lake Michigan. It may be that some of
the specimens of copper exhibited as proofs of the
great purity of the Lake Superior ore are masses
of partially refined mineral, abandoned by the old
"workers of brims" at some of their now forgotten
locations. A careful examination of these places
would, beyond all doubt, throw much light on thnt
very interesting portion of the history of America?
the events before the discovery of the continent by
In a letter published in the last number of Litlell's
Living Age, it is stated that a new quarterly, to be
called the Anglo-Saxon, is about to be commenced
in London 44 The object of the Anglo-Saxon is to
bring the scattered sons of the great Anglo-Saxon
family closer together?to record what is most
worthy of remembrance in the history of the greatest
of ull races?to make mankind more familiar
with Anglo-Saxon hiatory and progress " It professes
to lie devoted to the interest of Anglo-Saxons
throughout the world, without distinction of country
or government. If this idea should be properly
carried out, there is little doubt that the periodical
would lie, in the highest degree, successful, and
be hailed in England, as well as in America, as
one step townrds a true Anglo-Saxon literature.
Though the day has gone by when English critics
would ask, with derision, who reads an American
hook, or travellers liecome popular by ridiculing
American peculiarities, it is far from being the fact
that any l?ook of American origin, though written
in unexceptionable language, is recognised as dt
jure entitled to a place in English literature.
Th?; Nashville papers announce the death of
Jainea Hamilton, Professor of Mathematics in the
Nashville Uni versily. He died of cholera on Tueaday,
the 19th.
The Hon Edward Y. Hill Has been nominated
by tbe Whig party of Georgia for Governor
by the Convention recently aaaeinbled at Millcdgeville.
At one of the recent meetings of the National
Institute, Mi Schoolcraft explained to the mem
bera. in a brief memoir, the purport of a pictographic
petition which waa presented to the President
of the United Statea by a recent delegation of
Chippewa Indiana from the distant shorea of Lake
Superior. The entire object of thia unique petition
waa depicted on five sheet* of the inner rind of the
bttuln paiyrarrn. or white birch of the northern forests.
The j>a|>er waa referred for a report to the
Ethnological Department.
Blacks for California.?The Fort Smith Herald
of the 13th ult. says that the remainder of Col.
Bonner's party have arrived there, constating of 7
whites and 6 blacks. It is not likely that free blacks
would pass through Arkansas as members of a
California expedition; Col. Bonner possibly makes
the experiment of taking hia slaves to California.
Naval.?The razee Independence, at Norfolk,
will positively sail for the Mediterranean on the 10th
mat. A new commander has been appointed to her.
Capt. Wm. K. Latimer, laic Commandant of
the Nary Yard at Penaacola, haa been ordered to
the command of the frigate Cumberland, at Norfolk,
alao deatined for the Mediterranean.
A Mr. Schridieder, of St. Louia, died of cholera,
aa waa supposed, on Monday laat, and waa taken
to the giave, when anoiae in the coffin being heard,
it waa fouad that he waa atill alive, lie ia recovering.
KufTocar CoNoar.?*ioM*L candidate*.?lit
dtatrict, Lynn Boyd, Loco. No oppoaition, the
diAtrin lieing atrongly Loco. 2ndd latrict?Jamea
L. Johnaon, Whig; Dr. Peyton, Loco. 3d diatrirt?F.
F.. McLean, Whig; Mr. Clark, Loco.
4lh diainci?Aylett Buckncr, Whig; Col. G. ACaldwell,
Loco. Ath diatrict?John B Thompaon,
Whig. 6th diatrict?Daniel Breck and Addiaon
White, both Whiga 7th diatrict?Dr. N.
Lane, Loco; Col. Humphrey Marahall, Whig.?
Mtli diatrict?-Hon C. 8 Morehead, Whig; S. P
J. Trabue, Native Ameriran 9th district?John
II. Iliiatoii, Whig; John C Maaon, Loco. IOth
diatrict?Major John P. Gainea, Whig; R. H.
Stanton, Loco.
The Si. Joaeph (Mo.) (iazrlte estimates the entire
niiml?er of emigrnnta that have left California
by the overland route, at 3f>,000. Of theae |7,(K)0
atnried from St. Joaeph, Independence, Weaton
and Weatport.
(Sorrrsponbeiur of tf)c Republic.
New York, July 5?6 p. in.
NIKLO'l new theatric.
1 waslasteveningat Niblo's new theatre, wliicli hut*
sprung from the ground with a marvellous celerity,
almost equalling that of Aladdin's palace. At least
three thousand persons were present, more than
half of them being ladies, all tastefully and elegantly
dressed, and many of them very bewitching and
beautiful. It is true that the walls of the building
were unplastered, and that canvass supplied the
place of the painting and gilding and superb decorations
which have not yet hud time to make their
I u... ? ?: ii .i j,
apjjnuiantc. uui, iioiwiuivuuiuing mi incite urawIwcks,
the coup d'ail was extremely striking and
impressive. The house ia admirably adapted lor
a summer theatre?the style of architecture being
light, and the means of ventilation complete. Parquette,
boxes, and galleries were all crowded ; and
I assure you the effect from a point near the stage,
when the whole house was lighted up, was very
agreeable. From the open windows, not yet provided
with glass, and from the ample vestibules,
the moonlight streamed in, illuminating the corridors
and saloons, and casting an air of poetry and
romance over the whole scene; while on every side
hundreds and hundreds of smiling faces met the
eve and warmed the heart. Niblo walked about
like a little king, as he is, delighted beyond measure
at the success of his enterprise. Everybody shared,
or seemed to share, in the pleasant and innocent excitement
of the occasion. Many delicious associations
were recalled in not a few bosoms- Prom the
dreamy past, whole hosts of pleasant recollections
came trooping?welcome visitants, bringing with
them pure and tender emotions, not unmingled with
sadness, which remained with many, young and
old, and accompanied them to their pillow that
night, smoothing it, and blessing it, and then melting
away again into the land of dreams !
But I must say something of the performances.
The Ravels were the occupants of the stage. I entered
just as Leon Javelli, a very handsome fellow,
in Greek costume, was bringing down the thundering
plaudits of the house by his achievements on
the tight-rope. No wonder they applauded! The
fellow leaped, and bounded, and vaulted, and somersetted
with a boldness and recklessness that al
most made one's hair stand on end. Yet all done
with so much grace, so much neatness, so much
self-possession ! And why should we oot be pleased
with such an exhibition of human skill and(human
power? Arc the exercises of Leon Javelli any less
interesting, profitable, or instructive than those of
many of your most accomplished dialecticians?
Assuredly the rope-dancer is by far the most entertaining.
"arcades ambo."
A very amusing lawsuit has been commenced between
one Wallach and Mr. Gallagher, late editor
of the defunct 7Vu< Sun newspaper. Wallach
claims damages for alleged breach of contract. It
seems that he or his friends embarked five hundred
dollars in the dead paper, and on that basis Mr.
Wallach attempted to control the editorial columns.
Mr. Gallagher resisted, and denies the present claim
of the other, alleging that he has paid him more
than he had any legal right to receive. A great
I deal offeeliag has been excited by this affair; and
it is said that on the trial some scores of leading
Democratic politicians are to be examined, aa the
history of the party for the last two or three years,
in this city and State, ia to be dragged into the inveatigation.
Drove out of town yesterday, and visited the Croton
aqueduct. He was delighted with the excursion.
In the evening he saw the fire-works in the Park,
and was much astonished and amused. He appears
to be a warm-hearted, unsophisticated man. In a
1 day or two he commences his work of reformation,
and will administer the pledge at the Catholic
The telegraphic report of the late news by the
"Canada" is a piece of incoherent trash. It is
shockingly mangled, jumbled, twisted, distorted,
topsy-turvy, incomprehensible. There ought to
be some reform in the business of telegraphic reporting.
At present it does not appear to be in the
best hands. Who is to blame :
A great number of accidents occurred yesterday.
A young man, about twenty years of age, by the
name of Patrick Welch, a carpenter by trade, had
the thumb and three fingers of the left hand terribly
lacerated, the flesh being blown off*from the bones.
This occurred by the hand being over the muzzle
of the pistol, when it accidentally went off while
trying to put on another cap.
A lad of fourteen years of age, by the name of
John J. Moran, had his left hand much shattered
by the bursting of a pistol, in Grand street. The
thumb and two first fingers and part of the hand
were blown off, only hanging together by the ligaments.
Francis McCully, aged fourteen years, had a hole
blown completely through his left hand, in consequence
of his hand resting on the muzzle when the
pistol went off.
The next was Thotniui Riley, njfrtl fifteen yearn,
who was very serinualy injured, the gun explosion
having taken effect in the elbow joint of the left
arm, passing towards the wriat, lacerating the
muacle* and flesh in a dreadful manner, and fracturing
the bones. It is supposed that amputation
will be necessary. *
Stephen Schuberth, a German, aged twenty-four
years, was wounded on the top of the right shoulder.
It appears that he was on the dock at the foot
of Chamber street, with a horse and cart, and had
just put some produce on board a steamboat, and
was in the act of picking up a chain belonging to
the cart, when a small boy discharged a pistol,
which was evidently loaded with a hall, as the shot
.u. ~r .u. -i u ' ' " .
w.n srii ? >V- w/p in UlC BlllfUfllCr WT ITIT. OCIVll*
berth. The niifmM have probed (he wound, but
ere unable to diacover the ball at present.
Between eieht and nine o'clock yeaterdny morning,
an unknown man of respectable nppenrnnre
waa brought to the hoapital inaenaible, having lieen
jammed between the railroad care of the New
Haven train, in Canal alreet. In a few minutea
after entering the hoapital he expired. On examination,
the kidneya were much lacerated, and alao
other internal fNirta of the body were much injur-d,
enough to rauae death
A amall boy, ten yeara of aire, by the name of
William Keefe, waa brought to the hoapital, murh
injured by being accidentally run over by one of
the Dry Dock atagea, No. 13, in Chatham atreet,
near Orange. Officer Murphy, of the Sixth Ward,
jncked up the child and conveyed it to the hoapital.
Upon lieing examined, it waa aupponed the child
would atirviva the injuries.
Boston, July 4, IH49.
Among the diatinguiahed visiters at preeenl in
our city are the Hon T. L Crittenden and lady,
and R- H. Crittenden, of Kentucky The latter
leaves for his post .it Liverpool in to-day'* steamer
Senator Sou If, of Louisinna, who is to visit France
at this interesting crista in her affairs, goes out in
the same boat. We would like to detain these two

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