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Agricultural Kduratton. BV AURICULA. The subject which is now attracting much attention, not only in this State, but in many of the Stales of our Union, is the education of farmers' sons for their profession, thai of Agriculture. The prejudice which has loo lon? existed among fanners, and which, it must be admitted, has arisen from a wrong idea of the education proposed, is fast giving away to the light which experience is bringing to bear upon this all important matter. No one thinks of preparing his son to be a physician, attorney, or divine, without providing the means for his acquiring a particular knowledge of the studies uesi raicuiaicu iu nun iur uic puiouu ??v m . to follow. When we urge the same considerations | upon the farmer in regard to the education of his I son, for the pursuit of Agriculture, it is not unfrequenlly said?"What more is necessary than to learn the lad in the field the routine of farm lalior?s the practices which 1 huve pursued as to the manner of preparing my land?the time of sowing and planting?" This is all important, and we advocate no system of education that will dispense with it. Suppose we should, in the case of the physican, adopt the same rule. The young man, instead of pursuing u course of study by which he is familiarly and thoroughly instructed in the complicated machinery of the human body, the laws which regulate and govern diseases, the peculiar nature und habits of disease, begins at once to visit patients with the physician, P?y? no attention to the teachings of science ana the researches of others; he might, eventually, acquire information that would be useful, but how much less likely to be successful, than one who, in addition to this practical education with his instructor at the bedside, had enjoyed the benefits of u thorough education previous to entering upon theucuve duties of his profession. May it not safely be affirmed, that every man in the community would prefer the one who had combined with practice the thorough preparation of himself by all the aids which science and the experience of others had afforded him? It can t>e hardly necessary in this day ot light anil knowledge to attempt to show that there is much for every farmer to learn from science to aid him in his work: the nature of soils, their constituent elements, their adaptation to particular crops, the quality of manures as determined by analysis, the effect of heat and cold upon vegetation, and many other things which can be only certainly known through the agency of science. What, may it not be asked, is to prevent every farmer who shall be thoroughly instructed from availing himself for practical purposes of these advantages1 The researches which have been made by scientific men have developed many interesting and important facts?and the time is not far distant when many more will be brought to light, which will greatly lessen the labors of the farmer, and enable him, with economy, to adopt a system of farming that will remunerate him liberally. Perhaps it may be asked, what system, if adopted here, would thus aid the farmer? Without at this uMwiiiw urhnt I sunnnse would be a svstem in ",,,v & * '*& ri - - ? j ? every respect well calculated to accomplish such a result, it may be sufficient to say?that a school to prepare young men for the duties that are to devolve upon them should be so arranged as to give them a thorough course of education, combined with its practical adaptation to the entire work of the farm, even in the most minute portions of labor. To accomplish this, a farm of liberal extent must be connected with the instituuon, where experiments could in the first place be carefully made on some small portion of it, and when satisfactorily tested, be carried into practice in the general culture of the farm. An opportunity must also be furnished of testing the qualities of different breeds of cattle, horses, sheep, and swine. How little is now really known by the great body of our farmers in relauon to these matters. Who is there, from actual trial and experiment, is prepared to say which, of all the breeds of cattle, is best adapted to this State, for the dairy or for the shambles ? Has a trial and comparison been made between the different breeds called improvtd, and the native stock, an ihat it <\nn he aaid this is the best for the firmer* of New York* 1 answer: No. And I would ask, . is it not important that these questions, so important to the farming interest, should be determined r And would not an institution, discreetly managed by a judicious, intelligent, and thoroughly qualified practical man, in time work out for us a solution of these questions ? So, loo, with regard to horses, sheep, and swine?the above remarks are equally * applicable There are now in this Slate a large variety of grains in use?each hue its advocates?and yet it is not true that it was decided there are some varieties superior to others, and better adapted probably to our climate and sods. And where shall these questions be settled more aausfactonly and certainly than at an institution with a liberal farm, of different varieties of soils, where a scries of experiments could be carried oil with all the varied grains, for a term sufficient to test their qualities in every rtespect? There are other matters all important to be ascertained, and which at present are but little attended to, at least ao far as the trreal body of the farmers are concerned. I allude to a rotation of crops, and applicaUon of manures, beat calculated to five profitable returns to the farmer, while it serures to him the constant fertility of his soil.? Where could this be better ascertained than at an instiluuon where a series of experiments with different crops, in different rotations, and with varied manures, carefully analyzed, could be carried out? In each of theae cases, time is necessary to obtain satisfactory results?and the State, at an institution of this kind, could secure such results as would, in the end, greatly add to the prosperity and success of the farmer, in the management of ins farm Permit me to caution my readers not to expect loo much at once from an institution in every reelect rightly adapted to the wants of the farmer Time will be required for it to develop ita advantages The work of improvement ia not the work of a day or of a year. Experiment*, to be useful, muat lie long continued, often repeated, before they can Iw relied upon ; and although a young man, trained in an institution thoroughly, will himself be prepared to do great good, yet the great practical l*enefits to the farmer aa to the general course of hi* operation* both aa to hia crops, manures and animals, must be a work of time, and cannot be hastily decided with safety. Time for experiments to lie thoroughly tested, time for the investigations to be in every respect carefully made, muat be allowed Let thia be borne in mind, and I doubt not an institution, under the < harge of properly qualified instructors, men ol n11fel, rn'-ri of pr ?:ti > adaptation to the want* of the age?not mere theorists or fancy men, would eventually secure the approlmtion of all, and would b< crowded with the young men of ourSiate. and would annually send forth many in all reapeeta well quali fied to discharge their duties as farmers, and alw prepared, when called into public life, to dischargt their higher duties as representatives of their pro fession, the great producing class of our country. Should I have leisure, nnd should you not hav< more im|w>rtiint matter for your pa|>er, I design t< pursue this subject, and give in detail the course t< oe pursued at an institution which, in my judg ment, would lie well designed to accomplish th< great work now needed?Ik* tkertmfh rdur ajum o tn* wn* of r?nw?T?. /)ctoti?m.?The Pittaburg Gazette, apeak i rig r the ravage* of the cholera on board the uteambot Wyoming, on her late paaaage from St. Lout* t that place, aJV?: " There were two females on the Wyomini Mia* I-?dd, of Majumlle, and Mias Dillon, of Pitu burg. whose condu' J i" worthy of the highei praiae When poor Ro?era waa lying in the lai agonies of death, they came forward from the li die*'cabin, volunteered their aervicea, and aaaiste in rendering every aid to the dying man that cool poaaibly be tieatnwed." How true m the language of the poet: '* When (nun and ariguiah wring the brow, A ministering angel, thou." The Locofoco* nrr not disposed to be Mlilfir with thia Administration, do what it may. M . Kwing gave off)'': to voting Mitchell, th?- brothi of the Inab patriot of that name. and the Unk; pronounced it n acheme to humbug the Irish We| then, Collin* ia lumrd nut of the coheclorship i Cincinnati, and the Looofoco pre** imrnediatel denounce General Taylor for " Nativei* "? cri elty to the pre**''?" hatred to adopted '.miena, Ac. Poor fellowa, it i* a hard thing to make liie happy, utile** it he by continuing them under t| chloroformic influence* of Uncle Sam's mom cheat.?OweTurv Time*. , The Wa*hmgton Union, noticing the removal aome of ita friend* from office, ?ay?, that "t place* which knew them *hall know th?m more." Thia eery pathetic remark appears to he a prei full admiaamn that the Union has no expectation the return of it* party to power, for, in that ca it ia very naturally to be supposed that the pla< which have known the poor fellow* in rpiesti Hiight.know then again.?L/uwitU Journal. m ? r ? : THE REPUBLIC. W A S111N GTON: WEDNESDAY MORNING, JULY 11, 184a. "NO ENKMlUh TO PUNISH." The Union, and that portion of the Locofoco press which finds in the reeking columns of the Metropolitan fugleman a congenial ruthlessness of denunciation, have extracted from the centre of a sentence, in the first Allison letter, the words * * * 1 1 J J at the head oi tins article; ana, aner auuing "no friends to reward," to strengthen the construction they resolved to give them, have made the forgery the groundwork of the shameless invectives which are daily fulminated against General Taylor. They construe the remark above quoted, and the interpolation they have made upon it, into a pledge that every Locofoco office-holder would be retained in place, and that the Whig party, proscribed as it had been for twenty years, should remain proscribed forever. Following out the design of this artful solution, they now pretend to regard the dismissal of an officer as an impeachment of his honesty or a violation of a pledge. The hypocrisy of this scheme to keep the Administration surrounded and embarrassed by the agents of a hostile party was made transparent by the eagerness with which the Opposition adopted and acted upon it. The resignation of the old Cabinet was wellnigh denounced as an act of proscription. Mr. Buchanan and his colleagues barely escaped canonization; but they alone were permitted to depart without a badge of martyrdom. The first removals made by the new Cabinet?those necessary to admit to posts of confidential relation individuals personally known to the Secretaries?were decried as breaches of every article in the decalogue, and from that day to this the strain of invective has flowed without ebb. The Secretaries of the new Administration were required to retain about their persons the confidential advisers of their predecessors, and to carry on the affairs of government with assistants of whom they had no knowledge of any one man. Such were the demands of the Opposition; and monstrous as they will be acknowledged to be by all rational minds, the President is traduced and derided in every form of brutal and offensive attack for not compelling his Cabinet to submit to them. It is needless to tell any one familiar with the tactics of the Union, that there is no sincerity in its construction of General Taylor's language, nor that the tears with which it bedews the fate of its partisans betray no real grief. To the l/hum, at least, to consider the removal of an officeholder the punishment of an enemy, is a novel mode of reasoning. That journal has made a distinct and different construction of the exercise of the appointing power. In 1845, it upholded its doctrine in the following formulary: "All the offices held at the will of the Executive are nuppoaed by the ConaUtuUon to be reached by Iht renovating principle tn the re-election of every Chief .Mogul rate II lie t?e chosen i>y tne people io cnange the principle* and measure* of hia predeceaaor, in the conduct of the Government, to reform aliuaea, and put it on a new tack, he ha* the power mainlt through changing it* aoehtr. The sailing of the ahip is not leaa in the liandaof thoae who trim the amis, than in his who holds the helm. Hence, as it is supposed the people, in choosing a new President, may choose a new direction for the public affairs, he hat conferred upon him the unhnuttd power of changing the men through whom they are managed. On his induction into office, every head of a department resigns, as a matter of course, his commission; and this act of the first functionary of every class of public service is, ui effect, to say that every place under them is vacant, if the President chooses to consider it No subordinate 0ppicar hold* hi* place but bt a permission equivalent to a reappointment; and the true theory of our Government in regard to the subsidiary Executive functionaries is, that none should be permitted to remain, or, in other words, be reapwh(.m th* President would not under the circumstance* attending each caae. appoint to oppick. He ia just a* responsible for returning a* for appoiiUin* " The first principle above laid down is, i that all offices within reach of the Execu, tive are vacated by every re-election, or, ' as the Union more elegantly expresses it, I "are reached by the renovating principle " in the re-election of every Chief Magis! tratc." The next is, that a President elected by > the people to chang^ the principles and , measures of his predecessors must reform * abuse* "mainly through changing the / agents of government." The. "renovating principle" issostrong>f ly insisted upon, that the matter-of-course II resignation of the heads of departments b equivalent to saying that every place un, der them i* vacant. According to the articles of belief herr ,t contended for, the resignation of Mr. ' Polk's Cabinet va< ated all the officei d of the Government within the gift of the Pre?ident or hi* Secretaries. If there ha* been any proscription, it has been don? by the old Cabinet, not by the new one When they resigned, they in effect re r "igned for all officers under them. Thi.' * is the logic of the Union; arid yet that pa ?' per continues to make an outcry over s few removals, in the fare of a principle s< " clearly laid down and enforced by itself. tt* But to return to the Union'* article 'y This vacating of the offices by the resigna f tion of the head* of departments is ye he mor?- forcibly urged. It contends tha 1 every subordinate holds his place by ny permission ((equivalent to a reappoint ?! ment," and that none should he reaf ** pointed whom the President would not i on .... . _. I the first instance appoint to office. How can the Union now argue enmity from removals from ottice? It may just as well infer hostility from a refusal to appoint to oflice in the tirst instance, and so denounce the President as the foe of every individual in the United States who is not an office-holder. But the last sentence in the Union's creed is the strongest of all. It says the President is "just as responsible for retaining as for appointing." Is it not clear that, under the construction given by the Union to the constitu* 1 liU^l | I tional power 01 removal auu me iuw uuu usages regulating it, when there is a change of administration, there can be no proscription? It contends that the offices are all reached by the election, virtually vacated by the resignation of the heads of departments; that if any one is permitted to remain, it is equivalent to appointing him to odice in the first instance; that the newly elected President is responsible to the people for retaining any one in office; and that the ends of reformation designed I? iI.~ />konmnnp an anmmiutrg. uy U1C ill tuaii^iug tion are to be reached mainly through changing the agents and subordinate officers of government. The Union's clamor against proscription is dissembling merely, for it contends that all the offices were in effect vacated by the election of General Taylor and the resignation of Mr. Polk's Cabinet; and its anathemas against the President are sheer guile, for it holds that the will of the people in changing an administration cannot be carried out but by a change in the subordinate agents of the Government?the hands which utrim the sails." The Union now is all horror and dismay, when less has been done in the way of removals than it maintains the people require at the hands of the President. It affects the indignation of wounded morality. It fears the example of official infirfelifv unnn thp religions sentiment of the ? J -J? o ? age. We advise this accusing angel to drop a few tears upon the record. The Hon. Thomas W. Chinn, of Louisiana, left this city yesterday morning for Boston, whence he will sail on the ISth for Naples, to assume the duties of United States Charge d'Affairs to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Mr. Chinn was formerly a Representative in Congress from Louisiana, and is favorably known to the members with whom he served as an efficient, intelligent, and diligent public officer. The United States will have in him an able and an upright representative. rne good wiiioi ail wno know mm accom- ; pany him on his voyage. May success attend him in his mission, and improved health reward his services. Mr. Alexander Barrow, the son of the late Senator Barrow, accompanies Mr. Cwmw as private secretary. It is saying much for Mr. Barrow to add, that in character and dis|>osition he much resembles his distinguished and lamented father. lord brol gil a m, Our Cauadlan Frontier and tltr Smuggling Trade. We have long been aware that the personal morals of Lord Brougham were not of a very saintly character. He is generally reputed to drink freely, and swear roundly, and indulge pretty liberally in all forms of |>olite dissipation. His |M>litical morals have always set loosely about him, but we must confess that we were not quite prepared for the demonstration made by his lordship in the House of Beers, in the debate of the 19th ultimo, on his reso lution on the Canada Indemnification bill. After a long and somewhat rambling, though entertaining discourse on Canadian history and parties, Lord Brougham offered his opinions on the feelings with w hich the United States regard the prevailing troubles in Canada. He could not conceive that the people of this republic were not covetous of more land, and were not looking with breathless anxiety on the struggle pending between (Jreat Britain and her North American Colonies. "He believed that America counted every day an age until she heard that this bill received the royal assent?that she counted every day an age until England plunged her fellow-subjects into the gulf now yawning to receive them." Now, we lielieve if his lordship were aware of the very small degree of excitei ment and anxiety prevailing in the United States on this subject, he would admit?for the first time, it may l>e, in the history ol ' the world?that the United States present an instance of an unambitious repub i lie?a republic that can survey adjacent ! territory without the desire to possess it? t a republic content with her own ample doJ minions and her own countless people. For thi? state <>f the public tnind we are mainly indebted to the ground taken by * President Taylor in his Alison letter, in - his Inaugural Address, and in the course i pursued by liiin with the war-steamer i United States. The American people understand perfectly that their (Government . will not suffer itsell to be implicated in any manner with the troubles of foreign t governments, be they near or remote?be it they developing on their own borders, or a on the highway of nations. They under[ ; stand perfectly that no act violating our - neutrality will be for a,moment tolerated; ii and hence the perfect repose and calm in I the public mind, with regard to a state ol THE REPUBLIC. tilings among our Canadian neighbors, which would have doubtless been improved, if General Cass had been elected to the Presidency into an easy ? inevitable war." We believe, tfien, if Lord Brougham had been better acquainted with the people and the present Administration of the United States, he would not have looked with so much jealous apprehension to the results of republican ambition in our case. 11 she remains a loyal colony until we " cevet" her into the Union, we imagine that the British government will long remain in ihe undisputed enjoyment of Canada. In the conclusion of his speech, however, Lord Brougham presents the question of loyalty or annexation in a light that may render it extremely interesting to the American Government and the American people. He urges upon the lords the necessity of preserving Canada to the British government, on the ground that its great extent of frontier presents such admirable facilities for defrauding the revenue of the United States! That we may not do injustice to his lordship, we will cite his own words. " We have withdrawn protection from our manufactures," said his lordship?" not so thd Americans. They desired to increase the protection on theirs. What now prevented it ? Upper Canada, a frontier of. fourteen hundred or fifteen hundred miles, which it was utterly and absolutely impossible to protect." His lordship added : "No amount of American police or of American militia, much iess of custom-house or excise officers, could prevent a bale of goods crossing that extensive frontier into America. A friend of his some time since saw a number of hatchets in Illinois. He said, 'These look like our manufacture.' ' No,' replied the American with whom he was speaking,' you cannot make them.' Some time afterward he returned, and found that they were supplied with the same description of tools from Birmingham. It appeared that another party went there, and seeing the American hatchets, in3uired what they were sold at; he was told one ollar and twenty-five cents, each. He undertook to send them a consignment trom Birmingham, and he did send twenty-five thousand hatchets, which were sold at half n dollar each. Notice was given to the government and the excise, and down came the custom-house officers and militia to seize them; but the attempt was futile, for when they arrived, they found them all sold. Every man had bought his hatchet for his half a dollar, and carried it off on his shoulder. And thus it was with all other articles of manufacture; the difference of the price was such that no mere custom-house regulation would prevent their introduction. "All we required to insure the introduction of our goods into America was a frontier ; that frontier we had while we possessed Canada, and that the Americuns knew well. Tariff there could be none; that was a dream, an impossibility, while we retained Upi>er Canada. (Hear.) Therefore it was that he conjured their lordships to do all they could to knit to us the affections of our fellow-subjects in Canada. * " * * It was impossible to be aware of the strong feelings of loyalty which | ervaded the great mass of our fellowsubjecta in Canada, and not feel that it would be a cruel policy to take any steps to throw them into the hands of the Americans. (Hear, hear.) UI In liatl tiaon man utifViin (km laul I Vt ma uraalro men born and bred in Canada; men who had toiled and bled for their country; men to whom Canada had been a home for the last half century; men whoae possessions, whose families, whose every tie was in Canada?nod Uir?? men told him tk??o tfccjr i.uJ such a horror of being given up to the great dominant republic of the west, a horror proceeding to such an extent, that if that catastrophe were consummated, they would leave Canada, as their forefathers had left America, and sacrifice their homes to their loyallv to England. (Hear, hear.) He implored their lordships not to hasten that catastrophe. He called upon them to save their Canadian fellow-suhjecu from the effects of this whim of responsible government carried to an absurd and reckless excess; he implored them to adopt the resolutions which he was about to submit, and which he believed would set as oil on the troubled waters?(a laugh)?and restore peace and contentment to the colony." If Lord Brougham is very anxious to prevent his loyal brethren in Canada from falling into the hands of the Americans, he is taking a very strange position in their behalf. The main idea in his lordship's Canadian policy rests on defrauding the American Government. He urees - o the importance of preserving Canada to the British crown, on the ground that through that channel Great Britain can to all intents and purposes repea/any tariff act of the United States, and render it "a dream, an impossibility." He tells the world, in short, that there is at this present moment a system of smuggling carried on along the Canadian frontier, which laughs at excisemen and custom-house officers, no less than at police and militia; and this systematic smuggling his lordship is disposed to adopt and patronize as a sort of state-jiolicy, which is to give color and direction to the colonial legislation of Great Britain. He would knit the affections of Canada to the crown, that Birmingham and Manchester men might continue to smuggle axes into Illinois ! For our part, we have not the slightest disposition to alienate the affections of Canada from the crown, or to dissever the interesting knitting-work contemplated by Lord Bkoimiam. But we have very great objection to a stale of things that renders our tariff acts a nullity?or that may prevent us from rendering at a very early day tri.it ellim nt protection to our coal ami iron interests m Pennsylvania, that will save them, and the thousands now dependent on them for subsistence, from the results of free trade or smuggling trade in | our Atlantic porta, or along our Canadian frontier. If Canada is to he saved to the British crown, avowedly for the purpose of systematizing smuggling, and makinp it loyal and respectable, with the endorse merit ami approbation of leading statesmen in the House of fiords, we shall hardly I continue 1o look with such entire indifference on the prevailing troubles among her disaffected subjects. We cannot believe that the smuggling , trade is carried on along our Canadian frontier to the extent which we must I infer from the remarks of his lord ship. If it is so, the late Administration ' oi the United States, in its sympathy for free trade, must have countenanced and connived at the violation of our laws?or, what is the same thing in effect, must have neglected their due execution. We hope that the present Administration will profit by the lesson that has been read to them in the House of Lords?that it will adopt immediate measures to ascertain if the evil suggested by Lord Brougham exists in the manner and to the extent that he would insinuate, and to inquire into the possibility of arresting this systematic and government-favored smuggling by some means consistent with the colonial condition or the independence of Canada. . AIRS OF THE "SOLE ORUAN." The Union prates of "scurrility, insolence, and falsehood''?a journal which has marked out for itself a career of infamy; which has assailed, with venomous malice, the purest and best citizens of the Republic; which stops at no defamation, however indecent, of a soldier who has won the admiration of the civilized world by his brilliant achievements, and the affections of his countrymen by a blameless life. It has denounced the President of the United States, and permitted him to be denounced in its columns, as a "dolt," a "whited seniilr.hrfi." a "Nfirna "rhfata x 7 - 7 - 7 "violator of pledges," a "liar;" and even now, whilst the afflicted and the humane, the suffering and those who sympathize in the sufferings of others, throughout the land, are attesting their sense of the public calamity by ^welcoming the recommendation by their Chief Magistrate of a day of humiliation and prayer as an earnest of reliance upon and hope in the Divine mercy, its daily issues are blurred by sacrilegious jests and obscene ribaldry, in mockery of the desolation and wo which a mortal pestilence is visiting upon the hearthstones of the people. And it talks of scurrility and insolence, assumes the moral guardianship of the nation, and in vokes Heaven to prosper its labors in the cause of virtue. Such a paper can only have been taught to blush by the instruction of the brothel, and received its lessons in ethics from the graduates of a penitentiary. The Union, as we expected it would, sticks to its statement that Mr. Corcoran has been removed, though in the same breath it acknowledges that he is nut </uite removed yet. To cover its retreat, that paper contends that he will be removed as soon as his successor becomes sufficiently acquainted with the business to take his place. This is looking ahead for the history of the past. Mr. Corcoran is yet in office, receiving the pay of office; and this the Union knew when it said the contrary. The Union saves us the trouble of disproving its fabrications by contradicting itself. Nor do we learn that Mr. Corcoran is to be removed. It may be that some transposition of duty in the Indian Bureau will take place; but this has not yet been the case in regard to Mr. Corcoran, so that the Union's statement had not even the sligfct foundation of a removal from one desk to another to supjx>rt it. Tkt Prdllrnrr and a National Faat. A correspondent of the Boston Atlas speaks thus appropriately of the destructive epidemic which is hurrying tens of thousands to the grave, and of the National Fast recommended to be observed by President Taylor: The cholera ia again visiting city and country, throughout our continent, arresting universal in. quiry, and exciting universal apprehension. Nor perhaps is it reasonable to expect that it will have orders from the Throne to cease its ravage*, till men, especially in christian communities, are brought fully and humbly to recognise m it the presence and power of the Supreme. What but a palpable miracle could more clearly mark it as a visitation from the Most High ? But the age of miracles is passed. And to the word and providence of Jehovah, we are to listen for warning and teaching. Why, then, amid gentle premonitions and the long forbearance of Heaven, should not christians, rulers, and the people at large, regard with solemn awe the uplifted sword, recognise the justice of this chastisement, abjure the sins which may have occasioned it, nnd with one heart and voice, penitently cry, "Sjtarr thy pttmlt, O lx/rd How much more rational and becoming frail, mil n u w u-r 11 as linnnrahLs l#? the Infinite One, such a manifestation of humility, than either impious murmuring, reckless stoicism, or that trepidation which hofiea for eecurity only in i flight' We rejoice that Preaident Taylor, at thia crista, liaa given the proper signal to the community, nnd kindly summonea all to duly. " ff'ko ran teU," said an ancient chief magistrate of million*, whoar proclamation for a faat wna thought worthy of divine record, " Who ran tell, if (iod will /urn away from kujurer anger, thai we peruh no/." The New Orleans Picayune atatea, that hy a law of the lant legislature of the State of Texaa, her liahilitiea, contracted when ahe wna an independent Republic, arc required to be presented to the Auditor and Comptroller of the Slate on or before the lat of November next, and those officer* are authorized to clnasify and scale the various evidences of debt, according to their values, in par funds, at the time they were issued. 1 Mr. J. D Doswell furnishes the following classi* i Acation of the claims by the auditor and comptroller: I . ... Personal claims for services rendered par. Star money, issued in 1837 par Consolidated funds 7llc. on the dollar. | Interest notes .ri0<\ on the dollar. If) per cent. bends, funded 30<\ on the dollar. 8 [>er cent bonds, funded 30c. on the dollar. Promissary notes (redbark*) 25c. on the dollar 8 per cent Treasury Imnds 20c. on the dollar. Interest to be allowed on interest notes up to ' 1841. Interest to lie allowed on Consolidated fund to , September, 1840 Interest to lie allowed on bonds to the last payment of interest falling due in 1849 ' This decision is, moreover, subject to the further ' action of the legislature. CiidUMLVN BOOK FI'ULIIUIRIU. One of ihe strongcm literary novelties of the day is the fact that this country is now flooded with German reprints, in English, of the standard classics of our tongue, which are sold at so cheap a rate as not only to force from the inurket English editions, but to couqieie successfully even with ihe American. The pioneer of this enterprise in Gerinuny wan the celebrated Tauchnit?, well known as the publisher of those small und very accurate editions of the Greek and Roman classics, which have for fif- J teen or twenty years been used in all the higher schools of the country. Printed on fine und white paper, and with a beautiful type, they compare til infinite advantage with the bad editions of the best authors, with which booksellers and the reading portion of the American people have too long been content. Before us are editions of Shakspeare, Byron, Moore, Bulwer and Sir Walter Scott, together forming a collection of about sixty volumes, each of which the publishers are able lo send to America, pay duties, and sell at thirty-one and a quarter cents per volume. The above are but a fifth portion of the works printed by Tauchnilz, his li brary containing the chefs-d'ctuvrt of the modem and faHhionable authors. These books are to be hud of ull the German booksellers in the country, and, in these days of bad type, and worse paper, are luxuries. One thing appears particularly strange: Tnuchnitz has, on more than one occasion, produced English books, not only before their appearance in America, but even in advance of the English publishers. The lust instance of this is the historical novel of King Arthur, undoubtedly by Bulwer, which we are satisfied has been printed nowhere else. Col. Geo. W. Hcones, U. S. A., who recently made the survey for the contemplated Panama Railroad, has received a letter from Lieut. D. D. Porter, U. 3. N., at present on duty in command of one of the vessels of the United States on the Isthmus station, stating that the Bay of Munzanilla, one of the proposed termini of the Panama Railroad, is altogether incompetent to accommodate the immense commerce which necessarily musi come to thut place in case of the construction of the road. Lieut. Porter also states that the sickness complained of atChagresand its vicinity is exclusively caused by the excesses of the emigrants, and does not result from the climate or location. Naval.?The United States sloop of war Albany touched off the point of Aux Cayes on the 11th ult., and sailed again the same day on a cruise. The United States sloop of war Germantown arrived at Aux Cayes on the 13lh ult., from the city of St. Domingo. Father Mathew celebrated mass at the church ?? Pmer in Rnrclnv street. New York, at 8 o'clock on Sunday, the 8th. After the mass he delivered an address of much power, in which he contrasted the blessings bestowed by Providence in its mercy on all classes in this land, with the miseries and woes thut oppress his countrymen in Ireland. He also spoke of the many charitable and religious institutions erected in this Republic, and the profound feelings of gratitude with which he received the distinguished attentions of his American friends. After the service, he administered the pledge to several respectable individuals. He will renihin at the Irving House until to-day, when he is to l>e received by the authorities of Brooklyn and will commence Ins efforts in the cause of temperance. For a few days, however, he will remain vyith Dr. Pise, for the purpose of repose. Tomorrow, it is understood, he will receive the visits of the ladies. tie visited tlie Uonvent oi me oocreu nearim Mauhntiaiivitte, tiie Sisters of Charily at York Title, and other Catholic institutions, on Friday last. I its health in improving. Since lite appearance of the cholera in France, IS,961 persona have died, and 27,054 been attacked by the disease. The Medical Union, however, states that this is much lean than the exact number of the sutferers At Paris, for instance, in the interior of the city only the fatal cases are known. In 1832, in the sume space of time, more than 120,000 persons died. Up to June 17, there had been in the civil and military hospitals of Paris 11,689 cases of cholera, 5,951 deaths, and 3,931 persons cured. Of all the civil hospitals-the Hotel-Diew had received the greatest number of patients, and had, also, in proportion discharged the greatest numlier as cured. The department of Oise had lieen among those which had suffered most; next were the departments of Seine and Marne?in the latter depart merit the cities of Versatile* and Saint Germain have entirely escaped. In all the departments, it prevails to a greater or leas degree. Amongst the victims of the cholera in St. Louis we nre pained to see the name of Judge Charles W. Schaumburg. He died on the evening of the 25th ultimo; and about the same hour his youngest son also perished of the same disease. Judge Schaumburg was a gentleman of excellent parts, a true friend, generous and brave. From the Courrier <iet Ktnt? Unit we translate the following analysis of the character of the unfortunate Charles Albert, recently deceased at Oporto. "Lilieral in 1821, in J846 he returned to the principles in which he had been educated. He gave a constitution to his subjects, not so much because he loved thein as because he hated Austria. Brave as a knight errant, he waged war with an enthusiasm which characterized the middle ages. His dualities and his virtues made htm, as it were, seem to Iwloag to another century. He fought like a hero, lived like a monk, ami died a martyr. He wna more religioua than patriotic, more patriotic than ambitions, more amliitioua than politic, and more politic than akilful. Hie miafortune* made him greul, because hie miafortunes were tlioae of Italy, and every true heart will sympathize with a prince who bore to the tomb the. tokena of distress for the sufferings of his country " la one of the most delightful books which lias appeared for a long lime, "Curzon's Monasteries of the Levant," a description is given of a monk of one of the Greek convents of Mt. A thus, who had never seen a woman, and had no ndequnte idea of what kind of lietngs they were. If the monk hns been spm-ed one of the annoyances incident to huinanity, or lieen deprived of a blessing, is a matter for much consideration. A correspondent of the London Timet, writing from Knme, in alluaion to a French officer, now with Gen. Oudtnot, in front of Rome, mnkcN the following reference to one of the moat benuti- j fill and touching deacriptiona in the Sentimental Journey "I ain happy to find in General Oudinot'a chief Aid-de-camp, Major Rspidnnt, the grandaon of that nohleman of Mrittauy described in the ftrntimenlal Jtmrnry, who deposited hia sword in the archive* of Rhcima, and reclaimed it during j Sterne'* viait. The nword ha* descended from grandfather to grandson?it ha* made a campaign hi Africa, and, though I would wiah to *ee n employed in a la-tter cauNe than thi* intervention, it i* hi the hand* of a man of honor worthy of the I name he lieara." I For the Republic. HINKttOTAa?No. I. / This la ihe name of the youngest aialer of the republic?a aialer, indeed, who la still underuge, but who, after a brief |>eriod of education und tutelage, is deaiined to add her star to the confederacy. Aa the new territory comprehends a magnificent area, of varied reaourcea, it may be acceptable to readera to present a few obaervaliona on the subled; und not the leas bo, pcrhups, when it ia known that they are reminiscences of one who has |>ersonally visited, and ia extensively acquainted with the region. A territory, indeed, which gives origin to the Mississippi, and furmahea more than u thou uunu Milieu 01 ncr oan&s, oil ner rigni unu leu, ran neither be small nor obscure. The first subject that demands attention, in the new territory, is 'he name. It has been frequently asked, whether tliia soft and harmonious name be Indian, and if so, in what language or idiom ? We have the authority of some practical inquirers in > this matter for saying that it is a compound Dacota or Sioux word, describing the characteristic bluishgreen water of the St. Peter's river. Whether this phenomenon be due to sedimentary blue clays brought down from its tributaries ; to leaves settled in its bed, or to thick musses of foliage overhanging its banks, under the influence of utmospheric refraction, is uncertain. But the Dacotas, who live on its banks, were early to notice it at its periods of summer depression, and have embodied the description in the term Minbsota. Min-t simply, in the Sioux language, signifies water. The term for river, \oah~ta-pah, which the natives use as a noun-prefix, is properly dropped in udopting the word into a new language. By the Chippewas, who live uorth and east of the Dacotas, this river is called Oskibugi, or the Young-leaf river, in ullusion to its early foliage, or premature time of putting out leaves; while the more boreal regions occupied by them are still standing in their wintry leaflessness. Compared, indeed, to the shores of Lake Superior, the valley of the St. Peter's is indeed an Italy. But to the Saxon and Norman emigrant, who seeks the country for its capacities of industrial employment, it has a higher value. The whole of southern and central Minesota, from the Upper Iowa to the De Corbeau or Crow Wing river, on the line of ths Mississippi, is eminently Huiled to the zea maize UI1U II1C CUUTC laillliy Ul uic tcitui giauuua. A libiu is no part of the great West better adapted to wheat, corn, and the leading staples of northern agriculture. The St. Peter's has long been noted among travellers for its precocious und blooming gardens ; and it is found that the sylvan basin of Lake Pepin, and the valleyB of the St. Croix, the Issati, or Ram river, with St. Francis, Corneille, Saukis, and higher tributaries, are equally rich in their floral character and power of vegetation. Profitable agriculture must extend, township by township, to the De Corbeau; and it must be borne in mind that Indian corn, which cannot be cultivated at SaiUt Ste. Marie, in latitude 46? 30', is raised by the Indians annually, and ripens early in August, at the very sources of the Mississippi and at Red Lake, north of them. The latter point is but a few seconds south of north latitude 40?. ALGON. The King or Denmark has taken a step which hitherto has rarely entered the minds of monarchs. A letter trom Oopenliagen, amen June ju, states: "Yesterday morning, the President of the council of ministers presented to the national assembly the draft of a law in relation to the civil list during the present reign. The proposed law fixes the annual income of the King and Royal family at the moderate sum of 300,(100 banco-rix dollars, equivalent premwely to 1,500,000 franca. It directs that all castles, palaces, domains, museums, scientific collections, theatres, Ac., which hitherto have been considered as the private property of the King, shall be considered to belong to the State; that the King and royal family shall have the right to occupy the palaces, domains, Ac., but on condition of making a compensation for any injuries they may suffer while thus occupied. The King may retain a right to the game, on condition of an allowance to be paid from the royal income for this privilege." This step, taken by a monarch who has hitherto been absolute, shows that Frederick VII. has learned a lesson from the dethroned rulers around him, and been taught by the disturbed condition of Europe, that government is but the breath of the people. By thus liberalizing his system, he has done more to preserve his power than if he had levied an army of one hundred thousand bayonets. Antiquarians in the British Empire have been thrown into much excitement by the intention to pull down the house in the Nether-Bow, known as that in which the great Scottish Reformer, John Knox, lived and died. Being in a moat dilapidated condition, it was considered to endanger the public safety, and information in (he premises laid before the Dean of Guild-Court. After a hearing, the# L. .Ml: a I ft II I A I a miliums wn? oruerru 10 iic puiieu unwn, uui, on the application of Mr. Robert Chambera in behalf of the Scottish Antiquarian Society, a new hearing wna granted. Thin waa, however, unavailing; Mr. Blythe, the Dean, adhering to hin original decinion. Several yearn ago a number of perannn connected with the Free-church purchaned the lot, for the purpone of erecting on it jl monument, to conmnt of a tower and two churcl#*, out for aome renaon it waa not carried into effect. Beyond all doubt, care will be Utk< n in the pulling down of the building to preserve every thing at leant connected with the hintory of a man among the moat dietinguiahed of hia country, and who han influenced in no amall degree the dealinien of the world. The Rev. Dr. Se.ovel, President of Hanover College, la., died at hia reaidence afler a abort illness, on the morning of the 4th instant. He wan a man of indefatignble energy, nound judgment, nnd general ercellence of character, nnd under bin auspices the institution waa rapidly rining in public favor. In consequence of hia death, and the appearance of the cholern in the village, the student* have grne.ra 11 if <1 l?i kg-rur-il Sit i if 11> M t urlm a waJ bi T a..j ? >'?" <?v niiiTni ni Li"UF5 ville on the 4ih instant reported that the disease t had broken out with great violence, and that in the course of two daya four atudenta had died. The Richmond Whig states that the cholera continued to make havoc on Jamea River; that Mr. Carter, of Shirley, had loat twenty-eight alavea, and that others had lieen attacked. In the country round about Shirley, the alarm la ao great, that it hna lieen very difficult to procure assistance to hury the dead. The common but erroneous notion is, that the diaeaae is contagious, and hence the alarm. Brevet Col. J Monroe, of the 17. S. Artillery and Brevet Col May, of the Dragoons, left Fort Hamilton, New York, on Wednesday last, with dragoon recruits for two companies, en route for Santa Ff. Col. Monroe is to assume rommniul m that district, and the detachment will procewf directly to St Louis, where it will lie mounted. Theme they will proceed to Fort Leavenworth, at which place two infantry companies, idso destined, for Santa Ff, will join it, and march to Santa F# , -