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F * > *\ ? ? k \y^Jorcigu fllisicllamj >? The following note has been addressed by Count Ludislus Teleki (Hungarian Representative in Paris) to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the French Republic: Monsieur le Muustre: Events press onward. The intervention of Russia is a reality. After having gloriously resisted the armies ot Austria, Hungary finds herself now upon the point of being crushed under the weight of a new Holy Alliance, reorganized on Cossack nrinrinl?g. The imiii festo ol the Czar Nicholas leaves no farther doubt on this subject. The Emperor Joseph publicly avows himself the ally of the foreigner who invades his States. The fact of this Russian intervention, solicited in the name of the Emperor, King of Hungary. is whul has, above all oilier things, led the National Assembly of Hungary to declare the drchrance of the House of Hupsburgh-Lorraine, which had already violated every engagement, and broken all the compacts by virtue or which they have, for more than three centuries, jmssessed the crown of Hungary. 1 have given the details relutive to the Hungarian question, in two of my notes presented to the Minister tor f oreign Attnirs ol Wie rrencn rvepuolic, in October, 1848, and in March of the present year, as well us in a manifesto addressed in the name of Hungary to the civilized nationsof Europe, and which I had likewise the honor to present to the Minister of the Republic in December, 1848. Since then this questions has assumed greater dimensions; henceforward it has an European importance. It now becomes my duty to sum up, in a few words, that which hus relation to the just right of Hungary in the deadly struggle which she has to bear against Absolutism, and which identifies her , cause with that of civilization and freedom in general. 1. Tin legal right of Hungary.?Hungary has ever been independent of Austria. Ferdinand I., the first nrince of the House of Austria that ever reigned in Hungary, received the crown in 1520, in accordance with an election by the Diet. He swore to maintain the constitution and the independence of Hungary. All his successors took the same oath. The crown of Hungary first liecume hereditary in the House of Hapsburgh in virtue of the Pragmatic Sanction, passed by the Estates of Hungary in 1687. In 17:23 this settlement was extended by the Hungarian Diet to the female line of the House of Hapsburgh, (second Pragmatic Sanction.) But the independence of Hungary was maintained and guarantied not leas by these very acts than by the ouths of all the kings of the House of Hamburgh-Lorraine, even down to our days. By article 10, of the year 1790, the Emperor-King Leopold II. recognised Hungary as a free and independent State, in its whole legislative and administrative system. Hence the article 3, of the year 1848, by which a Parliamentary Government was settled in Hungary, introduced no change in its relations to Austria. This law was no more than a development of all the foregoing .laws. It was passed by a unanimous vote of the two Houses in die Hungarian Diet, and was formally sanctioned (by the King Ferdinand V. All that we demanded of the House of Austria was that our Charter should henceforth be a truth; our demands did not go one step beyond what had been guarantied to us in succession by all our kings. 2. Conduct of the House of Austria.?The House of Austria has broken all her engagements with Hungary, fioin the moment when, in consequence of her victory over the army of CharleH Albert in July, she felt herself strong enough to venture it. She put in force every means which could lead to her end of overthiowing the Hungarian constitution, and incorporating Hungary in her Austrian monarchy. She publicly preached revolt abroad; she raised up national hatreds among us; she excited men to pillage, to burn, to murder; she awakened the enmity of the poor against the rich; she offered the hand of friendship to all our enemies; she decreed the partition of Hungary into numerous provinces; she launched armies against us, and declared all those to be rebels who remained faithful to their country and its laws. Last of all, she has called in Russia to her aid, and has caused her own States to be invaded by the most dangerous of her own rivals. It is, therefore, in the exercise of a legal right, that the Hungarian Diet decreed that the decheanct of the House of Hapsburgh-Lorramt, which has shown itself the most bitter enemy of our country, I feel an intimate conviction that Europe, that France, ought to take an interest in us. For we are at once the champions of freedom and of legal order: we are the defenders of good and of society; and it is the House of Austria which, in reference to us and our constitution, legally guarantied, is in the state of rebellion. 3. Hungary is the champion of riviliz-ation This Russian intervention is totally adverse to the interests of the whole of Europe Austria has always lieen looked upon as the proper bulwark of Europe against Russia But this intervention is the death of Austria. It would be absurd to imagine thai Russik marches her armies and perils her finances, with the sole object of setting up a barrier against herself. Her intervention, therefore, will be nothing but a means of subjugating Austria. Besides, we know very well what are the real intentions of Russia with regard to ihe Sclavic populations of the Austrian empire. The Russian autocrat already looks upon himself in the light of their legitimate sovereign. Hence, when she has succeeded in reconstituting Austria after her own fashion, Russia will have pushed herself, in fact, as far as Germany: this is what must lie expected if we are crushed. Under such circumstances, will Turkey, already wounded by the occupation of Moldavia and Wallachia, have power to bear the shock of the Northern Colossus' No! all is destined to lie subdued in its turn. After having invaded Austria, Russia will have the Kosphorus Europe will no longer possess any bulwark against her. Thus, in combating the Russians, we are nerving the interests of the whole of Europe. Our army amount* to very nearly two hundred thousand men, perfectly drilled and disciplined, together with an imposirg force of artillery The force of Turkey is hardly inferior ; and she has, besides, her fleet and the Egyptian contingent. This strength is more than is required to resist the Russians. The intervention of Russia could not take place?at all events, could not succeed?if advantage were taken of these forces, if pains were taken to invite them France ha* only to will it. Let me hope that she will not look on with an indifferent eye upon this intervention?that she will have the will to prevent it. For the policy of Russia, at last unmasked by the manifesto of the Czar Nicholas, proved sufficiently that he looks upon himself as the natural enemy of all civilized people, and, a* a final consequence, of France. It proves that, in her present stun k upon us, Russia is only taking up a strong position, by rendering Austria subject to herself. I^ei me entreat you to tnke into consideration the retq?ert for existing rights, which the national government of Hungary maintains, even against its own interest While the Austro-Russian troops wer* violating tne neutrality <?i m* lurician territory in Wallachia, the general of the Hungarian force* made it hia duty to reaper! it, he hulled his men upon th* frontier* of Trsnaylvnmn, at a mm ment when, by imitating the enemy'* example, and pursuing him into the f'urkiah territory, he rould have put the Atiniro-Rtiasian* in a condition to dc hirn no further miachief. Pardon me, M. le Mil s're, for having troubled you with ao many detaila, but thia waa for me a s?? red duty, which f could not avoid fulfilling, lama Hungarian- I owe my s* If to lit* muse ol my country. I am the representative of her inlereat*?it la my duty to defend them, and I do ao, in the intimate conviction that the intereata of all humanity are aharera in our own. Your own feeling* toward* the rau*e I repreaeni are a pledge that you will five a favorable reception to thear linea Be pleawd, M le Mimatre, to accept, As. Comte LA DISC AS TF.LEKI M de Tocqueville, Minister of Fofeign Affairs, Ac A l>i?et'tairiOK ox htNM ? A caae wna broughi t?efore the court of common (den*, ,,n Wednesday in which th* plaintiff, Mr Keniiernn y. aw endorse) of a lull of exchange for Hh> , brought an actior against the defendant a* th> aoeptnr, and declared again*! htm by the name of AJohn ,M. Knott,' being that by which he had signed the rx>if, but without stating in the declaration that the defend, ant had no signed it. The defendant objected ihn the plaintiff bad not properly set forth hi* Chruuiai name Mi. Sergeant rimwrd, on Itebalf of thi defendant, argued, with rery considerable ability that, though the court had decided the letter " I, being a vowel andcajMibleof pronunciation, might b admitted a* a Christian name, such could not tie th rase with the letter "M," w hich, being a coo*oriarii could rtol be pronounced by itself The caae rest* merely upon that letter "M," which, in the pre**i rase, meant nothing. The f?rd Chief Justice?Yoo say the ' M means nothing?then let it mean nothing. Woul \ N\ n * % i * % V a scratch be demurrable? The learned Sergeant stueant to say that "M," by itself, meant nothing, though in the cane it meant something, which ought to have been explained by the statute. Suppose a person of the name of John Ilobins: the court would surely hold a declaration bud which described him by the word John und figures of the redbreast' So the court would hold the declaration bad because there was a sign put for one ofthedefendants' names. The letter H, indeed, by the custom of London, and some other places, was no sound at all?(laughter)?though elsewhere it often protruded itself on all occasions. (Renewed laughter.} Justice Maule spoke of u policeman who, as a witness, described himself as belonging to the " ben" division ; when, at a future stage of the cause, it was found that the division was not designated by the name of the bird, but the alphabetical letter "N." The learned Sergeant said it might lie contended that the person was christened in the munrier the bill was signed, as they have often heard of absurd Christiun names. He had heard of children being christened " Sir Francis Burdelt." (Laughter.) Mr. Justice Muule referred to a learned argument, where it was contended thut the Christian and not the surname was the real name ; for instance, in a case of John Sti(es, John was the real name, und Stiles was added, because the ancestor loved new ones. (Laughter.) A long conversation then ensued between the learned sergeant and the justice as to the effect of vowels and consonants, anil witnesses were adduced from reputed authors of persons being called "Monsieur D'O." and "Lord M." and "Mr. H." Mr. J. Robinson, on the part of the plaintiff, argued that "M," in the name of John Knott, waa not an initial letter; he cited an instance of a bank director, who was christened "Edmund R. Robinson," and any one might use such names. Mr. Justice Maule saul the practice of the circles with which he was acquainted was to give the name verbally. There U,u? hnuioiror u r> t lorvi u n thu ?ViAriflT f\f nnp nf the counties i went through on circuit, Mr. John Wanley Sawhridge Erie Drax, whose name was very probably handed in. (Laughter.) Mr. Robinson: There are many Scotch and French names, such as M'Donald, M'Taggart.D'Harcourt, D'Horsey?how are such names to be set out in the pleadings.' Suppose, again, a man's name were the name of u river, us X? Mr. Justice Maule: But that is not sjielt so; it is idem per idem, X for ex. Beer, I believe, is sometimes called X, but not water. (Laughter.) Mr. Robinson: There are some of our names which are precisely those of letters, as Gee, Jay, Kay, &c. Mr. Justice Maule: Buthere it is not sonant, only consoiums, and cannot be sounded without other letters. Mr. Robinson: Their lordships should remember the existence of a publication called the Fonetic ?Yus, and unless tliey meant to give a "heavy blow and great discouragement" to that rising science, he hoped they would not decide against his client. (Laughter.) But he had seriously to submit that, by demurring ? ll? 10 'loolu Ai tion ilia /loforvilanl u/l noit lo/l oocneil_ ing to legal principles, that his name was that which was stated in the declaration. After some further legul niceties had been expounded by the opposing counsel, the Lord Chief Justice decided that the consonant letter expressed an initial only, and gave judgment for the defendant.?English paper. Alligators Boarded and Lodged. We made an excursion lately, to what is here called the Muggar Tank, a lake of alligators, which lies in a small and beautifully situated grove of trees, surrounded by a range of low hills, about nine miles from Kurrachee. After having breakfasted, we proceeded to the spot where these hideous monstera were congregated. They are held sacred by the natives of the country, and are regularly fed by the contributions of devotees. The taniv in inure iiivc an uvcruuwu uicauuw iiiun u lurvc, having deep channels intersecting each other, and is literally alive with these huge "muggers," some hasking on the knolls and ridges, others floating on the surface of the deeper water. They were of all sizes, from a foot or two to twenty or twenty-five feet in length, and bulky in proportion. Having purchased a kid, and cut it up on the banks, there was a universal opening of their capacious jaws, which they kept distended in expectation of having a piece of flesh pitched in them, and are too lazy to inuke any further demonstration; the native keeper, who feeds them, then begun calling to them, when they came one by one lazily along, and waddling on to the shore, each took what was given to him. The rapidity with which the |>oor kid vanished, head and heels, was truly astonishing. They know the keeper quite well, and if any one should take up what is not thrown to him, the keeper makes him drop it by striking him over the snout with his stick Their jaws are certainly dreadful clap-traps, and the crash they make when brought together is horrible, crushing the bones even of the head of their prey, like so much crush. It is probable, setting aside motives of superstition, that the inhabitants now find it necessary to feed these voracious monsters, for, were the supplies to be stopped, they i would become dangerous neighbors. In fact, they do at times pick up and devour a stray child left on the banks by accident or design. There are here three hot springs, one of which supplies the tank, and is of a temperature of about sixty-six degrees The two others have a temperature of one hundred and eighty degrees. The water issues from the r<>ck as pure as a chrystal, and in great abundance.? .Inglo-liuJian paper. Marshal Biukai d, says the correspondent of the Journal, forms the subject of nearly four columns?the leading article?of the Journal dex Debulx There is no exaggeration in the lofty commemoration of his career and merita, nor in the earnestness and scope of the lament. As a bare bodkin mav put an end to the greatest monarch,so a goblet of cold wine and water?according to his physicians?rendered the cholera fatal with the ablest of the French military commanders. The Delia is cjtes the following passage of a letter from the Marshal to one of his friends, dated the 15th of last June : " I should be better satisfied and suited than many others with a wise and disciplined Republic?like that of the United States, for instance. No one could be better trained arid adapted than I was for democratic life. I have always been on intimate Terms wun me people, wnetner in tne fields or in camps; but I have a horror of drrnagoguism, precisely because I loveihc people whose banc that post has proved in all ages." He was colonel in the army of the Alps in 1815, when the bulletin of the battle of Waterloo was received, together with a standard which he was to present to his regiment. " Soldiers," said the colonel, ' here is yotir eagle. I present it to you in the name of our country. We learn that the Kmperor has abdicated, and is no longer our sovereign, but France remains." Memoranda of a conversation with Bugeaud, at a regular soiree of Duchatel, Minister of the Interior, are in some one of my drawers, and might be worth transcription; I can recollect that he requested me to furniah him with an authentic printed narrative of the Indian campaigns of General Jackson, with whose defence of New Orleans he was acquainted ; unluckily, no such work happened to be in my library. In like manner, during our late war with Mexico, Marshal Soult, who gave close attention and no little praise to the operations of General Taylor, sent an aid-de-camp to me to nek a history of his campaigns in f londii. There wss nothing of the kind within my reach. Tub I .in sr. t and thb Lack.?Moat ol our readers are familiar with the a lory of the maid and the magpie. The following particulars, which arc supplied by the corres;K>ndent of a contemporary, ore equally interesting, though less serious in their consequences: For some turje past various articles were missed, that had been washed and put on the lawn to dry. No trace of them could be discovered until a few days since, when something was seen in an tinnitus ini?ri, wrncn ifii i?> mi examination, . and a frill was found partly hanging out of the neat ofagr#n linnet, with a portion gracefully encircling the n*-ck of the little warbler. On a further march, !' together with the unual materials of which the neat | waa built?moan and graaa?there were entwined within and around, preparatory, aa it were, to the approaching arrival of the youngsters, a baby's lace ' cap, two yards of lace bordering, and two jmira of cuff*; and a short distance ofT, on theground, was picked up the frill for the top of a rnild's frock, which seemed to have been too heavy for the little culprits to carry along with them This discovery has led to a further search, and other missing orti' clcs of the same description, too numerous to men tion, have lieen found forming s jiart of the nest of the thrush. Since the nest a were taken these novel 1 little thieves have lieen intercepted carrying ofT sun* | ilar l?ooiy.^ IJvrrpool -Werciin*. Til K tlKTHIAK* 1% riiONRftlf. Kx tract of a letter from Fli rence, l!hh June, 1H49: "'The Austrian soldiem are new ouar'cred ufmii e us, and they are as thick as whortleberries. Do, ney'sCaflP is full of them, where they smoke and gamble nightly, im<i all night too, iri all the rooms e They are for the most part fine looking man. The e crowded om Tuscan* have to grin and Iwar it, and I, I pity ".-.me of them, but generally they do not ded serve pity, for they did nothing to prevent ihe Ausit trisn* coming tore The Austrian officer* are nil quartered upon ihe inhabitants, and ?Aey rtone 11* best rximi The tadl-ronm unrler Mr Powers' terd race is full of their troops, and while I am wilting they are cooking their dinners on the li ttle platform, in front of the old church, where Mi . Kellogg used to have lue studio. About forty Italians stand looking on. The military Imnda of the Austrians give us some exi|uisite music; they play nightly at the Caucine. A huge dog is harnessed to wheels on which the great bass drum is hauled about. Radettki has been here; he is a small big-headed old man of 84 years, and his face resembles Mrs. Trollope, his eyes are red and watery, bill he bears himself like an old game-cock. He looked down from his balcony upon the people with an expression which seemed to say, 'if you don't like ine, you may lump me, and be hanged to you, you rebels.' "Powers, our sculptor, has had some trouble and unxiety about the nlle and pistols in his possession, as well as the sabres, spears, yatgans, swords and the like things which hung in the house of his friend Kellogg, who is now on a visit to America. These arms wer hanging up on the walls of his studio, and were brought by him from d liferent purls of Asia; some or them are of great beauty, and are especially valuable to the artist for purposes of study. When Baron D'Aspre called upon all residents to deliver up their arms on puin of the rigors of martial law, and this too within fortyeight hours, Mr. Powers, for fear that Mr. Kellogg's house would be searched, concluded to send these arms, together with his own, to the American consul for safe keeping. Mr. Ombrosi, the consul, wrote to Mr. Powers that he did not like to receive them, as it 'might not be regular in Florenee,' and suggested that Powers should ask permission of the authorities. Powers thought this unbecoming in an American consul, and sent the arms to the Police Office, and a letter to the consul expressive of his sentiments upon his conduct. The consul thereupon wrote to Prince Corsini, to ask if he might tuke charge of the arms of American citizens! Prince Corsini sent a verbal answer that he might do so, and Mr. Ombrosi then insisted on Powers getting the arms again and putting them under I.is charge. To this Mr. Powers reluctantly consented, and the very next day the consul cume into his studio in a tremendous flurry to say that Prince Corsini had written to him declining to accede to his request, and subsequently General D'Aspre did dm same; both these officials refusing to acknowledge him as an American Consul. Powers had to send the box buck uguin to the police office, and our consul did the same with his own pistols and swords. This proceeding 1 consider as an insult to the United States. The French Minister received the arms of his countrymen without asking leave of the Government. "There are many considerations whioh I withhold at present which muke this case peculiar and marked. It seems to have been intended as a blow at the Americans here. Powers has hopes of getting die property back again through some agent less timid and more influential than our consul. 7 THE REPUBLIC. WASHINGTON: FRIDAY MORNING, JULY 13, 1849. OFFICIAL. APPOINTMENTS BY THE PRESIDENT. William M. Brown, of Georgia, to be Marshal of the United States for the District of Georgia, vice Henry Williams, who declines the office. Walter C. Maloney, of Florida, to be Marshal of the United States for the Southern District of Florida, vice Jos. B. Browne, removed. Hiram W. Husted, of North Carolina, to be Attorney of the United States for the District of North Carolina, vice William H. Haigh, who declines the office. (Jeorge W. Call, jr., of Florida, to be Attorney of the United States for the Northern District of Florida, vice-Chandler C. Younge, removed. John Durkgrave, of Louisiana, to be Receiver of Public Moneys at Monroe, Louisiana, vice John B. Filhiol, removed. Daniel Clapp, of Illinois, to be Register of the Land Office at Danville, Illinois, vice William E. Russell, removed. Lewis S. Lovell, of Michigan, to be Register of the Land Office at Ionia, Michigan, vice Benjamin Sheiiuau, removed. Thomas B. Thorp, of Louisiana, to be Pniriwtnr c\i tKn I an/1 at Maw i leans, Louisiana, vice Louis St. Martin, removed. John L. Rogers, Collector of the Customs at Gloucester, Massachusetts, vice Eli F. Stacy, removed. Gideon S Sackett, Collector of the Customs at Cape Vincent, New York, vice Peleg Burchard, removed. Lonson Nash, Surveyor of the Customs at (iloucester, Massachusetts, vice John Woodbury, removed. John A. Chew, Surveyor of the Customs at Havre de Grace, Maryland, vice Robert Gale, removed. Israel Titi s, to be Postmaster at Toledo, Ohio, in the place of Truman C. Evertts, removed. Thr Naval I'ower of thr I'nilrd Klatra. At a time when all the European nations, even the least commercial, are exhibiting unusual activity in the increase of their naval force, it becomes the United States to look after their |>osition upon the ocean, and to see that they do not fall behind in the struggle for naval dominion. We published a few days since the letter of a London correspondent, which gave a full account of a magnificent screw steamer w hich had been fitted with her machinery in England for the Pacha of Egypt. The Emperor of Russia, we observe, has recently bestowed a complimentary gold medal on an English engineer, for fitting two large ships of war with propellers and auxiliary steam jstwer for the Russian service. We are familiar with the attempts making by Germany and Prussia to create a naval power. Prance has been long 11 j j r i 1 'iiiir wrii prvviucu, inu r?ngiaii<i c.iii mm aHoat just one hundred war steamers for every one that ifc in the service of the United States. But Kngland is not content f*ven with her present maritime superiority. She is anxiou* to establish and strengthen it. VV ? find in the late Ixmdon papers the report of a parliamentary committee appointed to inquire into the practicability of providing, by means uj the commercial marine oj the country, a reserve steam navy available for national defence when required. "Your committee are of opinion"?says this rejiort?"whir h is corroborated by the evidence taken before them, that mercantile , steamships, of the size and strength necessary for the reception of such guns as are in use in the royal navy, would l?e a most useful auxiliary force for national defence; and your committee do not see any difficulty in carrying out such a measure. That the //rom/il derelojimml oj the whole available maritime rnaatrrm of the country, I in the event oj threatened hottilitie*f is ovist THE REPUBLIC. desirable as a rneans for the preservation of peace. That the steps necessary to render such mercantile steamers available lor the purpose, and the remuneration to be given by the public lor fitting theui and holding them liable to be called into the public service, must be matter of arrangement between the owners and the government, upon which your committee do not deem it necessary to offer an opinion." in view of what is going on in other countries, we look with confidence to our Secretary of the Navy for the most active and vigorous prosecution of the existing arrangements for the increase of our naval force, and the adoption in our naval service of the new improvements which are daily adding to the. efficiency and security of steam navigation. It is to steamships that we are to look in future for the maintenance of maritime power. Ships of the line, and frigates, and sloops of war without steamf will soon be in the category of flat-boats and gun-boats, for all the purposes of naval warfare. To this complexion we must come at last; for when we see England casting about to place her whole commercial steam marine in a position to be transferred at once to the naval service?a service already crowded with two hundred steam vessels?we must be blind not to see, and fools not to admit, that the "mistress of the seas" looks no longer to her wooden walls for protection, but to those "mute metallic giants," without whose propulsive arm those wooden walls are but comparatively useless hulks upon the waters. In spite of interested and prejudiced opposition?in spite of the whims, fancies, and caprices of the men who seem to have labored to keep our navy down for the last eight years by their bigoted repugnance to steam, as if its only quality was to sca/d?steam must carry the day; and the idea of a ship of war without steam power will be regarded as the most forlorn and desolate of all ob solete ideas. It will be a fish without fins, or a bird without wings. With our mind somewhat infused with these ideas, we visited the other morning the magnificent ship now lying to receive her machinery at the Brooklyn navy yard, and styled the San Jacinto. She is a fine specimen of naval architecture. She is one of two steamships of 1,460 tons burthen, of precisely similar water-lines, and with engines of equal power, now constructing by the Government of the United States, the other of which is the Sarunac, building at Kittery. The San Jacinto is to be propelled on the screw principle; the Saranac by the ordinary side paddlewheels. When completed, the two ships will be tried together in rough and smooth water, and under a variety of circum stances, in order t?? te^t and. determine their comparative advantages for^fea^service. Screw propulsion is making such rapid progress on the other side of the Atlantic, and forms so controlling an element in the preparations of the European powers for naval warfare, that it is quite time that our Government should satisfy itself by actual comparison of its relative advantages. We have taken seven years to look about us for this purpose, since building the Princeton; and England and France meanwhile have been fitting vessels by the score on the plan of the Princeton, to say nothing of the Pacha of Egypt, the King of Sweden, and the Czar. The late Administration did more for steam in the revenue and Quartermaster's department than in the navy proper. Mr. Wai.ker and General Jesup, fortunately, were not in the keeping of gallant old commodores, and believed that a thing or two miffht be worth knowing in naval mat O 0 ters which they did not know forty years ago. Hence both these gentlemen, active, acute, and inquiring as they were on all subjects that fell within their officia] province, were able to render no little collateral aid to improvements in steam navigation. (ieneral Jksup is entitled to especial commendation for having been instrumental in securing the only additions that have been made to the steam navy of the United States during the last four years. We allude to the steamships Massachusetts and Edith, which have been transferred to the Navy Department since the close of the Mexican war, in a state of Completeness and perfection with regard to their steam machinery that reflects the highest credit on the General. The predecessor of Mr. Preston accomplished something for the steam navy of Prussia?nothing for that df his own country. We are indebted to Mr. T. Buti.er Kino lor the war and mail-steamer hill, under which the San Jacinto and the Saranac are now building. The very active efforts of this distinguished friend of the navy, seconded by Mr. Miller, the intelligent and valuable member of the House of Representatives from New York, ami by Mr. Douglass, now of the Senate, saved the country and the Department, by the passage of that very important bill, from the disgrace of doing nothing for the increase of the naval service. It is due to these men, and not to the late Administration, that we are not now hopeless as well as helpless in this branch of the public ser1 vice. But to return to the San Jacinto. The i peculiarity of this ship, as compared with the Princeton, the Great Britain, and other screw steamers, consists in the mode of applying the propeller. The screw has been a horror to ship-builders on account of the great well, or hole in the dead wrw><I. u.11i? li hnu Kuun "* J vvv" commodate the propeller. To remove this objection, Captain Ericsson, to whom the naval world is indebted for the practical introduction of screw propulsion, has devised a mode of applying the propeller, which dispenses with the necessity of any invasion of the dead wood. This plan has been adopted in the steamships Masxachus tts and Edith, to which we have already referred. Both these ships are built precisely as ordinary sailing vessels of the first class, with similar lines in the run, and similar form of stern. The propeller shaft is applied on the side of the stern-post, close to it, and extends beyond the rudder, aft of which the propeller operates. This plan has also been adopted in the San Jacintoy and her lines and form of stern are consequently as symmetrical as those of our finest packet ships ; the perforation for the propeller shaft being ing the only indication in her hull that she is intended for a steamer. The importance of this application becomes the more material, in view of the great scheme in progress in England for making her immense steam commercial marine an all-efficient reserve lor the royal navy. With the exception of our Charleston and Savannah steam packets, we have no such commercial steam marine. Bit we have the finest packet ships in the world, and in two months' time could convert them into a fleet of steamships with machinery under the water-line and stern propellers, each one of which would be no less formidable than the San Jacinto. lhis is the immense advantage ot the application of the propeller adopted in this fine ship ; it may be employed in any other ship on the ocean, without weakening her stern, or in any way impairing her qualities as a sailer. In view of the high duties to which he has been called at so early an age, and the materials lying around him for the establishment of a lasting reputation, an am bitious man might well envy Mr. Preston the lot which has fallen upon him. There is no branch of the public service which furnishes an able man with such opportunities of distinction as are to be found in the Department of which he is the head. Emancipated from the toils in which his predecessor left him?surrounding himself by subordinates and advisers who sympathize with the dominant party, and desire its prosperous advancement?living up to the exigencies of the age?Mr. Preston, we doubt not, will accoiHfplish all that his friends and his country expect from him, and honorably identify his own fame with that of the navy of the United States. ^ A DECIDED IMPROVEMENT. . The readers of the Union may congratulate themselves upon seeing the truth for once in its columns. It yesterday re-published our article giving a correct picture of its moral and physical features. The Union pretends discontent at the likeness, but like other prudes it was careful to take it home and hang it up in the most conspicuous place, protesting the while that it was too much flattered, the coloring too fresh, and, mayhap, dressed a trifle low in the neck. But despite these imperfections, which bashful timidity alone could discover, the picture was so lifelike, so speaking?so je ne sain <pwi?that the Union placed it in a frame of most elaborate workmanship, and, lost in admiration, exclaimed, Nous vtrrona, nous verrons. The Voire of a llovrr?i(u State Will General Taylor hear HI The Union uses the above caption to some introductory remarks to certain resolutions passed by the Locofocos of the New Hampshire Legislature, in which General Tavlor is pretty effectually bespattered with the secbnd-hand garbage of the "sole organ." In examining these resolutions, little expecting to find anv thing worthy of remark, we were astonished to find the following admonition at the close of the last of the series. The Legislature invokes the United States Senate to do its duty, and reject certain classes of nominations, and, amongst others, those persons " whose past.career has disclosed a spirit and principles better fitted to the work of facilitating the hostile operations of a foreign cabinet, than of striving for the advancement of the happiness and honor of our own rapidly-increasing and most glorious land." Nothing could be more significant, under the circumstances, than the tinishingtouch to the New Hampshire manifesto. It is stated, and we believe the statement true, that, within the four short months of Whig ascendency, there have been more Locofocos appointed to office than there were Whigs appointed during the preceding twenty years?if we omit the brief season of Whig rule after the election j of General Harrison. If is moreover true, that, in the matter of the war-steamer "United States," 44 a spirit and principles" were disclosed "better fitted to the work of facilitating the hostile operations of a foreign cabinet (the King of Prussia's, for instance) than of striving for the advance ment of the happiness and honor of our own 1 rapidly-increasing and most glorious land." The aiders and abettors of that Hagrant violation of the laws and treaties of the United States were ready to sacrifice the , honor of their own country, and jeopard < the happiness of our own countrymen, by making our ship yards and ship carpenters 1 subsidiary to the ambitious projects of the k mtr nl IVimsiii Tim Mpu/ Mnmiwlui-p e> ? " "v" I Legislature must have intended its last resolution as a caution to General Taylor 1 and his Cabinet against appointing any more Locofocos to office, or, at any rate, such of them as take sides with the King of Prussia against " our own rapidly-increasing and most glorious land." A very just and sensible hint. INFORMATION WANTED. We have searched in vain for any ex pression of "virtuous indignation," on the part of the Union, at the numerous removals from office " for opinion's sake," which took place in the early part of Mr. Polk's administration. Hundreds of honest, capable, and faithful men were then unceremoniously thrust out of places to make room for active partisans. Will the Union be kind enough to save us further trouble, which we greatly fear would also prove fruitless, by referring us to the precise date when it gave vent to the emotions that agitated its breast, and spoke in fearless tones of censure of Mr. Polk, for the policy he had thus adopted? If so, it will oblige us beyond measure. All that we have been able to find, as yet, in the Union of that time, is couched in the most dulcet and approbatory language. It was as gleeful as a honey-moon. If it is not asking overmuch, or will not give some gentleman " known in Richmond" too much trouble, we would be thankful also to be referred to the date and page of the Richmond Enquirer, in which it condemned the wholesale proscription for "opinion's sake," first commenced and ruthlessly carried on twenty years ago; to wit, in 1829. We refer to the time, well remembered by many, when those who had long and faithful! served their country were not only unceremoniously, and without the least accusation being brought against them, turned out, but were courteously and feelingly bid to "root hog or die." Does the memory of some gentleman "known in Richmond" ex terui so tar into tne vista oi me past!1 n so, he can probably furnish us with the "elegant extracts" from the eloquent jeremiads then put forth. Doubtless, the prophecy which the Enquirer made in 1824, namely, that "the election of General Jackson to the Presidency would prove a curse to the country," .had already been fulfilled. We shall take great pleasure In republishing all such "elegant extracts," with occasional comments of our own. A Olanrt at the History of Hungary. Ai thia crisis all the world turns to Hungary to form some conclusion from her bearing as to the question whether centuries of subjection to a foreign power, the tyranny of one part of the nation over the other, the sway of an hereditary aristocracy and bad laws, unfit n community for the duty of establishing and maintaining liberty. Occupying a peculiar position, midwny lielween the Baltic ice and the groves of Iuilv. Hungary murbl hsve lieen imagined destined to become one of the most gifted and prodigal of the nations of Europe. Such has not been the rose, on account of it* relations for centuries to a younger and really feebler power than itself. It may not be inappropriate just now to give a brief abstract of its history. The origin of this people was illustrious, having made it* first impression on the (tage of history, | under the command of Attila, who loved to call himself " the scourge of God and King of the Huns." Montescpneu, who translated from the ' now forgotten Jornandes, speaks of Attila as proud, artful, irritable, yet crafty. Warlike or , peaceful a* policy demanded, he, though followed | by captive kings, maintained the severity of manners which were the original characteristics of his , people. i The courage of the Hungarian* is hereditarv for even when " liarbaric monarch* rode up the < strep* of lh? raptlol," I hey regretted that they could | not equal the glorious deed* of their father*. I The Huna, originally a mighty people in the j interior of A*ia, had eatnbliahed an empire, which, | about the end of the first century, was overthrown , by the Thine**, Expelled from their country for several centuries, they l>< caine wanderer*, and, at the commencement of the fifth century, under the command of Attila, made a dew-cut on Germany, ^ France, and Italy. Destroying the realm* over which they passed in 451 A. C., Attila met near Chalons, in Gaul, the Bnrgundian and Frankmh armie*, under Theodoric and Merovic, aided by ^ the Roman force* The battle fought there gave ( to the river the appellation it yet preserve*, of the , " Bloody Marne." ' f Attila was beaten, and two hundred thousand of ? his soldier* were killed Thence Attila retired jnto ( Pannoniu, and in 452 appeared at the head of a | new army, on the south aide of the A If*. All ( Italy lay liefore him, and he advanced to Rome. When near the city, he was met by the firat of thoae great Pontiff* who bore the name of Leo, t and, induced by hia (teraiiaaiona, turned aside , Soon after tliia, Attila died from the effect* of a < debauch, during the celebration of hi* marriage ( with a daughter of the king of the Raciriana. Thia ( circumstance ahowa ua that Attila did not command a mere isolated band of adventurer*, but wna , reinforced, from time to lime, by the great nationa j of Kurope, of whom the Ractrinna were one It ( waa not likely an eastern monarch would have (( given hia daughter to a mere adventurer (| Tlie children of Attila could not agree, and other ]\ a warm* of the great baritone hive ap|>eared and conquered Pannonia, or Hungary The record of the conteata of harlmrir kings is idle and un- i> profitable. In the year HHMI, however, a great u event occurred Stephen, the descendant of one of vi the old princes, waa tUclril king Tins is the be- <v ginning of the authentic history of Hungary The ti descendants of Stephen, who waa canonized, reigned p until 1074. Then came the dynasty of Qrisa, which lasted until 1304- Another dynasty succeeded, only one of the princes of which was remarkable. This was Mathius, the first King of Hungary and Bohemia. Elected King of Hungary, Mathius waged war against the Emperor Frederick 111. Availing themselves of this contest, the l'urks invaded the dominions of Mathins, who first iefeated them, and then expelled Frederick, who relinquished all claims to the crown of St. Siephen. A war soon broke out again between the two rival princes, in the course of which Mathius captured a m..ii.:.... .........i .... statesman, and in 1486 granted the constitution for the maintenance of the sanctions of which the present war is waged. This constitution was known us that of Mathius Corvinua. In 1490, Mathius, while fitting out an expedition ugaisl the Turks, died, leaving but one child, John, an illegitimate, who sought in vain to succeed him. His wife, Beatrice, married her paramour, Ladislas VI., who, after u short reign, left the sceptre and crown to Louis II., who was killed at the battle of Mobatz, in 1526. John Zupoliski, Waywode of Transylvania, then was elected king, but his right to the throne was disputed by a brother of Karl V., who had been proclaimed at Presburg. The Turk was the ally of Zapoliski, or Zapolya ; and after a long war, in 1536, the kingdom was divided with the proviso that after Zapoliski's death he should be succeeded by the House of Hapsburgh. The Hungariun monarchy had always been elective, and this limitation did not at all please them; and on thedealh of Zapoliski his wife proclaimed his son, John Sigismund, king. The Prime Minister of John Sigismund, the celebrated Cardinal Mnetitviluina noruiioiloii llro H noon U ?t In IMUI Vlliuniuo |A/IOUUU(yU %IIV VVVIV.VII III CA* change Transylvania for a portion of Silesia; and in return for this service the Emperor Ferdinand appointed Morlinusius to the government of that country. His time of prosperity was however short, for he was assassinated by Pallavicini in 1551, in obedience to the orders of Ferdinand, who at once proclaimed himself King of Hungary, not, however, without resistance. A long contest ensued, the result of which was, that having calledQh the aid of the Turks, who ultimately seized one half of the kingdom, the other was left to Ferdinand, who thus became King of Hungary. In 1638 the Turks were driven from Hungary, and it was in this war that so many English adventurers distinguished themselves. Fifty years after. Hungary became hereditary, and followed the succession of the House of Austria. The Hungarians made countless efforts to throw off the Austrian yoke, and the kingdom became one battle-field. In 1761, Maria Theresu took refuge among them, and found the Hungarians her chief support. From tliut day until 1848 Hungary has remained devoted to Austria?shared in its triumphs and glory. Nothing but gross oppression has now made her revolt from her obedience. A cotemporary journal, the New York Evening Post, thus sums up the events of the last eighteen months : "In the month of March last, and shortly alter the first outrages at Vienna, the Hungarians obtained from Ferdinand II. the formal promise of a separate constitution, by which they were to govern themselves, subject to the superintending control of his Imperial Majesty. This promise was extorted through terror from the Emperor, and at the first convenient moment was disregarded* and an army was sent into Hungary to purge it of its disaffection. The Hungarians were compelled to be quiet for a time, but the second revolution at Vienna created a di version in uieir Invor, of which Kossuth was prompt to take advantage. As soon as the disturb* ances in Vienna were a little quieted, all the forces of the empire were gathered on the frontiers of Hungary and precipitated upon her resisting forties, who, under the command of the Generals Bern, Dembinski, and Gorgey, retired into impenetrable marshes, behind the Theiss, abandoning without resistance nil western Hungary.? They waited behind the Theiss until the winter had rendered the roads impracticable for the heavy cavalry and the artillery of large calibre of the Austrians, resting their hopes on a partisan war, where their cannon, with movable carriages, and their light cavalry, must necessarily do wonders. Their tactics proved to be well designed. The Hungarians regained all the ground which they had voluntarily abandoned. They crushed, one after the other, two Austrian armies, and were about marching on Vienna, to strike a mortal blow at the House of Hapsburgh, when the Austrians obtained the aid of Russia. "This new arrangement, far from terrifying the Hungarians, animated them with new artlor.? Knowing that they arc engaged in a deadly struggle with the representatives of absolute power, they replied to the Austro-Russian, and probably Prussian coalition, by the proclamation of a republic. Meanwhile the conflict has begun, and its fate remains to be determined. "Already, in three different encounters, Bern and Dembinski have obtained advantages over the Russians, while Gorgey has re-captured from the Austrians the strong and important fortress of Buda. By the next steamer we shall probably lie able to predict the fate of the Hungarian revolution of 1848." The most brilliant chapter of the history of Hungary is yet to be written. The New Orleans papers advocate warmly the establishment of a line of steamers from that city to Tampico and Vera Cruz, touching at Havana. Anolher'line is also snoken of to Rumn* .. ? nable Sew Orleans to be less dependent on the torlh and eaat. It inn matter of surprise that there ire not at preaent over a dozen ship-owners in New Orleans, and their veaaela are generally of small tontape; while the total amount of tonnage entered at hat port from the firat of July, 1848, to the .Kith of lune, 1849, wna 798,381, of which 228,471 were Y>reign veaaela, and the remainder, 499,889, A me *ican. The United States dry dock, now in process of rection at Brooklyn, will lie a work of great itrenglh and capacity when finished. At present here are altoul 1,800 men employed upon it. The revenue cutter Crawford was launched on Tueaday from the yard of Mr. Tees, of Philadelphia. She is a far-simile of the Duane, launched tome weeks ago. The North American says'The 'Crawford' is destined for the Charleston nation, and will be commanded by Captain Coste The model is of the most approved character, and f appearances can warrant the assertion, we harnrd idle in saying that she will prove to be not only a iaat sailer, but a safe md capable sea v rear I." The Mexican Minister of War, in his late report o his government, slates the number of Mexican women and children annually raptured and carried iff by the hoatile Indians to be upwards of six hunIrrd It is the practice of the savages to murder be men and hold the women ua captives. Thin fact dcmonatraiea the neceaeily of the IJnied State* Indian agent* al Santa Pf and the Salt -,ake being al their poet*. The ma*a of the hoalilc rilie* are wanderer*, but reaide chiefly m our terrinry, and the late treaty of Guadalupe make* it the uty of the Government to return them to lb* drxiran authoritiea. An aged lady at Frederic kahurg, Virginia, IVtra dargnret See, ha* offered to emancipate heralave* ? the fall if the American ('nlonir.atmn Society rill give them a free jtaaaage to Liberia, Mr* See nnlribuling $200 Mrs. See'a daughter propoaea > bliernic her four alave* at the miik time, if a free aaaage can be given them.