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The republic. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1849-1853, July 25, 1849, Image 2

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city. The stores of all our warehouse* we overflowing,
and the American packet ship* refuse
Soods daily. The New York packet ship JSplenid,
about sailing, leave* with every dlMoaable
place filled with freight, and for uome day* h a* do- I
dined received any additional good*." Tn* French
commercial world has seen, with no inconsiderable
satisfaction, the new tariff which the Canadian Parliament
has recently adopted, and they commence
to reckon on a large trade with that country, in
which, from old lies, they still lake interest. They
look at the comparatively low impost laid on what
you call merchandise, which embraces all the goods
known in the French trading world as articltt iit
Parit, which form so important an item in the exports
from tins country, and the repeal of the Navigation
laws which for so long a period have fettered
English colonial commerce, as inducements to
the trading world to open again those alliances
which subsisted between France and her colony,
but which restrictive measuies, for a certain lime,
have interrupted. They say that they can profitably
ship the middle ana interior tjualities of wine,
of brandy, end of tissues, at the rate imposed for
' , %# *s: . ,
1 \ ; ,,Sn
0ur -foreign (forrrJjrtubcwt.
Paws, July 5, 1849.
The dead season, as the Parisian shop-keeper
call* this portion of the year when hia doors never
turn on their hinges, except to admit the hoy who
pule up and takes down the abutters, which by
night protect his fine plate-glusa windows from rude
attacks, is upon us now in full force. Every thing,
tree, beast, women, grutllti, coachmen, chiffoniers,
every thing unstrung and listless, tells you the season
of the year when Paris ceases to be gay and
to laugh merrily is now upon us. They have all
fled with the good citizens to their city country villas.
which overlook Paris in every direction, where,
with the master, the mistress, the bonne, the children,
and the little dog, all can see the luke-like roof
of the Opera-house, the heaven-confronting triumphal
arch, und the tricolor which floats front the Palace
of the Tuileries. Then neur them the enchanting
city lies; the coquette with the beauties of the
country; the papa treads the smooth sward with the
greatest complacency; mama dallies with the lton\
ey-suckle, which, poor thing, cannot go to Paris;
the boy scrutches in the dirt, it is only country
dirt, and smiles at hippodrome, as if to say old
friend I haven't lost sigtti of you; even the dog,
characterless poodle as he is, seems to look longingly
to Paris, although he knows how the halls
are covered with the affichu of the prffet against all
chien et chien boule-dogues. and if he were there
he knows he could not run about so free, nor loss
the old bone, because of Mr. Prefet's muzzle.
Thus all leave Paris, but editors, and grizettea, and
coachmen; fag, fag, fag, is their vocation, and they
cannot even leave Paris French-fashion. The
House of Assembly is vacant; the churches are
empty; the theutres have closed their doors; the
cafta are deserted. The only sign of anim&ted nature
is the soldier in the fiery pantaloons and war
jackets, stretching out in the shade of their barracks,
resting as if from arduous labor. News
reaches us from the departments, however, which
prevents total stagnation by adding some staple for
conversation, and the near elections occupy the
thoughts of some of the remaining Parisians. In
my last letter I sent you a list of the candidates
proposed by the Union electorate to the voters for
their selection. From that list of twenty odd names
the voters, in a sort of convention, cast their votes
for their favorites, and the eleven gentlemen who
receive the highest number of votes are adopted as
the candidates of the party. M Lean de Maleville,
M. Lanjuinais, General de Bar, General Magran,
M. Chaucelle, Louis Lucien Bonaparte, Ferdinand
Barret, Achille Fould, Benjamin de Lessen, Theodore
Duces, Boinvillier, are the eleven who received
a majority of the votes of the electors in the
convention. As I said in my last letter, there is
very litde doubt of their election, for the voters
have determined to turn out in large numbers to secure
the certainty of moderate men being returned.
One of the most amusing things I have seen for
some time is the proclamation made by three persons
at present confined in the Conciergerie for
political offences. They have addressed to each
of the leading journals of the city a circular, praying
them to insert their programme and list of candidates.
This programme is signed " Salut el Fraternity,
R.J. Proudhom," on behalf of his comrades in misfortune,
and to it is appended "the list of names
which appear to us to be the most important." On
it the reasons which induced the residents of the
Conciergerie to select the several persons there
named are appended. I give you the card: "National
and Republican list?Dupont de L'Eme, national
honor; Ferdinand Lesseps, honesty of diplomacy;
Jules Farm, the democratic oratoi;; Emile
de Gradin, the courageous journalist; Bellant, the
right to labor; Dupont denussac, the democratic
junsconsul; Gondclaux, the republicanizer of the
bank; Guriad, reconciliator between the National
Guard and the people; J. Vidal, scientific socialism;
Rebezralles, the persecuted press; Malarret,
the beggars of Paris."
The lohg-exnected news from Rome has arrived
much sooner tnan any one who knew the present
stron^y fortified situation of the city could have
anticipated. As yet, we know nothing but that the
triumvirs have demanded a cessation of hostilities
The government has only received a telegraphic
despatch; it is as follows : "The 30th June the Roman
Assembly passed a decree in these terms?the
Assembly ceases a defence now become impossible,
and remains at its post; it charges the triumvirate
with the execution of this decree. At the same
tune the general-in -chief of the Roman army demanded,
at 7 o'clock, a suspension of hostiliues,
and announced that a deputation of the municipal
council of Rome would meet the French general at
his quarters." The other despatch is dated "Marseilles,
3d July, 8 o'clock, a. m.?Civita Vecchia,
I.. 1..U, \f H.fxrrdUlntl,. Ux.u.r
for jF<^Affair*: General Oudinot has addrea?ed
the go'Ttrnmenl, giving it new* of the success of hi*
attempt* on ? new bastion, No. 8, in the night of
29 and 30. The despatch of the general will make
known to )*ou the detail of that affair, which is
nearly decisive. The enemy have lost immense
numbers, and desire to capitulate. I have just received
from General Oudinot the following documents
[we have given them above]; I retorn to the
head-quarters, from where I parted, about 3 o'clock,
with M. d'Harcourt and Rayneval. Ignorant of
the resolution of the Roman authorities, they left
this morning for Gaels. I shall send them an express
boat with the news. I have just heard from
the general that he has received the municipal coun
cii; and, requesting my presence, I leave inimedtaiely."
The National Assembly has devoted some time
to the preparstion of rules of order for the better
moinuumng the discipline of their body, which, to
H(?ak the. truth, was sadly in want of aome reformation,
after all due allowance is made for the mercurial
blood of the honorable individuals who compose
that assembly. As there is no twenty-first rule
in the code which the commission appointed by the
assembly have framed, which affords a ground for
a long and warm contest, the voting the new rules
and regulations was conducted in a remarkably businraa-like
manner. Although some of the changes
introduced are rather startling, from their great novelty
to French parliamentary law, there was very
little discussion at length of any of the articles
This may be attributed in a great degree, perhaps,
to the flight from their seats of a large number of
(he opposition or Moniagne party, against whom
m>ny of the new rules are directly levelled, and
who could, with piaomoie argument*, combat
their adoption. Yhoae of the Montagne party
who yet remained on the left seem, during the last
few day. , to hate loat all their eapnt and energy
in fare of the difficulties which suiround them, and
the grea' decimation of their ranks by the procureura
generaux of the large towns and departments
They look cool, as if they were brooding oter new
and other schemes by which they may yet atenge
heir fellow*' wrong*, and elevate their parly u>
power. To give some idea of the decimation of
the benche* on the left, it may be a* well to give a
resume of the judicial proceedings commenced
against the gent emen habitually sitting mi that side
of the assembly ?ince the 13th June. There are
thirty-three representatives criminally charged bwfore
ine courts; of these seven were arrested at the
Conservaioire dea Artset des Metiers, (patent odtce,)
where the Monragne party was aaaembled as a convention
to inaugurate a new government; and the
remainder, twenty-aix have been stripped of their
privilege by virtue of resolutions of the assembly
upon tne demand of the procurer general of Paris,
or of some department. The proceedings of the
assembly are of litije interest, except as far at these
dissolvings of privileges are interesting?rules of
order?pursuitee against members, a votefors councillor
of State?Fotid.' the work of the French assembly
since I wrote you last. Mr Lende Labuell
has laid the following resolution upon the table of
the house, that the determination of each man's
seal shall >ie by lot or by auction, and the proceed*
of the sab shall go to the poor of Pari*.
VI Dupri h?* been re-elected president 01 tn?
amembly by a vote of 349 oat of 380 voter*
Meearr D*rn Baroehe. Dent*. and General Bedari
have been elected vice president* M Veaair
charged with the duty of examining the propoaiUon
of M de Montalanbert, which you
will remember wa* to abolish the 67th article o
the law of 1831, declaring the exp.ranon of th<
commandment of the Line and the national guard*
illegal, haa preaented a report. The committee re
commend that the 67th article be maintained, bu
propose to add a new article, which I give ymr
" That until the organic law ahall have I*,.,
paaaed regulating the conaiittinon of the nation*
guard and army the eiecutive ta authorized t
egerciae the command of troop* in one or man
departments, and the command of a part or all
the national guard in the conscription.'1 The con
miaamn to whom the advisability of raising ti
tale of siege was confined have reported adverse
to it.
The Coorrier du Hevre of the 27th June aay
'Our railroads have never transported auch lari
auantitie* of merchandise aa they now, and for eon
ay* peat have been bringing to the depot in th
the future upon those articles by the Parliament of
Canada. It is understood that several large houses
in Paris, and the four laige towns of ths interior,
are taking steps to form and open connexion in the
Canadas, which will facilitate this new branch of
commerce. The New York line of packet ships,
the city of New York, and the canal freighters, will
also, doubtless, derive some advantage from this increased
commerce between the Canauas and Fiance;,
for large quantities of goods must be sent this route,
as it offers the advantages of speed, safety, and certainty.
The official account of the Bank of France,
during the past week, does not differ essentially
from that of the preceding week, which was transmitted
you by tne last steamer. The metallic reserve
in Paris has increased to nearly the sum of
four millions of francs; the reserve in the branch
banks has diminished five hundred thousand francs.
The fiame stagnation in affairs still continues. The
discounts in Paris have increased a little over one
million of francs; while the discounts at the branch
banks have decreased one million two hundred and
fifty thousand franca. The bills to order in circulation
are, for Paris, three hundred and sixty-three
millions of franca, and thirty-three millions of franca
for the departments. The account current of the
treasury of the republic has diminished by two
millions five hundred thousand francs. The total <
amount ofspecie on hand is three hundred and for- i
ty-two millions five hundred thousand francs. The
total amount of notes in circulation is rather more I
than three hundred and ninety-six millions of '
francs. In speaking of the Bank of France, it may
I not be uninteresting to your readers to notice the establishment,
in the city of Constantinople, of a
bank of discount and deposits?the first establishment
of the kind which ever existed in the Ottoman
empire. The capital is one hundred and twentyfive
millions of piastres, or about six millions five
hundsed thousand dollars, of which the government
subscribes twenty-five millions of piastres; and
the remainder, one hundred millions of piastres, can
be taken by the Turkish subjects or foreigners?of
which forty millions of piastres have been already
taken. This bank has already commenced operations.
and has issued a notice that it will give specie
for the government paper money, less three per
centum discount. A Mr. Alleon, a Frenchman, and
a Mr. Rattazzia, an Italian, are the directors.
You know the city of Rouen, besides being the
richest mine to the antiquarian and the student, who
lingers with delight over the quaint narrative of
Froissart and Monatrelet and Anquetil, and yet can
hear " Ha-Ro Ha-Ro & I'aide mon Prince" ring
along the embrowned rafters of the Palais de Justice,
which frowns not many paces from Rallo's
grave, possesses an attraction which offers equal entertainment
to the more practical man,whoeyes machines
which work with the intelligence of mind,
and delights in those operations which convert the
rough wool into the delicate broadcloth. Within
the past few days an engineer of the mines near the
city has made a proposition which will, if followed
out, be in still greater contrast to the old edifices
which recall countless stories of the power of the seigneur,
and the oppression and hard lot of the vassal.
It may be hoped this practical hint of a plan may
not be lost in your city, where countless manufactories
offer facilities which very few continental
cities possess. This engineer proposes that all the
hot water from the steam-engines employed in the
manufactories of Rouen, which now daily is wanted
in the streets of the town,*be preserved and conducted
by pipes into buildings hereafter to be erected,
where it shall be placed at the service of the poorer
people as warm baths and for washing. The engineer,
in his communication to the Municipal Council
of Rouen, says the cost of the establishment
would be only fifteen hundred franca, about three
hundred dollars, and the annual cost of maintaining
them would not exceed two thousand franca, which
last expense would be met by the persons who
used the baths and water. As a measure promotive
of the public health, this measure commends itself
to etery community, who cannot feel more than at
this moment, when a terrible epidemic is decimating
the world, the high importance of their duty to
take every measure for the conservation of the
popular health.
The Academy of Sciences has been interested
recently with some experiments made by
Mr. Despretz in caloric. As is well known,
the means generally resorted to, so that intense
heat may t>e procured, are either with powerful
convex lens, the compound blowpipe, and the
electrical current of a large battery. The employ- |
me.nt of theae powerful agents i? well known, but (
no one haa ever essayed to employ all of these |
amenta at the same time, until Mr. Despretz at- |
tempted the experiment. With the aid of the powerful
burning glass in the philosophical apparatus
owned by the Sonbonne, which concentrates on a
a pot as large as a dime, all the solar light and heat
which a glass plate ninety centimetres in diameter
collects, a powerful battery, and Neumann's compound
blowpipe, Mr. Deapretz experimented. As
you know, the temperature resulting from the employment
of either of these instruments is generally
expressed by degrees, but as soon as white heal is
obtained, the instruments used to determine the degree
of temperature no longer can be used, and the
only indication of the intensity of the heat are its
power over the most refractory substances. Mr.
Despretz by his combination is enabled to volatilize
magnesia immediately, and melt anthracite coal
' The melting, or rather softening, for no one has yet
I liquified anthracite coal, the most stubborn material
known, was accomplished fire years ago by aid of
a powerful battery, but the immolate volatilization
, of magnesia is a new fact for which the scientific
world is indebted to Mr. Despretz. Mr. Despretz
thinks the combination of the burning glnas, and the
electrical battery, would lie more powerful than the
combination of the three agents, hsvtng nearly |
; satisfied himself that the heat from the com- (
I [NMHIU uiuwpipr llf ui ?U UJULfl IUWCI a HDUipniature
than the two former, it becomes actually refrigerant.
Some time ago, as an aid tu the discovery
of the theory of the ocean currents?a question
warmly pursued by our own scientific naval officer,
Lieutenant Maury, who has thrown considerable
light upon it?Captain Duptiy, a member of the
I Academy, presented to his colleagues a map of the
world upon which he had traced the courses of the
currents of all the oceans, the result of his labor
for years This chart fell under the observation of
Mr. Babinet, who addressed himself to the facts
with the hope of ascertaining the true theory of
these eitraordinsry rivers which traverse the waste
of watera undisturbed by the storms and the tides.
Every one has noticed the bubbles continually arising
in a pot of boiling water which are replaced
by colder bubble*, which thus keep open innumerable
currents in the bubbling pot. And philoen'
phera have, after a long aeries of observations, arrived
at the conclusion that the trade winds and the
counter currents were owing to the heal of the
| tropica, subject to certain laws imposed by the motion
of the earth. These two ascertained facta have
doubtless given Mr Babinet the clue to the theory
he has laid before the Academy of Science. He
considers the great heat of the tropical regions sa
1 the catiae of tlie currents of the ocean, regard in*
them but aa stream* of cold water rushing from the
two jmlea to aupply the place of the heated water,
1 naturally ta forced in theee two dtrectiona, and that
f thia mofement ta aenaibly affected by the rotary
' motion of the earth, which givea, of sequence, a
1 greater trelocity to the tropical than the polar re"
giona of the earth, and to trie current running from
' the equator to the polea a tendency to outatrip the
motion of the earth, while the current* from the
1 polea To the equator receive a tendency to lea* r?'*
ferity. If notice la taken of the configuration of the
0 continent*, it will be eee,n, that the ocean it divided
y into a certain number of baaina, where, from the
principles juat adverted to, a continual circulation
v la entabltahed Each haain la bounded by an eaatem
and a weatern ahore, and alao by the equator
'y and the. polar region*. Flowing from the polar
region* the water, which goea toward* the equator,
flows with a rapidity which ta lea* than that of the
a: earth'* motion, and. consequently, the direction
jt they take ia from the eaat towards the weat, and
ria the watera flowing from the equatorial regions
n t to the polar regiona being in advance of the motion
of the earth, now from the went to ward a the east,
Mid thus they dow toward* the pofer regions by
the western coast*, and return to the equatorial regions
by the opposite shore*. Any map of the
world wdl show, that the vast body of water which
Mtrround* the continent* i* divided into five principal
oceans, contained in a* many basin*. The
Atlantic and Pacific oceans are divided each into
two basin* by the equator, and the fifth i* that body
of water between Africa and New Holland, called
the Indian Ocean. Mr. Soubeiran ha* read U> the
Academy a paper, giving an account of some experiments
on noney, which may be not without interest
to your reader*. All of them have frequently
noticed, that when houey is first deposited in the
cells by the bees it is exceedingly transparent and
fluid, but soon afterwarda it becomes more and
more thick. It haa been long known that two different
substances composed the honey, one of a
sirup nature, the other, which suspended in the
first became white and candied, and with time
increased in bulk while the other diminished.
Both of these substances have always been recognised
as sugars. Heretofore chemists have
not been able to distinguish the several sugars
one from the other, having different qualities?
as tendency to crystallization, and the different
effect polarized light would have on each. But Mr.
Soubeiran has demonstrated by the process of ordik.?
iKaoa ushifh Mr. Rinf
nai y Liiciiiiau jr, aooimcu uy ui^ov ?? ??has
made known. The experiments of Mr. Soubeiran
were made on Gatina's honey, thai being
most prized in commerce. He easily separated
the granular augar, which is only glucose, that is,
apparently in every respect the same aort of sugar
as that extracted from juice of grapes and that
formed by the action of acids upon feculent substances.
In the sirup which remains Mr. Soubeiran
has discovered two different substances, one
which he regards as identical in every respect with
the sugar extracted from the sugar-cane, the other
as a new species of sugar, to which he gives the
name of honey-sugar, which he found, in his experiments
on it with polarized light, to turn with force
towards the left of the surface of the polarized ray,
which traversed it, notwithstanding it. had been by
a careful manipulation brought to a mass as transparent
and solid as the newest barley-sugar. To
those of your readers who have kept up with the
remarkable discoveries recently in physical optics
by Biot here and Faraday in London, the fact iust
stated will convey a clear idea of the national character
of the sugar. To those who do not it will be
a vain task almost to attempt to describe without
the aid of cuts. We will essay an explanation, but
we fear we cannot make a clear one. In natural
light philosophers have discovered central rays
with lateral sides, as it were, all turned in the same
lirection, obeying certain laws, which are called
he laws of polarization. But in this pencil of
rays, thus polarized, these lateral sides turn in
mother direction, and twist one way and another
JifTerently in every species of sugar, and thus show
the different characters of the various qualities or
species of sugars. This is determined by instruments
which we cannot attempt to describe
Another subject brought before the academy will
interest but too many of your readers, especially in
the more southern portion of the United States,
where yearly large numbers of victims are carried
an by the malignant fevers generated under their
burning sun, or the prolific growth of the swamps
ind sluggish rivers. It will be remembered with
what pleasure the citizens of the United States generally
read a report of Mr. Surgeon General Lawion,
wherein he treated at some length of a tree of
the cinchona species, of whose bark the surgeons
sf the United States army stationed in Florida had
made experiments in treating the invalids sick of
fever, by his orders. There is, indeed, no more
important article in the commerce of the world than
]uir-quinine, which, since the time it was first introduced
by the Jesuits, now some two hundred
^ears ago, has been increasing in demand and in
lse in every civilized nation. Notwithstanding its
pneat importance to the health of the world, very
ittle has been known about it, and countless stories
lave been spread from time to time of the small
imount we should receive for the future of the
ipeedy spoliation of all the trees, and of the raviges
nature and the inhabitants of the countries
lad made in these health-giving forests. In 1843
id. de Castelnau, charged with a scientific mission
>y the French Government?that of exploring the
nternal provinces of Brazil and Peru?left France
'or South America, accompanied by a young derotee
named Weddell, who long had a desire to ex>lore
the eastern side of the Cordilleras, to study the
geographical distribution of the cinchona family,
o ascertain and describe their species, to gather details
of their mode of cultivation, and to tracs the
progress of the invaluable bark from the moment it
is detached from the tree to the day it is delivered
on board the ship which is to transport it to European
markets, in this duty he engaged after aseending
two years with M. de Castelman in the interior
of Brazil and Peru. He gave four years to
he observation and study of this subject, and has
presented the Academy of Sciences with a book,
the fruit of his labors The Academy referred this
100k to a commission, of which the world-renowned
M. de Jussieu was chairman ; the committee have
sported on the bark most favorably, and M. de
luaaieu could not refrain from pronouncing the
nghest eulogy upon the talents nnu patient research
>f the young traveller. M. Weddell, in his menoir,
informs us that the Unchoran family is much
nore numerous than is commonly supposed, and
he region of country where they abound is of
nuch greater extent than has been represented.
He says the region where it abounds is an extent
ir country in the torm of a crescent, extending Irom
:he 19th degree of south to the 10th degree of north
atitude, turning ita convexity towards the west,
jffering, at its thickest point, a breadth extending
from a point near Loxa, which is 81 degrees of
longitude from Paris meridian line to another (mint
65 degrees of longitude from Paris. The altitude
of this region is between 1,800 and 3,700 metres
above the sea. The whole of this is not one vast
forest of trees of the cinchonas family alone, but,
on the contrary, the cinchonas are very sparsely
icattered in the midst of the seeds of other trees
very much like them in appearance, and which deceive
even the eye of the most praciisi d woodman.
Besides, they are alwaya surrounded with a close
and almost impenetrable wood which renders
their removal a difficult task of many days dura
Lion. They are rare and difficult or access. In
new of the enormous demand which commerce
daily mskes on this forest, M. Weddell propoees
two plans by which a reasonable demand may be
supplied, and care had to preserve the forest for
future and new demands which shall be made upon
them. The first, an evidently impracticable plan,
is the establishment of laws havine for their object
the conservation of their valuable forest* from wanton
destruction, and the vain wishes of mere speculator*;
the-second is, propagation of new plantations
by cultivation. But now is it nosaiMe to inculcate
into thane wild and ignorant men who roam in the
Cordilleras *ny habita of providence. The Indian,
nave Alison, in hia huitnry of Europe, cut* down
the tree of fifty yrara that he may enjoy n* fruit,
and the Indian-Spaniard, in hia wanton disregard of
the future, la cousin-german to the red man who
livea on the father of watera. All the member* of
the family cinchona have not the name intrinaic
value; analytical rhemiatry allowing the difference
in value by demonstrating the properties of quinine
and cinrbonine relatively contained in each of
the aeveral specie*; aa la well known theee two,
quinine and cinchona, are the active qualities which
give no high a value to the medicinal plant. - M.
Wcddell ha* ihnwn that the moat favorable
combination of the fib roue and cellular texturr ?
which are the leading characieriatica of the cinchona
bark*?cohamt* in a uniform distribution of ligneous
fibres, obviously equal, in the midst of a cellular
tiaaue full of resinous matter. It la thus easy
to see, from the fracture of a piece of the bark, its
therapeutic worth. Shall we not be pardoned if we
refrain from entering further into this able work o(
,vi weuueii, which abounoa in acientinc facia an
closely interwoven with statistical that arc find it a
difficult taak to separate them from each other. Aa
may hare lieen expected, the Academy of Sciencea
haa been inundated with letiera, memoira, and
booka, in relation to the cholera. Rut, in the countleaa
mnaa, there la nothing which ran intereat your
reaclera All aorta of reaaona are assigned for the
terrible scourge, from the malignant influence of thr
moon to the email quantity of electricity in the atmoaphere;
and, if the writera declare the length ol
the aparka of the electrical machine a aure index ol
the diminiahed ravages of the diaeaae, what ahall be
aatd > Nothing aa yet ia known. Philosophy 1a ai
fault. But religion doea not fail ua; even thia scourge
ia directed by Providence?it ia beat. Thy will b*
done !
The following curioua general order waa published
by the Crar, June 1.1.
"Soldier*? new fatiguea, new combats await you
We go to succor an ally, to repreaa the revolt which
stifled by you in Polar.d eighteen year* ago, now
| lifts its head in Hungary By the aid of God, yot
will ahow yourselves to he what Ruaaiana have always
appeared?terrible to the enemies of all tha
ia aacred and generoua towards peaceful ritivena
This is what your Emperor and our Holy Ruaau
expects from you. Forward, my children, follon
our hero of War*mr af quirt now glory?God ia wit!
J OU."
TmUci of the Opposition.
We have already stated that at Locofoco
Conventions, recently held in Iowa and
Maine, resolutions manufactured out of
the staple of the Union's daily calumnies
against Geaeral Taylor and his Cabinet
were adopted and trumpeted to the world
as the voice of the Democracy of those
two States. The Union heralds these
crystallizations of partizan rheum as the
voice of the sovereign people, whilst it
treats the people themselves?those who
make Presidents, the million voters who
elected General Taylor to the Chief Magistracy?(is
a motley crew or a deluded
rabble. The Iowa resolutions, like the
others, speak of General Taylor as a violator
of pledges, a cipher, as devoid of
honest principle?indeed, follow the exemplar
of his traducers here in Washington.
We are quite content to have the
Union regard the frantic shriekings of disappointed
spoilsmen as the voice of the
sovereign people; for ourselves, we shall
continue fc listen to the decisions of the
ballot-box for what the sovereigns have
to say.
The burden of the reproaches denounced
against the Administration is " proscription"?the
loss of the spoils. With how
much sincerity the Locofocos of Iowa join
in the chorus of the Union, facts will
The balk of the patronage of the Gene
ral Govjrnment in Iowa is lodged in the
hands of the surveyor general of that district.
His deputies scour the whole country,
ant his contracts for surveying amount
to larger sums than all the other public
revenues of the State, federal and local,
put together. This office is held by Mr.
Booth, a Locofoco, through whose exertions,
and those who expected contracts
from him, the State was carried for the
Opposition, and the election of two opposition
U. S. Senators secured. The convention
wh:ch passed the insulting and obnoxious
resolutions knew this fact; and
yet the Administration is denounced for
its proscription, and the President scoffed
as a cipher. The opposition gentlemen
from Iowa, who made interest for Mr.
Booth, very probably instigated those resolutions?if
they did not participate in
their formation; we shall look in vain for
any refutation of them on their part.
It needed no additional facts to prove
that the clamor set up against the removals
which have taken place is a systematic attempt
to bully the Administration. The
Opposition required the Cabinet to carry
on the public business without the aid of a
single individual known to them. The
I first removal made to bring into the public
service somebody whom the members
of the Cabinet ever saw, was seized upon
as a pretext for the imprecations which
have, since then, been hurled against the
President with ceaseless denunciation. It
is a sheer system of bravado intended to
| intimidate the Cabinet into keeping around
them, and in public employments throughout
the country, officers who sympathize
in the hatred of their detractors.
The President has not confined his appoint
ments to his peculiar friends, or the friends
of any of the distinguished leaders of the
party. He has gone further, and appointed
to office individuals of the Opposition?
' those who voted for Cass and Butler.
But whether he remove or retain men in
; office?whether he appoint Whig, Demo
crat, or Locofoco?it is all one to the Opposition.
The torrent of abuse rolls on,
gaining volume and momentum in its
We should imagine that the members of
the Cabinet, who know the baselessness of
the clamor which is manufactured out of a
few removals, have hy thh- time fathomed
its object. If the people believe what the
Union and its followers say, they must
think that there are no Locofocos left in
1 office. The Cabinet know how this is.
They know that even now the Whigs are
a proscribed party. They have seen the
President's leniency requited with the
j grossest abuse. They have been let to
know that public officers who have lampooned
the Administration and the resident
in terms of insult and bitter scorn,
"less deserved" removal than the rest
who have been retained. They have had
" I a taste of the bitterness of those who hold
over from the last administration. Need
1 they any other suggestion to act ?
The Unitm invites the attention of the
President and his Cabinet to the resolu
tions of the l.iunforo Convention of Iowa
With all our heart we second this motion,
r We are agreed for one.
A Cultimnj Ripowrf.
The Union of the 19th instant comes
out with a labored article, accusing Mr.
Ewin<; of having, in and prior to 1833,
purchased Virginia military land scrip,
r which issued by virtue of a law, passed
[ while he was a member of the Senate.
11 Our contemporary goes a long way back?
, fifteen or sixteen years?to select in that
wide range what he considers the most
| reprehensible act of Mr. Ewuvo'a public
and private life. The attack is made with
much gravity and form, and record evidence
is referred to to sustain it. Before
noticing thit> most weighty matter, we
have taken a little time to look into the
state of the case, which, as a matter of
course, is, in all its parts, greatly perverted
in the article referred to. We find,
however, that in 1830, before Mr. Ewing
caii^e into the Senate, an act was passed
providing that "the officers and soldiers,
sailors and marines, who were entitled to
military land bounties by the laws aud re
solutions of Virginia, their heirs," Umv,
should, at any time before the first day of
January, 1835, be authorized to surrender
to the Secretary of the Treasury of the
United States their warrants, and receive
certificates of scrip for the amount?but
the act contained a proviso, that the quantity
should not exceed 50,000 acres of
land in addition to '260,000 already appropriated.
This act made the United States the
debtor?it settled the principle that all of
the officers, soldiers, &c., who filed their
warrants with the Secretary of the Treasury
before January 1, 1835, should be
Daid the amount in land sr.rin. Hut th?
quantity of land designated being too small
to pay the debt assumed, it became necessary
to increase it, and this was done by
subsequent laws, passed while Mr. Ewing
was in the Senate, and for which he voted,
either silently or upon the yeas and nays.
We are not aware that the correctness of
this vote has ever been questioned. The
principle being once established that the
United States was the debtor?that all
who presented their claims prior to a given
day should be paid, it could not, we think,
be questioned that the means should be
provided for payment of all?as well
those who were poor and ignorant, and
therefore tardy in presenting their claims,
as the active and vigilant, who were in
early, and therefore satisfied out of the
first appropriation. The vote, then, was
right?it was necessary to maintain the
good faith of the nation?it was simply an
appropriation to pay an acknowledged
debt. What, then, does the Union complain
of? Why, that Mr. Ewing, having
voted for an appropriation to carry out the
law of 1830, afterwards purchased some
of the scrip that was issued under that
Now, in the school of ethics in which we
were taught, the right to make such purchase
could not even be considered doubtful.
It was right, morally and politically,
even if Mr. Ewing had been in the Senate
and voted for the law of 1830; for we
know of no principle any where which excludes
the legislator from an equal participation
with all other citizens in the benefits
of laws which he has aided in enacting.
For example, the Senator who votes for
the survey and sale of the public lands,
has the same right with all other citizens
to purchase at the sale. If he vote for the
i nrtrtmv*?mpn t nf rtnr nvprti anri harKnru r\r
"*i V,.
in any other way for the protection of our
commerce or navigation, he has a right to
adventure as a merchant, or be a passenger
on board of a steamboat, and in either
or both those capacities seek security in
the harbor, and thus take his share of the
benefits extended by the law which he
helped to enact. Or, if he vote for laws to
protect life, and property, and character,
and for the organization of courts of justice
to enforce them, he has still the same
right with all his fellow-citizens to live, to
acquire property, to establish and maintain
a character; and be has a right to go
into the very courts thus created by his
vote and avail himself of their protection.
But the Union says that Mr. Ewijig, when
charged with it in Ohio, denied that he
was the purchaser of land scrip.
This is, as a matter of course, false.
Mr. Ewijig could not have been the purchaser
of land scrip, to a large amount,
without its being publicly known in Ohio
and the other States in which there were
public lands for sale; and the very fact
that he received the assignments in bis
I own name shows that he made no secret
j of his acts. Indeed, we happen to have
other evidence on this subject, in our
opinion quite satisfactory?namely, a card
published in the Ohio papers, over Mr.
Ewtng'i own signature, which shows very
clearly what he admitted and what he de- !
nied. The charge then and there made
by our contemporary's predecessor, the
Globe, and his co-workers, was, that Mr.
Ewing had bought up this land scrip of
the widows and orphans of revolutionary
soldiers for a few cents on the dollar, thus
enriching himself by defrauding them of
what was intended by Congress as a bounty
for the services of their ancestors. This
is the form which the charge assumed in
the party papers in Ohio, and this it was
that Mr. Ewiwc. denied?averring that his
purchases were all, except one or two,
made of large dealers, and all at or above
the current market price; that he never
engaged an agent to purchase up warrants;
and that, if any frauds were committed
upon the original owners, or any unjust
advantage taken of their ignorance, he
knew nothing of it, and was in no reapect
responsible for it. And it gives us great
pleasure to know that this statement can
be substantiated by the proprietors of the
' Unxon% as Mr. ?wij?q made a very large
?... . - ?
part of (lis purchases from the eon-in-law of
it$ senior editor; and we are curious to be
informed at what price that gentleman
bought of tho original parties, and at what
piice he sold to Mr. Ewino.
But it is una of the peculiarities of our
contemporary, that even if he have a truth to
tell, unless he be unusually careful, it will
turn to a falsehood in him before he can
tell it. So. in this case. In publishing
even the record he falsities it?we would
in charity suppose not by design, but from
an unfortunate habit which cannot be bro
ken on. ny omiiung intermediate assignments,
or the names in the assignments of
attorneys who are publicly known as large
dealers, he brings the name of Mr. Ewing
in the connexion of immediate assignee
from the original parties, thus giving countenance
to the falsehood which he does not
directly assert.
But it is further said that Mr. Ewing,
while Secretary of the Treasury, was called
upon by a resolution of the Senate for a
report setting forth the amount of scrip
issued, and to whom, and also to whom
assigned, and that he failed to make it.
As to this, we have examined thp records,
and they show, that on the 3d of March,
1841, the Secretary of the Treasury was
called upon for such report to the Senate
at their next session, which ordinarily was
the first Monday of December then following.
A special session intervened,
commencing the 31st of May, at which
the report was not presented, as there had
not been time to prepare it, having due
regard to the current business of the department
; but it was commenced, and in
such state of forwardness when Mr. Ewing
resigned on the 11th day of September
as enabled his successor to present it
about the middle of January, 1842.
But for the reason of this attack, then
and now. Mr. Ewing had made himself
obnoxious to the party in various ways,
but especially by his exposure of the post
office frauds, and the law which he reported
and procured to be passed, which cut
off that resource of corruption for the future.
Therefore he must be assailed; and when
he said to those in power, " You have
plundered the public moneys," the party,
through all their presses, replied, " You
bought land scrip;" and this they published
and republished until they no doubt
persuaded themselves that the odds were
on their side?that buying was worse than
stealing, and our contemporary, it seems,
still so considers it
The exercise of the removing and ap
pointing power oy uie prcocui /\u ministration
vindicates itself by its results. It
has brought to light gross abuses in official
stations. It has exhibited the character
of the individuals who have been employed
in places of trust about the Administration.
No man, of any party, can complain
because Moore, Thompson, Burke,
Montgomery, Brown, English, and officeholders
of that stamp, have been displaced.
But the friends of good government
have great reason to complain that
too many persons of the same principles
and the same feelings are permitted to enjoy
situations where they can continue to ,
embarrass, thwart, defy, and defame the
The people, in electing General Taylor
to the Presidency, did not design
merely to render a distinguished acknowledgment
of his military services; they
desired to accomplish thereby a peaceful
revolution in the Government. They took
the General, as they found him, a decided
Whig; and they expected him, if elected,
to form a Whig Administration, and to
conduct the Government in a liberal and
popular spirit. He himself avowed,
through his friends in the Philadelphia
Convention, that he should hail with plea
ell rp anv nf hor nnminatinn than hiu nurn i
?v v""" - I
"being persuaded that the welfare of our |
country required a change of men and
measures, in order to arrest the downward
tendency of our national affairs." We
cannot misinterpret such language as this.
It is of record. It was published, we have
no doubt, in every political newspaper in
the country. General Taylor subsequently,
in express terms, repeated and reaffirmed
it, and stood before the country as a '
candidate for the Presidency who was a
"decided Whic," and one who believed i
that the welfare of the people required a '
I change of "men and measures."
What change of men? Was it to be
limited to the change of the Cabinet minI
isters? The heads of Departments of the
late administration resigned their offices,
as a matter of course. Whig successors
were appointed. Did any living man
imagine that General Taylor was about
to fill those offices with his opponents?
Those Cabinet officers found their bureaus
and departments filled with the enemies
of General Taylor?bitter, hostile, vin- ,
ranrnrous partisans: men who had
ridiculed and maligned him in libellous
letter* and slanderous speeches, and who
were anxious that hia Administration should
end in disaster and disgrace. These men
were in all the secret* of the late administration,
participant* in it* abuse* and
fraud*, and *olicitou* to conceal them.
Did any candid and honeat man imagine j
that auch individuals were to be retained
| in office?
1 """ 1 I
What a political Iwnu is a Whig minister
with Locofoco features?with Locoroco
eyes, ears, body and members! Into
what perilous toils does a secretary epter
who sits down surrounded with subordinates
whose disposition and desire it is to
mislead and betray him. How can he
justify to his party and to his principles?
it he believes the one and is true to the
other?such blind and infatuated confidence
t If he did not believe in the necessity
of a change of men in administration,
how happens it that he found himself
arrayed on the side of the party who
u. :i a ir a\a u-i: :i u
BUUgUt It I 11 IIO UIU WJICVC 11, 11UW tail
he suppose that the party with which he
acted will be content with a change of one <
secretary for another ? Inordinate, indeed,
must be the self-complacency which can
suppose that the great Whig party of this
country is to be satisfied with the conduct
of that minister whose zeal for the reform
of government terminates in the gratification
of his own personal ambition. False
to himself, false to his principles, and
false to his party, is that man in any public
station who suffers himself to be surrounded
with subordinates and advisers
who are hostile to his party and his principles.
We believe that the Whig feeling
throughout the country, the feeling of the
friends of President Taylor every where,
accords entirely with our own. That feeling
has been hitherto repressed. It cannot
but find emphatic utterance, however,
when we see the Chief Magistrate
r>f thf> rnnntrt?fl man arrav with voaru
" a - tr j - jw***
and covered with honors?assailed as President
Taylor has been, by creatures
whom a mistaken clemency has too long
retained in office, but whose shameless
and infamous conduct has demonstrated
their utter unfitness and unworthiness.
It is the first duty of government to "preserve
the magistracy, and legal authorities,
in honor, respect, and force." The
first step in the performance of that duty <
is to purge the public offices of the men
who hold that magistracy and those authorities
in hatred or contempt.
The Albany Argus explains its position
on the late Presidential election. In the
paragraph which we quoted the other day,
it did not intend to avow a preference for
General Cass on the ground that he was
a northern candidate. Its purpose was
merely to rebuke the inconsistency of the
Free-soilers, in defeating a non slave holding
candidate on the peculiar issues which
they presented. We are glad that a jour
nal so able and influential as the jirgtw is
prompt to disavow any countenance of the I
mischievous and dangerous spirit, which
adopts sectional questions for purposes of
political agitation. They should be left to
those reckless demagogues who would sacrifice
the peace of the country to the gratification
of their personal ambition. Those
men, and those presses, that seek to
make the Presidency a question between
the North and the South, will find that
they are trimming their sails to a momentary
gust of passion, that will hardly blow
long enough, or strong enough, to carry
their barks into the haven which they desire
to reach.
The U. S. ateamer Miaaiasippi reached Gibral- <
tar, sixteen daya running time from Norfolk, Va.,
averaging 8.5 know per hour, (10 miles,) and consuming
but 30 tona of bituminoua coal oer dav.
When this vessel left (he United States, she
drew 21 feet 8 5 inches, being 3 feet 4 5 inches
more water than she was designed to carry, or that
her engines were proportioned to ; thus, her engines
ind boilers were arranged for an immersed section
of 540 square feet, and when leasing Norfolk she
immersed a section of 675 square feet.
We are informed that this speed, in new of the
section immersed, and the fuel expended, is unparalleled
in steam navigation, excepting in the case of
the Missouri, burnt at Gibraltar in 1844.
The Pope sad Use Halted Mates.
Tkr Courrur in EimU-Umt copies a paragraph
with the above title, from the Omxelie it Lynn of July
3, which states, that the Right Reverend Bishop Por
tier of Mobile fiassed through that city a few days
previously on his way to Gaels, as hearer of the proceed
i ngs of the Nattnnal Council which an t during the
summer at Baltimore. This prelate gave the most
satisfactory account of the state of religion in the U.
Stairs, and of the daily extension of Catholicism.
Large sums had been collected as Peter-pence,
and laid at the feel of the Roman pontiff.
Ili.nbm or Cattr Jurnca Gibson.?Chief Justice
Gibson, of the supreme court of Pennsylvania,
has for some days been suffering from an nttack of
dysentery, at Sunbury. where the court is now sit
tin*. On Friday hia symptom* became no alarming
that his family at Carlisle were sent for, and
they set out yesterday, with scarcely a hope of
finding the chief justice alire. About midnight on
Friday, however, a favorable change took place,
and on Saturday morning the judge was considered
vej-y much better.
The M AMuracTraiao Establishments of Cm
cinnati are suffering much from the effects of the
epidemic,. Many of them have a large number of
their hands stck with cholera, which prevents them
from ninning with any regularity of force. One
house has buried fifteen hands. Besides, this general
stagnation, or more properly suspension of
business, has stopped orders and shipments.
Mrs. J roeon.?Letters from Mrs. Judsnn (Fanny
Forrester) have been received by a friend in thie
city, dated Maulmam, April 91, in which she aaya:
" 1 am decidedly better than I was one month ago,
and there is now erery prospect of entire recovery."
Sir Henbt Bolwe*, appointed some time since
Minister from England to the United States, at the
hun advices was at ona of the German Spa's. Immediately
on hie return to England he wae to sail
for the purpose of entering on the discharge of his
official duties.

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