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? ^filisccUancous. fYow Or A Mr York Hrrald. NAVAL. The New Mall Atraiutn Olilo aud U?or|(la. in nothing iuis the progress of this country been more marked than in naval architecture within the last few years, and particularly in the construction of steamships. Science, ingenuity, competition, , and enterprise, have already produced wondrous results, and the present is but ''the beginning of the end." in the building, rigging and fitting up of our merchant marine, we have had long the undisputed ascendency of the seas. In our river steamers, too, we stand unapproached by any nation. But there was one class of vessels in which we were left far behind, both by England and France. We mean Ocean steamers. The attention of our i scientific merchants and capitalists has been turned to the fact, and, with the go-ahead character of true Americans, they seem determined not to be surpassed by any other nation even in Ocean steam navigation. We have reported progress from time to time. We have now something more to report, that will deeply interest, if not astonish our readers. A new line of inuil steamers was contracted for some time since by the Government with George Law, esq , who budl the Oregon, and the "High Bridge" for the Croion Aqueduct, which cost two millions of dollars, and is the noblest structure in the country. The contract wus for four steumers, (and u spare one to meet accidents,) two to run with the mails twice a month to New Orleans, touching at Charleston and Savannah, and two to Chagres, touching at Havanu. The Government contracted for steamers of only 1.600 tons burthen. Mr. Law, by the advice of the Board of the Naval Department, has built vessels of 3,1)00 tons?not only firstclass steamers, but so udapled for purposes of war, that in two or three days they can be ready for action, and it is confidently asserted that no war steamer afloat will equal them. The Government are buikling four more to vie with them, one at Brooklyn, one at Philadelphia, one at Gosport, and one at Kiltery, Slate of Maine; but Mr. Law has resolved to show what private enterprise can do, and to beat the Government; and judging from the two already built, he has every prospect of coming oflf victorious. His contract for the mails, we have just mentioned, is $290,000. His estimate of cost for each of his ships was $400,000; but he now finds the cost will exceed that sum. The delay in their completion has been occasioned partly by the skill and care requisite in their construction, upon the improved plan suggested after ihe contract, and partly by the delay of their mammoth engines, which Secur & Co. engaged to have completed by the first of April, but owing to the amount of work upon them could not get them completed in that time. The engines of two are now completed; those of one be ng nearly put together in the ship, and those of the other are being got in. Mr. Law, who is a scientific and practical man, has superintended me enure worn nimseir. There is not a piank, nor almost a bolt, he has not seen go in There is not an inch in those vessels be does not know thoroughly, and the use and value of every bit of iron and wood in their structure. He baa spent some time in Europe, and particularly in England, with a view to the examination of steamships, and being a sharp observer he has net spent that time in vain. He has adopted all the improvements he saw, while he has invented some of his own. that are entirely new. These vessels have been built, too, under the inspection of one of the most scientific officers in the American navy, Commodore Perry, who has from time to ume expressed his opinions and made his suggestions. We saw him on board one of those vessels when we visited them, a day or iwo ago. Ii will be recollected that he supervised the erection and finishing of that model of steamships, the Missouri, which was burnt on her first trip, in the Bay of Gibraltar. The Ohio and Georgia are lying at the foot of , Ninth street, in the Gut river. We will now describe what we saw, for there is not a foot of these vessels, from the spar deck down to the kelson, and from stem to stern, that we have not examined minutely. We will make this general observation before entering into the details of each ship?that they exceed in strength, far and away, any neval structure we have ever seen. We shall begin with THE OHIO. The hull of tiiis vessel, which is the smaller of the two, has been built by Bishop and Bimonson. , Viewed externally, she is a beautiful mod*!, aeems expressly built for fast sailing; and 11 is 6*^7 when you go on board that you find combined with that beauty a strength that so far eiceeds expectations as *? fill you with amazement. But let us first give her dimensions. The len?th of keel 240 feet. Soar dec/.' 265 " Depth of hold from spar deck 33 " Bread h of beam.? 46 " She will draw about fifteen feel of water when her coals and all are on board. Her tonnage, before the spar deck was attached, was 2,600 : with ihat deck, her capacity is 3.000 tons. Descending to the bottom of the hold, you find a floor so strong and firm, and so close, that if (here was not a plank outside her timbers, she would not let in a drop of water. It is twerity-one inches (hick, laid solid, and bolted lengthwise. In most uiher vessels. the floor is open. A huge oak kelson runs fore and aft. laid on the middle of the floor limber*, over Ihe keel, fastened with long bolts nnd clinched, and thus binding the floor limlieni to the keel Then there are immrnw rroaa kelaona at 8 either end. to hold the timbers called the cant frame, which could not be fastened to the longitudinal kelHOti Tlien, to impart additional strength, there is a gigantic centre cross-kelson, with a bulkhead, tunning right across the vessel At the stem and atern latere is what is called a breast hook, being a curved piece of wood, shaped like the buck of nn nrni-chair, and not made hy carpenter work, but l?eing the natural fork of the oak. enormously thick; . these are exceedingly strong. Then there ia running lengthwise on either side, what is called a bilge kelson, with fire bilge streaks resting on it. Here the vessel is thirty-two inches thick. The main object of this strength is to suppoit the engines laterally against the tremendous pressure. With one hundred ami fifty tons of pressure when the engine is working, there is a yielding produced at either side, and the vessel is kept constantly straining, unless there is a powerful resistance. There is another contrivance for keeping the ship firm in this direction. When vessels roll there is always a straining on one aide, and the deck is seen to spring To prevent this, there are great thick iron braces from the kelson right under the deck to the side of the ship Then to keep her from springing longitudinally, there are iron alays three inches in diameter, with screws and bolts, to draw them tight, running diagonally from stem to atern. Each of these is tapable of supporting two hundred tons weight, and it is impossible for the vessel to spring lengthwise without breaking these stays. The ceiling of the vessel is seven inches thick, and every plank of about a souare yard contains about thirty iron bolts running through the timbers,and clinched in the planks outside In addition to these, they mi* l>olied down edgewise, a bolt being run through Mfry three, and then that operation repeated at rtrrry streak Theae bolt* ran never draw. They are oiled Irefore they are driven, to protect them front the arid of the timlier. They are fir snnertor to wooden bolts. There wn? not a drop of w *er tit the hold of thia veaael, though launched since last fall Her floor waa aa dry a* that of a drawing room. We obaerved that her floor and side# were atrewrd with strong aaJt, which is found to be a (Treat pre?ervative of wood. Her timber* are all of the heat oak, a* also her plank under the water. Her upper streak* are of live oak, loeuat, and radar. The huge knee* are of the beat oak, from the eastern shore of Maryland, the nmt>er growing on the roast heme firmest and most durable. They are not limb# hot the natural curve of the root In most other veaaels, hackmatack, which is little l?et ter than pine, is uaed for this purpose. In the f>fito, too, the kneea are bolted through,and rest on the massive water ways. Under the beam thai support# the water wheels, is to he found on each mdr what is called an " A" brace, being a set ol knees presenting s shape somewhat of the figure o( that letter. At the Imitom they are spread about nine feet asunder. The other leitmn are supported by immense knees, with horizontal knees bet weei each. The lieam conner'mg the pillar blocks at the top i? plated with two iron plates S-4 inch thick ; ii is sixteen tnche* by twelve thick, attd bolted ant riveted In fact, strength appear* to be the para mount consideration, and nothing that art and money could do wa*Sf>ared for the ae< omplithmew of thai object. We nhall now deaci-i'ie bar accommodation f?n na?Mtnear? Mr Law claim* the dark cabin a? hu own in rent ion for ocean airamera, having miggr*i?-t II in Mr. Morton for iha Empire City,after havini daridad uimn it for hia own vaaaal? after thry war lannrhad TV apar dark thai covera it in ik im manaaly wrong, aupported by atoul tnnrhioiiK, am having all round on lop a railing to prolan iha pan ?engcr? who may wiah to promanada on thai alava lion Out'ida thia railing, on tha dark, will ha th nhip'a boat*. mataad of awkwardly hanging hi iha aida. Tha cabin dark i? alaganlly fitted up with berth 7 feat long and 2 feet ? inchea wide. There ? ai - ! excellent arran^^eut in these stale-rooms. They do not open direcSkinlo the saloon, but are entered j on lite side by hrnfcdjetween every two rooms. > This prevents any oifftioin seeing into the rooms , from the saloon, when they are ooened. They are adinirubly ventilated by means of lockers, that close and <ij>en at will and receive the Ireshairby the rapid motion of the ship through the water. This ventilation runs from stem to stem. The saloon can be divided in any proportion, by means of folding doors, to suit ladies or others who might wish to live apart. The store-room is on the deck insteud of below; it is at the side and is open at bottom, as well to admit the air as U> permit its being washed out. This is an excellent arrangement, for it saves the necessity of bringing lighted candles into it, by which accidents so often occur. The air in it of course will be better than below. The kitchen is roomy and well furnished; it is lighted from the side by a skylight, covered at the top with wood to keep out the sun. The ordinary glass frames render the rooms into which they admit the direct rays of the sun as intolerable as hot-houses. There is a separate kitchen for the crew. From the kitchen down to the cabin are two openings, by which breakfast, dinner, supper, <fcc , are let down by dumb waiters, instead of being carried down the siuirs to be cooled, or to dash against the passen ?i ra. 1 lie puntry unci pusiry-rooiu are in Keeping with the kitchen. The cabin is divided into two immense rooms, capable of dining three hundred pussengers. The bed-rooms off the cabin ure of the same commodious description as those on deck The bed-room ware, and tea and dinner services, are of the very best description of china and cut glass. There is an accommodation for two hundred and fifty firstclass passengers, besides eighty permanent steerage erths. There is a fine room for the officers in the rear of the bout. The entrance to the cabin is lighted by a circular skylight with glass in the side, and darkened at the top. There is a bath-room attached to the cabin. There is a private pantry for the steward to lock up. The water tanks are capable of carrying 10,000 gallons of freih water, and there is besides an apparatus for producing fresh water from salt, if necessary. The Ohio has two pilot rooms?one on the main deck for steering when at sea. the other on top for steering in the river. The helm is double-rigged, so that if one set of chains gives way, there is another to fall back on. This vessel is called the Ohio from the river or State of that name, and bears the arms of the State on her stern, being figures of commerce and agriculture hand in hand. The figure-head and stem are all of one piece, which is a novelty, combining beauty with utility. The construction is such that it is almost impossible for the vessel to ship a wave over her bow, especially as she sits high in the water forward. She is as graceful us the swan, with the strength and swiftness of the eagle. We now come to THE GEOROIA. She is constructed, in ah respects, the same as the Ohio, with the exception of size and shape, and therefore it is unnecessary to do more than notice the poinu of difference. The hull of the Georgia was built by Smith & Diamond. Her dimensions are? Length of keel 245 feet. Length of spar deck 270 " Breadth of beam 49 " Depth of hold from spar deck 33 " The tonnage, measured from main deck, is 2,700, from the spar deck 3,300 tons. It will thus be seen that, while the depth is the same, the Georgia is fire feet longer, three feet wider, and has a greater capacity for freight than the Ohio. She now draws but nine feet of water; when her machinery is in, with coals, dkc., it is calculated she will draw thirteen feet. The build is also different. The Ohio is full forward, and sharp aft ; the Georgia is the reverse. And as the materials of which the two vessels are constructed are the same, and their engines of the same power, the sailing qualities of each would be fairly tested by experiment, and the point about which nauucal men nre much divided sausfactonly settled. It was hitherto supposed that a vessel could not be made sharp without drawing much water; but the Georgia is as sharp-stemmed a vessel of her size as was ever built, and yet draws the smallest depth of water. Her stem is exceedingly beautiful; it is like the Ohio's, in one piece with the figurehead, but much finer. Her figure-head is the wild horse of Mazeppa. it m only when on board the Georgia you see hPr ,. xnbtnanon of beauty and strength. Standing i' . tmd looking liack along her sides, you cannot see a 1,,,e>?[ ?.ne r \ ,n h"SlhThe curved line, u/* flhe l>ettUIl,fu ' contl"u<? _ j ,. *'roni stem to stern. This its proportions gradually ? ^p| f Bntlah vessel is furthest removed in he ,lL f? steamers. The Ohio is much miT** .. * -'Jl* The perfection of steamships, we take it, the same amount of machinery to have a large capacity, carry more freight, and attain at least the same speed The cylinders of the largest British steamers are the same size as the Georgia's, and yet their burden is only 18,000 urns The accident that occurred on Saturday last has amply tested her strength. A weight of forty tons fell from a height of twenty feet on her rail, which of course it rut through, crushing to pieces one of the strong stanchions; but it was slopped when it came to the heavy water ways on the gun deck. It did not , make ihe slightest impression on them; and though that weiahl still rested in the nick it had cut for it elf, mo broad and buoyant in the vessel, and no little did ahe heel, that you would acarcely perreive any inclination to that aide. Speaking of raila, we may here point out a difference between theae and other vessels. The rail la always cut for gangway*. In them it ta uncut, and goes all round, which, comudering ita atrength, ia a powerful support in prencrving the shape unwarped. It ia found that no matter how strongly the boat ia built in other reaped*, if her rail in cut, ahe will warp more or leaa. You enter these veaaela by a ladder to the *par deck. Built aa the Georgia and Ohio are, with a view of being turned, in a week's notice, into first-class war steamers, we may remark that the af?r deck i* fastened on by means of screws, ant^an lie removed at once. In other ocean a learners, for instance, the Hermann and United States, the gun deck is dotarn in the body of the vessel, and i they should be rut down, in order to make them available for the naval service. The water ways, 1 also absolutely necessary for the support of the guns, are on the main deck in the Georgia and l ' ?hio, which is not the case in other steamers. We shall now proceed to describe tub machihebt. The engines, boilers, and water wheel*, are the same in both steamers, and the same description, therefore, applies to both They are built by Secor dr Co., who had to enlarge their establishment for the purpose, and were superintended all through by the eminent engineer, Mr. Joseph Scott. Each boat has two engines, which gives a larger area of cylinder, and double power. In England the power i of engines is measured by that of horses. These engines are each according to the measurement of the cylinder, which determines the amount of power what the English would call 600 horse )>ower. They are low pressure, side lever marine engines. The following is their capacity: Fret. Inrhr* Diameter of cylinder 7 6 Stroke of piston .? 0 There are four boilers to each pair of eneines. neighing 160 ton*, and capable of laoling P20 ton* of water. Tley are worth $50,000. The Hermann and Waahington hate two engine*, but hare only two boilera. The advantage in having four la, that while the fire* are b*ing hauled, the *peed need not be alac.kened, a* muat lie the caae wriere I there are only two. The engine* are on the aame plan aa the Niagara'*, lait much heavier. There ia no Enghah ateamer, large or amall, without two eni giriea. Two are not nr<e*aary for river *'canter*, but are of great advantage tor the ocean. The Empire and other river steamer* have two engine*; [ ' but they are not connected. They ar.iindepenr dently. In the Cieorgia and Ohio they are coni nee ted aa in the Miaaouri, M **i**i[>pi and Kam| ' *< liHtka. The ad vantage over the atngle engine* ia , this, (hat with the latter, when it ia on the centre, > ! if a wave atrike* the ve**el, the wrong valve will t be opened and ahe will be driven hack, inatead o( | forward. Tbi* cannot take place with a double . j engine, the stroke being alternate. Every time, I too, that an engine i* on ita centre, or when the piaI ton ia highest or lowest, there ia a moment in which I Uith valve* are cloaed, namely, after one haa juat r abut and tiefore the other it opened. In that moi merit, with a tingle engine, power ia I oat, and no | *ream ia applied. VV itn the double engine it ia difj Icrent, for the nieam in no inainni of lime au*|>enda h it* propelling force. There hre two valve* alwnya i- open, while two are cloaed There i* more *te?m d required for a tingle engine, ami therefore it n moie ex|>enaive. It i? alto more dangerous Al i- tea, in a atotffl. ^camera muat often alack down to e five in tha minute ; but no amgle engine can do y , ? "'Miiiif uiin do not. k The bottom of the cylinder in thene enginea u g cut on the bed plate*, and thu* six feet of room in , I height is saved. The consequence i?, that the engines are under the deck, and thia is of 110 small importance in war steamer?, u* exposure of the machinery to shot would aoan disable the boat There is another advantage in this: the weight is ut 1 the bottom, und then/ being more base than height, there would be a vast difference in a rolling sea, or in tiie recoil of guns. The engines are boiled down to the immense thick door with aixty iron bolts in each bed plate. This is not usual The English fasten them with wood screws; but Mr. Law found they would draw, and were by no means so secure as the bolts. They are not fuslened to the sides of the vessel, but stand independent in the centre. There is a powerful X brace between them that corniecls them and makes them uue In the centre, and also cast on the bed plate, is the condenser. The boilers, instead of being all on one side, are two fore and two aft of the engines, und thus serve very important purposes; besides giving the engineer an opportunity of seeing ull .the firemen together, and ascertaining whether they are doing (heir duty, while he can look at the same time at his glass gauge, without leaving his post, they will enable the water-wheel to be pluced as near the centre as possible, while they form each, when filled with water, a resistance of seventy tons against the uplifting force of the engines, just in the very spot where resistance is wanted. The Ohio has her engines ten feet abaft of the centre of the vessel, the Georgia twenty feet. They are supported with braces and rods of great strength, instead of a number of small ones, that never pull together, and are always in the .vuy- So wide are these steamers, that you have ample room to go all round the engines, an advantage not possessed by other ocean steamers. The waier-wheels are thirty-six feet in diameter, and the bucket ten feet on the face. The beam that supports them has been already described. The bruce underneath it outside is not attached to the side of the ship in the usual way, but is fastened to a strong iron knee tailed to the boat. These leviathan steamers are by no means deficient in ornument; but, considering the objects for which they are constructed, ornament weighs but a feather in the balance against the stupendous strength that is visible in every timber, and knee, and brace, and bolt, and plank. It is expected they will be ready for sea in about three weeks, and then it will be seen what American enterprise has accomplished. THE REPUBLIC. WASHINGTON: THURSDAY MORNING, JULY 26, 1849. TWENTY YEARS' WAR ON THE TREASURY. If was a rpmarlr of N a pni enN that **voii * J ? cannot at the same time rob people and persuade them you are their friends." This is the full and perfect explanation of the present condition of the Locofoco party; their leaders have been engaged in the wanton and reckless plunder of the public Treasury; they have been exposed and driven from power. This is a short political history of the last twenty years. It is not true that the military renown and personal popularity of General Harrison in 1840, or of General Taylor in 1848, captivated the people and caused the political revolutions of those eventful years. With a very large number of the people who voted for them, their military character was an objection. They were elected substantially by the efforts and the votes of the great Whig party of the Union. They were the types of a sentiment; they embodied and represented a 1 characteristic of the American people? their love for personal honesty and integrity. A sordid man, with the opportunities of General Harrison for profiting by his public position, would have made himself opulent. In the acquisition of 60,000,000 _r i _i* a * a il a* j acres 01 inuian territory; in me negoua- | of thirteen of the most important In-1 dian treati 0,1 ever enteret^ into by our Gov-1 ernment; in the ^owledge of lands and I reservations acquired du7'Il& bis official j career, it was only necessary (ot General I H arri on to have willed it, to become one of the largest and wealthiest land-holders in the United States. With a chivalrous; regard for his reputation, General Harrison adopted an honorable and rigid selfdenial as the rule of his public conduct. The people found General Harrison in his old age, destitute of fortune, living in an humble position on the fruits of bis J daily toil. So with General Tat lor. The j people found in him not only a soldier who hitd never lost a battle, but a public officer who had never pocketed an extra; a man perfectly free from the taint of; peculation, a man of high and incorruptible integrity and honor. As Presidential candidates these great men represented the principles for which the Whk.s have been contending, for > many year*?the purification and reform of the Government. Mr. Van Buren was identified with the principle of corruption, a* it had been understood and practised by the Albany Regency in the State politics of New York, and as it w as afterwards ( introduced into national politics. On this , issue General Harrison defeated him. General Cash was identified with the same principle, not only as the representative of a party, but in his individual case. His pluralities of office and salary, his extra allowances and treble charges, his large accumulation of property in the public ' service, made his case stronger and more marked than that of Mr. Van Bur en. The unpopularity of General Cass on this ground contributed largely to the success of General Tavlor. It is as long ago as 1834 that the Whigs made their first efficient demonstration on the subject of official corruption. It was in that year that Mr. Ewinc. brought for ward hi* celebrated resolutions of inquiry into the condition of the Post Office Department. All who are familiar with the history of that period remember the developments elicited by that investigation. The Locofoco leaders gave up the game. The abuses, j?eculations, and frauds practised in the Dejiartment were proved, admitted, and left undefended. If they had been pressed home upon the Locofoco leaders a* they might have been, the Whigs would have defeated Mr. Van Buren in 1H36. But, after their exposure, THE REPUBLIC they were permitted to sleep, and by fore of the marvellous organization of the Locc focos, with the aid of their efficient an able press at the seat of Government which conducted the campaign on othe issues, they were able to sustain them selves long enough to elect Mr. Van Bu ren to the Presidency. The Post Office was reformed by th? wise legislation of the Whigs, and furthe opportunities for frauds and abuses in tha Department were arrested. But many so ber and reflecting men were, at that time and in consequence of these develop ments, driven from the ranks of the Ad ministration, and have been acting evei since with the friends of Reform. The peculators made their next descen upon the land-offices, custom-houses, an< district attorneyships. In the interva between 1834 and 1839, the peculators changed the scene of their labors, because they had been driven from the Post Office by the vigor and perseverance of Mr. Ewing. During the five years last mentioned alone, there were u sixty cases o! defalcation fully known to the Secretary of the Treasury, where the defaulters were warned, watched, reproached, threatened, fcjrgiven?and their defaults, while still existing and continued, in some case* actually sanctioned by a renomination to ofmce." We all remember the Congressional investigations of 1839, and theii results. The Whigs of those days pointed to the Prices, Swartwouts, Sterlings, Boyds, Allens, Hawkinses, Pollocks, Linns, Mitchells, Childresses, Spencers, Owens, Stephensons, M'Neils, Hollands, Breedloves?and called upon the people to say if the leaders of a party which had placed power and emoluments in the hands of such an army of defaulters and peculators, were worthy the confidence of the American people ? Those leaders on these issues were arraigned, condemned, and repudiated by the American people. It is a remarkable fact, that the administration of John Tyler never threw of] the force of the influences under which General Harrison was elected, to the extent of peculating on the public Treasury. There was a soit of armistice in the war. We recollect no instance of defalcation among the men whom Mr. Tyler appointed to office. False as he was to his party, and unscrupulous as he was in all his operations, there is no known instance during his career of those gross violations of public trust which had distinguished the administrations of General Jackson and Mr. Van Buren. This was mainly owing to the restrictions and remedial legislation which had been adopted in consequence of the exposures, in 1834 and 1839, of the corrupt condition o! the Executive Departments. The Whigs are entitled to all the credit of it. In the Presidential canvass of 1844, the attention of the ueonle was withdrawn from the corruption*, frauds, and abuses ol the Locofoco leaders, by local and sectional issues. The Texas question at the South?the Abolition question at the North, and the Tariff' in Pennsylvania? became the issues on which that campaign was fought; and by the course of the Abolitionists in New York, and the Democratic Tariff men in Pennsylvania, Mr. Polk became the President of the United States. And now a new theatre of corruption was to be sought, not in defalcations altogether?for that game was partially blocked?but in the lavish and peculative expenditure of the public money under the pretence of defraying the cost of collecting the revenue. Just before the close of the last session a bill passed the Senate, and was approved on the 3d of March by Mr. Polk, which provided that the "expenses of collecting the revenue from customs shall not hereafter exceed the sum of one million five hundred and sixty thousand dollars per an aum, together with such sum* as unoermc law are paid into the treasury for dray age, cartage, labor, arid storage, and in proportion for a less time." This sum was some fire hundred thousand dollars less than was exjiended by the late Secretary o! the Treasury for the same purposes. Il is, therefore, an admission of record thai the late Administration expended idly, uselessly, and therefore corruptly, in the ct>llection of the revenue, $500,000 more than was necessary; for we cannot suppose that any set of men could have con spired, with the factious and base purposf of distressing the new Administration, tc compel them to do with $1,560,000 whal could be properly done only by an expen diture of $2,060,000. The old peculators and defaulters ol 1M34 and 1K3H, who rallied in the last election about Mr. Van BuRF.it and Genera Cabs, knew they could hope nothing from the success of General Tavi.or, and wil never come into his support. But th* people have no sympathy with the corrup leaders of a party, and they have not s< soon forgotten the history of the past ai to unite with these men in a war upon th< Administration, with the view of restorinj tnr ascendency o! tne old peculators an< defaulters. We have given in this article a bird's ey< view of what the Which have done in tin way of exposing and reforming abuses n e the last fifteen years. We have tracked h the Locofoco leaders in their plunders, first d to the post oliices, then to the laud offices, audfinally to the custom-houses. There we r leave them for the present. We shall re sume the subject, and shall give before we - have done with it, in detached sketches and chapters, a complete history of the e Locofoco* Twenty years' War on the Trear sury of the United States. t TAMMANY HALL. The Democratic General Committee of New York refuse to accept the right hand of fellowship held out to them by B. F. Butlek and his friends. Old Hunkerism declines going to the Barnburners, so the t Barnburners will have to go to the Old Hlinl/pru ITnifo fK/iif urill -urv'ifo j .t.u witj I must, on some terms. Locofocoism can( not and will not stand exclusive from the offices. Any thing but this might be borne. This is intolerable. The Old Hunkers go for the Baltimore Platform, which nominated General Cass. They refuse to recog: ise any organization of the Democratic party in New York, ex( cept that emanating from the Syracuse Convention of 1847, and none in the county of New York but that having its head-quarters at Tammany Hall. They refuse to enter into any negotiation or treaty with a body of pretended Democrats, of a spurious organization; and avow I that they can only admit of a political fellowship with them when they, as individuals, support the principles, measures, and organization of the party. All this tends to nrnve the saoraritv of __ r D~ J ? Mr. John Van Buren in announcing the dissolution of the Locofoco party as a national party. We are well persuaded that there is a considerable portion of the Old Hunkers in the State of New York, who will never unite with the Free-Soilers, Barnburners, and Abolitionists. They are not prepared to join a reckless and violent opposition to President Taylor, on the ground that he is a southern slaveholder. P They do not sympathise with the outcry of the office-holders, because they have always advocated and practised on the doctrine that an administration cannot support itself, and permit the public offices to remain in the hands of men who seek its overthrow. Some of the Barnburners are equally pertinacious with the Tammany Hall Hunkers. They will insist on opposing President Taylor because he is from a slaveholding State. The chances are, therefore, that the attempted reconciliation in New York will result in dividing the Locofoco party by three instead of two. There will be the ultra Old Hunkers, the ultra Barnburners, and the middle men of P easy virtue, who are ultra upon no subject | except their solicitude for the spoils. It is probable that the attempt at reunion, then, will strengthen President j Taylor, and the great national party j. which elected him and which will sustain him. 11 I INDIAN OUTBREAK IN FLORIDA. At the close of the Florida war, the Seminole Indians remaining in the peninsula were assigned, as a temporary residence, a tract of land lying between Char: lotte Harbor and the Lake Okeechobee, i General Worth, who made this arrangement in 1S42, reported the number of 1 warriors left in the country at less than one hundred. In 1S45, Captain Sprague, 1 who had been acting in Florida in the stead of an Indian agent, reported the numberof warriors at less than one hundred and thirty; and estimated the entire Indian population, of all ages and sexes, at some- i thing short of three hundred and fifty souls. Since that time we do not know that any report oi tne numDcr 01 Indians ; in Florida has been officially made. 1 The recent reported outbreak of the i Seminoles has arisen from the following . circumstance: On the Atlantic side of the i peninsula some four families were settled , upon Indian river, nearly opposite Fort . Pearce. Four warriors visited this settle. ment recently, where they were received i in a friendly manner. After receiving ref freshment they departed; but a short dis- ' I tance from the houses they discovered a I man by the name of Barker, and another, , working in an open field, upon whom they | i fired. Both Barker and his companion were wounded. They ran, taking diffbr ent directions. Barker was pursued, overtaken, and killed with knives. The other reached the settlers' houses, and succeed> ed in making his escape, with all the rest, t to San Augustine. Indian river is ra. ther a sound of the sea than a running ati-oam- ?nd the settlers made their wav ? ~ ^ f to San Augustine in boats, where the news . created a great deal of excitement. The , I settlements upon Indian river are some i i forty or fifty miles distant from the tract ' I of country assigned to the Seminole* re- 1 ? maining in Florida. From this circum- J t stance it is feared that the murder of , > Marker is the beginning of a concerted < n outbreak. No other corroborating proofs ? have reached the Government; but the j ? War Department has made preparations to I I despatch a sufficient force to the country to repel the Indians if they contemplate other ? hostilities, or to bring the murderers to jusM b tice, if this is merely the violence of a few a stragglers. ( ALLStiKD NATIONAL. OUTRAOB. It will be remembered that a few days ago we published a telegraphic account of the alleged arrest of a Spanish refugee in New Orleans, and forcibly conveying him beyond our jurisdiction. The following account of the same transaction, luller in its details, we copy from the New Orleans Delta. The date of the last of the despatches was 19th July, two days subsequent to that of the journals, at which time the agitation in New Orleans had not subsided; on the contrary, public opinion seemed to point to the Spanish consul as the instigator of the abduction, and the greatest excitement pervaded all classes of the population of the city. "It become* our duty, tie public journalists, to cull the attention of the proper authorities to the following extraordinary case. If we are correctly informed of the facts, they exhibit a gross violation of international law, and call lor immediate investigation on the part of the district attorney of the United Stales. The authorities of Cuba and their emissaries should be taught that they cannot violate with impunity American soil; that even those who may have transgressed the penal laws of Spain are protected from outrage while under the American Hag, and if surrendered at all to the ugents of their own government, must be surrendered in the cases provided, and according to the mode designated by treaty stipulations. "In u communication addressed to the Fatria, of Sunduy last, by Mr. Jos Morante, an honorable and well-known Spanish gentleman of this city, he slates, that on the 8th June, ultimo, he admitted into his house, at the solicitation of Mr. Fulgencio Llorente, the editor of the Spanish paper called '?1 Fad re Cocos,' a young man named Juan Francisco Rey, who was in bad health; that he became quite sick, and Morante called in Dr. Moll 10 attend him; that at the end of three weeks Llorente succeeded, after much objection on the part of the young man, in persuading liirn to quit the house; that in this he was assisted, during five hourt^ by a person well known to Llorente; that this person, pretending to be a physician, procured a coach, in which were two persons, and, placing Rey therein, they got m themselves and drove off. Mr. Moraine denies positively that he had any connexion whatever with the outrageous kidnapping of this unfortunate youth. "It appears that he was then taken to a restaurant, where, it is reported, he was well plied with wine. He was then taken by force on board the schooner Mary Ellen, Capt. McConnell, which immediately set sail for the Havana. "Thisextraordinary case of kidnapping has caused much excitement in the city, and given me to many strange rumors, whiph, at this stage of the matter, it is not proper to repeat. It is understood, however, that Juan Francisco Rey was the turnkey of the prison of Havana, and that two prisoners had recently escaped therefrom to New York, the charge against whom was of a political nature, in relation to which the agents of the Spanish Crown are exercising the utmost vigilance. Rey, it seems, is charged with facilitating or conniving at their escape, and look refuge in this city; his punishment, if convicted, being death We believe the existing treaty between the United States and Spain makes no provision for the extradition of offenders of any character. We understand the Spanish (>opulation of our city are indignant at this gross outrage, perpetrated against one of their own countrymen, and we are anxious that the authors of tins atrocity should receive the punishment they so justly merit." The Spanish Consul published the following letter, to explain away the allegations made against him personally, and which common rumor represented as well sustained: Consulate op Spain, ) Arte Orleans, July 17, 1849. ^ Hon. Joseph Genoii, Recorder of the First Municipality: Respected Sir: The editors of various papers in this city having, for lack of something better to do, published and circulated rumors, calculated to make a certain portion of the public believe that a subject of her Catholic Majesty, who had taken refuge in Louisiana, has been, by force and violence, and in contravention of the laws of the coun try, carried on board the schooner Mary Ellen which left this port on the 5th inst., by certain agents of the Spanish government, who conducted him a prisoner to the Havana, in order that he might be delivered up to the authorities to undergo his punishment, conformably to the laws of the aforesaid kingdom; as consul of her Catholic Majesty in this city, 1 feel it to be my duty to communicate to you all the official documents, which establish, in the most clear and explicit manner, that said rumors are false and entirely calumnious. But inasmuch as it concerns my Government that the aforesaid documents should not be at present made public to you alone, or to any other competent authority of the State, (which you will have the goodness to designate,) I will exhibit them, thoroughly iiersuaded, as 1 am, that when you shall be informed upon the subject, you wil I be the first to take the requisite means to cause the aforesaid rumors to cease. At whatever hour you may be inclined to receive me I shall be at your disposal, remaining, in the mean time, with much consideration and respect, your most obedient servant, CARLOS dc ESPANA, Comul of Her Catholic Ma jetty On the same day the following commu- | nication, which we translate from Iai P<i \ fri'a, made it* appearance: > " Desiroua of clearing myself entirely of the scandal 1 ;au*ed by the disappears nee of the second turnkey 1 )f the prison of Havana, Hon Juan Garcia, and not 1 Don Juan Franeiaco Rey as has been aaid, I have ' bought proper to make some declarations of the * esult of the inquiries I have made, to satisfy myself < ind to maintain the fair repute of my oountrymen. "I have seen the declarations made voluntarily by he supposed Juan Rey, by which it is proven that he almve-named turnkey released Don Vicente Fernandez, nephew of Don Pedro Rlanco, of Harana. who had tieen arrested in that c.ity on a harge of fraud; and the hefnre-mentioned turnkey, Don Juan Garcia, had therefor received the sum if $19,000 as an inducement to accompany Ferlandei in hflight. It ia, besides, unrstablished hat Don Juan Garcia, alias Don Juan Francisco Rey, has lieen deceived or kidnaped, but it is known that he voluntarily embarked for Havana, (laving, in conaideration of his confession made here, received a pardon. The aouuaations made igairiat the Spanish consul in this city arc not dewived, and jfrsons who wish to inform themselves if the truth of what I have said, may, if they please, ee the same documents which I have been enabled lo examine. " I may moreover remark that one of the officials <>f this place area fully informed of all the oiroumttancea which have any relation to this affair, and isaures me thai the Spanish Consul hail no motive , ? - -1 , for the action of which he ia neruaed Nor ia it ? it all nerialn thai the turnkey had nny partictpa- | lion in the flight of peraona accused of political iffcncea, na aome have anid, Inn hia offence relatea I sxcluaively to the fraud of Qoo Vioente Fernandez." B MANUKL MDRKNOTf. Naw OnLkAMt, July 17, 1849 At the date of our last despatch, one l> rlay later than the last mail advices, the l} pxcitement wit* not only undiminished, " but, on the other hand, continually in- rr rrearfed, and highly inflammatory articles (j had appeared in more than one of the ir New Orleans papers. J It would be an insult to the intelligence of the country and to the charact* r of the Hon. Truman Smith, to imagine either the people or hib reputation are at all alfected by the coarse and rabid assaults which are made upon him by the Union. He may safely leave his defence to his countrymen. Hungary. Flic London Standard nf Frrtdom, of July 7, after recounting the reverses reported lo liuve been undergone by the Hungariuns, sees no reason why their defence should not terminate us gloriously us it began. It must be remembered that the dangerous stnitcfelic course tins lieeu minuted >(' ?nr ^ ?_r.? ... ? rounding Hungary with u cordon of forces, and that a similar attempt was fatal to the operations of the Spanish generals ugauiBt France, and which was fatal to Windisgratz in the commencement of the present campaign, by weakening too much each Ke(>araie point of the circumference of the circle. " To understand how this monstrous coil is contemplated to be wound, it must be explained thut Hungary and Transylvania are protected on the north and east and part of the south by the continuous Kurpalhian range, uHording only one passage to armies (hy the Eperia road) into Hungary, and three (by Fojanistampi, Kronstudt, and Orsova) into Transylvania 'i t.e western frontier is naturally defended by the rivers Wang and Raab, and the mountains and morasses behind them. The remainder of the southern frontier is covered by the Turkish provinces. The Theiss, dividing the whole of (his country into two, winds amongst wide E tains and marshes, which constitute the strongolds of the Magyars, and where their arsenals and reserves are situated. "On the line of the Woag and Raab or Danube, (his centre resting on Comoro,) the young but very cautious Hungarian general, Georgey, commands the main army of ninety thousand men, whose attack in advance of that line we last week noticed. He has returned to occupy h, and, indeed, would seem to be retrograding his left wing from the Raab to the Danube, if the evacuation by him of the for- * tiiied city of that name be, as there is reason to believe, authentic. "Through the northern pass, sixty thousand Russians under Paskewitch have penetrated and advanced without opposition to Kaschan; Dembinski's force, (thirty thousand men,) having opened, like (he waves of the Red sea, right and left, to occupy the valleys and overwhelm him. unless he pause to clear the mountain districts through which his line of communication lies. " At Pojana-stamri twenty-five thousand Russians, and opposite Cronstadt twenty-five thousand, were preparing to invade Transylvania, but are positively ascertained not to have crossed several days after they were reported at Vienna to have done so. " Bern, with fifty thousand men, defends Transylvania. About Debreczin and Grnsswardein the reserves of the Hungarian army?situate midway? are disposed to carry succor, as occasion may require, to Dembinski or to Bern. " Perczel, in the Banal, is opposed to Jellachich with about twenty thousand men ; but it is reported that Perczel is likely to be superseded, and the important command or the aged Uembinski given to a younger general." The Standard also states that news of varied character had been received from Constantinople. It wits reported that a revolution had occurred in Ervntia,-by which Jellachich had been deposed, and Bern substituted in his place as Ban. This decidedly good news for the Hungarians was, however, for a lime, counterbalanced by intelligence that a new application had been made to the Sultan for permission to march troops through the Turkish territories. Hungary on this side is least defensible, and the English and French representatives at the port had advised' the denial of the request, but at the same time had intimated, that it must be done on the exclusive responsibility of the ,i. ; ..... . r. 1 .1 ? j f,... ii i.iu> ui uin ihiicu, mug nunnaoneo, would yield to the demands of its too powerful neighbor. The Turkish government, however, displayed unwonted firmness and explicitly refused. Hl'RREN DKR OF ROME. The apparently sudden surrender of the eternal city to General Oudinot, after the enthusiasm with which the people was said to have pledged itself to be buried in its ruins, has created much surprise. This circumstance, the length of the siege, and the evident valor with which the city has been defended, has constrained all who know any thing of the history of Italy since the first French revolution, to doubt if the Romans had ever a great deal to do with the warlike o|ierations. It was notorious that the chief resistance was made by the Swiss soldiers and the legion of Garibaldi, composed of adventurers from every portion of the world, and that in the accounts of the sorties scarcely a reference was made to the natives of the city. The triumvirs themselves, with one eiception, were not Romans, and the two prominent leaders were Garibnldi and Avezzana, the first of whom had fought for and against the governments of the South American republics; cruised on his own account on the Brazilian and Boenos Ayrian Coasts, and approached an near to piracy thot the nicest casuistry wa? necessary to distinguish his conduct from that court# against which all nations war Avexzana was undoubtedly a brave man, who had seen much seme# in Mexico, but it may be doubted if that ousmiry k- .U. I ?I ? vi- ?* - ltc mr urn scnooi ui repuuiicanism II ia f*>asilde, iherefore, that the people of Rome majr hare Iteen svrrawed by (hia hand of hardy adventurers, but ' nothing definite can be known until another arrival hall bring the particulara of the surrender and of ihe reception of the Pope, who it ia said haa d,*lermined to return to hia capital, and by fwrumal ibaervation to satisfy himself aa to what share hia i*n subjects have had in the recent troubles. From Trias. By the arnvul here yesterday of ily steamer Palmetto, Chaplain Smith, from Galveston the 15th nst , brought datea from that place to (he 12th, utd also papers from other points of Texas. The election ranvasa ia still going on warmly, he various candidates addressing the jmnple at difrerent places The trade of San Antonio, it ia stated, has been vinsiderably diminished by the Indian forays, but hia loss has been more than compensated by the rods with the army. TV I s v..?i i? ' ? w. . ...? Ii.auii n icfiuri ?JI nil eX|>SOI:ion from Austin to Rl Pssn He made the journey n twenty-two days. The distance hy the nearest <?ad he computes at fire hundred and eighty-nine tulea. They we.nt out by some Indian camps on he Colorado, and followed up Brady's creek a westerly course to its head, crossed to the .South oncho, thence crossing its tributaries to the main Poncho, or Blue river, thence to the Pecos, which hey followed up for twenty-eight miles, arid truck offS 4.r> W , when at forty-eight miles they nade the Toyah, a swift stream forty feel widie ind eighteen tnehea deep. The party travelled hence hy the northern end of Pah-Cut to Puerto 'aariso, upwards of sixty miles, before reaching termanent water; thence forty miles to Kaglctait bias, which is fifteen miles from the Rio Grande, nd one hundred miles from El Paso. A project is on foot, snd a auliscription has been pcncd at Henderson, Texas, for clearing out the inhine river and making it navigable for steamoats of ordinary size Another party of tmmgraphiral engineers hn* ) een sent out hy (ien. Hnrney to explore the route i El Paso hy the bead of the San Saha A gentleman informs the (Jalveaton .Veiei thai a isn by the name of Bostwir.k was killed in fvi lr?nge on ihe 7ih hy Gen Msyfitld. Mr. Kufiia Chandler was killed on Sunday mornig, the Kith ult., in the town of Rusk, iiy Gen os. L. Hogg.