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THE REPUBLIC. Krport of the Heitrd of Visiter* of the MilItu-jr Aradriu). W?< Pol?t, 184V. To th<- Hon. Uso. W. C'BAwroan, Secretary ot War. Wbst Point, June 18, 1849. Sib: The undersigned, the Board of Visiter* invited lo attend the examination of the cadet* of the Military Academy, commencing1 on the first Monday of the present month, aud to take into consideration the varioua matters suggested in your letter of invitation, met at this place at the time appointed, and, Itaviug performed the duties devolving on them, make the following report: The object of the institution being the education of young men, with a view to their becoming officers in the different arms of the military service of the country, the effort of the Board has been to ascertain, whether this was accomplished in the luauner designed bv Government; whether the system pursued for tns purpose wus a proper one; and if so, whether auy thing was wanting to make it more efficient and available. The education of the Cadets is of two kinds?scientific and military. In some arms of the service both of these are directly brought into requisition. In all arms the union of the two may become valuable and iuiDortunt. The same course of stud v. therefore, in pursued by all the pupiU of the institution : and those who cannot, from want of capacity, or will not, from negligence, attain the excellence in their respective studies which lias been fixed upon as the standard, are dismissed from tjje Academy, as their deficiency is from time to time ascertained. But, as the degrees of excellence must be as various as there are individuals who accomplish the course prescribed, the opportunity j is always afforded, in the distribution of a graduating class among the different arms of the service, of giving to each of the individuals wh<we acquirements are particularly adapted to it. A system of rewards is thus created, under whose strong influences the pupil finds himself from the time he enters the Academy until he receives his promotion. A better system could not well be devised, or one more likely to produce constant exertion, either to attain an honorable position, or to avoid a dismissal, which, however mild may be its form, must be, at all events, an unpleasant memory, if not an obstacle to success in after life. This possibility of dismissal scarcely seems to be sufficiently considered by those upon whom the appointment of Cadets depends; and young men are too often sent to the Academy, who are so totally unfit, as to make it a cruelty to subject them to the course of study necessary to qualify them to enter any one corps in the army. Sometimes they are dismissed at once. Sometimes they struggle on, year after year, only to be dismissed at last, and after they have acquired habits inconsistent with the pursuit of civil life. Sometimes, after dismissal, they arc returned to the Academy by superior authority, only to be dismissed again. Sometimes this occurs more than once in the case of the same individual; and, at last, the army may receive an officer whose ignorance or insubordination, as a Cadet, has furnished ample proof of his want of ability to command with intelligence or success. These considerations have suggested to the Board to recommend thus prominently, in their report, greater care in the bAtowal of appointments than nas heretofore in all cases been unserved, as well to save the Cadet from mortification and injury as the Government from discredit and loss; and espe i lally to urge, as vital to the well-being' of the institution, that the sentences of dismissal pronounced at the Academy should be considered as final and conclusive, unless upon the clearest and most satisfactory evidence that gross wrong has been done to the individual. Unless this last recommendation should be acted upon uniformly, there is much reason to fear that all the salutary influences of a rigid discipline will be lost to the institution, and the authority of the Academic Board grow into a matter of contempt. The Board have attended regularly the examination of the Cadets, in their respective studies, from day to day, and have compared the impres, sion made by tneir several performances with the record showing their standing from week to week, during the term. They have also, as far as they deemed it necessary, by a change of propositions and the suggestion of incidental questions, tested the character of the examination, and have come unhesitatingly to the conclusion that the .method of instruction is admirable, and the instruction itself most thorough and hill. To pass the examination at West Point the Cadet must understand what has been taught him. No exercise here can be committed to memory and glibly parroted as a string of words. The commendations of Lbr Board, thus cheerfully expressed, are not due merely to the smooth recitations of the Cadets, or any of them, who were examined before them. On the contrary, it more frequently happened that the most satisfactory examination was one where the individual hesitated at first, and perhaps throughout, bat who. Anally and slowly, came to the correct conclusion, ss be stood before the Board, by the stroii* and concentrated mental effort which he was must evidently making, not to remember words, but to collate ideas who* comparison and ftjfnsrtoaent would bring hun to the right results Tbe Board are quite aware that a single examination can afford but imperfect means for ascertaining the proficiency of any one individual examined, and that the determination of this must iim'i'Mr lly be left to the judgment of the Academic Hoard But no such difficulty exists in forming a judgment of the merit of the Professor, whose examination of his pupils rontinues from day to day in the presence of the Board, who are thus enabled to see the extent of his knowledge. Ins facility in imparting it, and bis manner and his temper in performing the duties of an instructor. And when the Board have observed that the dull have caused no impatience, that the inaccurate have not been permitted to slur their ignorance, and that the intelligent and quick, while they have been tested | hy vsrying queauoatng*. im?r u. .. ,, ..vr., _ , no inorr consideration than the heaviest scholar* in the r lass. they would be withholding the ineed | of a just praise if they did not, on this occasion, commend in the highest terma the Professors whose classes have been examined before the Hoard. There la one matter, however, which, in the I opinion of tin H-wrd, ia not aa it should be, and which might be considered as almost a characteristic of the examination. They refer to the indtsi tin< t utterance of the Cadets They stood with the erertneaa, firmness, and respect ol soldiers; with what indeed might generally be called a gallant ix aring; while in too many instances they spoke, even when they were most familiar with the sub- < jret, in a manner alinoat inarticulate; so that it was nereamry for th> u in?tru< t/.r to tell those to I "apeak out" who were shortly tube called to coinI inand men in situations where the tone of the I voire would be one of the most potent means of I inspiring confidence. To these remarks the Board I are glad to aay there were many exceptions, win. h I of itself induces the Board to believe, that, if a I clear and diatinct utterance is made a part of the I liistriK tir.n w hi< h s Cadet receives, along with his I mathematics or philosophy, these exceptions will I become in a little while the general rule of the inI o notion. I The Board aee no reason to recommend any I other change in the course of study than that of I oi(sotutmg Physiology for Logic, as recommeadad I in the report of the Committer on Instruction, and I for the reasons there given at length That the I iM have been able to pass the examins I tion which they did in pure logic, was most credit I able to them and their instructors. But useless, or I < 'imperatively useless, knowledge may he ably j I taught and thoroughly acquired; and the Board | I cannot help tliinking that logic falls into this cate- ' I pirjr, aa regards young men whose powers of close I reasoning would we? tc have been improved to ? ik.fr utmost by other gafiss, taught as Msuxum ttcaaad Phi|.*ophy are ta ugbl at the Military Aradtmy. Among other mature which hare bc< n "uggeau-ct to the hard fcr conaideratioo, haa been the expediency of incre.aainy the lenfth of the term of inatruction at W eat Point to five reara, which would be adding a year to the time which ta now required to complete the rourae. The rrcat argument in faror of such an addition would exiat in the fact, that ao many of the Cadeta come to the Academy wholly unprepared to commence the preaent courae f of etu'diea To auch. the additional year would afford an opportunity of properly qualifying themaclvee for admiaaion into the p'reaent fourth claaa But, then, to thoae who are nualifted before their appointment, 'hia year would be a total haw, per ha na worae than a mere loaa of time, in the idle habita which it might eatabliah If it were attempted to obviate thia difficulty by leaving' it to the Acndemir Board, upon an examination of the new Cadet, to determine whether he abould enter the fourth or the fifth < laaa. then the number of the fifth clana. the extent of loom rood a t iona required for them, the teacher* neceaaary Ui inetruct them would be ao uncertain, aa to make prnvKrion for the claaa. in tbeae particulara. a matter of difficulty, involving an expenae greater . prlmpe. than the object in view might juotify. Th? Hoard are alao aware, that the additional year haa (men lookad J J:? f/i iti?- nr. j. i,i , f?IPB<1 upon an prrmiuinf wu.vrn,.^ _ ( rather than an fiuliiUCinr th# pre Miration of Cadet# to rnmmrwc* it. Still, in neither view of the oaee, do the Board farl quite prepared to re. .,in. mectd it. And while they are rearly to admit that mur b may be aaid in lie favor, and while they ri preaa their view# on the aubjert with dMBdenre tbey, nevertheleaa, would prefer, that, for the pr<a ent at leaat. ther- nhould be no rhanre in thi? re pert The^ a-ould rather rely upon the atru trow of the r semination, and rape* mlly the January on< of the first year, ae recommended by the Commit toe on Administration, to obviate, both an regwrdi the individual and the < ountry, the difficulty grow ing out of an Imperfr* t preparation for the rourw pursued here. The reromrnendation of the Commit tee on Administration, that the Arademir Boarr houid diemiea. whenever, in their judgment, i \ be nccMnary, w well at ih" Juniuiry tut the June examination of nil the classea, ill fully upproved by the undersigned. Ths practice now, except iu the cur of the fourth class, in to dismiss at the June examination only, which leads too often, an explained by the Committee, to rareleasnos on the part of the Cadet, for the first nix rnonthn of bin neeoud, third, and fourth yearn' courses, in the expectation that, by dint of extra exertion, he will be able to retrieve himself in (lie second nix inoutlin. In other wordn. the prcparationn, in the opinion of the Board, for the January, an well an for the June examinations, should tie made under the salutary apprehension of dismissal, in the event of failure. Again, and in conclusion of this part of their report, the Board cordially adopt the recommendation of the Committee on Instruction, tliat the duties at present performed by the Chaplain, and which include not only ethics, whichare peculiarly appropriate to his sphere and calling, but also constitutional and international law, should be divided, and the two latter given to a separate professor, whose previous studies and other qualifications might fit him for the place. Under such a person, the course of law might be extended, so as to embrace the rules of evidence, ami matters relating to courts martial, without materially trenching upon the time now given toother studies. The military education of the Cadet* appeared to the Board to have been well attended to; and they derived great gratification from their drill aa infantry, cavalry, light artillery, and heavy artillery. Their instruction in all matters peculiarly connected with their future calling seemed in every respect satisfactory; and it gave the Hoard great pleasure to observe that all this proficiency had been obtained while the Cadets were at the same time acquiring, in an admirable manner, the best scientific education that our country can afford. Indeed, the bodily exercises of the one seemed to accord well with the mental labors of the other, counteracting the evil consequences to health which the sedentary life of a mere student generally gives rise to; the result being an appearance of strength and activity surpassing, or at least equalling, the must favorable anticipations of the Board. It ha* been suggested to the Board, that more attention should he paid to particualar arms of the service in the military education \>( the Cadets. But the Board see difficulties in the way of recommeudingany change in the cxistingstate of tilings in this respect. They would recommend, however, that all the material required for their instruction, as they are now taught, should be put upon the best footing, so that every weapon and muniment of war should be of the best kind, and kept up with the very latest improvements. The combination of scientific with military studies and exercises, in such just proportions tbat neither would interfere with the other, and that the result should be the well educated soldier which West Point now produces, has, doubtless, been a matter of difficult adjustment, and the Board would be uuwilling to recommend, even by way of experiment, any thing that might, by possibility, interfere witn what seem* already so well ordered. There is, nevertheless, a deficiency in the means of military instruction which was most apparent to the Board. The number of horses is auite insufficient, and their character is far from what it should be. Of the forty horses, with which the Cavalry and Light Artillery exercises were performed, thirty had, at the time, been condemned; and although their places were to be supplied by'others, as the nuaru uuaervioou, yet 11 w&s evident mat me more I judicious course would have been to supply the place of a defective horse by a good one, whenever it was necessary, instead of waiting until such numbers of them became disabled. Involving as this matter does, and as the Board themselves saw that it did, the lives of the Cadets, they would be remiss in their duty if they did not press it upon vour consideration. The number of horses should be so increased, that it should be unnecessary to use, at any time, a weak or inefficient animal in the Cavalry or Artillery exercise of the Cadets. For this purpose it has been suggested that eighty or one hundred horses would be necessary. In connexion with the scientific and military education of the Cadets, the Board have considered their discipline. The report of the committee on discipline is so full that it is unnecessary to do more in this place than to refer to it for all the details connected with the subject. As there stated, the Cadets arc divided into four companies of infhntry, forming a battalion with the proper officers?each company having its captain, subalterns, and noncommissioned officers, and the whole being under the charge of an officer of the army, whose title is the Commandant of Cadets, with four assistants, ! taken from the line. The government is of course a military one. Minor offences are punished by the superintendent by confinement to quarters, extra guard duty, reprimand, Jtc. Graver ones are tried by courts martial, the highest punishment being (nal of dismissal from the Academy. There is also a system of punishment which consists in wliat are termed demerit marks, varying in number according to the nature of the offence ; the sum of >* hi- ii is taken into consideration on determining the situation, at the annual examination, which a Cadet shall occupy in his c lass?so that, to hold the highest place, the individual must combine subordin.i i .--n .-nd good conduct with taleoi and industry The Board have rvery reason to believe tiiat the government of the Cadets, so tar as u depends upon the officers of tlx- institution, is kin-1 and just; ami that the necessary sv\erity of military dim: pline is properly tempered in tne hands which are here entrusted with its administration. The system, in this respect, presents nothing which the B-sird would desire to see changed. On the rontTMrv, they would take thin ? rasimi to reiterst what Uiry have already said in regard to the necessity of maintaining' the authority of the Academic Board at West Point, by respecting, except for very weighty consideration*, toe sentence* of dismissal wfiicn are pronounced here. The general administration of affair* at VVe*t Point ha* been examined by the Board with particular attention; and for all matter* of detail connected with it, *uch a* the organization of the Academic Board, the number of Professor* and Assistants, as well a* fur miggi i< m* in re gard to certain alteration*, the Board refer to the report of the Committee on Administration, which will fxfound in the appendix. In what they have already aaid, tie B>.aril have testified their sense of th< kindness, justice, arid ability with which the affair* of the .Military Academy are administered, and it is only necessary to add, on this point, that they fully accord with what the Committee ha* aid upon the subject. There are, however, *ome matter* to which the Board liave thought it proper to rwll your particular attention. These relate to the manner in which the Cadet* are supplied with board and ncceaaariea. Under the present system, there is a purveyor who receive* a regular salary, and whose business it is to buy whatever may br required for the Meas-house, see to its proper preparation, control the waiters, laundresses, he., and, in fact, attend to all matter* connected with this part of the establishment. The amount expended by him is ascertained every two months, credit is given for whalrvw may have been sold, sueh as offal, he., and the balance is charged to the Cadets, win ate board accordingly varies with the markets froui time to time?the a\cragc being about nine doliar* per month. From the very minute investigations that have been made into this subject by a Committee of the Board, there is some reason to believe that this average may be auflc iently reduced to jtwtify the experiment of a change in the prea ent system; not that Ok- Hoard would or under toon to doubt tbr propriety of thr purveyor*# conduct in the responsible position which he holds; but the present system is itself an improvement, and a very great one, too, on that which preceded it, and the Board see no reason to think that the minimum cost of supplying the Cadets with a fare equal in all reaper ts to that which they now have, has been attained. The change which they would recommend would be the employment here of a Commissary, an oArrr of the army. who should have the whole matter in < barge, with such aasiatanre as might be necessary for the proper management of the Mess house The Board believe that, in this way, the expenaes of the Mess-house may be brought more nearly on a par with similar expenses in many of our colleges. The Board are aware that there ia a difference of opinion on thia subject. They bold, however, that the experiment which tbey now recommend ia worth the making. In like manner the Board would recommend a change in the mode adopted for supplying the Cadets with sueh necessaries as they from time to time require. At present, there is a single store on the Point, the prieea at which are regulated by the Council of Administration, who, upon the productinti nf thr *1/?rp fcr ? # rw-r ' invnir# n/iH tn thoin aiu*K profit ?? they deem rrmrmtblf, and be makes hi* rharjrea accordingly. Thia seems per fee t ly fair, and in accordance with the General Army regulation on U?r subject. But there in no reason why the Cadet* abould pay thin profit. They now obtain Ihnr clothing at the coat of makingr it. The materials are purrha*?d by the quantity of the beat sort. The cxpenae of tnr manufacture ia added, and the Cadet ia clothed, as he abotild he, at prime coat of the article, There ia no reaaon why the warn* system should not be pursued in regard to the few articles (comparatively speaking) other than clothing, whk h the Cadet now pim haaea from the atore, and for whirh he muat have the previotia order of the Superintendent The preaent atore keeper haa been here many yeara, and, from all the Board ran learn, ia a worthy and eatimable man, in whom all reliance can I* placed. But the reaaon* for the- preaent recommendation are independent wholly of the individual. In connexion somewhat' with thia part of the , subject, and aa materially ?ffe< ted by what haa just been apoken of, the Board, with a single exception, would recommend an inr.reaw of tne pay of the Cadets. They believe that with the atrtcteat econt nmy, tlie preaent pay ia not sufficient for their sup. port. Thoae who have friends at home who ran i aaaiat them do not feel thia aa th<we do who have . nothing but their pay to faad and clothe them, r That ail may be on an equality, the pay ahrnild be increased. If not, West Poinl will remain an inI atitution of a republican government, maintained II at the public expense for the publk good, where lite boundaries of wealth are clearly and painfully drawn, ajid where tin' poor Bum's aon. whatever I nay be hi* talent, whatever may be hie future usefulness to hia country, ia subjected to constant inortificutioii, and is daily made to leel that, in coairadietiin lion of the theory of hi* Government, its pnu tii e ia to permit distinctions, for the -uki of an unwise parsimony. between the different classes of its citizens and their children. The pay of the Cadets amounted formerly to 1128 20 per month. A few years since it was reueed to The Board recommended that it be raiaed to wfiat it waa formerly. They have examined the expenditures of the Cadeta, it l>eing easy to do ao under the admirable system which exists in regard to them; and they find that, ufter they have paid the two dollars pier month which ia required as a contribution to a fund for their equipment after graduation?a sound and wise provision?there does not remain sufficient for their decent support. True, matters would be better with them if the boarding were reduced and their purchases at the store cost leas; but no probable reduction would suffice to make their present pay equal to their necessary wants. In connexion with this part of their report, the H.?,r.l it' Visiters would reiterate. the recoinmt-udu turn iniidt* by their predecessors, in their report ol June, ltUM, that tike pay of the Superintendent be made tliat of a colonel of engineers. At this time it is the pay clue to the rank of the officer in command. The present incumbent being1 a captain only, hia pay is lean than that of hid xuliordinatcs, the professors and Commandant of Cade In. His position, aa the head of the institution, subjects him to charges from which, upon other duty, he would be exempt, and which, in the opinion of the Board, the pay of a captain is inadequate to meet. Tnc Board have carefully exumined the old and the new barracks for the Cadets. The first are utterly unfit for occupation, and but one-half of the new barracks has been completed. It is unnecessary for the Board to dwell upon the necessity of finishing the latter at the earliest day, for every thing is being done, and well done, to this ena. But tney cannot refrain from expressing their satisfaction at the present escape of a part, and the prospective escape of the entire corps, from quarters which have for years been evidently in no condition for use. The new barracks, the Board are glad to say, are every thing that could be desired, the arrangements being in all respects perfect, and the execution of the work itself being such as was to have been expected from the intelligence that has directed and superintended it. Immediately in front of the new barracks stands the old Mess-house, an unsightly edifice, very ill adapted to the purposes to which it is applied. This, however, is to be removed, and a new Mess-house, in a more eligible situation, erected in its stead. When this shall be done, and the present building torn down, along with the old north and south barracks, and a new riding and drill house erected, for all which appropriations i have been made, in whole or in part, the accom uionauons 01 mc Academy may De considered as completed, for the first time, in a proper manner. For a more detailed account of the new barracks and the objections to the old ones, the Board refer to the report of the Committee on Police which will be found in the appendix. As already mentioned in a previous part of this report, the Board have been struck with the healthy appearance generally of the Cadets. In connexion with this, they have carefully examined into the Hospital department of the institution. They found every thing here in excellent order, and apparently in very efficient hands. The change of the road in front of the Hospital buildings suggested in the report of the Committee on Police, will, when made, give a privacy to the hospital which it at present wants. There should also be a better supply of water, and hot and cold and shower baths should be added to the establishment, if for no other reason than in reference to their character as curative agents. In the opinion of the Board, a change in the mode of ventilating the building might also be made with advantage. The alterations and additions here suggested have reference to the improvement of the present hospital; but the Board are of opinion, that a new building, on a better general plan, with better ventilation, in a mc-e quiet place, and with all proper conveniences connected with it, should be erected ; and they recommend the expediency of doing this to your consideration. In what the Board have said of the health of the Cadets, they have spoken from their personal intercourse with them, and from their appearance during the examinations before them. Trie subject of health was one of such importance, however, that the Board deemed it proper to make special inquiries of the surgeon in regard thereto; and they annex to their report the letter addressed by him to the Chairman of the Committee on Police, to which they particularly invite your attention, and the suggestions of which have the full concurrence of the Board. They confide in the medical suggestions which are made Dy the surgeon, not only because they proceed from high medical authority, but because they have, on their face, the e\ idem e of their coreetness. A suggestion, however, which tiie surgeon makes, and which is unconnected with mere medical npen. n. . ha* st uck the Hoard as wall dtwn mg of notice. It is, that the causes of the complaints of the Cadets should not be considered as communications protected as professional confidences, in those cast's which show theui to liave been violations of the txprtu rr^illation* of the Academy. The Board refer particularly to the use of ardent spirits and tobacco. If it is the duty of an officer, other than the surgeon, to report the Cadet whom 111 ft f? , i J lit itilriiiiv i ir siiii.L nur * here i n. . fi.aa, >.?? why the aurgeon* duty ahouTd not be the aamc. They can appreciate the high and honorable feeling which controla the aurgeon; but there are case* where it uiay work great evil, and thia in one of them. I ' The B<?rd could aay much more on thia aubjoct, but they content themaclvea with again commending the communication of the aurgeon to your iu<i?t favorable conaideration. It atrike* the Board u> being replete with valuable auggeation.It only remain* for the Board to call jrour attention to tin- banal aftaira of the inatitution. These are included under the heada of, firat, the Engineer Department; ond, the t^uartermaater's; and, third, the Trcaeurer'a. lat. The Engineer Department has charge of the ere. turn of the new barracka, for which the appropriation by C/onjrrcH*, up to the lat July, 1850, amounted to $147,500 00 And the expenditure# up to June 1,1H49. . M>2,3H4t 'J8 Leaving an unexpended halanre at the laat date of $45,119 74 There ta yet reouired for the completion of these barracka, together with the necenaary out-building*, according to the eathnate of the engineer, u>e tnriner auin 01 pae.mai lo or aupplw <1 by an appropriation by Congrra* Partial appropriation* hnve, in like manner, been made for the rorntMBrrmrnt of (he Riding'-hoiiw.thr Meat-hall, the barrack* for the aapper* and minrra, and a lx?pita) for the aoldicr* atationed at the poat, all of them building* which xhotild be commenced and completed at the earlieat day. id. The account* of the Quartermaater'n Depart ment exhibit the appropriation* for the Academy, other than the pay of the Cadet*, and the diaburaerncnt* therefrom. Three appropriation*, with an unexpended halance in hanri, amounted, fur the fucal year ending June 30th, 1*49, to 934,029 62; of which there reiuaina oo hand, at thia time, the auin at ?9,132 78. The Board have examined the expenditure* under thia head, and believe them to nave been wiaely and pruriently made, and eaaential to the intereataand pruapr rity of the Academy. 3d. The accounta of the Treaaurer exhibit the diaburaeinent of pay to the Cadet*, and here the ayMem arema to have hren marie eminently aimple and efficient. The hook of a cadet ahowa, at a glance, the condition of hi* account, and the object* uf hi* expenditure, dunag hia entire term; and the examination a4 a number of ttieae hooka, taken at random, aatiafied the Hoard that the money of the Cadet wa* moat carefully huahatided, and none of it allowed to be apent in idle extravagance, or indeed for any thing not abaolutely neceaaary. The Hoard make particular reference to the report of the Committer on Pineal Affair*, and the document* ar? ornpanying it, which will ire found in the appendix. In concluding tht* report, the Hoard of Viaiter* would reiterate the expreaaion of their Mtiafar lion with the condition of the institution. It ha# ao happened that live of the attending member# of tnr Board, now and for many year* engaged in the buainea* of civil life, have, at different timea, been pupil* of the Military Academy; ao that the Board ha* had within itaelf an experience of affair* here, < "IIIIII' NI mg iipwnrnt 01 uuriy years since, ano continuing. at different periods in thr interval, down to the present time. Thia has not horn without its valor in thr investigations in which thr Hoard havr hr< n rng-.?ir' 'I Mrnns of instituting a care ful comparison were always at hand; and with this, and a thorough examination of affairs, facilitate d, in every particular, hy thr officers having charj^r of thrm, thr Hoard arr able to tx-ar testimony to thr fart, that the progress of thr institution, through nirrsanvr years, lias lirrn onr of constant improvement, keeping pai i with the times, often ahead of thrm, taking the lead in whatever was liberal and enligbtem-d, and fulfilling, in all particulars, the Eat and important national purposes for which Military A'adeiny was originally founded It has, in its practical operations, sown broadcast over the lan<1 an amount of knowledge of military affairs, which has stood in the place of a standing army when the exigencies of the Republic required more men than the regular garrisons of its posts cotiId furnish. It has established relations among its pupils from the remotest districts, which may lie ranked among the conservative influences affecting our union as one people; and situated, as It is, among scenes consecrated bjr the cherished memories of our revolutionary day, and on the spot hallowed by the presence of WaswiWWTOW, it has, it is believed, created and maintained, in the ho soma of all those who have been educated within its wails, a sacred love of country; and the great pro THE REPUBLIC. portion of iu pupil* feci that it ha* also created a I love of all that U truly good uod great, and an ah* horrenceof all that isjsuau and vile. All of which i* M rtDOcUully submitted. JOHN HTb LATROBE, of Md., Prcaideut of the Board. JOHN J. ABBOTT, of Afeine. HORACE MANN, of MaaaachusetU. DANIEL TYLEC of Connecticut. JEROME FULLEK, of New York. JOHN L. UOW, of Pennsylvania. PATRICK M. HENRY, of N. p. J. McCALKB WILEY, of Alabama. R. W. BURNET, of Ohio. H. A. Bl'Ll.ARD, of Louiaiaua. W. T. STOCKTON, of Florida. H. HOUGHTON, of Iowa. A. H. KENAN, of Georgia. Rum* Kino, of Wisconsin, Secretary. THE ItE I'll It L1C. w tsm KirriiN SATURDAY MORNING, JULY 28. 1849 We are led to suppose that we made an error in our article yesterday, in supposing the Mr. Brown, from whose letter we published an extract, was formerly Assistant Postmaster General. He held a different office under the last administration, as we now believe. As illustrative of the feeling of the office-holders towards the Administration, it mattered little which of two offices the writer held. STILL ANOTHER DEFALCATION. Our history of the old-line peculators of 1834 and 183# is interrupted by the chronicling of later cases. We published yesterday a statement of the defalcation of Patrick Collins, the late Surveyor of the i ~c n: : *: i l.. n : puri Ul Lfliitiuudii) iciuuvcu uy ricai* dent Taylor. It is now our painful duty to record the defalcation of Nathaniel Denby, late temporary navy agent of the United States at Marseilles, in France. He is a defaulter to the tune of $155,508 48, and suit has been commenced against him for the amount. There are some delicate points about this case. We are apprehensive that we cannot do it justice without giving offence to a gentleman whom it always grieves us to annoy. Mr. Denby was a Virginian. He was "known" at Richmond, in the circles frequented by the resolutionists of '98. We cannot mention his case without involving some individuals who have gone into private life. Mr. Denby is in private life himself. It may be regarded as a violation of the quiet and retirement which that gentleman solicits, if we allude to his official delinquencies. The late Secretary of the Navy has gone into private life. It may be considered an invasion of its sanctity, if we speak censoriously of an individual who managed to rob the Government to the amount of $155,508 48, during Judge Mason's administration of the Navy Department. In amount and magnitude, this defalcation is worthy the golden days of the Locofoco leaders, when they did things on a large scale. It would have done honor to a protigi of Mr. Secretary Woodbury. It is $55,000 Itrger than that of LiYtle bury Haw mns, of Helena. It is $45,0001 larger than that of Wilry P. Harris, of] Columbus. It almost approaches the magnificence of Swartwout's case. Here we have already developed, before the new Administration has got a fair look at the books, the cases of Moork, Collins, and Denby, to add to the long lists of their illustrious predecessors in the plunder of the treasury. 44 Try us again,," said the Locofoco leaders in 1839 ; 44 these defalcations have all happened because the Government has been employing banks, and because there are no stronger penal laws. Pass good, strong, wholesome laws ; take the money from the banks, and give us a sub-treasury; and you'll find that Locofoco office-holders will be honest enough." Well, the penal laws were passed. During the administration of John Tyler, there were no defalcations that were made public, or that occurred to our knowledge. In 1844, the Locofoco leaders of the old fashion came into power, and passed the Sub-Treasury law. This was to be a sovereign panacea. There was to be no more plunder of the treasury. Only four years have passed, and here we have a new crop of defalcations, springing up right and left, with a rar kness that promises to overtop the luxuriance of 1837 and 1839. What does this new experience of Loroforoism detionM .,:# < |! show* that no laws ran protect the public money, if you put it in the hands of di honest men. It shows that "the change of men," which General Tatu>r declared to be necessary to arrest the downward tendency of our affairs, has route not a day too soon. It shows that the. outory of the Loeofoco presses against -<m ovals arises from the consciousness of guilt and the fear of detection. Every step the Administration takes in the reform of the public offices, results in the exhibition of some new corruption. The caiea detected are but the indicia of the raw* that remain behind. What is seen and known furnishes a clue and guide to that teltich is not yet investigated, and which niver can be fully and thoroughly investigated by men who have a party, if not a per*nal interest, to serve by the suppression <4 inquiry. Is it possible, the*, in view of these defalcations, for the Administration to satisfy the people of this country?the honest people who desire nothing but honest ad ministration?without giving grievous offence to the office-holders f We apprehend not. We imagine that Mr. Henry A. Wise took about the right ground on this subject in 1839. As Mr, Wise is known at Richmond, and is in high feather with the friends of the late Administration, we suppose hat he will be received as good authority ig?n the proper mode of proceeding in the present "crisis." We copy from the Jlpfeiuhx to the Lon%re**irmal Globe for 1818-9, page 84, the following pregnant extract from a speech of Mr. Wise, which we commend to H*e especial notice and attention of his political friends: "My 1 rieud from South Carolina my*, and any* " truly, ! hut the dvlakntiwui arc not to be attri " buted to this system or to that. No, uir, it if " neither to a Bank of the United States, nor to the " State bank*, nor to the Sub-Treuuury, that you " are to attribute thcae euormouu corruptions. No. " Have what system you may, if you put its ad" ministration into the hands of wicked and in" competent rulers, the plan must fail of doing any " good. That has been proved by the course of " this Administration. The defalcation of Swart* wout comment ed under the United States Bank " system; it went on under the system of pet banks; uitu 11 rcuciieu iu cuimuiiiiiiuviuu uiuicr uic rauu" Treasury system, which is now in full operation " ' notwithstanding'any lamentations, here or else" where.' Is there then no remedy? Yes, there is "one and only one; the remedy is a uenkual " tubn-out: that, and that alone, is our only hope " of salvation." TRUMAN SMITH. It is neither with a view to defend the honorable Truman Smith, nor to retort the foul aspersions of the Union upon members of its party, that we propose to submit some facts and observations suggested by recent articles in that paper. It is to expose the motive and policy of the Union in pitching its opposition to so low a key that it is driven to Billingsgate for a vocabulary suited to its denunciations of distinguished members of the Whig party. The ground of its late attack upon Mr. Smith is, that he, a Senator of the United States, has written circulars to the Whigs in several States in which elections are to take place, urging upon them the importance of having a Whig majority in the House of Representatives in Congress, and the necessity of prompt and vigorous action to accomplish that object. We apprehend that there are few Whigs in the United States, who do not agree with Mr. Smith in this particular, and that there are nobe who have not written the same thing if ll 1 ?Ai ... lL' A I 1 mey nave wnuen any ming upon me sudject. The Union then asserts that Mr. Smith is paid for his services; that he is the confidential agent of the Cabinet; and that his labors in the Whig cause are conducted under the supervision and advice of the Cabinet, &c. For all of which important news it is indebted to its own invention?a laboratory from which any sort of facts are turned out to suit all kinds of customers. Upon these grounds the Union vents its rage in assailing the character of Mr. Smith, in a number of articles which have scarcely had their equals in slang and vituperation. It is certainly in the memory of every one who took a part in the politics of the last year, that a Democratic Executive Committee was appointed for this city, " to aid, as the committee in circulars stated, by such means as may be within their reach, the efforts of their friends in other parts of the Union in the pending Presidential canvass." We have a circular of this celebrated committee before ue; it urges the party to be ** well organised, active, vigilant, aad*nergetic." ft promised to ?* send valuable compilations" to their friends, which would " be forwarded, and franked, and directed to any part of the Union." It was recommended that clubs should be formed, and money sent, postpaid, to B. B. French. The circular is signed by the honorable H. S. Foote, (a Senator in Congress from Mis sissippi,) Edmund Burke, (then Commissioner of Patents,) and W. J. Brown, (Second Assistant Postmaster at the time.) It is for doing some of the things this committee did, that Mr. Smith is now as sailed. Mr. Foote was, and is, a Senator of the United States, as Mr. Smith is now; and if there was any thing incompatible between the dignity of a Senator and the duties of such a committee, why was it not then discovered ? Mr. Foote had a perfect right to serve upon such a committee, and Mr. Smith has an equal right to address his fellow Whigs throughout the Union?unless a Locofoco Convention can invest American citizens with rights and privileges which the Constitution does not confer upon him. The case of Mr. Burke is different. He was an officer under the Government, drawing a salary of $3,000 per annum, as Commissioner of Patents. If it is abominable in Mr. Smith to send a circular to the Whigs, what shall we say of an Executive officer who made it his business to enter into the political arena, in defiance of the Jeffersonian rule, and bring the pa tronage of office in conflict with the freedom of elections f No one was more conspicuous or busy than Mr. Burke during the last elections; and whatever the Union now says of Mr. Smith, applies with double force to the ex-Commissioner of Patents. The difference between the two is, that the Union invents facts to help out its accusations, whilst those we state are recorded and notorious. Mr. Burke is now one of the editors of the Union; and if that journal had, in its philippics against Mr. Smith, inserted the name of Mr. Burke, it would have but paid its proprietor a fitting and merited compliment. It is allowable in a newspaper to accuse its editor of behaving shabbily, for it may be readily supposed to speak " from authority'' in that particular matter. ? THE riiORiDA mm Ann. We understand that prompt measures have been taken, by the Secretary of War, , to hold several companies in readiness to ' I proceed at a moment's warning to rein- ' force the troopa now in Florida, should it ' appear that the conduct of the four Indians who murdered Mr. Barker, in the 1 settlement on Indian river, be at all coun- 1 tenanced by the small party of the Semi- \ noles who still remain in Florida. There , is no reason to suppose, however, that this recent outrage of the few indicates either the feeling or the purpose of th? J' tribej but of this we can have no as- h sunuce till father reports, which have biin called for, can be received from the commanding officers in Florida. The perpftrators are required to be delivered up at once. The intelligent officers on the spot are on the alert, and they no doubt will soon he able to report fuiiy on the present state of our Indian affairs in Florida. The Savannah Republican, a reliable print, intimates that there was a previous misunderstanding between Mr. Russell and the four (not five) Indians who i fired on him : and the previous friendly ' intercourse which had taken place between the friends of the families of the murdered man, Barker, aud Mr. Russell, is some proof that the Indians were probably prompted by only personal feelings. It is, however, believed that the four families of the settlement, numbering in the aggregate some forty-five persons, were under the impression that there would be a general onslaught bv the whole tribe, or rather remnant of tribes now remaining in Florida. Since giving our remarks a few days ago on the subject, we have taken occasion to refer to the report of the late General Worth, in relation to the number of warriors left in the assigned strip of land in the peninsula. He states the number to be 95, in November, 1843. The number is reported at a later date, (1848,) by Capt. J. T. Sprague, of the army, who until recently had in charge the superintendency of the Indians in Florida. His work on the Florida war was published during the last year. He says: " Very recent intercourse with the Indians remaining within the limits of the State has enabled those upon whom the duty devolved to ascertain correctly the number and the disposition manifested in regard to peace and future emigration, as well as their present condition. There are now one hundred and twenty men capable ol* taking the field, consisting of fractious of various bonds, vis : Seminole*, 70 ; Mickusuckies, 30 ; Creeks, 12 ; Uchees, 4; Choctaws, 4. Of this number, 70 have grown from boyhood to manhood since the coin meneemcnt of the contest. The remainder do not exceed forty years of age, excepting Arpci ka (Sam Jones) and Aasiniwar. The former is ninety-two years of age, the latter sixty. The women and children average two to a man?making 340. Of this number, 140 are children. The total number of Indians, of both sexes, is 360. Holattcr Micco, or Billy Bowlegs, is thirty-three years of age. He speaks English fluently, and exercises supreme control." The Alleged Violation of oar Nentvality. The New Orleans papers of the 20th continue to teem with accounts of the abduction of the Cuban llavero Rey, and express the loudest indignation in relation to it. The examination of the Spanish consul and his reputed confederates was set down for yesterday, but in consequence of a derangement of the telegraphic wires, some days must elapse before full accounts can be received. The excitement is by no means confined to New Orleans, but occupies a large portion of the attention of the whole South and West Wa shall place before the public ail the facta as we receive them. Gen. Bedeao. who, immediately before the surrender of the city of Rome was announced, received the appointment of general-in-chief in Italy, ta one of the moat distinguished of the French officers who made their reputation in Algiers. He ia now forty-five years of age, and first aaw service at the aiege of Antwerp in 1833. In 183 be became lieutenant colonel of the Foreign Legion, and in 1839 became full colonel of a light infantry regiment. For his services in the expedition* against Stetif, he became major general and governor of Conatantine Subsequently he became a lieutenant general, and waa living in Pana without command, when the February revolution broke out. He waa one of (he first to abandon Louie Philippe, and placed himself at the head of the first regiment which aided with the popular movement It is stated that when the Ducheaa d'Orleans and the Count of Paris took refuge in the hall of the Legislature, General Bede.au, then in command of the guard of the Deputies, ordered the gates to be o(?ned and let in the avowed mob, thus precipitating matters, and making inevitable the (light of the whole royal family, and the pmclamati'n of arepublic certain. In the insurrection of June, Gen Be.deau supported the government, and received a dangerous wound In spite of these antecedents. General Redenu la considered a devoted friend of the eldar branch of the Bourbons, and is esteemed anxious to precipitate the country into a series of troubles, from which he fancies it can only find refuge in a second restoration. General Bedeau is a man of much influence, and now is one of the representatives of the city of Paris. Champlata anal M. lawrvSM Ship festal. A large meeting waa held at Troy, New York, on the at)ih instant, ovsr which Major General Wool, United States army, presided, to take into consideration the propriety of connecting, by a shift canal, the waters of the St. Lawrence and Lake Champlain. The proposed termini of the work to he St. John's on the lake, and the village of Caugh* av*fn rm lbs river. The meeting waa attended by gentlemen from Montreal, Burlington, Saratoga, and New York, and important information waa obtained by the mutual comparison of statistical and other information. A survey of the route, made some years since by order of the Canadian authorities, was communicated by Hon. J. Young, of Montreal, by which it appears that the length of the new canal will be twenty-three and ft half miles, if advantage be taken of nine miles of the old Chamblv canal, which mn? ha wilt.nal .nil ? proved; and ihnt Nit two loeka will be nereeaary and the coat leas than $1,500,000 A liberal charter has been granted by the Canadian Parliament, and the advantage of tha completion of the en torpnee would lie, that reeeel* of the capacity of 3,000 1 tone, from any port of the Weat, could dtarhargr on Lake Champlain without breaking bulk. Akuit or thb Fromvaa.?Information wna received in Charleston, on the 24th, of (he arreat of the three remaining fugitives from the Workhouae, 1 and their confinement in Kmgatree jail. They were 1 making their way to North Carolina; and Edward ' belonging to Mr. Farrar, endeavored to paaa him- ' elf oft aa a white man, and rlaimed the other two ' la hia property. ^ Naval Coenr-MAaTiAL.?'A roon-martial con- I rened mi Monday Uat at Penaarola for the tnal of | he four paaaed midahtpmen attached to the U 8 h ihip Albany, who refuaed to ..bay the order of the -aptain to light the candlea of tha lieutenants on ailing the relief wagrh. * ' c CAi iroaniA Ooi.n ik Eaoi.Aaa?Th? Weat In- 11 Jia aienmer Tay arrived at SmithMinpinri 4th mat., 1 with over fl.000,000 in ape?ie,nf whicli $300,000 u was in California gold * * OFFICIAL. Treasury Defari went, Second Auditor'! Office, July 25, 1849 Owing to (lie numerous applications and complaints of i-laiinaiita thai agents and attorney* have failed to pay over their dues when collected, thin o Ace has established a rule that no money will be paid upon a power of attorney to any agent or attorney who has been charged, under circumstances to warrant belief, with withholding money due to a claimant. P. CLAYTON, July 28?3l Second Auditor ^ The New York Tribune slates, that Mr. Kei.lt, President of the Columbus nnd Cleveland road, has effected a sale of $466,000 of the bonds of the company, for the pur|toae of puying for railroad iron now daily being received. The bonds b< ar interest at 7 per cent, per annum, redeemable in New York. The interest is payable half-yearly, June and December 1st. The payment of the bonds i is secured by first and only mortgage, or deed of trust* to J. J. Palmer and John A. Stevena, of New York, on the whole road, when completed?depdts, cars,&c., costing the company 12,500.000 This work is rapidly progressing to completion; between 3,000 and 4>000 hands are now at work on the line. Thirty-five miles, extending from Cleveland to Wellington, will be completed by the 1st December next; the entire line to Columbus, 135 miles, by the 1st November, 1650. It will be graded, bridged, and prepared for the iron by means exclusively raised from stock subscriptions, its only debt being the Itonda sold to pay for ths iron ? This road being the shortest and most direct route from Buffalo to Cincinnati, with the harbor at Cleveland, and running through the valley of the 8ciota, and the seat of government of the State of Ohio, would seem to promise large dividends to the stockholders, and increased facilities to the public. In addition to the above $400,000, $100,000 have been taken by eapitalists in Ohio, residing on and near the line of the work. The revenue to bo expected from the canal may be estimated as follows: ? 130,860 tons now transported on Lake Champlain, principally from Canada, at 50 cents per ton..... $65,430 100,000 tons timber boards, 50 cents per ton 50,000 301 <505 ions uhmnint- nLnn>ar.nt Miininv in, and going; out at St. John's, a5.... 15,06] 91,000 tona flour and wheat, likely to take the new route, a 50 45,000 32,000 tons other produce, a 50-. 16,000 42,000 tons upward merchandise, a 50.... 21,000 100,000 passenger*, a 15 15,000 |227,5I1 Difference in tolls on flour, from Cleveland and Montreal, 7 cents in favor of the proposed route; from Cleveland to Bomioii, via Montreal, 19 cents; Cleveland to New York, 10 cents. A committee was appointed to collect informs- , tion on the subject of the proposed canal, to report at an adjourned meeting to be held in Saratoga on the 21st of August. Languages Spoken in New Yokk.?The following languages are daily spoken in New York: English, Irish, (Otitic,) Gaelic, Welsh, Dutch, 'i. e. Hollanduck,) German, (i. e. Deulsck,) Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Norwegian, Russian, Polish, Wendish, (the Northern branch,) FVench, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Magyaral, Turkish, Greek, (modem,) Hebrew, (modern,) Arabic, (Mogitbin or Tunisian diaUei,) Kroo, Bengalee, Chinese, Hawaiian. And it is probable that during a large portion of every year persons meet who speak and use in the daily exigencies of life, Eroqua, Cherokee, Choctaw, Ojibwa, Mohekanew, Tahilian, Flemish, Frisian, Basque, Siovack, Lettish, Finnish, Armeninn r.iiinlpt* M?l?u -l-? Persian, Malagttsse, Koaso, Susu, Jaloff, Mandin- t go, Congo, Maroon, and twenty others. It is probable that perhapa, with lh? exception of I Rome and London, a greater variety of tonguea are i beard in the streets of Sow York than m any ether 1 city of the world. The variety of ita journals certainly surpasses that of aay oOMr easy. Thai* are printed in New York papers in English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Hollandish, Norwegian, and Welsh, and several large establishments are daily engaged in the publication of several works id some eight or ten of the Oriental and North American dialects The Osleaks Family ?Most of the members of the Orleans family are now at St. Leonard. The Duchesa of Orleans and the Count of Paris recently arrived in England, accompanied by the .Duke dr Nemours. The Queen of the Belgians received the Princess in London. The Duke and the young Count proceeded the same day to St. Leonnrd. The ex-Kuig, the ex-Queen, the Duchess de Nemours and the Duchesa d'Auaale had gone to meet them at Lewes. The Prince and Princess de Joinville are at Munich, and Uie Duke and Duchess de Montpensier in Spain. The Liberie newapaper says: "The visit ol the Duchesa of Orleans to England confirms all we said the other day concerning the family comfiact which ia forming at Clarcmonl, under the auspices and by the atwoluie orders of the Emperor of Russia. We repeat the assertion, that it is thus influence which carries the Duchess of Orleans and her two sons to England."?(Paris Correspondence of the Courrirr dra F.lult-1 nu Election" in Auocit?Nine elections take place in this month, including that on the 90th to supply a vacancy in Rhode Island, where the candidates are 8. (J. Shearman (Whig) and B. B. Thuhstos (Locofo o ) The Texas election takes place August 6 In Missouri, on the seme dsy, a Legislature will be elected, which must choose s United Stales Senator In lown the election of the Legislature, and of otic or two State officers, takeplace on the 6th. Durtng the month, election# for nieinbers of Congreea will alao b* held in Indiana, Kentucky, Alabaam, Tennessee, ami North Carolina. Railroad Iron. The Chamliersburg Whig states, the coat of the mils about to be laid on the Cumberland VaNey road will be |350.U00, for which a preferred lien is to tie given on the earnings of the road The Harrisburg Intrl!xgfturr, in relation to this, saya (hat all is well, except that, in the abaenoe of the tariff of 1842, this quarter ol a million will be cxporied, Mislead of remaining in ihe country to invigorate our own commerce New Yoaa State Bomdi to bs paid err.?The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company having given notice to the Comptroller of their wish to pay, on the 1st of January next, the >300,000 of stnte certificates of stock, loaned them on the 9d May, 1829, the Comptroller has given public notice to the holders of said stock, that it will he paid at the office of said company, in the city of New York, on the 1st day of January next. The stock is made payable at the pleasure of the State, any lime after the year 1849 Farm Poet ad Pmincb.?Captain Smith, of the chooner Star, which left the almve port on the 7th *nd arrived in New York on the Sftth, rcporta that ] >n hia arrival at Port nil Prince, from New York, >e had a quantity of beef and abmii j9 boxen of tea. He | in id in New York fft per Imrrel for the heef, ind waa required by the authorities to sell at f.1. Hie tea he muat aetl at a? treat a nacrifice, or leave with at the OMtnm-hnuee until he aeiled, which it did. Upon examining hia beef and tea, he found inth had been stolen to a large amount. I We perceive by the Charleston Courier, that the barge of defalcation againet Mr. N N. Wilkinson, aahier of the Canal Bank, New Orleana, ia entirelymfotinded Mr W. arrived ai Richmond on the5th, and ha* exhibited to aeveral gentlemen a iae factory aintemeiit of the aetttement of fna *<*-ount* vtih the Canal Bank on the 14th mat