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THE II E I' IJ BLIC.
KU1TKD BY JOH9 O. HAUOK.TT. PUUIiUIIKD BY QIUEOII A CO. a. . GIDEON. A. T. BURNLEY. TERMS OF THE DAILY AND TRI-WEEKLY. For the Daily paper, per milium, ... #10 MO For the Trf-weekly, " t? 00 For throe copioa of the Tri-weekly, 16 MM TERMS OF THE WEEKLY. NinoOn ?iil>ar.rintion. for inn- ve.nr. - jt'2 00 THE REPUBLIC. DAILY. ____ Vol. III. WASHINGTON: FRIUAY MORNING, APRIL 30, J652. . No. 272. Three copied, for one year, 6 00 Seven copies, for one year, 10 00 Sixteen copies, for one year, .... *20 00 . Twenty-five copies, for one year, - - - '26 00 No paper will be sent until the money is received The Great Invention or the Age!?Steam Supplanted !?Gas Triumphant! riMlE first h ill of the nineteenth century will he A recorded as the ago of steam. It has passed, and with it will pass the steam engine with the things that were. The second hull of the century will he known as commencing the age of Gas?an agent destined not only to light but to knliuhtcn the world. This age lias now commenced, and with it is now introduced the Gas Engine. Professor John C. F. Salomon, after twenty-six years of close observation upon the experiments of his own und of others inatteinpts to make the principle of the condensation of carbonic acid gnsavailable as a mechanic motor, lias perfected tiie same; and, having just received letters patent for his "Improved Carbonic Arid Engine," now offers to dispose ol rights lor the use thereof to the United States Government, and to individuals or to companies, the rights of States, counties, or cities. The immense saving of money and labor, and ol human lives and suffering, secured by the use of this new motor, will inevitably insure its speedy adoption in all places where steam power is now used, and in thousands of other places where the great expense, bulk, and weight of the steam engine has precluded its use. This new motor may bp applied to all purposes as a propelling agent, from the single-horse power for the cotton-gin to the two thousand horse power ?... ...... ..... U ,1... ,1..... il.?. required by the steam engine, of boilers ami fur naccs, fuel and firemen, and of bulk and weight? 100 tons weight sufficing fur the same power ol 1,900 tons ol the steam engine. I hese (acts are established by the experimental engine of twenty-five (26) horse power, now "wuiking well"' at Cincinnati, as noticed in the following from the Cincinnati Nunpartitof the 18th instant: "We arc pleased to state that J. C. F. Salomon, late of this city, has received a patent for his motor of carbonic acid gas, in its application to an engine. The successful experiments of this inven lion were not long since given in the Nonpareil. The same gentleman has received another patent for the steering and propelling power." Also, rights for the use ol his "Improved Propelling and Steering Apparatus," one peculiar-advantage of which gives the pilot such complete control ol the vessel, independent of the engineer, that he can "right-about face" a man-of-war in less time than is required to load her guns. Also, rights for his "improved Spring Saddle," for military and common purposes, designed lor the greatest possible comfort of both horse and rider Any information in regard to the above invaluable inventions, and of obtaining rights, &c , may be promptly obtained by uddrcssing D. L. ELDER, Attorney and agent for the patentee, 7th Bt., opposite Odd Fellows'Hall, Washington, D.C. From Mr. Roytt, of New Albany, Indiana, inventor of a nrtc agricultural wonder, a Rotatory Rlougk. Washington, January 30, 1862. Mr. Eliixb?Sir: 1 cheerfully avail myself of this opportunity to give you a few brief statements in reference to Professor Salomon's New Mechanical Motor, as it is your request, as well ns a duty I near aa 1 now recollect: I arrived at Cincinnati on the 8th of October, 1851, and on the following day I called to see Professor Salomon's New Mechanical Motor, ol which I had read accounU in the public papers. 1 was desirous to see the engine, from the fai I that I had for sometime previous been studying to make the same principle applicable as a motive power to machinery. 1 was astonished and delighted in witnessing the construction and operation of the engine. 1 saw iny embodied idea before inc more perfect than 1 bad conceived. 1 witnessed the operation for near an hour. It was uniform and perfect, and ol sufficient power to lilt a weight of 12,0ft) pounds twenty-five times in a minute. Tins power was applied to turn the machinery of the shop, and appeared to t>c equal to team-engines commonly used in machine-shops. The whole length of this engine is about twelve or fifteen feet, and 1 suppose its weight might be about five or six tons. The furnace is a small sheet iron pan, the sice of iny hat, and held about a double handful of charcoal. The machinery is not more complicated than that of the sUam nginr, the prim iple of construction and operation being the same. This was estimated to be a twenty-five horse-powe r engine, of which 1 have given you a brief description. I am not pecuniarily interested in the success of the invenlion. I never expected to be called upon to make any statements in reference to it. I have had no previous ncquaintancr with Professor .Salomon, and never saw him, to my knowlcdgr, until I met hun 10 this city on yesterday. Yours, respectfully, P. E. ROYSE. Intelligencer, Republic, Era, Southern Press, and Telegraph, Washington ; American, Patriot, and Hun, Baltimore; Ledger, American, and Pcnnsylvaman, Philadelphia; Tribune, Herald, Journal of Commerce, Scientific American, Farmer fc Mechanics, Courier h Enquirer, and Phrrnnlogii al Journal, New York; Advertiser, Brooklyn ; Silliruan's Journal, New Haven ; Jour nnl and Gazette, Providence; Atlas, Post, and Traiis< i i p t. Boston; Messinger, Portsmouth; Enquirer, Portland ; Journal and Argus, Albany ; Courier and Express, BufTnlo; Herald, Cleveland ; Tribune, Detroit; Journal, Chi ago; Gazette and Advertiser, Pittsburgh: Gazelle. Enquirer. Non pareil, Allan, Commercial, and CKt's Advertiser, Cincinnati ; Courier, Journal, and Dcrnocrai, Louisville ; Intelbpa tircr and Republican, St. Louia; Pi ayunc, Delta. and Advertiser, New Orleans; Courier, Charleston; W big, Richmond ; Alia California, K,in Franri?co? insert three months every other day, inner form, and forward liilla, with a copy of the paper, to J C. V SALOMON. Patentee, Dec 27 eod3inif Washington, I) C. ( IIAHI.KS NRITON, Attorney anil < nmiiellnr nt l.ii\v, OFFERS hia professional services in thr Supreme, Court of the I'nited States, in claims before the Court of Commissioners, and in claims against the varicus Departments of the General Government and before Congress, in procuring patents, in obtaining pensions and bounty lands, in collecting debts and inheritances, and negotiating the purchase and sate of lands in any part of the United Stales ; especially in proset uling claims before the Court of Commissioners under our treaty with Meaico, is prepared to five his full attention, and to California land title rases coining up in the United States Supreme Court on appeal The latest maps of the States and Territories, compiled from the surveys of the General Land Oit'n r, and statistical information, embracing the improvements and population of the Territories and the important, towns in the I'nited States. Agreeable to the late census, ran be obtained at his office, on 1 ftth street, opposite the Treasury Wash lngton. D. C. ftirsaaiscts Hon. Justin Hutterfield, Washington City; hi* F.arellenry A leaandrr Ramsey. St. Paul, Minnesota; John H Livingston, Attorney at l.vv, Sew York City; Peter H Burnet, Attorney at Law, Alviao, California; Messrs. Thomas Cowperth'vnil Co , Philadelphia; Messrs. A P laolew A Co., St. f- 'Uis; Messrs. G. Abernatby A Co., Greg- n City. Feb 7 ? 2a w 3 hi KIIKKt TII'S lJAMt KIIHRUTVPK. f|MIE ADVERTISEMENT in the Halliinore .Vun l of the Kith, and the New York Times of the 16th instant, by V.'hitefuirst,claiming the credit of having tikrn the likeness of this distinguished in dividual, is not true. The only Daguerreotype which lias been taken in Ainerii a of Governor K'usuth, w as tnken in his r V una h ( fir u ra'a If tel l?ir Urnnett tutf) tlaf unit? original picture in this city may be seen (it hi# i; tilery, near Seventh #treel All other*arecopiia. l)ic<ierre"typee of Madame Puiezky nii'l other distinguished individuals arc ilmmn exhibition At BENNK PT'S National Osllr ry. .Ian 2fi Pa avenue, n<-#r 7th street. |U>>N<>\ III V Kit FluK ttin VtltlNR IKIttKt IC (OMP1KV OF >F,\V VOKK. < )[jir( ,vri. I, '/'?/'/'? Uril'lin IT, (til Jill III 111,' flrmrn'/t Holel, If'anhinpton City, II ('. I'fipitAl ?gt3??0,0?K>. (ell pelrt in and securely invest e l according to law. ) \ I 7TLL insure merchandise cnrg-oie, dwellings, VV hou eh ihl fiirniture and other property, aiiiiwhrrr in Ihit Di'lrirl nr tht adjoining Stair*, nr\ the most fevornhle terms. The public may rest assured that aII losers eus t inn I by this com |> Any will l>" lil" rally a nil pi nwpt ly atij u? led at their 1 lilcr in this 1 it v. IS M X II BLOOD, Pnsi lent. ALFRED NOXON, Vii r President P I AVERY Herniary. .1 AH A RKW? A. Actuary SA ML. I!. IIHKt OX,General Agent Jan ia-dly SPLENDID LOTTERIES, FOR MAY, 1852. GREGORY & MAURY, MANAGERS, (Succeaara to J. VV. Maury ti Co.) i:>0,000! $20Sit $ 15,000! 25 Prizes of $ 1,000! Lottery for the Benefit of the S/ATE OF DELAWARE, Cluga 1, for 1852. To be drawn at Wilmington, Delaware, on Sutur- \ day, Muy 1, 1852. 75 Number Lottery?1*3 Drawn Ballots. GRAND SCHEME: 1 prize of $30,000 | 1 do '20,000 1 do 15,000 1 do 8,680 1 do 4,000 1 do ' 2,285 1 do 2,000 1 do 2,000 25 prizes of 1,000 53 do 600 200 do 200 &C. dec. & c. Tirkcta #10?Halves #6 ? Quarters #2 50. $51,330! $21,500! 5 Prizes of #10,000! Lottery for the benefit of the STATE OF DELAWARE. CIbbs 4, for 1852. To be drawn at Wilmington, Delaware, on Saturday, May 8, 1852. 12 Drawn Numbers in each Package of 25 Tickets. SPLENDID SCHEME. 1 prize of #51,330 1 do 21,500 1 do 10,000 1 do 10,000 1 do 10,OIK) 1 do 10.000 1 do 10,000 1 do 7,000 1 do 7,000 1 do 7,000 4 prizes of. 5,000 4 do 3,000 5 do 2,000 197 do 500 &c. See. &c. Tickets #15?Halves #7 50?Quarters #3 75 ? Eighths #1 87*. $35,000! Lottery for the benefit of the STATE OF DELAWARE, Class 7, for 1852. To be drawn at Wilmington, Delaware, on Saturday, May 15, 1852. 73 Number Lottery?14 Drawn Balluta. SPLENDID SCHEME. 1 prise of $35,000 1 do 16,000 1 do 10,000 2 prizes of 5,(MX) 2 do 4.000 2 do 3.000 2 do 2,574 5 do 2,000 10 do 1,000 40 do 400 &c. &c. &c. Ticket* $10? Hnlv^i $5?Quarter* $2 50. $75,00(1! 2 Pritea or $20,000 f Lottery for the Irenrfit of the STATE OF DELAWARE, Claaa A, for 1352. To l>c drnwn at Wilmington, Delaware, on Saturday, IMayM'2, ISM. 15 Drawn Numbers out of 7S? making- nearly aa many prizes aa blanks. BRILLIANT SCHEME. 1 splendid capital of. $75,000 1 splendid prize of 20,000 1 do 20 000 1 do 15,000 1 do 10,275 6 prizes of 6,000 6 do 2,600 7 do 1,500 8 do 1,200 9 do 1,000 15 . o 700 I'M) do (lowest 3 No. prizes) 320 tic. tie. k c. Whole Tickets #10?Halves #10-Quarters #<> ? Eighths #2 50. 140,000! 00 Prises of 2,000 dollars. 1 I?ttery (or the henrfit of the STATE OF DELAWARE, Clars 12, for 1 Nft2. To l>e drawn at Wilmington, Del., on Saturday, May 29, 1^512 SPLENDID SCHEME. I prize of $ (0,000 I do Ift.MSi I do 8 900 | do 6,000 I do 2.230 60 prizes of 2,000 '60 do 400 60 do 3t 0 64 do a 100 Ac. lt\. kr. Whole Tickets# 10 ? Unites #5 Quarters#! 60. Orders for Tickets and Shares and Certificates I of Package* in the altov^Vanli-ndid Lotteries ?ill re< cive tl?e most proinpyhtteXbon, and an ofiicial hi iwwint i f eaeh drawing sent immediate ly alter it is ovlr to all who orde/ from me. Aiklress ^ O'HRIEN, Agent, \ /iadT >n I 1 i M...... t \ ; ^ yf \ I r ? i r ' r n \ -- , KRKA1I RKKF AND VKf.RTAKI.KN FOIt THK HAW. Navy Aoist'i Orrict, April 12, 1852, i OKU.K.n PR0P08AI.S will W received at this i O "Hi c until Tu< aday, (he eleven' h day of May, | 1*52, aI noon, for the supply of aurh quantitlra of ' Kicsh Rcrf ind Vegetablea as may In- required on tlx Washington station, during the fiscal y"far j commanciug on iln' let day ol July neat, and end irp on III* 30th June, 1853. I'hr Reef and Vegetables mnal ha of good qnali- I I ty, and ihr best ihr markrt affords; nnd earh article | muat bp offered for by the pound Bond with approved aerurity will ha required in ! , one- half the estimated amount of the rontracl, and ! tan prr centum in addition will be withheld from j the amount of eaeh payment to Ire made, a? eollat eral aerurily for (he due per fot manre nl the con- ' tract, which will on no account Ire paid until it la fully complied with. Kerry offer made muat Ik- arrornpnnird (na directed in the net of Cottgreaa tusking nppropria lion for the naval aervjri for |H|f>-7, approved |!Hh August, |8lf>) Ry a written guaranty, signed hy one or inure rreponcihle peraoua, to the i(f<et (hat lie or they undertake that the bidder or hiddrrr will, if liia or their hid he ac< rptrd, enter into an obligation, within five daya, with good nnd aulji cient auretiea, to furniah (lie arliclra proposed. No pr pnsal will he considered unlesa accompa- I nied hy auch guaranty. J. II LATIIROP, Navy Agrnt. Apl4 ?law4w \ >1 Kit I i \\ IMl PDIiKICV \fiF.\t V.tlTY OK WAAIIIttfJTOV. rpHE copartnership of PaLMKK fit 8NKTMKN I i? (' m <Iry <Ii?r Iverl by mutual cnn n(. Mr ralmrr i< tolrly lalhoriird to nettle ih? ronrcrm of thr fir m, anil to recrivr all lettrra and v niiimunirationa that may be a<l<irr??r<! thereto, or to thin A im i,< y. A A HON II PALMER, W. (J 8NF.TIIRN. Wa?hi50Ti a, (h tol>er '20, IN6I. nY our agrrrmrnt, bearing name date with (lie alrove, Mr.'Snr-lhen'n intrrent in thr American and Foreign Agency craned on thr .lint tilt The biiKinrt* of thr Agrnry will h< rraftrr becondu trd i cutely by the undrrnigne.l * Office noulli corner ol Fiflrcnth ntrrrt and I'mnnyWania nvrnur, near thr Trranury Depnrtrmnt. AARON II PALM ICR, at Wiilard'a Wanhinoton, January 1,1H5'2. J.m 9?wtf BOOK OF THE WORLD, an arronnt of all nation*; thrir Orography, Hintnry, Stnttnttre, Commerce, Rt?r, Progr ma and Prrnrnl Condition, complete in two volunirn o< tnvo, |HM A|? 15 FRANK TAYLOR j THE KEPUBLIC. SPKEl'll OK IIOIV. RICHARD VATKS, OK ILLINOIS, On the l.anil Policy of the United Stutm, mul in Defence of the. It est, in the Jluu&e if lleprrscntalives, April "JI!, 18.V2. The House being' iu the Committee of the Whole on the bill "to encourage ugriculture, manufacturer, commerce, and other branched of imludtry, by granting to every man who id the head ol n family a homestead of one hundred anil sixty acre-i of land but of the public domain, upon condition of occupancy and cultivation of the same for the period herein specified"? Mr. YATES said: Mr. Chaikman: I shall endeavor, in the few re o. u,1.0.1, i ?i,?n ik; ..... n. -...f. . ........ .....wia.iuu.iu confine myself chi tty to the subji ct legitimately before the committee. The consideration of this bill very properly Invites discussion ad to the whole laud polie.y of the Government. Whether the present poliey as to the public lauds id to be continued, or whether Congress shall adopt a new policy, are questions which are now occupying n large share of the attention of Congress and of the country In the attempt to present my views upon this qui s tion, I am aware that nothing' short of the Presidential question eecms to awaken the interim ol the committee, and I almost shrink from the effort to arrest its attention by remarks upon the appropriate businc. s and practical questions which it it our duty, as legislators, to investigate. The constitutional power of Congress to make grants of lands to actual seitlcrd, or to the Statt s, for the construction of railroads, has. been denied by most of the gcntlcmt n wtio have addressed the Committee against these propositions. 1 do not propose to discuss the question of constitutional power at length. If a question Can be settled by precedent, then I think that the right of Congress to make these grants may be considered a eelilcd question When the propriety of mich grants hrst came before Congress, the question ol consiitutional power underwent a thorough discussion. The greatest minds in the country wenpitted against each other, and I believe the powei to make the grants was finally conceded by nearly all. Must certainly, it has been repeatedly exercised without being called in qutsiion. Grants for purposes of cdueuiiun, to asylums, to actual settlers, and for the promotion of internal improvements, have been uiade at sundry limts, begin niug with the administration of Washington, down to the precent day. When we have (he opinions of such men as Mr. Clay and Mr. Web ster, Genciat Cass and Mr. Douglas, and nearly all the leading inen of both parties, and especially the opinions of (lie strict constructionists of the Constitution, including Mr. Calhoun, who was ever jealous of the exercise ol any doubtful cousti tutional power; I say when wc have such an array of authority in lavor of this constitutional pilwi r, added to the uniform practice of the Govrrnmcnt, and enforced by the legislation of almost every Congress, it would seem that this might well be considered a settled question. I do not Bay that precedent is every thing, but I do say that the opinions of our profoundest statesmen and law-givers, expressed after mature deliberation, arc entitled to mgn consiuernuon. The arguments against ihe exercise of this power, relied upon hy gentlemen who have addressed the committee, are presented in their strongest light in the National Intelligencer of this inuii.iup, unJ 1 will call the. attention ut the committee to the two strong points taken in that paper, and which 1 do not consider well (akrn. That paper says: "The property of 'the people of the United Stat's,' whether it is money in the ticasury or the public lands, racnot be rightfully used by those w ho govern our affiles, unless it is done 'in order to form a ' more perfect Union, establish justice, insure d imes ' tic tranquillity, provide J or the com run defence, j/ro' mote the gene/al weljare, end secure the blessings rf ' liberty In oursilves anil our posterity.' " Now, if it can be shown that the passage of this bill will accomplish any of these objects, then the "public lands may be rightfully used for thise grants to the objects indicated." Now 1 submit to this comnhttce the question, Is it not f.r the "general welfare" to promote the Bctllentent ol the public landr? Is it not for the genkkal welfare to establish an independent yeomanry upon our hroad und beautiful j uhlic domain ot one thousand four hundred million seres of lam.' Is it nut for the general welfare tllst WC enCOUTBgC tile agricultural productions of the country, and improve the condition of our industrious poor? Is it notTor the ge.neiial welfare todisecurage spcculati >n in the public lands, to tell the forest, to inake "Ihe wilderness bloom and blossom as the rore," and to cover that mighty area of territory exlf tiding from the Ohio tiier to the I'ai ifv ocean, with a population of independent freeholdera, and to w ithdraw population from the tciliptatious and v n < s of crowded cities io Ihe purer atmosphere ol rural lib ? The same paper rays: "A title hy 'at tuul settlement' is oi.curd, unless legal policy may thus encourage hirdy pioiiecis to enter the lores! and pi int the f l-l. p- ol , ;i .. , i lion in its dark reersacs. With this view, however, what are called 'pre emptums' may b. justly luvori d and protected " 'I he ediistitutionahty ol granting pre < mptiotia is not d< iiied hy any. 'I he. cotn idi t a' n il upon who h they are grnnted is to encourag. se-ttleun lit Is it not the auine "legal /mlicy" to encourage that ret tleimnt by making grants to the actual settler? Under the: pr.-cntption system, the settler often has the pi i? ilegc ol buying, I j ilie exclusion of all others, land at ^ I US |>rr < rrwonti ten timet that urn He can enter upon llH [ n' li lands a~ n as they arc surveyed, and Im fore tin y arc offered Mt public sale, and purchase the aamr at the Gov rrnment price, though hi the sale other* might lie ready and willing to pay five tnnoa that euin. I. the G'd rrn mriit may lliu* surrender ita rights lo promote at tilemeiit, in iy it not, I r the tame o'r |ret, prant binds worth ff 1 US per acre, or Iraa, to the attual rr tiler ? The principle ia ti c taint in both cast*. _ It ia the same in grant* of huiitV land* to the soldier; and when the "Ifgal jmltcy" ia admitted in the one rase, it t annul he d< nied in the other. 1 call (tie attention of gentlemen to that article of the Constitution whieli piovins that "(. njirim aim II hat c power to dispose of and m a let at need ful rules ai d rrgui iii >n.? respirtn/ tin territory and other propi r ly <>f the United Stales " "It shall liavc the power to tlitpom of" I.err it in unlimited puwrr. It ia not derived by cofillroclion or nil-, plication it ia an rx aitbp wer rtn manner el thi* diapoailiun, ami the objects of the appropria lion, are of courtc to be Ivll to the dhcretioil of Uonprcet. Mr. Chairman, it ia amusing to see how rertain ap i.hciiii n i an find null ? . ily < > 111 >k< appropr i liona to aorne objects, ami at the raine tune deny iny power to make appropriations lor other oh jecta ol prt< taely the aani' i tiara iter. The gc n 11 e man from New York, ( M. Jknkin ,) in hia >pi 11 h, maintained that our riv? ra wrrr v. ry proper ly the objri I < ol national concern. and that ip proprialions lor tbiir unprm i no .it urn' Ir mat" ly within the power of Congri i, hut stoutly lenied that Congress hud any power to make grants of either money or binds tor tin consrue lion Of railroads Anr, h< a-y?, are the ohj< < t? >1 State concern c* lus v. ly. N iw, here ia a "dta Linctiou without u d fb rener." The only ilifT't Mice ia, lhat the one is wati r, tlie other iron. I he jhject ol both is to fa< ilitate intercourse hetwren Jf. WMJ.I. ~comiiiuiiiraii. n by mean* of mlr adi i* urnr* direct; it ia cheaper, *aft r, and *pi t dier All tin >pt ration* of oumiticri e, mid all the t.l.j. t t? <>l It t grant, i an he a* wt II ur h. ttrr < at rie.l i>ul hy tin .inatruclion of railmatla than l>y the improvement if rivrta, and therefore I can are no ohjrc'ion i t grinta ol laridt to the State to aid in their cot.alim lion. I here arc arvrral aperific pr.ip.?iliunt before Congrt a* the hill now pending, granting land* t > at t ua I art tie re; the hill granting lO.iHH) t H K> ol arret to the Malt a to he applied to ih. reliel of the nidigent inaane; and variout I >i I In granting alternate aertintii of the puhlic land* fnr thr conetructiun of railroad*. 1 am in Invor t>f the pun. iplr cmitim d in all theae proportion . I apt nk nt.t nf the dctni a id Iheae hilla. II wrnng in detail, when the time arrivra I..r their ronaideration they ran h amended to obviate nl'jtctittna laniaurpiia. il that a in--of III.- advocat' fnr grunt* to artnal ae'llera, and fnr the relief of Ihr jti ane, atrm to rrgard railroad giant* a* coming in conflict with them. Why, ir, neth ng ran lie further (ruin the tar f. Thert i* no conflict l lierr arernuiigh land* fur ail I ey "moot and will not lie e*hau?ted t"r a thorn ml year* to coine. The following tilde will ahow the quantity of puhlip land*, noltl and untold, the pror.etlaof #11Ira, and the grant* and re?eivaliun- of the fame for all purp *ea, up to the 311th S> pt? m her, IH.r>l: Am a So'tl t... . 11'I (>33 03ft ( rant* f .r ?> hool?, ftic |i I . > 'i s For rlral anil ditinh a*ylum* U.'iil Fur internal improvements 11 :t 1 > To individuals and companies.... 279,792 For seat* of government, &c 50,860 For military aervins 16,019,065 Unserved fur salines 922,325 Unserved for benefit of Indians.. . . 3,4<tO,725 Reserved for companies, corporations, 6ce, H, 955,363 j Continued private claims 7,123.903 Swamp lands grunted to tile (stales 27,397,260 i ' Central railroad grant 3 025,920 ; 1 Total of acres unsold and unappropriated, of of- , fcrod and unofTered lands, on the 30th September, I i 1861, 1,399,6-6 140.63 acres. It appears from this table that in a period of j ; seventy years only 101,637,930 of acres have, been ] | sold, and that the Government still has on hand a ; mighty domain of over thirteen hundred millions ! of acres. Is hern not an ample fund for all the pur- | I poses of education, for the relief of the insane, for ; ! homes to the actual settler, and for the purposes of | iiit"rnul improvement? Mr. Chairman, much as 1 doaire to sen portions of the public iandg nppropiiatcd to internal improvements, yet this i? not the chief measure with me. In my liutnlde estimation, the first and most desirable application of the public domain is to make ample provision for the insane, thr^leaf and dumb, and the blind. The Governmntit-'couH not make a more useful application of a portion of the public domain than by assisting each State and Territory to endow an institution for each of these objects. The census of 1840, in a total population i of 17,069 463 persons in the United States, exhibited an insane population of 17,457; and the census of 1950, in a total population ol 23,267,498, gave an insane population of 27,000. The increase of the I'ic.iiiTiB ot < H i ri fiarftil mnln.lv i* in a ratio far greater than the iucreate of the whole population. Hut, sir, the reeults of proper medical treatment in institutions established lor this purpose have been meat gratifying Thousands who were coneidercd hopelessly insane hive been restored to reason, nud there is every reason to believs (hat the IrightTul increase of this dread malady may be in a great measure stayed if proper rcficl is afforded. Tnc grants in favor of these objects tbould be munificent, and such as with the aid of the Stabs would place these institutions beyond the contingency ol want. These grants nre not contended for on the ground maintained by certain political economists of France, that it is the duty of the government to furnish direct subsistence to the " people, nnd which has led her impulsive population locluinor for government aid, inst'ad of relying upon the surer rewards of honest industry and persevering labor, it is upon the highor prinriple of doty to the children of misfortune, who, by the inscrutable decrees of an overruling Providence, arc deprived of the ability to procure means ' of support or education. There comes to bs, sir, ' nn appeal from these unfortunate classes sf our population addressing itself to the kindliest sym- 1 pathies, the noblest impulses of- the heart, as well : as to the highest considerations of patriotism. Yes, sir, from ihc dethroned intellects of the twentyseven thousand maniacs in the land, the stopped I I cars of the deaf and dumb, from the sightless eye i j babe of llie blind, closed forever to the beautiful I frame-work of art nnd nature by which we are > I surrounded, coines this appeal. < ! No longer needing the public lands as a source of revenue, some statesmen of great eminence have i ; regarded their possession as a curse, rather than a i blosing. Hut this depends upon the uses to which 1 , tin y are applied. If our public domain is discreet- i ly applied, it will be. an exhaustive lountuin of I hicsseduess to the people. And if Congitss will ! look nt it aright, and will grant to thebtatcs a suf- j fiocnt quantity of these lands to endow these iiirti- t Unions, and to place the means ol relief within the I reach ot these rad children of misfortune, it will t have accomplished one of the noblest and most ?? j j rred objtels in the sight of God or man. Much is t said about progress, but this is a sort of progress i which will prove iiu'ontestably the christian on- i ligbieniiK'iil ol the age, aud b.nd new and bright t glurb s around the biow of the Republic. It liny ? ! tie a weakness in this business age ol finance, steam, | and railroads, a ticuly tnilunenlaJity, perhaps; yet I < i uiiiBd win upprupriaiiuns lor inrao liicreu ooj' cU is my first desire, and 1 would rather nee all the projtcts for KtanU uf (he public lauds !atl than these. I would have each Scute, by the aid of there lauds, erect a maginti nit edifice, with comlorta hie and ?pa< ious apartments, adorned with (he tie(orations of art and < very plcmiog embellishment, surrounded by large enclosuris of forest tri e, besutllul shrub, ami I looming llnwer. So that if your w ifc or daughter, or mine, should ever fill victims to insanity, ( end it t? a ral.inrity to which all ate liable ) instead of being confined witbin narrow , apartments and prison-houses, the may wall: forth ' in the Iwhtof God's glorious sun, breatlic Heaven's pure air, and, if her fancy choose, pluck a (lower hy the wayside. Sir, tint page of history which shuil record that the American Congress, in the year IH5i, made ample provision for th?ae sacred objects, w ill ( an immortal page. A nil when noble edifices for these objects ste ercctt d, and these institution* are firmly e tahlii-hcd, they w ill redound to the Insting fionor of the Couples* which made the appropriation, nnd will be pou ted to by our children and children's children, from gem-ration to generation, as the proudest rm iiuiiients of the glory of the nation. I i tintmt here fori rear to refer to the lact that the Stale of lltino s, in addition to her tax lor the sop port of the Government, and in addition to tier aep urate tax for the payment of the public drill, with a spirit worthy of Iter people, imp .M d a separate lax I or tin- reliel ol her insane and the education of her Mind ami dial and dumb And perhaps three nob > r edilio s are nut to Is- found in m y Stat than those which sin has erected?Ihc prple of every c.it !/ ii, the admiration of every manger, and (he a lory and delight of every patriot and christian. Sir, wfiat must be the pbasurcwilh w tin h every I < Hit n of Indiana ami fllimi:* reads tie' following tribute In m Miss l.)ix, the gr< at philanthropist ol tin- npc, ami the illuati mus bent fsctrt ss ,f her race She says: 1, wilt at Indians noble, dear-sighted Indiana, s r adopted a wire and n >l>!c |>olicy, equally pruib lit ami Iminane, and levied a spci cti tax lor the in- ?in*, l ,r the deal inuti'? amI the ( !in<1 * ithin In r 1 hordeia, at a coat id more than 200,00(1." " I'berr, ' in thai yiiuri; Stat', almost within I In- liadow ol 1 | hi r apitol, iiiinl ilMtr monument* i t a christian ' and enlightened age, recording a tori thought anil 1 in .riili i in i whi' 'i, tindrr the c ircum-tarn es, has " nil iMial'ct; though Illinnia, ranging ante liy s-de 1 gi grnphicuily, almost completes a o rreeponding ' I page III lp r history " < The at> ve xirn t ia taki n from hrr iririnorial to ' lh?- L> pit lai urc of Miry la n<l. An-!, in ju*ti< c to * my St >te, 1 iiiay ray tti?t the i xpensrs already in- ? riirri it l>f tin State of llliuoia tor (hut' u'j clltl- ' din mill latily tin-aoifi nf #J 'Il,t" 0 Sow, air, win ii it : i iim ilen it that both tin- Stater, and ' : many others, are e.nbai rnae-d l-y heavy debts, and i lis i all the Mid ? ;ne taxed to tin- minor if tin * ahilitynl the people to bear,it will he an n that thia 1 aid from the public landa would he most timely ' and nj piopriate, ant) of the greatest iinporlaiii c. I ( rami io aui'al prTTt.xaa. Mr. Chairman, I shall not gj into the discussion t at li ng;h ol the I < 11 uihIi r eoti'id* ration I have lor ' irinny yi unci lertamid opin i its favorable to grants ' ol the. public landa, in limited qoantitiea, to actual n nleia Hut I humbly conceive tint thi?e -i 11 * i ? ill sol this till who oppose grants fur railroads are mui li in error; f<V n i? only by opening toads through the public lands, and making them ai <* aaihle io market, that tin y arc to be made tit . iruWr /io ir* for the actual settler. A tn th r illustration of the i ITri is of the present land aysti in i ould not la- given than the declaration w Inch h is hern made by the gi ntleman Irom New York ( ,Mr. 8cthkrla m ) to thia committee Ho enya that he knows, at hia hoarding-house, lour individuals, who own .'itt.tKHI acres, each, ol the public lands. I would ask that gentleman if that ay at > in ia to b? ronaidrrt d beneficial which tolcr | atea the withholding ol these lands from settlement and ?>< copation m the hands ol wealthy ape> ulators, to ti e exeUian n and ft-jury < I the p air and | industrious c.ittsrni? Would it not lie In ttrr to j I ?rma, and occupied by our indoatriou* poor faint- < lira, than I'ur them to remain unimproved, ?nd ab- i >orbed entirely by peculator*? I#that a jual ay* t trin wbi h permit* th wtalthy ajuculator, who i make* no improvem ntr, to hold <>n to ibear land* i until ttli n tux I aettlrr, by thr improvement ol ad I jarent lamia, tin* made tlirm valuable, and then to i charge him five tttnra the liovormiirnl pries fur < litem? The only plausible objection to the policy of there | 1 giant* to nctu.il arttlrra, winch at Aral a truck me, I hut who It I l? In vr haa not been advanced hire, | * ox that the r 11. ct would 1* IO ib precinte the lattda i tit tin liin.la o( prcarnt proprietors Hut the re i i or a. , I believe, will lie the i fl-ct. The c|jm of i jn r?"tia, ivbo would (foOil n (|iiarter an lion and or i upy and t ultivate it lor live year* to get a title | I tin reto, would lie in the main poor peraona.and unab'e to buy ol priaent proprietor* I doubt, air, i whether it would mike a vinyl* pur< barer Ira* j i'nc bounty land laws, which have abaorbed It,- i 019,065 acre*, have not had (he effect to reduce the price* of land* already occupied and improved. The effect, I think, would be to increase price* to prrsent owners, by bringing: into settlement and improvement the public lands which would otherwise remain in market for sale, and which now come into competition with the lands of present owners The prices of lands in the hands of prcs enl owners are unquestionably kept down by the largo quantity of the public lands which are sub ject to sale at $ 1 25 per acre?purchasers being unwilling to pay from five to twenty dollars per acre for improved lands, when they can get them at the (Government price. The new States have a deep and vital interest in the passage of this bill They want settlement. They want these lands to pass out of the hands of the Government into the hands of individuals, s i as to make them taxable and contribute their share to the support of the State governments The passage of this hill would increase grcitly the immigration to the land States, insure the settlement and improvement of the vacant lands, and augment the capital of the new States, which they ao much need to enable (Item to engage in innnu- I facturing, the construction of roads, and other important public enterprises. The (Jeneral Government would lose nothing ? the settlement and Improvement of portions ol the public lands would increase the value of the contiguous lands remaining unoccupied, and would and vastly to the aggregate of agricultural production and national prosperity. Hut, sir, the highest consideration is the effect which it would have to raise to independence and to elevate a large portion of our fellow-citizens who gain a hard, scanty, and uncertain subsistence from tbc earnings of daily labor, or who, in the dependent relation of frnaiits, pay one-third or one half of the proceeds of their labor to the owners of the suit. I cannot forbear to quote, in favor of the passage of this bill, the very extract which the gentleman from New York (Mr. JknCins) has quoted against it : " Destitution in Philadelphia.?The Philadelphia American gives an account of a visit made a tew days ago to the hovels of many of the poor and destitute of that city, who live in small un ventilated rooms, for which they are compelled to pay ten cents rent each day. It is supposed the number of these unfortunate beings is about five thousand. Many of them were found with their hands and feet frozen for want of fuel to keep them warm, while others had even disposed of most of their scanty clothing to buy bread. In one cellar a faintly were found who had been turned out of home because they were unable to pay their rent In nnother place a poor miserable woman and several children were found in a shed, the children covered up in a heap ol ashes to keep tliern warm. Having no rlothing whatever to cover them, the mother had been driven to this resort to keep them from freezing. The clothes had been sold to buy bread." Plow, sir, me gentleman is most unfortunate in making1 Una quotation. If be had labored lor month*, he could not lmve presented a more forcible argument in favor of the bill. Pass this bill, ind a strong inducement will be presented to every jne who is destitute of the means of support, and who has industry, to My to the public lands; and instead of five thousand persons in unventilated rooms, and in a slate of destitution, in the city ol Philadelphia, we will in a lew years have as many independent landholders in the Western SlaUs in he lull enjoyment of all the blessings of life. Representatives front the West will bear ine out n the assertion I am aliout to make. There are housands of tennnts in the western country with urge families, who are unable to make a dollar tver and ab ive the amount required for'thesupjort of themselves and families, after paying to he owners of the soil one-third of the proceeds if their annual labor. Flow much ameliorated A'ould their condition be il they bad their own soil .0 cultivate?homes of their own, and the exclusive nj iyinent of the hard earnings of their daily la x>r? Secure to the industrious poor man a home bf one hundred and sixty acres of rich and product ivc Innd, and you attach him to the country. You give linn a new and certain interest in the soil. He is then a frieholder, a proprietor of his own broad acres. His interest is identified with the Government and so lety. He pays taxes; he lakes an juiciest in schools and churches, roads and bridges, end in tho voice of the bsllot-box. lie feels like a nan, and he is then, in the full sense of thai proud ippcllation, on American citizen. For these, and bumcroua other contidcraiioiiiv 1 hope tins Con jress will decide, that out of the 1,400.b00.u00 un lold acres of the public domain, every family, every boor and homeless American citizen, may find a I 1 (nm a home, sir, which he can call his own?his ' astle of strength, a here, secure beneath l.is hum lie roof, and around his own tircsidr, "be can worktop (iod rirnealh his own vine and fig-tree, none luting to molest or make him afraid " G R A VTB OK LANDS TO ILLINOIS. Much ha* hern and in the progroaa o! (hi* derate nlxrut the grants to Illinoia. While the twelve ami Siatr* are denounced hy the g> nt-leiiian from Mew York a? flaying a "grub irniiir in the atrup ;le to ire which could get the largest aharc," and ire denounced a* hind thai"*, illinoia unfortu lately i- looked upon, pur nrtllinct, a? the Liggttt and lint/ of all. Her g'>o?i lortune in accuring lib ral grant* ha* cauacd her to be regarded wi'.h a ii rt ol malicioutnrn, whi< h ?he in nowiac inertia, i n<l which ncLiy no in -una justified hy the facta ol he caac. What waa the priuc.ple upon which Con reel* appropriated alternate motion* of the public and* to aid her in the conatruction ol her Illinoia irnl Mu higart Canal and I lie Central Railroad? Unl ihe United Suttra make lh'in without an cquiva enl? Did Illlm i* claim tinman a charily, or for ier eacluaive bonrfil? j, air; very Inr Iroin t Ihe print* were made upon bight r conaidi ration* linn no re licnifit to Illinoia?con aid ci ft I ton a of tin- i eenoral welfare and nnti n il proapcrily I tie Stall upied the relation f truatee or agent to the Ge- j icral Govt mucin to appropritlr the lanila to the oiiatruction ol worka ot u< kn w lodged natonal inpoi lance, and in audi a way aa to prudent induce nenta for Ihe aile nrul oc< upancy ol her oihe- wild and w hir h had never helore exuted. 'I In ae woe kare re eaae.nlial link* in a gr at nation I luphway xientlrig from tin' ocean to the gulf, anil aff i t np in a high de-ree the intereata of one half the < ati* of the American Union, 'fake I tie in ip >f Ihe United .state* and l<>ok at it. From Portland, n Milne, froin New York and all ihe et.-dcln ntira, l>y virion* route* to Lake Krie, acr.a* that skr t, Pelr.it theme to New HufTilo, thence uro'e Lake Michigan to Chi' ngo, thence hy the un.il and llhmna river, or C? nrtl railroad, to 2airo, and through the Stale* of Kentucky, Ten ir?-i e, Mi**i*?ippi, and Alabama, to Mobile, i ilie< no of tie Ihuuannd eigliL liunrlr d mile*' Why, air, the world in nil ila p?*t hiatory ha* not leen am h a route. Here, ulr, i* the pro ileal highcay ' I am ienl or in xlern tuin a The Roman w.iya x-i re the pride of the people in Ihe day* of R >111*11 lower; hut tlx y il* inlle into uiaignincant e com ared with thia mighty trai k of the iron I or*c It aaanot lor Illinoia alone, hut for the nation, that here grant* wore made. The Stale of Illinoia * ?? the mere croaaing place f>r the State* of tin Union. iiui u. n mi mi' ifovrrn.ii'nt mat i y m r grant* if land to Illinois? The liindt along tlie line ol he Central railroad had lx-cn in market rxprMtril 0 mlc at the land office* lor twenty-live yearn, ilid on nrrount ol their renioteneM from mark-t m l ilcetitotion ol timber were likely to remain iiinold for hall a century more They i ame under To ih nomination ot rr/Tme lande, nrol belonged to hut claea which at a homer enaction of CnngrrM * ere proponed to tic ceded to the Slate* in which hey were intuited, to enable the Government to 1l?pen?e with the expensive machinery of land tinea and oilier t'xpniiec*, which coet the Government mere than the revenue derived from their ule. Sir, it would not take long to convince any gentleman on thia tt ror, who would go along the 1 ule of the Central railroad, tliil the Gnvrrti in nl, ua a pr.ni landholdrr, had adopted the moat ' itl ctual no una ul imparting value to Iter landa irid bringing tliem into market, ami thit, while Join# thia directly, aha had imlirtcUy given an inpuiae to trade, a alimulua to produc tion, and ipni' d new lii Ida to enterpnae, affecting in no mall decree a.large portion of the In ion It la a fuel, that a large iniiiiher of the citizen* ol Southern Illinois have for many yrnra m copied i ind nil) roved portion* of I lie public landa, with out proi ui nig any title from the Government, and without the learof having their p?*. *ci,.ii? dia lurhed. I'heae lamia In in r in aparaely net lied - ( lion', an<l inaere**ibly cituati d, were a hard liar gain rvtN to the aeliler, and foiled lo exi ue the rupidity ot the nperulalor Hut now that Una road ho# hern projected, they .ire Imcniriing nnxl.oia almut the i tide--, are aarerting ilo ir pre enip tiona, and ihoiiaanda are anxmoaly waiting, wuh their hard dollar*, or warrant* laid hy., to i ke up llir no ivrd I ind* w ithin the thirty inde slriii rr nerved from enle the moment they are brought into Inai krt. And yet not a *pidc ol larth haa been , n moved on the road; but tfieac landa will now, in 1 bare expectancy of ila completion, readily yield | the $2 60 per ai're, and thus renin* to the Oiireru- I 1 merit every dollar ahe naked for the whole nt n ! period much earlier than ahc could have realized the aame without the grant. If the gentleman from Maine (Mr. Kullbh) ia right. they are, or noon will be, worth $10 per acre. What, then, hua the Ciovrrnment luat ? til k illinois and michigan (.anal The gentleman from New York ( Mr. JxnkInb) has asserted (1 know not upon what authority) that the errant o! alternate sections of land to the State of Illinois, to aid in the construction of her canal, has resulted in great injury to that State. It is easy to show that the construction of this great work has had an immense < fleet in promoting the arltlriiient of the public lands and the prosperity of ihe State of Illinois. To show its influence upon the commerce and prosperity of Northern Illinois, it is only necessary io call the attention of the commit ten to some id the statistics of the commerce and j/rowth oft hecity of Chicago, oitu-Hcd a' its terminus on Like Michigan. In iheyeat 1847, before the completion of the canal, the iin oris and exports of the city were only $4,600,000; while in the year IMS, ihe first year after its completion, they amounted to $20,000,001). The shipments of corn from the port of Chicago, ill ttie year 1847, were 67 9"6 bush els; in 1848, 560,460 bushels; and in ISol 3,221,137 bushel.; and nl this amount '2.235 362 bushels were r< ceived intoChicugo hy way ol thecanal. The lumber trade of thg city doubled in a single yenr after the completion of the canal. So immense is this trade, ttiat considerably over 100,000 tuns of lumber arc annually transported on Ihe canal, and down the Illinois river, into the interior of the State?the evidences of which, as reinorked by the ' Chicago 7W6un?, may l>e seen in the transformation ot (he rude log cabin to the elegant mansion, fl II" I ill IIILJ UIVUIIUII III I III 11 IIIIIII I HUB I 11 II r I~ 11 t *( I I IICI'K und comfortable school houses, and in a great va nety oi valuable and extensive improvements. General Cash said in the Senate Chamber, in 18-18: "It is now twenty-five years ago jhat I flat ail night in a canoe at the head of a pond at Chi cugo, there being no human habitation in which wc could obtain shelter from the inouth of (he IIli noifl to the mouth ol the Chicago river." And yet, mr, Chicago is now an important city?the second city of the lakes. Look at its wonderful growth, lis population in the year 18-40 was -4,479; in 18-18, 20,023; and now, in 1852, it is >40,000. And hence, sir, her destiny is onward to her proud elevation as empress of the lakes, the great commercial emporium into whose c.ommission>houscs shall 1 pour one-third of the commerce of the Union?a 1 mighty city, rivalling ancientCarthage in her pride of power. And since the period referred toby Gen eral Cass, the country stretching from, the mouth of the Chicago to the mouth of the Illinois river?a 1 distance ot four hundred miles?has made rapid advancement, auJ has now a better foundation lor 1 solid and durable prosperity than any portion of the American Union ol equal extent. In the year 1831 I f.rst ascended the Illinois river. 1 The. whole commerce of the river was then rariied uu by aome four or five old steamboats, which, be- ' ing unsafe tor the dangerous navigation nf the Mis ' tusippi river, were transferred to this river, whose 1 current is gentle, and, in good stages of water, 1 perhaps the best navigable stream in the world. 1 Hut now, sir, Irom fifteen to twenty-five medium- 1 sued steamers ply weekly between St. Louis and I Lasallc, the western terminus of the canal, a dis ( tancc of three hundred and twenty miles laden I with ponder ua cargoes of merchandise, produce, ami lumber, and thronged with thousands of travellers in nursult of huainrma or nlcaaor* on their i route* South, by way of the Mississippi, or to the new States and Territories of the northwest by way , of Catena,or by way of (he northern lakeland rail- | way routei, to the eastern citiea. Illinois aivsa. 1 It will aurprise many to learn lhat since the con- j atrui lion of Uio canal, the transportation and travel on the Illinois river is greater than lhat on either . ihe Upper Mississippi or Missouri rivers. In the , year lSSl there was imported into the city of St. Louis front the Illinois river 3"SJ>,26"7 bushels more ^ <>f wheat than trom the Missouri river,ana 215 277 , bushel* more than Irum Ibc Upper Mississippi. ' Trie difference in thcarlicle ol corn is sail greater, j In the year LtaO there were seven hundred and ( eighty.right arrivals ol steamboata at the city ol Si. Louis from Ibc Illinois river, and, in 1851,sis huntlrod and thirty four; and in the two years, the arrivals from the Illinois river were one hundred and (orly cght more than from ihe Missouri, seven hundred and thirty-one more than from ihe Upper Mississippi, tour hundred and scvrniy-two more lhan from the Ohio, and sii hundred and ninety two more than from New Orleans. And, moreover, one half of the tonnage on the Illinois river finds its uuilet north by way of Chicago, instead of south by way of St. Louis. Of ihe firee million bushels of corn transported on the river, two millions srek its eastern market by way of the canal and the lakes. An estimate furnished me by Captain A. H. Dewit, one of the oldest and most eaperienred navigator* of lhat stream, shows that about 1,lhh.o'hi tons of produce, 820,000 tons ol merchandise, and three hundred Ions of lumber ami salt, are annually transported on this river by men its of sir <m!>oats and caual-buata. VVhile on (hi < euhjei t, it may be proper for me to remark, lint from three to hve months in the Vrar Lhf n>t vicrm i..t? <>f ihia riv* ? ij . .K?r r??c f #?<! Iiv liars nnd flits, producing grcat <1?I?y. expense. j nn I losses, preventing ucc? ? to market, ami affecting van ati<l iinporlnnt inirrra'a connected wiiii thr coinmercr ot tlir river. Thrie are twentyrWhl bars or tlila between Laaalle nrd the tnouih ul ibe river, composed, aoiue ul ibrm ol aind, and ollitrs of mud, which could tic ea?ily removed by dredging, at an expense inoat incotn-i triable when romp ind wiih expenses incurred f r removing ot?lrucli ina in harbors for tbe bem fit of foreign conuncrce ; nml when we conaider tbat Una atri am if it vi ry important link in tbe chain of nation al intercommuniraiion which extends Irom the Atlantic tu New Orleana nn I M ibile, uti the CJuif ol .Mexico, it u of the highest national linporance th u these ubs'.r uctiutis should be rcintivid. Con gieea.by special inactmrnt, once declared thie atri am a national high* ay ; and it ia at much en tilled to the claim ol nation ilily a? the Miest aippi Itself; for it if, lor ih-- purpotca ol commerce, a direct extension of Uiat very river, to meet the mighty northern thoroughfare, extending, hy rail way und the lakre, to the Atlantic ocean. Hut, sir, the traveller along t lie canal nut only sres a new and 11 >urisbing commerce, hut he sera an other object dearer to the p itrio.'a h art. II sees every canal-boat and ateamer thronged with travellrra, cii iz -na from every poi lion ol our common country Here he fin If the weatern man, the a uthern man, arid, of course, Jona than," espre?aii'g their astonishine lit at the magic ar.<1 wondrrlul growth of that wratern world of i ill * s dia oaring stocks, liniiticr, railroads, trade, igricuitore, cont, cotton, and codfish; the Com i>rotntic, secession, s'avcry, an I, whit ia hetler, earning from each other that there is no good rea sun for the local animoaitics which have hi retofore existed and exhibited thrm-elves in alarming as peels, th: calming to jar the pillars ol the Union, mid ?nicn, happily, the contact ?ncl r lliatoiu of modern commerce and htuincM intercourse are last ' wearing away. Mr Chairman, I feel like complimenting the hiiwralile gentleman froin South Carolina (Mr. Orb ) f r lm lucid and i loqucnt iiprrrh in behalf ol the Missouri r-iad-; and it is not for hi* eloquence alone I thank liiin, hut for hi* magnanimity That gentleman w? II knew that thrne road* < I id ! not point to tiio South, hut to the t?a*i; ami that, j ' wliih the South would enjoy no direct hi in til : from their construction, itiry would p >ur the rich ' treasure* of a new aoH valuable commerce into the cornttiH/iieiii-houac* of the raatrrn cities. Yet, sir, he did not pursue the illiberal policy of opposing grants for the* 1 roads because cal. ol ited to tie tie- ' tit the East more directly than the Sou'li. I * ill ' *ay to that bonorahie getitlrman, I trust the day i* not far distant when, hy inenns of ihe Illinois and * A la!j > rna road, we can supply the South with (he pro lm tioii* of our western farms, an l rrcelvr in ' exchange the rice, cotton, and *ngar of the Sou'h; whin the cit sen of the South, (lying from thi hi .at ol n southern sun, shall find a pleasant sum nnr'a ietre?t in our beautiful grove* and prairie* ' of the West; and I tell that gentlrman, if tlie halcyon llay predicted hy tny Iril n I fr in Missouri ' (Mr. Mills* ) shall ever d ine, when the young i in-1, -if the H, in I It altall ihlrruiarrv iritl, nurln ,, t r t fill (laughter* "I tl c prairie. it ? ill not lung tiI 1 all their notion* of Mrrillon anil disunion will be hlown nktf higk A union ol the descendant* of Numpter I*IIit Marion w ith tlm*e of Itooiie ind the western pioneer, would In- a union indeed, and I think would he "preserved lor the enko of the Union." OKA ST* FOB R A II.KOADK. Mr. Chairman, 1 do ln?i?t we have a right to complain of the old Sl?!i ?, because ilicy r? lti*e t.i help u* wlien ihey can do sn without injuring thenr?elve* We propose to give them a!i they ??!< lor ttip l*ml?. II we huild ill" road*, the tiovi rnnirnt gi I* ?L > Ml | rr acre lor I he fi s-rv ed alternate *rcI ion -, w ni It is ail jl ask* for the whole. II we do * OCITICK OF THJB K K P IH 11 V NINTH ITHEIT, V I A ft CINNIYLVAftlA A V I I W I | WASHINGTON, D. C. ADVERTISING. Advertisement* will be inserted in Tmb Birsiiie at the usual rate* of the other paper* published ia Washington. A deduction will be inadeto those who advert it a by the /ear. THE TRNWEXKLV nRPl'BLlO WILL SB IMUID IVBBt TUESDAY, THURSDAY, AND SATURDAY, THE WEEKLY ItEPVBLlC WILL BE PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY. mm not butld thfl fisdi, we (ret none of the land*?they revert to the Government. The argument ia, that Ute land* belong to all the State*?that they are a common fund. I admit it. We do not propose to diminish the common fund. Then i* it not illiberal in the K>pr*?*?>t?? live* of the old Slate* to withhold from us a post' tire benefit, when they lose nothing? The public land*, you ray, a re common property. Let tut fee what there is in thi* argument. Support that a custom-hou?e wa* needed in New York, or that some olMtruction in the harboruf that city required to he removed, and the gentleman from New York thould tiring forward it Mil appropriating* inonry out of the treasury, and I should *ay to htm, "Sir, you must not take ttic money in the treasury, it i* common property, and belong* to the people of nil the States, and \oU must n t approprinte.il to tlit se oltj, cts, unh ee in the same act of oppropri ullon you give to I lie Stnle of Illinois ail fqunl amount lor some object etn may have in view " Why, if wo can make no appropriations unices lh-y confer equal bent fit on all the State*, ih u wc con make none at all. The argument that, Iming coininon property, the public (and* cannot, theicfore, he appropriated to great object* of public utility, because they happen to lie in a partic ular section, liau argument wnirn, in me preaeiu raw, in .y pander 10 the cupidity of the Representatives of llie old Ht.tirs, and 10 their jealousy of the West,' but it is not very creditable to the achoola and college* m which tbey were taught the principle a of logic. There are paramount reasons why the Govern incut ahould make these grant a Kirat, aa a great l<> ml bold r) the Govcrnmeni, in the management of ita property! ought to exercise, at far an is practicable, the same prudence and fiirealght wbirli nil individual under aimbar circumstances would An indi. idual owning large tracta of loreat or prairie luud, remote froin aettlement and market, and valueless, Would readily sell, or even give away, a portion of snid lands, to iticreaac the value of the risidue; and especially, if by ao doing, he could make that residue yield in a abort time more than the whole would in its unimproved condition. Stcond, aa a measure of economy to hasten the aalea of the public lands, and thud at the earliest period enable the Government to diapenae with the expensive machinery of land offices and other dps The sale of the public land* cnnnot be mo>? effectually promoted than by opening? rood* through thetn. Take .he road from Burlington to Lafayette, or from Springfield to Terre Haute, portions af which run through large bodies of the public lands?prai-iea extensive and untenanted, and die lant from market?lands not worth Government price. Suppose that, by an Almighty flat, a river straight as sn arrow, unobstructed by snags or bars, and navigable for steamers of the largest class at all seasons of the year, should be run through those beautiful and productive lands?how long would it be before the Government would sell rvery acre within a day's travel of that stream? How long before commeicc would flap her thou>and sails upon that river? How long before its ihorea would resound with the roar of steam and ihe rattle of marhiuery? How long before its banks, would teem with smiling village#, and its broad icres bend beneath fields of waring green, and ihe ripened harvest? Well, air, the railroad will produce the same results; yea, for all the purposes >f commerce, speed, and safety, the railroad surII tsses the river. claims or tmi west. The gentleman from New York (Mr. Bennett) n his speech says: "In truth, it is a kind of a grab game, where racb of the new States gets all it can?the most irlfi-h and clamorous taking the largest share ? while more than half of the States, and (Wo-lhirds jf the population, are mere spectators to the skill and rapacity which the twelve land States display in taking Ihe public lands." Rapacity! This is a term applied to barbarians uid rubbers Sir, this comes well from the modrsl state of New York. If there is any thing iliat ever Mill keep that Mate in tnc Hack ground, u is ner wonderful modesty. She never aaka for any thing. She never get* any thing'. She is languishing to ! ulh for want of aomc appropriation* out of lite federal Treasury Now, sir, to be eerious, 1 do not complain of New York. I do not complain of what she has got As a citizen of this nation, I am proud of the Empire State. I glory in her pros peiity, in the Napoleon-like energies of her people, and in that oaring enlerpr ?< of Per merchants and tradesman which has sent our flag into every port, and planted the feet of our sailors on every stand of the sea; and I hope, sir, that the liberal land of the Government will ever be extended to icr in promoting our commerce with foreign na i >ns; hut, sir, as a weatern man, I hurl back the barge of rapacity made against ua for asking [ rants of worthless wild lands to enable us to get o her markets, and to swell the sails of her coin cere*. Mr. Chairman, much consideration is due to the lew States. The old Stales came into the L'nkni iroprirtors of all the public lands within their (lints Upon the separation of the colonies from the nothor country, they succeeded to the right of ininenl domain, which up to that time hail exited in the crown. They have received the proenls of these linds into their State trensuiice, ind they have liecn disbursed for the benefit of h<ir riurrna. Hut not so with the new Stairs, n in'iat of theni the General Government is to til a day the proprietor of the larger port on of he land* within thur limiia Tin ae States, t* -. ore Ihrir admimua Into itx Unk? . * et e requlri <1 0 *ul>*< ribc <> the i ondition* contained in the rrduianre i.f 17*7?"never to inlrrf re with the I'liinry dilpiiMl ol the so I;" and " lu nnp-?r rm n x nil land the properly "f thr United 8l%ir?;" ni'l n 'In- m m of their admi**iofi into ihr Union i? S ate* Ihry w err rrquirid to aubeenbr In Bti ithrr condition? "that every tmrt of land mid by hr l,"hi" d S' al< a, alter tlie day of lb' if adniioion. ibnulil rema n exi inpi from nny tax lor Stale, ounty, townaliip, or any purpoee whatever, for he rm of five ycara from and after the cloy of a I.-," The firal condition i* utill in f rer. and the latter remaned in force until J iimary, 1*47, when ongrc** pnaacd an ail auihoiiiinr I'm Stolen aci retted into the I'nion prior to the "24t li day of Apr i . ISiJO, to lax the find* Iroiri the day of aale. It ia rue, the United State* pave the atxtrenih *?< tloi ; 1 lownahip 'or a Be urinary of learning, tfi avlii an da, and two lift h< of the five per rent. of i he pr< . evd/of the public land* to the State of lllinota in xchaiijre fir ihia iminoniiy from taxation. Hot it * very may lo ahow that thr Stale hi* loat aeVt ral nilhona of dollar* more by lhi< aurrender of her lovereign right to tax the landa ihan all ahe baa >bl<tlutd Iroio the concccaion* of tbe Government in cotiaideraiiou for thia immunity. Hut, ngain : I'here ia ?n equitable claim which entitle* the new 8 ale* to mine rooaiderali n The . itisena of the row Stall a have ri claimed the pnh lie landa from the wilder near, arid given tin in nil lie value IIIry poMeaa The actual aelller, by hi* labor and cultivation of ilie out buinlrrd and eixiy acre* tic huya from ihr Govrriunetil, g'vr* valor to and bring* into market the adjacent landa Kvery furrow m ule by lira plough, ivcry road be open*, every bridge he build*, and every i oin??' lir rrn I*. add* value to the adjacent G .vernmrnt landa; and in I:I:n< ?, and in in rat of the new Sate*, Ihr ayttem of laxntiou Iwing on the mi rain rem principle, the more he improve* hi? lurid* the h gb* are Ilie t.ixia; but lire General Govern mi nt I ring the large*! p'oprietor, ifcrive* thr full benefit of th- ae aere*?lort* ol value, hul pay* no In tea. I'he reclamation of tint Vaat territory ??l of the A i I'-g'haniea from the aar.ne and the aolitude >1 the wtldrrnrH, i* n high compliment to the ad renturoua apint of the pioneer, whore itauitlrr* our Age ha a impel il h in to rticounirr the ?U'ie ritud? a of n Irontier life, and to lay hroad and < rep tie I >ntidalinn of piial common*eallha in their K-ikl tori"t? ami untenanted prairie* The a< ttlr m ot of Ih.' Weal la llie gran teat ai hievrinrnt of lie aire. An half century di?cli>? a a majjo'fi oni tinpire, and th?- erlahltahinrnt of the inntituiivuaof i* . r< hjfiott, ami 111??-r ty on that territory which, it the b* Kioninjr "I the Governor lit, had been con limned by propiieey na the perpetual (I main of the in' ayje. And what ha (he Government <lont ? It i? true, ilie haa lie g itui 'ed tirade* with tin Indiana, hut by lirr Infimi polo y ahe h.ta hedged up the path of th pinion r from th f untie-? of Virginia, at eaeh au< ;raaiv< advance to ihe K i ky mountain', by *-aI.a it wild Indiana, *ho ?tan<l riady on tin- ho'drr line with the ) III piemen t * of death to maaaarrr II III, III *' ife, II nd ehlldreii lly Iter hi it /?> ley -In- I i < * rone troin tin hard ?armii(fa of the |"<ui? # I per lie 11 lor rc lec ining h'i lull' ry li m .oe; lm cupatioll, and makiair I irina for lo r in lltcwil ilerneaa?that jt 1 io to le ch?a n into il? ahyaa of the trcaaory, l > tip expen id no. ah r < In than 111 the re glon ol ii- .i | i- 11 on Pi < p r r Innl.lgrant ihe ai toaI * it o h ta f d, ? nh hi# **? in one hand and Ina gi o in lie* o her, el on on t > the receding < um ' h"' " Indian, le.ivii'jr la hi lid liitn all tin mu enienei a of ?< c t ty di auto'. i.f*chool< and < htin he d ?i lip n ?.d top < ah ma, and '*( >1 ?" ' Vl '>' *"1" ' 1 !' ' g '