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NEW BRITTAIN DAILY HERALD THURSDAY, APRIL 23, 1914.
sunn ML hty Growin Photos by American Press Association. ". 1 Massachusetts. 2. New York. 3. Looking down on the deck of the Texas from the Brooklyn bridge. 4. Oregon (lower) alongside Pennsylvania. 5. Wyoming from the Brooklyn bridge. 6. Arkansas. By JOHN J. BREEN. 'LTH the powerful super Dreadnoughts, the Texa.s and New York, sister ships, completed, the Ok lahoma and Pennsylvania nearing com pletion and still another great ship v known simply as No. 39 unde"r way the ' United States navy is assuming splen did proportions. The Arkansas and - Wyoming, sister shins, bisr in their dav. are outdone by the new craft already built and those under construction. When the Texas steamed proudly up .the East river. New York, from Tomp- - kinsville to the navy yards. ' she was forced to lower her wireless topmasts to avoid the girders of Brooklyn bridge. One hundred and twenty-ftve feet is the span from water level to the under girders at the center of the Brooklyn bridge, and the tips of the wireless pole reach up 130- feet. The fire control basket at the top of the lattice work mast is 120 feet high. :" The ship's flag officer, standing in the gasket at the fire control top, could al- - pnone. cameras, ana moving picture machines clicked busily as the battle ship moved by. The crowd which had gathered in the Center of the bridge cheered the new Dreadnought and the flag officer just a few yards below them. The officer waved back and held up the Angers of one hand to signify that he had five feet of head room. A man could have Jumped easily into the basket. While the harbor craft were tooting, the Texas worked slowly up the river and swung around into the navy yard, taking the next berth to the New York, which was nearing completion. When she left the Newport News shipbuild ers, the Texas had already beaten her speed trial requirements and was 99 per cent completed. She went to the Brooklyn navy, yard far a final trim ming up and the installation of torpedo tubes and sighting equipment for her turret guns. The New York, rival of the Texas, whose commission pennant didn't fly as early as the Texas, was a little more than 98 per cent completed when the Texas swung in beside her. Drills stopped, painters and mechanicians quit work on the New York and watch ed the newcomer with jealous eyes, for there is a great deal of rivalry between the ships' builders. The Texas is 665 feeton the water line, with a beam of ninety-five feet, and at her trials showed a mean dis placement of 27,000 tons. She carries ten fonrteon-inch guns, twenty-on8 flve-Indh rapid fire guns, four three pound saluting guns, two three-inch field guns, two machine guns and two semiautomatic guns for boats. Her cost, unequipped, was $5,830,000. and fully equipped it will be in "the neigh borhood of $11,000,000. Dedicate Great Ship to Peace. To peace and not to war is the great United States battleship Oklahoma dedicated. She is the first floating fortress to be sent into the water with prayer. Bishop E. ; E. ' Hoss of the Methodist Episcopal Church South whose headquarters are at Muskogee. Okla., and Nashville, Tenn., gave utter ance to the sentiments which in a manner set the great engine of war apart from other ships. They were re echoed by Secretary of the Navy Dan iels, by United States Senators Owen and Gore and Congressman Weaver of Oklahoma and by other speakers at the luncheon . which followed the launching of the magnificent hull at the Camden yards of the New York Shipbuilding company. The Oklahoma is 683 feet over all, and her displacement is 27,500 tons. Her contract calls for speed of twenty and one-half knots. The main arma ment consists of ten fourteen-inch breech loading guns, mounted in four turrets, which are arranged on the cen ter line of the vessel, two forward and two aft. The secondary battery consists of twenty-one flve-incb. rapid Are guns for defense against torpedo boat at tacks. There are also four submerged twenty one-inch torpedo tubes and ten small guns ' for saluting and landing purposes. The vitals of the vessel are protected by a deep belt of armor on the sides and by armored decks and bulkheads. Protection against sub marine mines and torpedoes is afforded by means of close subdivision in the lower part of the vessel. The comple ment will consist of fifty-five officers and 800 men. Some of the most striking dimen sions of the new Pennsylvania are her length, 625 feet; beam, 97 feet; draft, 29 feet, and full load displacement, 32, 500 tons. She is forty feet longer than the Oklahoma, authorized just before her, and. besides having a greater dis placement, has an extra couple of feet of beam length. Her battery includes twelve great fourteen inch 45 caliber guns, twenty one five-inch and numerous smaller guns, besides two twenty-one Inch tor pedo tubes. The fourteen inch rifles are fifty-two and a quarter feet long, weigh close to a hundred tons each and shoot accurately at 12.000 yards. They fire a projectile weighing 1,200 pounds and use 300 pounds of smokeless pow der at each discharge. . Few men would experience difficulty in crawling from the breech to the muzzle. To protect her from an antagonist's fire fourteen Inches of steel armor have been placed in front of her vitals, extending from well below the water line, to several feet above. Recent ex periments have shown that a good pointer could destroy a vessel of the older types by so directing his fire that the projectiles would not strike the ship directly, but. falling a certain number of yards short, strike her on the ricochet. It is a simple problem of mathemat ics to calculate how deep a shell will go below the surface before It rises on the ricochet. This has been done for all sizes of projectiles, and naval ex perts know Just how far short to al low their shells to fall in order that they will strike the ship beneath her armor belt and cripple her machinery, if not destroy the ship, with one shot. In the design of the Pennsylvania the armor belt has been extended so much that it will be impossible for a shell to penetrate her skin below the water line. But what about a torpedo? That deadly arm of offensive warfare has not been overlooked. Double bottoms, with almost innumerable subdivisions. all fitted with means to render them watertight at an instant's notice, have been fitted so that in case an enemy's torpedo boats managed to elude the powerful rays of the Pennsylvania's twenty odd searchlights and the hafl of shot and shell of her thirty second ary battery guns, the explosion of one or even two torpedoes under her bot torn need not prove fatal. Has Triple Gun Turrets. The most striking feature ot the new ship, however, is her triple gun turrets. The half century old two gua turret idea has been discarded in favor of the recently approved American-Italian design of placing three guns tn each turret and mounting them in one sleeve; so that they may be fired at a single piece. For years naval experts hare tried to solve the problem of triple gun turrets, but none were successful until the Italians, closely followed by Amer icans, announced that a eolation had been found. Naturally It Is a carefully guarded secret, and. while It la expect ed that other great naval powers wUl finally land on the correct solution. It may be safely predicted that American men-of-war. with triple gun turrets, will predominate for a number of years. Prior to the completion of the Texas and the New York the Arkansas and the Wyoming were the biggest ships In the United States navy. These ships have a normal displacement of 3i,000 tons and a speed of 20 Vs knots, which was exceeded on trial, the Arkansas , having reached the speed of tl.&lS knots during her trials off the coast of Maine. The Arkansas and Wyoming, which are No. 33 and No. 32. respec tively, on the list of United States bat tleships, are both fitted as flagships and have the following dimensions : Length. b. p 554 feet; breadth on load water line, 93 feet 2ft Inches; mean draft. 28 feet t inches; displacement (nor mal), 26,000 tons, with two-thirds full supply of ammunition and stores. The full displacement Is 27.243 tons, and the bunker capacity Is 2,500 tons, exclusive of 400 tons of oil fuel. To Honor Brave Women of Civil War HE erection of a Red Cross building at the national capi tal in memory of the women of the civil war is now- assur ed. Individual contributions of S400, 000 have been received, and congress has appropriated $300,000. - A splendid site has been selected, and plans for the stately memorial have been approved by the commission in charge of the project. The site will be vithin a stone's throw of the White House, on Seventeenth street, and will be flanked on one side by the famous Corcoran Gallery of Art and on the other by the magnificent Continental hall, the national home , of the D. A. R. The plans provide for a structure of two stories and basement, with an as sembly room 60 by 64 feet on the first floor, a large .' museum room on the basement floor and numerous offices on the first and second . floors The floor plans were suggested largely by Red Cross officers in order that the work of the great organization may be car ried on as systematically as possible. There will be three rooms especially for the use of the three great boards of the Red Cross the war relief board, the national relief board and the international relief board. From the standpoint of the Red Cross the erection of the building places the United States on a plane with Russia, Austria and Germany, which already have Red Cross buildings, and with Japan, which is now constructing one. But from a broader standpoint it means the rendering of homage to the flower of American womanhood of a period when the country was torn asunder and grim war stalked the land. And it means, too, the uniting in memory of that womanhood, for the building is not a memorial to the brave women "of the north nor yet to vwv wWy v jtfi1 . " s . " ::::......-:::: -:.:.v. x-:-:-x-:.x-'-'.-:.w:w-x-:.:-: I ! f'" ' 1 f"l fji''' vfcJ" L JlL' , jj , , I "'. 1 ' I t i r ' h J czst ,fw r it ' 4 't -.v- w, .I - rr - - . 1 ," flVn -----TTTr--r- . ... , , , 'nt "jy 'ttfrrr-''"''5 Top (left to right) Mother Bickerdyke, Mabel T. Boardman of National Red Cross society, Dorothea Dix; lower, , memorial building these noble ones of the south, but to both of them in fact, to all the known, the unknown, the nameless and the forgotten women who gave their ut termost soul and body and mind to principles of the Union blue or the Confederate gray. At the time of the civil war there was no Red Cross, no organized effort for nursing sick and wounded soldiers. Nor were there so many women train ed in nursing as there are now. Within thirty days after the troops were call ed for the secretary of war appointed Miss Dorothea Dix of Boston as su perintendent of nurses, and her word was law in the hospital department. She was given power to appoint nurses and discharge them as she saw fit. There could be no question of Miss Dix's fitness for such a position.' Her activities previous to that time had been worldwide. She had improved prison conditions all over the country, as well as abroad, and had founded thirty-two hospitals; besides two in Japan. She issued cir culars describing the kind of women she Required for her service, and she would accept no others. Miss Mary A. G. Holland, herself an army nurse, who has written "Our Army Nurses." quotes this circular of Miss Dix: "No. woman under thirty years of age need apply to serve in a govern ment hospital.. All nurses are required to be very plain looking women. Their dresses must be brown or black, with no bows, no curls or jewelry and no hoopsklrts." "Down from the "middle west" went Mother Bickerdyke, whom General Sherman declared to be his most re liable general. She followed the army through Tennessee and across the mountains, her paramount object to provide them with nourishment - Mrs. Mary Martha Reid lived in Flor ida. She was a widow with an only son. When he went to Join the Army of Virginia she would not stay behind. She went to Richmond and took charge of a hospital, and whenever the army needed her there aha was to be found. She served all through the war, to see her son die in Richmond in '64. Miss Jane Thomas, sixty-three years old, of Tennessee, went to Virginia and, like Mrs. Bickerdyke, followed her army to give help when it was needed. Wherever the troops were gathering for a battle there went Miss Jane, noth ing daunted by age or hardship. . Once in .Tennessee she worked for weeks to gether . with Bishop Quintard and so won his love and respect that as long as she lived the bishop sent her a great bouquet of flowers every Easter day as a loving memorial of her war service. ARTHUR J. BRINTON. Woman Figures In Ulster Crisis IT has been freely charged and not denied that titled women have played a leading part in the re volt in the English army which followed the proposition to send troops to Ulster In the home rule struggle. The name of the Marchioness of Lon donderry is frequently mentioned in connection with these stories. Her husband, the Marquis of Londonderry, is one of the wealthiest men in the province of Ulster and is said to have financed a great deal of the opposition to home rule. He has been the leader of the home rule opposition in the house of lords. It is but natural that the marchioness should take a lively interest in her hus band's fight. And it is declared that her help has been all powerful. For years the marchioness has been re garded as one of the reigning beauties of London, and, like many beauties, she possesses almost as many enemies as she does friends. Her enemies say that much of her unpopularity in Lon don was caused by what they term "her intolerable arrogance," which was augmented from the time her husband occupied the post of lord lieutenant of Ireland, at Dublin. The fair march ioness was in the habit of referring to that period as "our reign." Lady Londonderry is of most aristo cratic appearance and never looks as well as when, decked out In all her magnificent Jewels, she stands at the head of the staircase of. Londonderry house receiving her husband's guests. While the enemies of the marchion ess speak bitterly of her, her friends are Just as warm in their praises. Of all Lord Londonderry's seats, It . is at his Irish one, Mount Stewart, that Lady Londonderry is best seen at close range. There she is among the people whom It is her delight to 'help, and there she can exercise the distinctively Irish virtues , of hospitality to all her neighbors, gentle and simple. . In this matter, as, Indeed, in so many others, both Lord and Lady London derry set an example to the great Irish landowning class. They never have ,had to complain as have so many of meeting with anything but gratitude and affection from their Irish . tenantry. Every year saw them settled down for a good long stay in the most picturesque of their many beautiful homes. Mount Stewart is a typical Irish mansion. picturesque without, and delightfully comfortable within, surrounded by a fine sporting estate, and the center of a notable hunting country. WALTON WILLIAMS. wV?gCf til , AJ- A r A v. ii v - - t y SJ a Ji " - 1 , -" S.V-.J-"V " "'-V s . 5 J . j t : y J A MARCHIONESS OF LONDONDERRY.