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SATURDAY PRESS SUPPLEMENT, OCOBER 28, 1882. v tf- '. r ;'. .- S f ,'r tiii HAWAIIAN RECIPROCITY TREATY. The following rt-Ktrto!i Ihc rctiltsof the Hawaiian IloelprocityTreaty was read before Ihc Planters' Lnlur and .Supply Compnny, October I'.tth, 18S", by II. M Whitney In .liiiiiuiry, Hir,, the United Slates filtered Into 11 Treaty of Com inerelnl iteelproelly with the Hawaiian Hands, which, after some delay, wr-iit Into operation In September, IS7(i. Ily the teniH of thin convon tlon lhclcndiugngrlciiltur.il products of Hawaii, Including rice and raw mgnrs, known In Kan IVawNco hi "Santlwlrh Inland Sugars," are ad mitted free Into all ports of (he United .Stales; and iiciirlyjtll the ngrlcul tnral prodnels and manuf.ieliires of (he latter nation are admitted free into Hawaii for (he term of seven years from Ihedaluat which it went into operation, "mid further, until twelve months notice Hindi In- given by either of the contracting parties," after the end of the sahPterm of seven yearn. Under lhls stipulation, eight years from September, ISills (he shortest term of duration, as understood by Ixitli contracting parlies. Anions I tic principal objects "ought hy the advocates of tills treaty was the encouragement of liierea-cd trade and more Intimate commercial re hit Inn between the I'aclllc .Slates and Territories of the Union and the Kingdom of Hawaii, In the ginwth, prosperity and independence of which the American p"oplc have long taken a strong Interest, and thus bind the two countries more firmly in the natural and friendly relation Avhlch they have always held toward each other. The result has been as was anticipated, and as will be shown hereafter, an extraordinary Increase In the trade between the two countries, in which all classes have shared, mid In cementing the friendly relations between them. That the results of the Treaty have been more observable in Hawaii than In America Is not to be wondered at, when the sparse population of the Infant kingdom Is contrasted with the broad expanse of. territory stretching from the Atlantic to the I'aclllc the llfty-llvo millions of her Inhabitants, ami the majestic progress of the greatest republic that the world ever had. Hawaii has, however, In a humble, way .sought to follow the example set by her noble benefactor, and has Increased her population .solely under the Impulse of the treaty, from 68,00(1 In 187(1, lo about 75,000 in 18S'J, with a fair prospect of soon reaching 100,000, should the treaty continue for a few years longer. As has been the case with other trade conventions made by the United States, this treaty drew out opposition soon after It became a law; but It did not develop much strength until the autumn of 1831, when a com bined attack was commenced by -evornl American new.spapers, which have resorted to every mode of misrepresentation and calumny to preju dice the public against It and Hawaiian planting Interests. The state ments of alleged cruelty on plantations here, which have been published and republished with magullled details, are for the most part, wholly with out foundation, and have originated with persons who are recognized as visitors or laborers, who for various reasons have been induced to sign them; but with no sulllclent cause of complaint, unless prosecutions for criminal oll'enees committed by them here have allorded an excuse for seeking this mode of letaliatiou. We have not heretofore deemed these groundless charges of cruel treatment worthy of notice, as every Intelli gent and unbiased poison who Is here now or has ever been here knows that there has been no occasion of complaint; but as these slanders con tinue to be uttered, it becomes necessary to deny their truth. The charge which has been publicly made by American new.spapers, that there exists here "the worst system of slavery ever known," we pronounce to be utterly false and without foundation. When this statement -Was llrst brought to the notice of the Honolulu Chamber of Commerce, that body addressed a letter to the Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs, calling the attention of the Oovcinmciit to the subject. In that communication the olllcers of the Chamber state: " We n je furthermore authorized by the Chnuihcr of Commerce to deny emphatically that there is any system of "slavery" or "peonage" in this country, or that plantation laborers, or others are, or can bo abused without being able to obtain full and speedy redress, and also to deny that there has been any violation of the terms of the Reciprocity Treaty. "Your Kvcellency Is mi intimately acquainted with the employers of lalwr, with the merchants, and with the laws and their practical working, that you must be fully alive to the Injustice of the charges to which wo have briefly referred, and which have been mi unfounded, extravagant ami malicious, that the planters and merchants have hardly considered It necessary to contradict them, and only the fear that continued silence might bo misunderstood, bus led the Chamber of Commerce touddress this letter to your Uxcelloney." Krom Ills ICxeelleney's reply we quote as follow.s: "The injustice and extravagance of these charges is so notorious here that His Majesty's Gov ernment have felt somewhat as the planters and merchants do, that it was hardly necessary to contradict- tliein ; still in other countries, it will no doubt bo advisable to refute them, and His Majesty's Envoy Extraordi nary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Washington, has already replied to several of the statements when they appeared In publications which had any character for respectability." As lu other .sugar-growing countries, the system of indenture has boon adopted here, as It has been found necessary to .securo an uninterrupted supply oi nmorers (luring ino narvesi, or grinning reason, it originated hero many years ago, in the whaling service, in which many Iluwailans shipped and became noted as expert .seamen. When tho whaling business declined, and these same men were wanted as laborers on tho plantations, they demanded the advance that had been paid to them as whalemen, and Hlgued their shipping articles," or contracts as the American seaman to this day signs his, when ho receives his advance. Thus it will bo seen that the system of .service on our plantations is identically tho same, and Is of American origin. Tho term of .service Is entirely at tho option of the lalKirer six, twelve, eighteen or twenty-four months, except in tho case of laborers procured at much expense from foreign countries, which are from threo to live years. Nino or ten hours, according to agreement, con stitute a day's lalsir, twenty-six days making one month, all which Is jilnp'ly .slated in each printed Indenture. The laws which regulate this Bervieo were enacted by Hawaiians for (heir own protection ami benefit, and, us may readily be Inferred, these laws are extremely partial to the labor ers. In any troublo between them and their employers, tho Courts of the Kingdom arc open to them, and each party Is held strletlj amenable for any violation of tho terms of service. It must not lie Inferred, bow ever, that till tho laborers employed hero arc- under contracts ; as fully one fourth of them generally those of tho better class are engaged by the mouth or day. The strongest proof of the equity of our lalior laws that can lio desired by any impartial luqulicr Is found In tho fact that more than half of the contract laliorers now on our plantations, are men who have served out one, two or moro terms of ludenturo, and have voluntarily re-shipped with for mer employers, whom they liavo learned to rogurd as their best friends, When to this wu add tin lalior contracts aro not transferable, and that they terminate with the death of tho employer, (mi that no purchaser, lielr or assignee of an estate may claim tho laborer.) Can any stronger ovi deuce bo furnished to show that they aro protected against every form of injustice? Most of the cases of complaint that have boon made public In San Francisco papers, aro those of Norwegians or Portuguese, who shipped in their own country to servo hero at wages loss than Is usually paid here. Ju Mime Instances, their terms of agieeiiieut have not boon fully under stood by them. Hut in sumo eases thesu laborers c.iniu from tho poorer, vicious anil Indolent population of the cities, who engaged for no other oliJect4tliaii to obtain u free pus-sigo to Hawaii, In tho hope of bettering tliulr circumstances, as opportunity might oiler, by breaking their en gagements and leaving for California. Tho Portuguese laborers, on learn ing of tho hlanderous rejHirts that have leen circulated abroad respecting tho treatment of tho planters toward them, liavo hastened to deny tlieso rex)rts. , The lalnir laws of this country aro a, inodiileutlon of tho Indenture laws and decisions of Now York State, and in compiling them the (rumors of our laws tipiH'iir to have been guided uliiuvt entirely by tlioo of that Stato, the same languago being used In some instances in lioth cases. To Illus trate tills, wo refer to Apiendlx C," where tho chief points in each are given; and It "will bo there observed, that tho laliorers' rights uro oven uwro carefully guiuilod In Hawaii, than in tho liberty-loving Empire SUte," which some of us uro proud to own as our birth-place and home, No Intelligent jwrson who has ever lieen to Hawaii, uiul seen tho con dltion of our laborers, and tho manner in which they uro provided for, can doubt that it is equal to, If not better than that of the same class in other &intrles, some, of whom would doubtless gladly oxehango places with Uuw on our bluiitutloiiH. If they could. Our laborers are provided with good, frame houses, each family haying house, while lUostpUntailoiwIyearsof the treaty! have n hospital, where medical attendance Is given freo of charge to any sick or disabled. Each male earns from forty to peventy-flve cents a day, with free board and lodging, and with extra pay for overwork. On most plantations, stent work Is nllowed to field hands, which they perform In from live to eight hours, having the rest of the day to themselves. No lulHir Is required on Sundays. Those laborers who desire nre furnished with .small plots of laud to cultivate, and many of them are quite Indus trious In this way. When to this we add, that the moro thrifty and fru gal have deposit accounts with their employers, their savings ranging from twenty to seventy-live dollars a year, can any fatr-mlndcd person question the fact that the condition of the Hawaiian laborer Is equal to that of his clas in other countries, not excepting America and England ? Wo repeat, with as strong emphasis as Is possible, that tho existence of slavery in tho Hawaiian Islands, In any form or under nny guise, Is a falsehood worthy only of tho sourco from which It emanates. The lulxir laws of the country have been in forco for thirty yearn, and only changed from time to time to throw moro protection around tho laborer, and to define as well as to restrict the power of the employer. Those laws have received the sanction, not only of the people, native and foreign, but of the governments of all countries with whom Hawaii has come In contact, and we challenge any man to show the least semblance between the con dition or status of tho Hawaiian laixirer and the slave or serf of any other country, ft Is true that we contract with men for tlielr labor, under stipulations mid conditions agreed upon at the time, mid in the presence of mi olllclal appointed by the government lo see that the laixirer properly understands his contract. Even the fee to this olllclal must bo paid by the employer, and cannot lie charged against the laborer. If either party to this contract or agreement falls to keep tho conditions thereof, the only remedy Is an appeal to the courts, and if the employer Is round to have exceeded his rights he is subject to lino and Imprisonment, the contract is annulled, and the laborer discharged from any liability under (he name. Hut If tho lalnirer Is proved to liavo refused or failed to executo the condi tions of his contract, wtth no excuse on his part, and no fault on the part of the employer, than the law says to him, "you must perform the service you have contracted to do." A refusal on tho part of tho laborer to obey tho order of the court Is punished hy Imprisonment. As reference lias been made to tho Courts of this country, it may lie well to state here, that Hawaii lias provided for the people a Judicial system which would bo an honor to any country, and that her civil and penal codes were framed, as far as applicable, after the admirable codes of Mass achusetts, Now York and Louisiana. Our Supremo Court was for many years presided over by Chief Justice E. II. Allon, who Is now tho Hawai ian Minister Resident nt Washington. Tho position Is now tilled by Chief Justice A. F. Judd, a native Hawaiian, of American parentage, and a graduate of Yale College and Harvard Law School. His associates fire Lawrence McCully and Hen). Halo Austin, both natives of Now York Stato and Lawyers of acknowledged ability. Of tho four Judges presiding in our Circuit Courts, two are Americans and two Europeans. We take pride in our Judicial system, as based on American ami English law and practice, and for its prompt and equitable administration of justice, among Ixitli the foreign and aboriginal population of this group. Tho foregoing remarks cannot npply to the magistrates presiding at the District Courts, where the complainant first appears. As a rulo these magistrates have but a rudimentary knowledge of tho principles of law, and but a limited comprehension of the statutes of the Kingdom. They are ioorly paid, if we consider tho position they hold ; but amply so, If we consider the requirements that they possess. They are therefore open to tho temptations which unscrupulous porsons may place before them ; and it is feared that in too many Instances the trouble between masters nnd servants may lie traced to this cause. For these reasons the action of the legislature, In taking from the Justices of tho Supremo Court tho ap pointment of the District Magistrates, and giving the appointment to the' Governors, is most mlschloveous mid fraught with evil for tho future. As grossly erroneous statementH have been published abroad respecting the number of plantations here, (ono writer putting It at 800,) it may be well to furnish the following data respecting the sugar Interest of this Kingdom. There were on the first of January, 1882, fifty-eight sugar mills, tho number of planters or plantations being somewhat larger not far from one hundred. Of these plantations twenty-threo nre owned and carried on by chartered companies, uiul the romainder by private parties or firms, ono mill often grinding the cane of several planters. About two-thirds of the mill machinery has been manufactured In the United States nnd Hawaii, and one-third in England or Scotland. The capital now Invested in the business is estininted at $120,000,000; two-thirds of which is owned or furnished by Americuns, and tho rest by English, Germans, Hawaiians and one or two mills are owned by Chinese. Tho number of laborers em ployed Is nbout 12,000, comprising chiefly Hawaiians, Chinese and Portu guese. The employineut of Chinese here has been forced on on us by tho sumo necessity that compelled their service In the construction of tho Pncllle Railroads because no other class could lie obtained. Wo consider native Hawaiians tho liest for field work, but the supply Is limited to about 3,000. No olllclal data has been obtained show tho area of land planted with cane, but it lias been estimated that 25,000 acres of cane were cropped during tho year 1881, and this embraces the best sugar lands on these Islands, not above 1,200 feet elevation, as may have abundance of rain or aro capable of licing irrigated. VAi.rt: ov vonr.ius im pouts into tiik ArernRO of 6 sent, from 1871 to 1871V ImpotlR for 1877 ..... ImxrtR for 1878 . . . .. Import for 1870 . ....... -.. ., Importn for I8S0 , hnxnU for 1881 From tho tl. 8. .. $ 8fin,ir,l.... . .. 1,031,403 ., . ..2,112,011 . , ....2,,m..., ,... 3,011,2m ... .. .3,2W,.Ti2. ., HAWAIIAN IsIjANIH From nil eonntrle eicept th U. 8. .. .. .$ rwj.osa ., . .. 74003 . ItHflM.. t,37J,801. . 111,379. 1,2US,C2I5. . Totiil Importation .fl.2B,2ll 2,128,000 s.oin.nft) 11,742,978 , .. 3,r,73,2nS .... 4,M7,978 The annual Increase In tho sugar crop of these islands sinco tho treaty went into effect in September, 187(1, will bo seen from the following official data showing tho exports for Hvo years past: Sugar exported In 1877 12,788 short tons or 25.675.96S lbs. " 1878 19,210 ' " 88531468" " " 1879 24,510 " " 49.020972" " " 1880 31,714 " " 13,427,972" " " 1881 46.C9G " " .92,393,044" The yield for the present year (1882) may bo estimated at 50,000 tons. Tills increaso is duo chiefly to tho Introduction of Amorican capital. Ono firm alono the Hawaiian Commercial Company, a chartered corporation of California capitalists two or threo years since, purchased 10,000 acres of what was considered worthless land, unfit for cultivation or even pas turage, and liavo expended on it several millions of dollars in sugar enter prises. At u cost of nearly half a million, In the construction of ditches and Humes, water has been brought by this company a distanco of ovor thirty miles from streams which before ran waste to tho sea, and by tho aid of Irrigation tho dry and sandy plain taken up by them lias been turned into profitable cane fields. This company's crop of sugar for 1882 has been 10,000 toi, which accounts in part for the largo increaso in the exports for 1882. This is instanced as ono of 'tho many enterprises which have so rapidly developed our sugar trade, as was predicted by tho advocates of tho Treaty. As planters 'and sugar manufacturers, wo of courso look to tho most profitable disposition of our crops, And it seems hardly necessary to say that we do not sell our sugars at two cents u pound under t,ho market price simply because tho United States Government remits that amount lu duty. Through our agents wo sell largely to tho refineries of San Francisco, because tho treaty does not allow our bringing lu free of duty sugar of a lighter color than 'No. 1U,' and the peoplo uro not disposed to purchase our dark sugar at even less rates than they aro worth refining, hi selling our sugars to them wo do so Uon the basis of 'Manila,' or Now York prices, and receive as though wo had paid duty Instead of having the Mime remitted. Whether the price of sugar in Suit Francisco bo higher or lower depends upon tho great markets of tho world, and Is governed by the law of supply and denuind. Should anyone offer us mom for our sugars wo would hardly lie so self-sacrificing an to refuse it, Tho chargo has been publicly iiuulo lu American lepers that a part of our sugar exports are tho growth and manufacture of other countries. This statement is false, and could not luive been uttered by any ono conversant with tho facts. It would bo impossible for any party to bring foreign sugar hero and export It as Hawaiian, for two reasons; Every entry of foreign imports has to bo reported to tho American or other foreign Consul, and idso to tho Hawaiian Custom House. And these Hawaiian and foreign officials have tho evidence to show that not ton tons of raw sugar liavo been Imported Into this kingdom during tho past six years. Again, under tho Hawaiian laws, passed specially to protect American Interests under tho treaty, tho exportation of any foreign sugar or rice to tho United States as Hawaiian produce Is luado a penal oMenso, punishable with heavy penalties. While tho growth and manufacture of Hawaiian raw sugars have rap idly Increased In an honest and legltlinato manner, as was anticipated, the commerce of the United States with Hawaii has also grown In like pro portions. The following table, made up from the Hawaiian Customs Statistics, window tho Importations of merchandise, Ant, from the United States; second, from alt countries exeipt the United States; and third, from all countries including the United BUttw, giving the average importations for tho Hvo years prior to the treaty, and far eaeh M the Ave These data, taken from official records, show that the trade of the United States with the Hawaiian Islands has Incrensed from $905,161, the aver age of the five years before the treaty, to $3,210,1152 for the year 1881 a four-fold Increase In live years; while the trade of Hawaii with all other countries but the United Slates, has only doubled during tho same period. The United States now supply these Islands with as much of her produce and manufactures as the duties remitted under tho treaty ninount to. Her gain under the treaty Is this that Instead of paying coin to China and Manila for sugar supplies for Jier I'aclllc States and Territories, she pays lu the products of the soil and the workshop, which her own lalwrers have prepared ready for export. It may safely bo stated that every dollar credited to the Island planters for sugars sold lu Snn Francisco, Is expended for produce and manufactures, or lu freight, commissions and profits, earned by American ships, morchiints and Insurance companies. It lias been estimated that $1,000,000 were earned by American vessels engaged In the carrying trade with Hawaii in 1881, and an equal amount by 'mer chants nnd Insurance companies. While tho national revenue Is reduced by (ho operation of the treaty, American farmers, laborert, mechanics, mer chants, ship-owners, shipbuilders and capitalists derive profits from tho trade with Hawaii which they could never have enjoyed had this treaty not been made, and were the sugar supplies of California obtained, as formerly, from China and Mrnlln. This is an important wilnt too often overlooked In studying Its results. During 1881 the United States Imported 028,000 tons of sugar from for eign countries. This, ndded to Louisiana's yield of 130,000 tons, gives the year's supply for consumption at 1,008,000 tons. The consumption of sugar in tho United States Is said to Increaso at tho rate of 8 per cent., which for tho current year will bo 85,000 tons. With this Inrgo and con stantly Increasing demand for foreign sugar, can It lie osslblo that the small ninount produced in Hawaii will ever conflict with tho sugar pro duction in liulslittm or the refinery Interests of the Eastern Slates, or even keep up to the increasing requirements of tho Pacific States and Ter ritories? In what way then can the .small sugar crop of Hawaii Interfere with American sugar Interests? Tho outcry against this treaty by Louisiana sugar growers can hardly lie well founded. The I'aclllc coast never drew Its sugar supply from New Orleans, and therefore the increased consumption of Hawaiian sugar In California cannot ;osslbIy Influence either the product or sale of IiOiilsIana sugnr. Tliu Hawaiian islands nave a very limited area of sugar laud, variously estininted about 100,000 acres, at the utmost 200 square miles, a largo part of which must constantly He fallow, while the good old State of Louisiana, rich In natural and acquired wealth, and crowned with grand historic associations, jwissessos ovor -10,000 square miles of rich alluvial soil unsurpassed by any country for this and other staple productions. For her, therefore, with her great advantages and wealth, to bo disturlicd by tho competition of a few Hawaiians and Americans in these volcanic Isl ands, who aro striving, honestly and industriously, to supply the western shores of the Republic with a necessary of life which must otherwise bo supplied by China seems prejiosterous and beneath the dignity of her gen orous planters and merchants. Highly exaggerated statements have been put forth In American news papers, and lu the arguments made before committees In 'Washington regarding the amount of loss to the United States during the past five years, some placing It as high as $20,000,000. The actual loss to the reve nue Is the amount of duties remitted under the treaty from year to year; as is also the actual loss to Hawaii the duties remitted on American products entered free at our ports. No candid mind can view this matter In any other light. The cultivation of rice in these islands has shared with sugar the benefits of the treaty, and has grown from a yield of about 2,000,000 pounds In 1875 to nearly 7,000,000 In 1881. This business Is mostly in the hands of the Chinese, and may bo said to bo tho chief attraction that brings hero so many of this class. But owing to the scarcity of land adapted to rice cul ture, it has probably nearly reached Its limit. Having referred to tho treaty in Its commercial aspects, it must not bo forgotten that it possesses a political feature, as important as its commer cial. AVhon it was under discussion in Congress, its supporters made no claim that tho pecuniary advantages would bo equally shared by both nations, but frankly conceded that they would preonderato in favor of Hawaii. Nor was the treaty granted by the United States, so much for any supposed commercial advantages to her as for national purposes. Her chief design nnd purKso were to encourage a nation in the central Pacific that might become a sugar-growing field for her Pacific States and territo ries a nation regarded as almost akin to her that it might become nn independent people, free from foreign complications or control, and still attracted to her by the natural ties of kinship and protector. Secretary ISlaine, In his letter to Gen. Comly, lato American Minister Resident here, brielly and clearly states tho whole case In the following paragraph: This Government has on previous occasions beon brought faco to face with tho question of a protectorate over tho Hawaiian Group. It has, as often us it arose, been sot aside in the Interest of such commercial union and such reciprocity benefits as would give Hawaii the highest advantages, and at tho same time strengthen its independent existence as a sovereign State. In this I liavo summed up the whole disposition of tho United States toward Hawaii in Its proper condttlon." When tho discussion of the treaty in the Senate turned on the pecuni ary advantages that would bo derived from it by the Hawaiian Islands, that body sought and obtained a Klltical concession, in tho shape of a pledge, as an offset to any pecuniary loss, and tho following stipulation was inserted In Artlclo 4 : that so long as thistreaty shall remain In force, His Majesty tho " King will not lease or otherwlso dispose of, or create any lien on any " port, harbor or other territory in his dominions, or grant any special privileges or rights of ue therein to any other power, stato or govern- nient, nor make any other treaty, by which any other nation shall obtain "tho same privileges relative to tho admission of any articles freo of duty horeby secured to the United States." Tills stipulation was signed by the King, and approved by tho Legisla ture nnd Peoplo of Hawaii. It was furthermore understood by Congress to bo considered as a full equivalent for any pecuniary loss under tho treaty. And so strong was this feeling of approval, that tho treaty was assed by a full Senato, with only twelve dissenting votes. Tho astuto and far-sighted statesmanship which secured such extraor dinary political advantages as these, amounting almost to a pre-emption right in Hawaii which some Hawaiians liavo thought should never have been asked orkgrunted cannot reasonably consent to tho abrogation of the treaty on account of some pecuniary advantage gained in the bargain, by her insular neighbor. The higher aims of national policy, and not uny claims of sectional Interost were consulted In grunting It ; and tho clamor of sectional or private Interests will not sot it aside. Little Hawaii lias kept faith with her great benefactor, even enacting laws to protect tho in terests of tho treaty and preserve its faith, and It stands before tho world for honorable treatment and tho maintenance of a carefully-considered treaty. Can n few (Hirtlzaus, spurred on by an Interested hostile discus sion, or yielding to other Influences, compromise tho Interests of tho great Republic towards this little stato? Wo will not believe It I Abrogate the Treaty and some other imtlon may hasten to secure the extraordinary concessions made by It, and thus acquire a claim In, mid power over our archipelago, which from its position is the koy to tho fu ture commerce of tho Pacific, which may steam from tho Atlantic via the Panama Isthmus, to oriental ports, and to the numberless groups scattered over tills oceun. Preserve the treaty anil ho long as it lasts no nation will dure to violate Its provisions, or meddle with Hawuii's iudcendeiice. While It remains in forco, It is a standing notice to till that Hawaii shall bo independent and freo from foreign control. Wbero is tho Amorican, who, wheu ho considers the vast wealth of his country, with her treasury overflowing with uu annual surplus of two hundred millions can be grudgo the com'Muratlvely small loss under tho treaty, or who can show a better way to maintain her supremacy lu this ocean, or, perhaps more strictly speaking, to prevent the supremacy of every other power? American Ideas and tho spirit of American institutions are spreading over tho world, silently but powerfully Influencing every European and Asiatic government and peoplo. They liavo' taken root In Hawaii, and raised her to nor present condition of unexampled prosperity, And from this central group of tho Pacific, which under tho Treaty Is practically an American Colony, tho seeds of American enterprise, American Industry, American civilisation, with all the ennobling. faUweace of her political and religious institutions, are being scattered over this ocean, permeating hesitate before surrendering the precedence which this treaty secures to her In this group and throughout this ocean; especially nt a tlmo when her industries nre calling so loudly for the opening of now avenues for the disbursement of the surplus products' and manufactures from her western prairies and her eastern and southern workshops. Tho extraordinary growth In tho demand for these products In this group, will soon extend to those lying beyond us, till tho millions of Polynesia and Occanlca will lcnrn to rely on America for subsistence to be fed and clothed by Ameri can industry, as Hawaii now Is. . We cannot liolter conclude this earnest nppenl to our countrymen In tho States, than by quoting the language of a San" Francisco paper, the able exKinpnt of a large and Influential ortlon of tho people of California : " We offer tho figures and statements published to-day to the sharpest scrutiny of olllclals, of Congressmen and Eastern editors ; and wo defy nil or any one of them to show that the treaty Is working entirely for tho Iksiiu llt of the Island planters, or for tho benefit of the California refiners, nnd on the contrary to deny (hat It Is not working chlelly for tho benefit of the I'aclllc Coast States and the community nt large. That It is our brokers and merchants, ImiMirting and oxKirtlng, our manufacturers, our ship-bull, dors, our mechanics', our dairymen, our iork packers and our farmers, who are reaping tho profit. Wo defy any candid man lo examine tho state ments here made and come to any other conclusion than that whatever profits tho Island planters, and tho majority aro American, may luivo earned have been expended, nnd those of the coming crop have been deeply hypothecated to California for supplies for present needs and for material for the extensive Improvements now going on In the Hawaiian Kingdom. Tho people of tills State are more deeply Interested, ns regards their business fortunes, In this Reciprocity Treaty, than In any commer cial legislation which hns been approved by the nation for years. And the people of California ask of all their fellow cltlens, of all members of Congress, and of all honest editors nnd leaders of public opinion, n fair and Impartial Judgment on what they now present or mnny hereafter offer lu Justification of tho Treaty of Reciprocity with tho Hawaiian Kingdom." JIEPOKT OF TIW COMMITTEE ON LA1IOJI. To Till! PllKHIDKNT OP TIIK II.ANTr.IlS' LAIlOIt AND SUPPLY COMPANY : Your Committee feel that they can hardly add anything new to the fund of Information alrendv developed tinon tho subject of Iuilsir Supply a 'subject that bus received the attention and taxed the abilities of the best minds lu the country for months past: but they heartily ngreo uimhi tho one main and ImiHirtnnt ioiiit that something must be done, and that It Is hotter to make the attempt and fail rather than not to try at nil I Upon tho relative merits of the lalior of different nationalities It seems not only Invidlousbut useless to attempt a decision. Difference In location and natural peculiarities, aswellasdllVerencc in style of management ujkhi plantations situated even on tlie same island make the labor of a certain race or nationality preferable In one place over another; but It Is not found that any one class, outside of tljo native Hawaiian, is best suited to the wants of all. Nor does It seem julvlsablo that any one nationality of foreign laliorers should bo introduced, to tho exclusion of others, even If practica ble. The result of such action would undoubtedly prove detrimental in the future. But it is safe to say that under our present circumstances the introduction ol Portuguese immigrants In largo numbers, and under con ditions Unit would make their employment safe and profitable, would meet with most general approbation. Tho fact of their bringing their wives nnd children, while Increasing the expense of their Introduction, is a great safeguard against any sudden exodus ami renders their lalior moro certain and desirable. Your Committee would therefore strongly recommend that tho Portu guese Immigration question receive prompt nnd full consideration. It Is unfortunate that any circumstances should have occurred to prevent, oven temporarily, tho arrival of a regular and constant supply of these peoplo upon our stores, and If the present arrangements of tho Board of Immigra tion lie deemed Insufficient for a successful prosecution of the work, tho Board of Trustees should be directed to take the matter lu bund; und to the end that the earliest und most practicable results be obtained, your Com mittee would further recommend that tho Honorable Paul Isenberg lie authorized and emjiowered to act as the Agent of tho Compnny In conduc ting such Immigration, and that he bo furnished with proper credits and credentials for the purpose. It is also advised that tho Board of Immigra tion bo addressed ujxm the subject, and requested to give tho aid of Gov ernment so far as paying tho passage money of women nnd children out of the fuud set aside by tho Legislature for that purpose. It is also recommended that an agent bo sent to Japan to inaugurate the introduction of laborers from that country, upon such terms as shall meet the approval of the authorities there, and at tho same time prove beneficial and 'satisfactory to tho planters of these Islands. The result of the experiment of tho Board of Trustees, In sending a vessel to the New Hebrides for laborers, will bo awaited with much Interest, and if successful, should be followed by further ventures. Your Com mittee are of the opinion that no channel should lie left untried which offers hopes of securing good labor at reasonable rates, and unrestricted savo as to the laws of this Kingdom ; but would discountenance tho idea of nn nttempt to introduce labor from any part of tho world under a special convention or treaty which might prove obnoxious to tho Government of tho United States, while wo continue to receive the benefits of tho Treaty of Reciprocity with that country. The employment of Europeans as common plantation laborers has not, as a rule, proved desirable, although in some cases Germans from tho farming cinas, have proved valuablo laborers, especially where tho employers were Germans ; and It doubtless would be well to liavo the agricultural districts of Europe represented in tho higher branches of plantation work or as small farm ers on shares- Rut the immigration of this class may probably lie host left to Individual effort or Government aid as recuperating tho population of the islands. Next In iniortancc to having laborers, and the rates of wages paid them, is the judicious application of labor. In order to obtain accurate knowledgo as to the amount of labor required, and its cost, for any particular branch of plantation work accurate statistics must be kept. And if such statistics were generally preserved on planta tions, definite knowledgo as to tho cost of each branch or process, would not bo the only value derived, but comparisons between the labor of differ ent nationalities, as well as different plantations could be made, und im provements and labor saving appliances would sooner bo discovered and adopted. Much can be learned by Interchange of thought nnd experience In a general way, but comparisons of actual costs of each stop, are of im mensely greater value. If results show that a certain brunch, certain or branches, aro the most oxpenslvo, attention can bo especially directed to them and experiments be mado to reduce the expense. If the laborers of a certain nationality bo found best adapted for a certain kind of pUintation work, in all, or nearly all cases, it will show the necessity for securing sufficient numbers for the purpose, and soon reduce the problem of tho pro portion required of each nationality to n certainty. In order that such statistics and datu may be secured, regarding the relative merits of different classes of labor upon the same kind of work, your Committee beg to present forms of blank returns which they respect fully suggest and urge be kept and filled up on the different plantations, so that In tho future, comparisons may bo mado and much valuable Inform ation be gained. Tho question of tho employment of day-laborers upon plantation work under general rules nnd at specified rates of wages is ono thut has undoubt edly received consideration from many minds. A sufficient supply of labor in the country to mako tho laborers solicit employment and render It feasible for tho planter to replace any workmen discharged for cause, would undoubtedly afford a solution. But whether It Ls practicable to fix upon nny regulations or agreements which would benefit the planters and make such lalior more certain and rellnblo ls a matter of great doubt That a scale of prices should bo agreed uon for tho payment of certain kinds of labor ut all plantations seems but fulrand Just, but so long as the demand is greater than tho supply some plantations would undoubtedly bo preferred by tho laborers themselves, for certain work nt stated wages, and other plantations would go bare. Still the mutter is worthy your consideration. Respectfully submitted, Z. S. Spalding, Chairman. "W. G. Iiiwin, J. O. Glauk, W. II. Bailkv, ' SAM'liT. Ai.kxandkk, Wii.mam O, Smith; A. Unna. Book: Printing PAMPHLETS, And all kinds of Job Printing neatly done to order, at the office of H SATURDAY PRESS, Also, BOOK BINDING Uin nnstri inni 'rrr ' '" " ' """ ' " lyisi mhmi nwra w - n . , j Itlw vast, and a grander futon) before ker, Awerieaa ateteswM sfconMlAIHl IftMr nUUnf pTUOtpUJ MWIimii i . IV il " s i it V'