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Honolulu star-bulletin. [volume] (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii]) 1912-current, December 03, 1917, 3:30 Edition, Image 2

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Report Prepared for Planters
Annual Meeting Goes Into
Subject Thoroughly
Absolute necessity for greater
wirehouftA and Horace facilities for
Hawaiian sugar is brought out in the
reDort of the committee 'on "Ware
housing and Storing of Sugar," of
the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' associa
tion, prepared for the annual meet
ing. The report discloses the fact that
the storage capacities of the various
plantations range from 10 to 50 per
cent of their yields and only one
plantation. Kahuku. reported that It
could store its entire output The re
port on this important subject, which
since the uncertainty of shipping for
the next season brings K to the fore
front, has been compiled by the fol
lowing committee: F. F. Baldwin,
chairman; John A. Scott, George F.
Renton, George Chalmers, John M.
Ross, F. A. Alexander and George C.
The committee sent out a list of
questions on the subject to each
plantation and the questions and the
summary of the replies follow:
Question 1: What type of building
'and floor therein do you consider
best suited for sugar storage?
"From information gathered in the
Tenlies to the foregoing question, it is
.apparent that experience has not yet
brought about a substantial unanim
Jty of opinion or practise In the con
struction of sugar warehouses.
"Most of the replies Indicate a con
viction that the buildings should be
.moisture nrool However, a building
.that would satisfy this condition . In
some localities might be totally un
.aultable in other. Only four of the
fniiea definitely recommend a fire
proof building.
A summary of the replies shows
such & wide rang of individual prer
orence that apnarently it is useless
"for your committee to offer any
:jhm for atandardlzina' details ;of
construction. Nevertheless, we yen
turo the opinion that fundamentally
'sugar warehouses should b both" fire
proof and weather-proof.
' "Your committee is also of the
pinion that a warehouse should be
. rll Ueh'nA. aa a dark warehouse is
usually a dirty warehouse and light is
the .only universal sterilizing agent."
- Question 2. Do you think sugar
warehouses should bs ventilated t
"From the replies It appears that
there Is a wide variation or opinion
a this point. This Is no doubt due to
the variation In atmospheric cpndl
" lions on the windward and leeward
.sides of the islands. However5 your
'committee ventures the -opinion thai
ventilation would prove .beneficial to
the sugar .::!n storage at: anytime
when the humidity or422e atmoepbere
outside the warehouses. Is appreci
ably lower than Inside. These condi
tions can be certainly and cheaply
' known by the use of hygrometers pro
perly placed. It is an established fact
that sugar will absorb moisture from
humid atmosphere and give up mois
ture In dry ataoipbereV ?
Question . What effect has the lo
cation of the warehouse In relation
to trsde winds .and the. ocean on the
' sugar In storage?. v:."V.
;j "From the data furnished It ceems
. .that the most unfavorable location is
joa the windward side of tho islands
' close proximity to . the ocean, unpro
tected by trees or other building. In
uch locatlona it appears that the
.buildings must ... be; air " tight ' and
damp-proof ' to be satisfactory. .The
possible exceptions being when the
warehouso is on the top of a cliff high
enough to escape the lower stratum
of . moisture-laden air coming off the
' ocean. v;t ? ? : . : ' ".. l-
,," The deduction your committee
draws from the replies to this snd the
former question Is that to prevent de
terioration of raw sugar in. storage it
must be protected from moisture; that
moisture is recognized as the principal
factor In deterioration; that It Is an
' economic waste to spend money1 in
making dry sugar and then store it in
a, warehouse that will not preserve it
In as dry a condition as when it was
put in; that sugar properly manufac
tured will keep Indefinitely In a pro
perly constructed warehouse." ::v" v4
' Question 4: What percentage ef your
total output of sugar do you believe
you should be able te warehouse safe
ly In case ef emergency? ' r 0:
"The replies do not evidence any
unanimity of opinion. - i f
. rUntfl the year 191$, this factor was
practically latent, for which reason it
has not . entered heretofore Into the
problem, each factory merely providing
sufficient room to take "care, of their
output between the acheduled sailing
of the vessels in the sugar fleet, theii
allotments for each vessel being known
and arranged for between the com-
'.' mencement of each crop. ' ?
1 "Some, of the plantations, however,
h felt a new need in this respect during
the longshoremen's strike in San Fran
c'aco last year, This strike empha
sized the fact, that if our shipping fa
cilities were'.saspended during the har
vesting season,' then this factor would
In a short time become so acute ihat
the lack of reserve capacity would In
terfere with harvesting; the crop.-,
rrae loss to the plantations In such
"an eventuality . would be very - large
compared with the Investment neces
sary to provide ample storage capacity
at the plantations to tide over such
a contingency, v . ' -sr,... - .,
:-; '-"Your committee respectfully sub
mits that preparedness in. this direc
tion is no longer air abstract prop
osition, but a condition which calls not
for d iscustlon, but lor action.'
: - -The nation's needs may reduce our
shipping facilities at any. time, and
this committee recommends establish
ing a stsndard of 50 per cent of the
total crop that each plantation should
bs able to warehouse safely ,ln case
of emergency 3 ' - ' H
V ' v l -nld by Murine. TiTttta
mu.wp- r'"
Question S: Have you noticed the
influence of any heat-resisting fer
ments as affecting the keeping quali
ties of your sugar in storage?
"That all the replies to question five,
with three exceptions, are negative,
should be a matter of congratulation
to the plantations and can be accepted
as good evidence that great care is
exercised In keeping the moisture con
tent of our sugars low enough to guar
antee the keeping qualities.
"Experience has shown that the heat
resistant bacteria found in our raw
sugars are practically inactive so long
as the water contained in the film of
molasses surrounding the sugar crys
tals Is not more than half the non
su&ar." Question 6: What influence of the
methods of manufacture, have you
noted as affecting the keeping quail
ties of the sugar in storage?
"The replies to question six, taken
&r, a whole, show a keen appreciation
of the fact that the method of manu
facture is the principal controlling
factor in the keeping quality of raw
bugar in storage.
"In summing up the replies it wil
be noted that emphasis is again put
on the necessity for cleanliness, the
risk attendant on taking back infected
low goods into manufacture, the risk
of infection from mud tanks, the im
portance of removing all mechanically
combined impurities from the Juice.
the importance of a neutral reaction
of the juice, the doubtful practise of
cashing the sugar n the centrifugals,
the importance of producing , a grain
large enough to separate readily from
the surrounding molasses, and partlc
ularly the Importance of a moisture
content in the commercial product low
enough to ensure its keeping quality
"In regard to cleanliness, this should
begin at the mills, as the juice trays
and screens are frequently responsible
for ferments entering the boiling
"Your committee would class most
of the buildings described as expedi
ents and legacies from years gone by,
but objectionable from one point or
another in the light of present day
knowledge. .
Question 7: Do you favor the use
of .Hersey Dryers?
"Of ' the ' replies to the foregoing
question, the majority, nineteen in
number, are unconditionally opposed
to the use of Herser Driers; eight are
conditionally opposed to them, or bez
the question; ten have no experience
or do not reply; and only two planta
turns' are unconditionally In favor of
using them. Of these two. one the
Honolulu Plantation, is manufacturing
refined white sugar, and your commit
tee r is -uncertain wnetner this reply
was; decided by . their, own needs or
was, an opinion as to the needs of the
raw sugar factories. ?.
.Tour committee advances the opin
ion that Kersey Driers will always be
unnecessary for .factories turning out
raw sugar that Is . desirable from . a
refining, standpoints though the fac
tories that are equipped with dryers
can use them In lieu of some other
device for cooling - their commercial
sugar, before bagging, and in that way
will, obtain a decided : benefit from
them.' ; ; -
Question t: How Co you weigh your
sugar, automatically or by hand?
ui tne zx plantations replying to
the foregoing question. 15 are weigh
Ing their, sugar automatically. Of these.
six are checkwelghlng all or part of
their sugar, and about 0 per cent are
weighing by hand.
Your, committee makes the state
ment, that the Importance of accurate
weights of cur ? commercial product
cannot be over-estimated, and that the
problem of securing accurate weights
at the ; factories and a corresponding
outturn In sucrose at the destination,
is one In which every one of us should
be vitally, Interested, and that Just as
muchvffort should be made to account
for every pound of sucrose leaving the
factory as for test entering.
r Automatic scales have solved this
problem In the refineries because they
are manufacturing avfree running
product, but our' raw sugar factories
cave yet to And an automatic . scale
that Is accurate, continuously depend
able and xmifcrmly satisfactory.
Two' believe the reason for this Is
that raw sugar has a slight stickiness,
s of a slow moving nature, and calls
or a special knowledge of the product
that the scale manufacturers have not
gOt ;,T. -.
"This opinion is borne out by the
act' that such a" small percentage of
our factories are weighing automatic
ally, and that some have abandoned It
for: hand .weighing after exhaustive
trials; for it is generally recognized
that an automatic scale with the elus
ive properties of accuracy and depend
ability .would be most desirable. '
TTbe automatic scales are nearly all
constructed with equal armed beams,
the leverage being one to one with no
multiplication of error due to multi
plied levers; while with the common
platform scale used for hand weigh
ing, the leverage Is usually 100 to 1, so
that an error of one-fourth ounce at the
end. of the lever means 25 ounces on
the. platform. v :
V v It follows that hand weighing re
quires both careful and expert weigh
men, for the weight of each bag to
have any' degree of exactitude. Your
committee suggests that wherever it
Is feasible the sugar should be weighed
in carload lots when It leaves the fac
tory, as this will divide the error due
to the. human element by the number
of bags on the car.' One plantation re
ports that they are doing this now, and
all plantations should adopt the meth
od of-systematically checking their
weights."; .
Question 9: How do you sew the
bags? V " .
"Practically 75 per cent of the fac
tories, representing probably 90 per
cent of the output of Hawaii, are us
ing sewing mschlnes for closing their
bags." This Is such conclusive evidence
In favor of this method of sewing bags.
Question 10: Do you use mechanical
means for piling your sugar in the
warehouse? If so, give a brief descrip
tion of the apparatus used.
Trom the replies received it will
be seen that slightly more than 52 per
Cent of the factories are using mechan
ical means for handling their surar
In the warehouses. Two of the fac
tories not mechanically equipped are
able to obtain the same results by us
ing gravity, and the outturn of some of
the factories Is no doubt too small to
warrant any capital Investment in this
Seven new members have been ad
mitted to the Sugar Planters' associa
tion and two have died since the last
meeting says the report of Secretary
W. O. Smith read at the open session
of the planters this morning. The new
members are Frank N. Anderson. W.
H. Balrd. Charles T. Jacobson, Erick
A. Knudsen, S. S. Peck, William Wil
liamson and H. Wolters. The deceased
were F. M. Swanky and H. W. Thomas
The report contained resolutions of
sympathy for Mr. Swaniy's death.
The report after reviewing fbe pro
ceedings of the last meeting and ap
pointment of committees urged com
mittee members to hand in their re
ports not later than September 15, so
they may be printed for distribution
The sugar crop report for the year
as prepared ty R. D. Mead showed
tonnage of 644.091 (short tons). At
tention was called to the need of some
system of boiler inspection in the ter
ritory. Excerpts from the Department
of Commerce's report on the cane
sugar Industry, which have already
been published by the Star-Bulletin at
various intervals, were outlined by
Secretary' Smith. This report shows
that Cuba produces 36 per cent of the
sugar used in the United States and
Hawaii 12 per cent Relative to grow
ing conditions the following was in
corported in the secretary's report:
" "Natural conditions are most favor
able in Cuba. There is no scarcity of
fertile land suited to sugar cane; there
is abundant rainfall: there i3 suffi
cient population to supply the labor
needed, without the prp'-oure of popu
iation upon land that leads to high
land values and tends toward rela
tively small holdings. In Hawaii con
ditlons are very different. Land suit
ed for sugar cane is limited in area
and high in price; deficient rainfal
requires on most of the plantations
expensive systems of irrigation; the
use of fertilizers is necessary; and
laborers from other countries must be
Induced to settle in the islands. Yet
by science and cooperation these 'dif
ficulties have been largely overcome;
nowhere is the cultivation of sugar
cane more Intensively and successfully
conducted; nowhere is more efficient
machinery employed; nowhere are ac
counts more carefully kept; and no
where is tne industry, as a whole
more skilfully directed."
direction, while others ship their out
put from the factory daily.
"It is gratifying to note that so little
expense is being devoted to hand labor
in the factory warehouses, and there
is no doubt but that the fixed installa
tions of elevators and carriers, and the
portable piling devices described, al
pay a handsome interest on the in
Question 11: What was your, aver
age loss in weight and sucrose per
tag en your San Francisco shipments
as compared i wiih New York shict
ments fcr the crop of 1916?
"There Is a great divergence in the
loss, both in weight and in sucrose, of
the Atlantic and Pacific Coast ship
ments as reported by the various plan
tations. Fifteen plantations report the
loss in -weight per bag as being high
est in the Pacific Coast shipments,
while nine report the contrary. Two
of'the latter state, however, that this
is only true for this one crop and
that previous crops have shown higher
losses in the Pacific Coast shipments.
This difference is more pronounced in
the case of the plantations that have
the higher loss in Atlantic Coast ship
ments, so that In an average of the 241
plantations, the 9 plantations more than
offset the 15 plantations, and so the
average for all 24 shows a slightly
higher loss in Atlantic shipments.
"Five plantations report a larger
gain in polarization in shipments to
the Atlantic, while two plantations re
port the opposite.
"From the data given, the loss of
sucrose in pounds per bag can be ob
tained for nine plantations and the
percent of sucrose per 100 sucrose
shipped for four more plantations. As
suming that these last four bsd a ship
ping weight of 115 lbs. and a shipping
polarization of 96 degrees, the aver
age for the 13 would give:
"Atlantic Coast, .42 lbs. sucrose lost
per bag.
"Pacific Coast, .428 lbs. sucrose lost
per bag.
"The 1916 crop amounted to 593,483
tons. The 24 plantations in the fore
going list represent over 400,000 tons,
so that it is reasonable to assume that
their average loss will represent that
of the group. At .785 lbs. per bag, this
would amount to 3,700 tons of com
mercial sugar lost in transit. Part of
this is compensated for by the increase
n polarization. The loss in sucrose
amounts to practically 2,, 170 tons of
commercial sugar. Actually tne loss
must be in excess of this,, as quite a
cumber of plantations put an over
weight of sugar in their sacks to cut
down the apparent shipping loss. At
1100 per ton (which is less than the
average received for the 1916 crop),
this would amount to 1217,000. In ad
dition to this, the plantations paid the
relght commissions, and insurance on
2,000 tons more than they received pay
ment for, which brings the total lese
up to about 1240.000. The plantations
also paid two or three thousand dollars
for containers to hold sugar for' which
they received no payment
'Your committee regrets that the
replies to the foregoing question were
ncomplete in so msny instances as to
the mechanical loss of commercial
sugar and sucrose in transit, as we
hoped to be able to make some posi
tive deductions on this subject, instead
of presenting estimated averages."
The reason you advertise
is to tell as many prospects
as possible about what yon
are offering. The Star-Bul-letin
goes into 6300 homes
every evening6300 home
circles who are as anxious to
find a bargain as an astrono
mer is a new star.
(Continued from page 1)
largely increased cost of production.
excessive freight rates, and enormous
"As an illustration of what has hap
pened, let its compare the following fig
ures, showing bonus and taxes pail by
the Ewa Plantation Company in the
last year before the war, and the bonus
paid this year, and estimated taxes to
be paid as a result of this year's op
erations :
Before Now
Bonus $13,918.00 $ 505,339.00
Taxes 58.98S.35 1,107,240.00
Total ....$72,906.35 $1,612,579.00
Per Ton Sugar 2.43 46.40
."Figures like these are so startling
as to suggest at least the thought that
perhaps the net gains and final divi
dends to the owners of the plantations
will not be so large as the prevailing
high prices for sugar would seem to
indicate. This radical change in the
conditions to be met certainly calls
for very careful consideration of the
question as to whether or not some
modification shuld be made in the
bonuB system to bring it more nearly
in line to accomplish the purpose for
which it was originally intended.
Experiment Station.
"The excellent service performed by
our experiment station continues to
be demonstrated, and will be fully
covered In the able report submitted
which contains a full review of the ac
complishments of the past year. Ten
of the employes of the station have
left for war service. This leaves the
station short handed, but this Is a
condition to be expected in times lke
these, and must be met as best It can.
"The departure of Mr. Muir is a
most serious loss, and we trust his life
will be spared and that he will in due
time return to our service.
"During the year past we have'lost.
by death Francis Mills Swanzy, one
of our oldest members. He was ac
tively connected with the development
of the sugar industry since his arrival
here in 1881, and has seen it grow
from small beginnings to its present
commanding position. He was first
elected a trustee of the Planters' La
bor & Supply Co. on October 20, 1S89.
He filled the offices of auditor and
treasurer for several terms, and was
elected president, November 26, 1895,
upon the reorganization of this asso-
Distributing of Parasites imp""11 h" been foun,d to be. est:
Large Number to Re-establish
Control Advocated
"A number of plantations have had
an unusual amount of leaf-hopper in
one or more fields at some time dur
ing the year," states H. P. Agee, di
rector of the Hawaiian planters' ex
periment station in his report to the
annual meeting of the Hawaiian Sugar
Planters' association.
Continuing the report says, in part:
"In certain cases the damage was
extensive and severe. Among the
plantations mentioned are the follow
ing: On Oahu, the Oaha Sugar com
pany, Ewa Plantation company, Waia
lua Agricultural company; on Kauai,
Kekaha Sugar company and Lihuo
plantation; on Hawaii, Olaa Sugar
company, Hawaiian Agricultural com
pany, Waiskea plantation, Hakalau
Sugar company and the Pacific Sugar
"At Ewa fields of H-109 cane were
affected, particularly the plant cane.
At Kekaha there was an outbreak in
some of the .lowland fields, worse
than they had had since the early
leaf-hopper days. At Olaa the severe
outbreak of last year has continued
and increased in area and severity.
Where leaf-hoppers were doing such
destructive work in connection with
the leaf-roller at Pahala for the two
previous years, this year they have
been reduced to a point where they
are scarce.
"These outbreaks of the last three
years have caused some concern. Mr.
Muir says that he has been asked if
the parasites are 'playing out,' but
states that he can see no reason tc
believe that suth a thing is happen-
ng. He holds the opinion that under
favorable conditions which have been
the normal conditions of the past teu
years or so, the parasites are able
te hold the lear-hoppers in check so
that the damage is small. When these
conditions are upset the leaf-hoppers
multiply rapidly and damage is done
before the parasites regain control.
Mr. Muir points out that the disturb
ing factor may, have occurred months
previously, and among these factors
he enumerates the normal winter in
crease in hoppers; heavy rainstorms,
particularly if accompanied by high
winds; the harvesting of large areas.
particularly Isolated areas, and es- j
pecially if they are burnt over; and !
the migration of leaf-hoppers to areas
that have been free from the pest I
hnd hence clear of the parasites. ;
"These and other factors lead, ac-1
cordine to Mr. Muir. to one result, the :
freeing of the leaf-hoppers from their ;
parasites, and he advocates distribut-1
ing the parasites artificially in large
numbers in order to re-establish their
control of the pest. This can best be
done by placing a quantity of mid
ribs of the cane leaves which carry
the parasitized leaf-hopper eggs at in
tervals across a new area, properly
protecting them from drying out. Re
cent observations have led Mr. Muir
to believe that much can be accom
plished hy this method of contending
with leaf-hopper outbreaks which may
be expected from time to time.
New Leaf-Hopper Parasites
'The breeding of the Formosan
eaf-hopper egg parasites has been
continued by Mr. Swezey and Mr.
Timberlake, and colonies Were sent
out whenever available to planta
tions where conditions were suitable.
Thirty colonies of the Ootetrastichus
species were distributed, and this
elation, when the Planters' Labor &
Supply Company, a corporation, was
gucceeded by the Hawaiian Sugar
j Plftntera- association, and has since
I .n. f ta.ma
Appropriate resolutions were adopted
by the trustees and spread upon the
Coming Year
"Among the problems which will
confront us during the new year, that
of the transportation of our sugars to
market will not be the least. As you
all know, the fleets of the American-
Hawaiian Steamship Company and
Matson Steam Navigation Company
have been requisitioned by the United
States, and several of the vessels
which have been regular callers in out
ports have been diverted to other bus!
ness. The association has presented
its case clearly to the United States
shipping board, and assurances are
given that our needs will be cared for
The rate of freight which we will be
called upon to pay is yet to be de
termined, but we can rest assured that
it will be a material increase over that
previously enjoyed by us. The invest
gation made by the association as to
transportation needs of the territory-
revealed the fact that, during the 1
months ending October 31, 1917, the
freight space used per capita of our
population was upwards of seven tons
without taking into account the im
ports of oriental merchandise.
"The price of sugar will also be
fixed by the government, and wil
probably be materially lower than
would prevail if trade were allowed to
proceed without governmenetal reg'.i
"The enormous increase in taxes,
and it is by no means certain that
further increases will not be made,
the high price of supplies which have
in many cases doubled and trebled
the advance in freight rates and cost
of labor and of every item entering
into the coat of production, the shrink
age in crops Incident to the drought
recently experienced, bring many of
us face to face with a condition which
calls for the exercise of the mos
careful supervision and management,
or many of the estates will face a de
ficit instead of a profit. I believe,
however, that the difficulties with
which we are confronted will be over
come, and that our industry will flour
ish and be the mainstay of Hawaiian
prosperity ( for many years to come."
lished on two plantations. On the
whole, however, Mr. Muir considers
that the showing made by these For-
mosan species is disappointing.
"The Chinese' Dryinld, a parasite
related to the well known Faircblld
parasite of the cane leaf-hopper, Intro
duced by Mr. Muir in 1907, was first
found established last year, and ls
this year reported by Mr. Swezey in
most of the Infested plantations. The
adult resembles a large black ant;
the parasitized leaf-hopper appears to
have a large black wart beneath the
"Mr. Swezey finds that in most
places a fairly close balance is main
talned between the borer and it
Tachinid parasite. Where rata occur
they facilitate the work of the borer
and more damage results.
"Some more colonies of the Tachi
nid were sent to the Hutchin
son Sugar Plantation company, where
they are not yet known to be estab
lished. One search was made since
these colonies were liberated, but to
no effect
Yellow Stripe Disease
"During, the past year this diseaae
has appeared in epidemic form in
many fields of Striped Tip cane on
Hawaii, extending over far greater
areas and ruining a larger percenta
age of the stools than in any former
epidemic on record. The disease, ac
cording to Dr. Lyon, did not occur in
Isolated patches of small extent, but
was generally distributed throughout
the fields, attacking from 50 to 90 per
cent of the stools.
"After examining certain fields of
the Hamakua coast, Dr. Lyon estimat
ed that the Yellow Stripe disease
would be responsible for the loss of
thousands of tons of sugar independ
ently of any other adverse factors
which might affect these fields.
"This goes to show that the experi
ment station was fully justified in
recommending the gradual substitu
tion of other varieties for one sus
ceptible to the Yellow Stripe disease.
Refining Properties
"This subject has occupied the prin
cipal attention of Dr. Norris and his
assistants during the year. As author
ized by the trustees of the association
Dr. Norris made a trip to the main
land, to visit refineries in California
and in the East, to obtain more pre
cise information in regard to the re-
fining qualities of Hawaiian sugar. A
short trip was also made to Cuba to
investigate methods of raw sugar
manufacture mere. The results of Dr.
Norris' findings have been covered hi
separate reports.
"As a tentative standard for the
past season it has been assumed that
a desirable sugar should not have
lover 5 per cent by weight of grain of
less than three-quarters of a millime-
ter square. Having now on hand
about four hundred samples of Cuban
sugars of 1917, pr. Norris purposes tt
determine the size of grain in a large
number of them, thus securing data
upon which a permanent standard
can be based. Messrs Burgess, Mc
Allep. Brodle and Reynolds have tak
en part in the examination of sugars
during the year.
. "It Is the intention, to continue the
tests on raw augars during next sea
eon. Aside from the tests mentioned
above certain research investigation
on raw sugars are in progress for the
purpose of getting information that
will be of assistance In improving
their refining value.
Production of Exhausted Molasses
"The large amount of work required
Serve at the
PvAAnm' I
rT9 r. r
Experiment Station Committee
Reports Success Over
Beetle Pest
Attention Is called to the fact that
during the past year a study has
been made in the refineries of the
United States and Cuba as to the com
parative reHnlng merits of Hawaiian
sugar with competitive sugar in a re
port which has been filed with the
Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association
by the committee in charge of the
experiment station.
"That very definite progress has
been made by the plantations in im
proving the refining quality of their
sugar is now quite apparent to all,"
is one of the statements in the report.
The report la signed by J. W. Wal
dron, J. F. C. Hagens, T. H. Petrle, A.
Gartley, C. R. Hemenway and J. N. S.
Williams. ,
The report follows
-UK nltA- t
our sugar industry which 1 stand. out.JJ??"! SSSJ:
more prominently and v which la pro
ductive of greater ami more lasting
benefits to the plantations than the
successful introduction of effective
parasites to control, our insect pests.
The Anomala beetle, which gained
foothold on the Island of Oahu some
six or more years sgo, had already I
done ereat damase before spreading'
beyond the boundaries of two
tions of this island. It is, therefore.
with .distinct pleasure and pride that
we point to the Introduction of what
appears to be a very valuable parasite
for checking the ravages of this in
sect. In fact the outlook is se prom
ising that it may already be regarded
as little short of a successful achieve
ment. Special credit Is due Mr. Muir
and the entomologists who have been
associated with him In this undertak
ing which has extended over i more
than four::year. and which Involved
Investigations In Japan, Formosa. Java
and the Philippines before the effec
tive parasite (a ScOlia wasp) was final
ly located. Introduced and established.
'The leafhoppcr outbreaks ox tne
last three years have been serious and
will demand a thorough cooperation
between the plantations and the ento
mologists of the station in the system
atie distribution, of parasites from one
field to another, along the lines advo
cated by Mr. Muir. In connection
with the leafhopper outbreaks, wo feel
that it Is absolutely necessary that the
department of entomology, in particu
lar, again commence the regular in
spection oi the condition of the plan
tations a work which has been some
what neglected for the past' year or
two, on account of all Its energies be
ing concentrated upon the introduc
tion of the enemy of the Anomala. '
The work of the agricultural depart
ment, under Mr Larson, deserves spe
cial mention. By an extensive scries
of field experiments a great deal of
precise dUa Is being secured upon
efficient methods of fertilization, cul
tivation and. irrigation. Your com
mittee feels that there are many very
complex questions in connection with
cur agricultural problems and that
these can be dealt with by the planta
tions only alter such thorough-going
investigations as are now being con
ducted Jointly by the managers of the
plantations and the agriculturists of
this station.
The work of extending the propa
gation of new seedling varieties to the
other islands appears to have been a
particularly good move and has re
sulted in the . production of some
eighteen thousand seedlings. This is a
greater number than has been secur
id by the station in - ail or tne pre
vious vears work in this connection,
Recent investigations by Mr. Bur
on raw sugars has delayed the mo
lasses investigations referred to last
year, rne results ooiainea oy ur.
Norris so far, however, indicate that
none of the plantations are yet pro
ducing a final molasses from which
no more sugsr can be obtained. In an
experimental boiling house devised
from laboratory apparatus, Dr. Norris
has reduced the gravity purity of mo-
asses from four widely separated
plantations to about 30 degrees. These
plantations are on three different is
lands and grow different varieties of
cane. So far the rule holds good that
the higher the density to which the
final masseculte is boiled the lower
the purity of the molasses obtained;
the limiting factor being the work
ability of the masseculte in the cen
Pineapple Investigations
'The work which is being handlea
for the Pineapple Packers associa
tion has continued to increase In
scope and volume under Dr. Lyon's
direction. Numerous field experiments
are under way relating to cultivation
and fertilization practises and labora
tory investigations deal with seversl
field and cannery problems. The
Pineapple Packers' association have
provided at Wahlawa a substation to
accommodate a large number of pine
apple seedlings which Dr. Lyon and
Mr. Doty have propagated. A large
glass house snd a small laboratory
and office building will be erected
and the place will be adequately
equipped for work la pineapple breed-
in'' ,.,
phone mt.
table and eat
Phone 1431 or your grocer and place
your order for definite delivery. ,
geas In connection with the diseased '
condition of Lahslna cane point more
strongly than ever to the fact that this
trouble is related to the presence of v
black alkali salts in our soils; and It
is believed that, now that the cause of
this malady is better understood, we .
will be able to deal with it in a much . ;
more satisfactory way. -'
"Other cane diseases have been
kept under close observation by Dr. '
Lyon and preventive measures havsv"' "
been outlined In connection with suchs
troubles as infectious top-rot, yellow
stripe disease, etc.
"A special effort has been made dur : '
ing the past year by Dr. Norris to aid
the plantations in improving the re
fining value of our raw sugars.- Dr.
Norris visited the refineries of , the
west and east coasts of the United
States and the Island of Cuba, obtain- -ing
exact information as to the com
parative refining merits of Hawaiian ,
sugar and competitive sugar.
Tht - v
by the plantations in improving the re
fining quality of their sugar Is ne V)
quite apparent to alL It Is proposkJ
that a systematic study of this quss-.
tlon be continued for at least anothtr
Tear. . ' -
wnue we have mentioned a few
."u " " -m wiuim ue scope
plauta-i"10 0iat, with
the many Important affairs now helar.
! handled by the station, we would call
your attention to the iact that the
work of this, institution has grown In'
nearly every department during the
past few, years and that this enlarge
ment of activities has almost without
exception been in response to very
definite demands from the plantations
and their agencies. It becomes more
and -more apparent, as, time goes en
and as .cooperation 'grows between
tin plantations and 'he station, that
there arev an - IncreasihV "number iof
.technical problems connected wjth
the Industry; which deserve to he haa- '
died In Just such a way as we are deal-V
Ing with them. ' ; U"- - .
' "In accordance with your .authorlza
tlon, a new reinforced concrete build- "
ing was erected at the station durfsx '
the year, at a cost of 3:,9S.41. - This
structure Is now occupied .by the dl
rector's off!ce,;the entomological de
partment, ; agricultural - department,'
business office and library. Atids
from relieving the very overcrowded -condition
of the old building, the valu
able tecords of the: station, the entc-
mological colctlons which have beea
secured through foreign explorations,
and the extensive technical library '
comprising laome 2500 volumes, are -now
afforded" the fire protection which
their, importance merits. - '
There Is everyDOSsIbIlItv that . the
growing Importance of Cebu may re
sult in the erection here of a great
sugar central; f or ; Hawaii. Several
sugar capitalists from ; Hawaii are
shortly expected here on an official
visit for.the purpose and Lord," the
well known sugar man of Hawaii, head
of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters Asso
ciation in Cebu. Is activelr Interesting
himself In the matter. In fact, he is
acting as the representative of that
group of islands. ; The money likely to
be Invested is said to "amount to
2,000,000 pesos.-rCebn (P, I.) Chron
icle. '" : r- ;
Four sailors are known to have been
lost on the American s steamer Co
Chester, torpedoed on Nov.. 2".
Royal Grove, Waikikt newly Xarnlshed
2-bedroom house, shower, hot water,
etc Phone 4S27. 6953 tf
Edison Phonograph, practically new,
136 new records, $75.00 for outfit.
Call at room 218 Majestic HoteL :
958 tf
Canvas bag containing National figur
ing book, between Punchbowl and
Richards streets, on King street. Re
turn to Star-Bulletin. 6J58 3t
Buick "Big 9," 1918, good condition,
cheap for cash, owner leaving city.
Tel. 4293 before 10 a. m. or call
1714 Beckley street, 988 It
Maxwell Touring Car, 1918 raodeV ex
cellent running condition and ap
pearance. For eaafe onlgr.. Phone 17,
Pearl Harbon -.
V" f ' --'. ----- -

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