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Public Institutions Semi Maui News 'FOR THE VALLEY ISLE FIRST $ Civic Progress Weekly I 22nd. TEAR No. 1208. THE CITY OF REFUGE ON THE HILL Kula Sanitarium Is Bringing Life and Hope to Scores; From Small Start Has Be come Great and its Promise For Future is Magnificent. (By Dr. Charles P. Durney) Kula Sanitarium, or as it la also termed, the Maul County Farm and Sanitarium, is, as the name implies, an institution belonging to the Coun ty of Maui. It was conceived in the minds of Maui people and built and in the main supported by the people of this Island. Its inception was of the most hum ble intent and in great part experi mental in plan, as such a venture established a precedent on the Island, carrying In Its prophesy a seasonable doubt relative to several interesting points. The great need for a refuge for those afflicted with that dread mons ter, the "White Death," was granted by all who were capable of giving the subject any degree of candid consid eration. The scope of the proposi tion was vague in the minds of those whose endeavors were bent towards the attainment of something which wnulri eive them at least a Dartial answer to the ever more insistent question of "What shall we do with our poor who are ill with this di sease?" That a few Bhort years should wit ness the development of their Sani tarium from its very humble and un pretentious beginning to its present state, "The Village of Hope on the Mountain Side," must always be a source of pride to the citizens of this County, for by their loyal assistance and their hearty co-operation at all times has the institution forged ahead, ever seeking a higher goal of endea vor, never satisfied with what seemed at the moment to be sufficient. And thus it must ever be as experience shows the way toward new and bet ter ends. All Classes Feel Interest Tuberculosis In its many manifesta tions is a most protean disease. It is not only intensely interesting to the scientific mind in the study of its causes and effects from the stand point of the disease per se, but like other great handicaps in our march forward in the world, It must needs pique the interest of those devoting their lives to other callings; the stateman, because it calls for plag uing hours of his valuable time in contending with the ever insistent demand for funds specially to be ap plied in the care and treatment of those afflicted; the business man, be cause It asks him to consider the ap peals for financial aid in the many "drives" for donations; the social worker, because he sees the phases of the problem which affect the fam ily; and the lowly citizen, because it carries with it an ever increasing burden of taxation which Bhows such little return in concrete and easily grasped forms. Those of us who are enlisted in the forces giving battle to this monster, (..hor-nnirxaia are asked: "What have you done? What hope have you to offer that some day we may be rid of this thing which causes us the loss of our loved ones, our friends and our treasure?" Problem Has Perplexities We can reply that the sum total of all that has been and is being done directly and indirectly, to better the environment of man is showing in di rect effect upon the tuberculosis sit uation. It Is utterly unworthy of any worker in any given field to attempt to show where his labors have made the mark which points to success. We know that the death rate of tu berculosis is falling. We know that the ancient and traditionally cultured dread of the disease is lessening to a marked degree. We are sure that in the not too distant luture aavanceu cases of tuberculosis will be found in fewer numbers. But we are tully cognizant of the fact that a sanitar ium or any number of such institu tion's, are not in themselves alone going to solve the many complex problems. The aspects of this disease and its influences are so many sided that It is asking too much to expect a solution of the difficulties from any one source. . The institution for the care and treatment of those afflicted with tu berculosis has been said to be but a link in the chain. We must grasp the meaning o this and our view will be clearer. And until we can corre late the endeavors of the various or ganizations and societies which are looking toward the betterment of man's lot. our chain will never be complete. It seems at times that the millenlum must be reached belore we can realize thse things; ;but other great and unexpected gains have been made, bo we live in hope. Factors Outlined In mentioning the decline of the tuberculosis death rate with reference to the several factors which are in fluencing this phenomenon, it might St be out of order here to paraphrase the suggestions made by Dr. Emerson if New York City in a report on this ' subject wherein he refers to some of the possible causes of this decline First he speaks of specific measures which he been brought to bear R-w: W?- i ' t A . V " j"' ' - ' , Jjn.1- I. Mini j i i. mm ii wiihwhiiiiih. - uuiiim ' 'I iii .in umm -iiii Above is general view of grounds and buildings of Kula i against the transmission of the tu bercle bacillus from the sick to the well; secondly he refers to accessory factors which "tend to affect the gen eral bodily resistance of those parti cularly exposed or susceptible, or are intended to inform the public so that intelligent self protection may become more general. In the third place he mentions those factors found in the improved social and economic status which are bringing about in a decided measure the lessened likelihood of sucha disease as tuberculosis finding fertile soil. The first of these things includes: early and accurate diagnosis; the no tification through the proper sources of active cases; the segregation of those afflicted and which are likely ! to transmit the disease through care lessness or ignorance; the care and treatment of these in the most ap - proved manner, either through proper nursing at home or in institutions; the donations, both private and ttirougn education of the masses; the enforce-1 public drives and from corporations, ment of sanitary laws and ordinances all of which denotes the manifesta dealing with the proper disposal of t ion of a material interest in the sub human excretions and secretions; ! Ject of tuberculosis on the part of the those which are formulated to control the spread of disease through foods particularly milk and carcasses of tu berculosis animals slaughtered for food, and the control of the more com mon nuisances which bear on the sub ject of sanitation. Sanitarium Given Start We have on the slopes ol Halea - kala, at about 3500 feet elevation, an institution which was founded in 1910 and which made its start with a few tents. It was intended that persons sunenng v.1111 luuficuiuwa suuum cared for here and, also, that certain cases of chronic diseases other than tuberculosis might be admitted. As a matter of fact this latter pro vision has been overlooked to a de tlm.e w ho nv ihoueht "is 1 "ve eo gree by the majority of have given the institution aa the cases of tuberculosis far predominated that the provision fr iiioii- ram Iimh heen more empha sized; nevertheless we have a lew cases of chronic ailment other than I nutted to sucti an institution as una tuberculosis which we shelter and for 1 are suffering an advanced form of tu-m-hirh we nrovide care and treatment; j berculosis. It is a well known fact nH inn Kitnated as we are at a con - siderable distance from general hos pitals, it lias been necessary to admit SEMI-WEEKLY MAUI NEW3, - v ':' - . 1 L'' -114 'j ' .'-tf-.v W.- -''v. t-Srr left a section of one of the women's wards and for a short period cases of an acute sufficiently to allow him. to lead a j observation at the end of the period, nature such as injuries and other! well nigh normal life and that in the: Under the classification "non-tubercu-emergency cases this because it main, a person's chances for arrest- losis" cases there were treated In all would bring hardship to transport such cases over mountain roads to distant general hospitals. For years the development was slow though marked in every stage by a demand for more accommoda - tions than could be supplied. Each year saw something new in the way of wards or cottages and the usual auxiliaries. Kind Thoughts Construct The Kula Sanitarium has been men- tioned as "the organization of a kind institution refuses no case because of thought.' This is well manilested ln,yI)e or dp.E,.ee of disease, it can well the manner of its bulldine. In the main our wards and cottages their equipment and the equipment of our scientific laboratories as well as our : start in live siock ior me iarm nave j been derived in the lorm of gilts and people ol Maui From a beginning of 31 patients treated during the period 1910 to 1912, the yearly totals have Increased to 295, the total number treated during the last fiscal period June 30, 1921 j to June 30, 1922. No one dreamed in :the early years of the institution's pTiKlenrn that n tritHl nf 47 311 hnslti- ,al (laV8 would be reached ever in its j hlaoryt but Bucn is the eVent. and by tne gien8 exhibited during the months elapging sinM june 0f the present m& number wiu be exceeded ' nm-in2 .1.0 r.iPsent neriod. When we consider the results ob tained in the treatment of those ad mitted, we excite the interest of every one. And here again comes tne usual qua,il vinB statements which must te lconsidered bpfore ilnIm,tial sions can be drawn- Patients Delav Givina Ud it ia r,0,...J,. n,irUlunH tiiai the vast majority of the patients ad-j 1 that with the very fewest exceptions, an individual afflicted with tubercu losis in its early stages, can be healed TUESDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1922. . T ' - - , Sanitarium, left center is operating room, lower right the herd of dairy j ment of disease are about indirectly 41 patients. Of this number, 28 were proportionate to the amount and .ac-1 discharged cured or improved, while I tivlty of his disease. There are other! 7 died, leaving 6 to be carried into j factors, such as resistence to the dl-jthe present period. We thus carried sease, and the type of virulence mani- into the new period a total of 132 pa- 1 fested by the particular infection which the individual harbors, but it I it is encouraging to see an increas is reasonably safe to say that a man ing number of cases admitted under' with advanced and active tuberculosis I the classification of "tuberculosis sus- is not going to enjoy the same chance I pects." This class represents pa-j ol recovery as the one with a lesser tients who have svnintoins or erounsi degree of involvement. Now when it in understood that this be understood that a preponderant I nor the facilities for the proper ob-1 ferred to other islands, w nne it is number of the cases admitted and servation of these cases and it is al-!true that we get very many most ex cared for are very ill persons. There 'most impossible to determine during! cellent workers among these new i-p niRnv r pa sons for this kIhIp nf u ffi.t. ovUn,in-iii,in uimiimr i- recruits from the mainland, and while i affail.s anii to go into them would la4e more SpaCe than is allowed for such an article as this is intended to'such an individual to be admitted to; change of teachers means something be. It would necessitate a considera-1 an institution devoted mainly to the; of a loss to a school, and when there lion of many factors which influence ; investigation of this disease'.a more is a turnover of over 50 per cent of our very civilization. I would like j satisfactory result could be obtained, i the teachers of a given school every to state, parenthetically, that as ouriit is a well known fact that tuber- year, it is hard to build up a strong intelligence broadens and our grasp j culosis can imitate in its various I school under such circumstances, of the fundamental reasons for all symptoms a large number of other! The Old Guard great physical, mental and moral ab- j ailments, and a positive diagnosis of; Most of the principals of 1905 have normalities besetting our course to-!actjVe tuberculosis disease, in many j either left for more lucrative occupa wards a fairer and happier existence cases, cannot be made until the pa-j tions. or else have passed over the becomes firmer it may not be amiss 1 tient has been under observation lor tireat Divide. The veteran W. C. here to enter a reminder that theBn indefinite period. During the so-! Crook of Paia is still with us, hale study of the ways and means of com-; jouin of the patients termed "sus-: and hearty in his 95th year. Rose batting tuberculosis in all that the j pects," they are subjected to the usual j crans of Haou, later of Puunene. subject implies is certainly in order, sanitarium regime. Moses Kauhimahu of Kahului and Thus subject most assuredly affects ; rft. tact R,..rt i Copeland of Wailuku have all left the every citizen ot tne community, eniier directly or indirectly. R,.it. R.aiiv Count nesuiis eany uounx The total number of cases under observation during the period June 30, 1921 to June 30, 1922 was 295. Of this number, 226 were cases of tuber- culosls. mring 1 70 tuberculosis apparently aire g the year there were is cases discharged as ested; 10 as quiescent nnrt 4 in which the disease was nro - : ti essive. while 24 died. There were 118 cases of tuberculosis remaining in the institution at the end of the per-1 cases referred to above, this number iod. Of the 295 cases treated, there ; includes those of an emergency na were 28 classified as "tuberculosis tule SU(. i,as accidents occurring in suspects." Of this number, 20 were;,)le immediate neighborhood, and cer- discharged as having no evidences of . active disease, and 8 remained under; (Continued on Page 2). right center the kitchen, lower cows. I tients ol all classifications. lot svinntnnis which lead to a Kusui - rinn in iiia usual course of events the private 1 nmeiii inner 1p nm hvi the timo! : not such patients are ill with active ! tuberculosis. Where it is possible for Relative to this class ol cases, it imusl ue mepn,mea' 01 course, tnai hey ure jn Ule lmnorlty as ,he eco - ' mimical statu of the majority pre- eludes their leaving an occupation lor any icngui 01 time wiuie ineir symptoms are so mild that they are not considered really ill. in the main , our patients ate auvanreu uctit? cases ' and cease their work to seek treat- 1 ment in the institution only when , they are too weak and sick to work. i Retarding the "non tuberculosis" PRICE 5 CENTS Maui Schools of Yesterday and Of the Present (By H. M. Wells) My connection with the Maul Schools began in April, 1905. over 17 years ago. In looking over the Superintendent's report of that year one is struck with the astonishing growth of our school system during that time. In fact, were it not for these biennial landmarks, one could hardly realize some of the following facts of ancient history. Ancient History In 190G Wailuku had only 212 pupils with five teachers. These were easily housed in the stone building, which was just then completed. It has now about 550 pupils, with 17 teachers. The same year Lahaina had 247 pupils with 5 teachers and was then, as now, the county's largest school. They now number 750 pupils and 25 teachers. Puunene school was not yet on the map. It was opened in 1906 with 94 pupils, in four rooms. It now has 20 teachers and about 700 pupils. Kahului was a one-room school in those days. It now has an enrollment of 275, with five teachers. The five-room school in Keahua was not yet in existence. Spreckelsville had an enrollment of 97 with two teachers. It now has 275 pupils with eight teachers. Paia school was then housed in an old shack on a back street. Its en rollment was then 164, headed by the eteran Mr. Crook with 3 assistants. Paia now has a staff of 21, and an en rollment of nearly 700. Haiku boasted of only 60 pupils and 2 teachers. Now they have five times that number with 8 teachers, while Halehaku, another pineapple school has grown fgrom a one-room school of 43 pupils to an enrollment of 150, with four teachers. Makawao then had 108 pupils with three teachers. It now has 365 pupils and 10 teachers. Slimming it all up there were in Maui County at that time only 2578 pupils. Last June the enrollment was 6392, an increase of almost 150 per ! cent. Teaching Force The teachers of those days num bered only 67 for the whole county. Now there are 210, an increase of 200 per cent. In other words the super vising principal of Maui County has over three times as many teachers to look after as he had in 1905. In the schools of Central Maui over which I now have direct supervision, there are 149 teachers. In 1905 there were in these sam schools only 43 teachers. This means an increase of over 50 per cent. There has been also a great change in the character of the teaching force of the county. According to the re port of December 1904, almost 25 per cent of the teachers in Maul Coun ty had no certificate whatever; while many more had second and third class certificates, which are not now rec ognized. In those days, too, the un certified teachers were found, for the most part, in the remoter districts, such as liana and Molokal. Today, not one uncertificated teacher is found in these schools. The only schools where such teachers are now employ ed are in central Maui, where six or eight such teachers are temporarily employed until certificated teachers can be found to take their places. Tourist Teachers In 1905 there were no transient ! mainland teachers on Maui. I-ast vpar we had 65 such teachers. Of these nearly 50 have either left the service this year or have been trans- i some of them bring fresh vigor and enthusiasm to their work, yet any ; service to seek a surer fortune in 1 other Iine.s. Three principals. Mrs. ; Sab(jy of Spreckelsville, Mr. Kapoha- ; villU)1.pw.. o!- Keokea and Mr. Vincent of Kealahou are still doing business ; at ,he , old KC)loo) 8lte .Long may they ; jv(. ; ' n Memoriam i ye m,eat the names of the rest with bared heads; Dickinson of I.a- liaina. 1). D. P.aldwin ol 1 lamakuapo ko, Atwater of Haiku, Dowdle of Kau pakalua, Kaiwiaeae of liana, Coke of Waihee, Taylor of Kipahulu. Hardy of Makawao. Honored names all, of men who gave their lives' best for the upbuildint of the best in the lives of Maui's sons and daughters. (Continued on Page 7).