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Semi Maui News Progress In All Directions "FOR THE VALLEY ISLE FIRST 22nd. TEAR No. 1208. SEMI-WEEKLY MAUI NEWS, TUESDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1922. PRICE 5 CENTS 5 Industries and Miscellany 4- Weekly I. MALA WHRAF, ONE OF ISLAND'S BEST IV ji Kahuiui Railroad 1 1 First In Islands To Have Charter Mala wharf, located at Lahaina, Maui, was formally opened with ap propriate ceremonies on April 5, 1922. Thin substantial structure, which Is built of reinforced concrete, has a splendid concrete approach 500 feet Long, 25 feet wide, with parapet walks 3 feet high. The wharf is connected by rail with the Pioneer Mill Company plan tation and Baldwin Packers Pine apple Cannery which occupies a posi tion on the shore near the approach to the wharf. It cost $205,000 and required 10 months for construction. The wharf proper, on the north side, from the end of the approach, is 362 feet long and 55 feet wide. On the south side it is 300 feet long, and has landing Bteps for small boats, with minimum depth of water 32 feet at the outer end and 25 feet at the inner end. Passengers, in previous years, have been subjected to the inconvenient, and often times dangerous system of being rowed ashore in small boats, through the surf, from the steamers which were anchored off in deep wa ter. Steamers can now berth at the wharf, and consequently passengers can land in safety, direct from the steamer by gangway to the wharf. Mala wharf is an example of the progressive pp;r,t of Maui. Bud Selection Should Give Greater Crops of Sugar Bud-eelection experiments the re-1 oldest on the plantation, and is heavily suits of which are bound to be ot mtestea witn nut-grass. great direct benefit to the Central Maul plantations, and of general in terest to all practical cane growers throughout the islands, have been carried on since 1919 by William W. G. Moir and E. L. Caum. Their report to the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Ex periment Station contains so many points bearing on the improvement of crops by selection that it H worth the study of other than cane planters. The experiments had their begin ning in 1919 when H. D. Sloggett, then overseer of the Hamakuapoko Eection of the Maul Agricultural Company, cut a number of eyes of 11-109 cane, choosing large eyes from big sticks. These eyes were germinated In pots made from shingles and on May 12, 50 were set out In Field 4, M. A. Co., spaced about a foot apart In the row. These plants were not given any special treatment, being handled un der the normal plantation method. Moir's Idea In January, 1920, at Mr. Moir's sug gestion, about 125 more single eyes of H-109 were cut and started, greater care being taken in choosing large parent sticks from several stools. It should b( noted here that these single eye cuttings were made by simply gouging out the eye without destroy ing the stick, which was left standing. In later work this method was chang ed, the stick being cut up into plece3, oonh honi-in? one eve. In the middle of April, 100 of these j by sticks of H-109 were chosen from plants were set out in the seedling ; very irregular stools. The other sticks nursery at Hamakuapoko, spaced 2Va1of the stools, while generally of mix feet apart in the row. The other 25 I ed sizes, were always larger than the or so plants had died. ! stick chosen. These sticks were cut On May 28, Moir and Caum cut the , into normal sized seed pieces and forty stools remaining from Mr. Slog- i planted in the upper part of section gett's original planting of 50, taking 7. data on number of sticks, suckers and! Uniformity of Stool shoots per stool, relative size, and Experiment S 5 This experiment cane. Planted W. S. Co. Experiment S 10 About 200 stools of one-year H-109 were selected and cut in Field 91 and planted in Field 95, V. S. Co. The stools chosen were practically all large and uniform. Six sticks per stool was the minimum, un less the sticks were exceptionally good, in which case a stool ot five sticks was allowed. Refining the Selections Experiment S 2 I)iff.?iences were noted between proneuie.4 as regards type of growth and uniformity of stand, as well a; in the comparative value of the iu'ogenics as a whole. Stools were selected from six of these for planting in the progeny lest flea, the other four being discontinued. These were all good stools from good progenies, differing in this respect The sticks were of the field. planting. It was not a Data were taken on number and relative length and diameter of sticks and position of the stools in the field, as regards ditches and water-courses. Brix readings of Juice samples from above the average for H109 of t CV V, 1 i Ttcio uiau7 1T1U1 1117 I c fractometer. Each stick of each stool was then cut for seed, and planted in the Hamakuapoko seedling nursery in the upper parts of selections 8 and 9. The seed-pieces of each progeny were sorted out according to the num ber of eyes on each and those of a like number of eyes planted together. These seed-pieces were spaced about 10 Inches apart In the row, with a larger Bpace' separating the series of four-eye cuttings, for instance, from the three-eye series. A space of 2'a feet separated progenies. Single-Eye Seed Experiment S 3 On June 3, 12 sticks of plant H-109 and 6 of ratoon Lahaina cane were cut, data being taken on the degree of uniformity of the stool and the absolute size of the stick. These sticks were then cut in to single-eye seed pieces, according to the second method mentioned above. Each eye of each stick was planted, the pieces being spaced nine inches apart and arranged in the order of their occurrence on the stick. This experiment was planted in the upper part of section 7, Hamakuapoko seed ling nursery. Experiment S 4 Ten small, scrub- vigor of growth. was designed to test the comparative Seed from these stools was planted value of selecting uniformly large in the Hamakuapoko seedling nursery stools for seed, as against selecting in the lower halves of sections 3 and large sticks regardless of the type of 6. The seed was planted end to end, i Btool from which they are taken. In with an 18-inch space between pro- the stools selected, the sticks, always genies. In every case each suck oi 6iX 0r more in number, were ot a uni each stool was cut for seed, the en-1 form size. tire stool being used for this purpose., The single sticks taken as a check This stool progeny planting was list-j were of the same size as those in the ed as "Maul Experiment S 1." uniform stools, but were taken from Following this, a number of other : Very irregular stools. Not more than experiments connected with the selec-1 one gtick was taken from any one of tion project were planted, accounts of these irregular stools, while in the uni which follow. ! form stools, all the sticks were taken. Two-Eye or Three-Eye j Each stick waB cut up into seed Experiment S 2 In Field 4, M. A. 1 pieces, body seed being used as in the 10 stools of 11109, each very uni-1 previous experiments. Planted in W'rm for size of stick and with a , alternate lines in the lower part of minimum of eight sticks each wee cut I section 7. The cane was one-year Tn T ib Kianiuirii useu in eei-. iimm h im. UU OU"W ... . l . 0 .Tune IS in Tifl.t i . i j a r t. ? .. i , n-in was ueiecieu uuu cut irom r leiu Wailuku Sugar Company. The stools chosen, none of which had less than six sticks, were all uniform. That is, the sticks in a given stool were all of approximately the same size, the variation in diameter being negligible. The length, of course, varied with the age of the stocks. The stools were, naturally, not absolutely uniform with eacn otner, some Demg composed oi Experiment S 11 The same as Ex- from those chosen from Experiment smaller sticks than others, but an at-1 periment s 10 but consisting ot a lew s 1, which in some cases wera good iouiiL aa mttUB biuuio mult stools of Striped Mexican. Planted, in ; stools from mediocre progenies, were approximately unilorm with each j Field 95t w. S. Co. Spacing the seed seemed to have Other. T-'YrtPl'inipnt S 12 A rirnirpnv lllant- n lAmlanrv in lnriura ctr,nlinr Aa a generally large, I jne 0f one Stool Of D-1135. which Cun- epneral rule nnlv two or at most three this I olutprl nf 10 vprv lamp ntltf uniform ovpa not- enail niopu crorminata.l n. ?g?' . , c??e ,w,8?, ),,ant,?(1 on june I sticks and one large sucker. Planted ; dicating that there is no advantage in 9 in Field 96 Wailuku Sugar Com- in Fielu 95 w. s. Co. tUe use ot Btied j)ieces wlth a greater pany. The plot was Intended to serve , Experiment S 13 The same for one number of eyes. Correlated with this as an observation test, or as a seed stooi of ti.109 consisting of 23 sticks. there is a disadvantage in the un plot 11 the quality of the cane was A nhntoeranh of this stool is shown :n..vr nmnunt .r n T.inntjwi markedly better than that of the rest j on the cover-page of the Record fori These progenies also were allowed to December, 19:21. Planted in Held ifb, ratoon. w- S. Co. ! e . - Experiment S 14 The same for Butt or TP Seed one stool of Yellow Caledonia, consist- Experiment S 3 In this planting observation , ing of 23 sticks. Planted in Field 95, : only 20 eyes of the 386 planted fail- W. S. Co. ed to germinate, a failure ot less than Experiment S 15 A small observa- trr. These 20 failures were scatter tion test on the use of small sticks ed throughout the length of the sticks, Experiment S 8 An experiment Ue- for seed. The cane was H-109. being grouped neither near the butts signed to test the comparative value ' Experiment S 16 A progeny plant- nor the tops. In only two eases did progeny 1 1 What Seed To Use Experiment S 7 An test on the growth of exceedingly stunte sticks of late Striped Mexican replant cane in an H-147 field. j It is not generally known that Ka huiui Kailroad is Hie oldest in the I group. Ixiking back into its records jit is seen they extend into the monar- filial days. Its charter was granted Ion the fli-sl day of July, 1X81, and it was to operate between Kahuiui and I Wailuku and to Waiknpu, Waihee and Maalat -i. The ch;irter was amended in : 1SSU. Since then it has been extended j into East Maui and now connects up i the seaport with Haiku Fruit Com pany and will be connected up with I Pauwela Cannery, i is expected, giv ing transportation accommodations to Puunene, Spreckelsville, Paia, Hama kuapoko, Haiku and Wailuku. The company was purchased from its early owners by Hie Wilder Steam ship Company which later was induc ed to sell it to the Hawaiian Com mercial K- Sugar Co. II. P. Baldwin and associates with fine foresight into the future took up the improvement of Kahuiui harbor and extensive dredging operations and n $116,000 breakwater were results. That was afterwards ceded to the gov ernment which continued the improve ment. A remarkable thing about the rail road is that it has not been conducted as a dividend payer and all its earn ings have gone into extensions, im provements and betterments. Another remarkable thing is that it reduces freight rates without demand when it sees that the business of its custom ers demand it, as in the case of the slump of sugar prices. Rates were raised when v.venses were high and sugar prices also were, but were re duced when lower prices prevailed. William Walsh is superintendent of the road. Aids Maui Needs The Maui Aid Association, although essentially a religious organization, is engaged also in several efforts tow ard social betterment. It. manages the night schools on Maui and helps to provide the funds for this work; it has general oversight of the work of the Wailuku Japanese Girl's Home and provides a teacher; and it has fostered and helped with the kinder garten at Kahuiui. During the school year of 1921-22 there was an average enrollment of 400 men in the night schools. Schools were conducted at Paia, Spreckels ville, Puunene, Keahua, Haiku, Hama kuapoko, Old Kailua Camp, Wailuku, Puukolii, Kapunakea, Old Mill, Wai nee Village, Olowalu and at Camp 6, 12, 13 and Kihei on Puunene Plan tation. Thirty-three teachers were employed to take care of these schools. A considerable portion of the expense of the schools was raised uuuugu a tuition tee of $1.5o month. Pupils purchased their books. I he social side of the night schools was not neglected as social gatherings were held once a month, on the aver age, in each school. The Wailuku Japanese Girls Home or "Kanda Home" as it is nsm.ii., per own MrwiiTiriirinwiiiMuwir nu Six bi'll calves gt of tin same sire, all the property sf Hatcak.ila Ranch. of selected seed against the regular 'Ing of a very irregular stool of H-109. ; the extreme bottom eye and in no plantation seed. As in the case of Ex- j The entire stool was used for seed, lease did the extreme top eye, miss, periment S 6, each stool chosen was : ... . . .. i ,. . . , . .. ' , , composed of uniform -ticks, but the Studying the ResulU , On the whole, the fourth to the stools were not necessiiilv uniform! in -13-1 uaia were taKen Dy air. aioir , eigiuu eyes iroin uie top oi me suck with each other, although they were ; on the 1920 experiments as follows: as nearlv so as nossihle. Experiment S 1 Tremendous vari laiieu is in cnaree of Mr un,i m..u Kanda and is due is no small part to their efforts. The Maul Aid Associa tion maintains an American worker in the school and gives general super vision to the work. The Home furn ishes a safe and healty place for Jap anese girls from outside districts to live while going to the public school in Wailuku and also gives them train ing in home economics. About 60 girls live in the Home at present Each girl pays a monthly sum for her board. The Association has nlsn twtp....i I the kindergarten at Kahuiui and given it supervision. Some of the funds have been donated by the Association jund some by the Japanese community Ao""1 50 Japanese children attend. ia'ul one of 1-ahaina" The rest were i discontinued. Small Seed Doesn't Pay Experiment S 4 On the whole the ; stools resulting from these small i sticks were very irregular, but four unilormIy good stools, one each from four progenies, were selected and re planted in the progeny test area Experiment S 5 A count of the ; total number of sticks per line hhow ed no advantage either way, but the lines planted with seed from unilorm BiuuiM were niuci iiioi-p iinitTi,,., ,., .I, in, in germinated most rapidly. (This would ( those planted with seed from irregu- t on ! ilpRft stools was exceeding y xpenmeni o o uu juub o-, uuuj uw . Sfor iuis field! which is one of large amount of one-year plant H 109 seed was the same, but from younger' were ratooned for turlher study This was planted June 15 in Field 1 atlons were noted in the progenies ot tatton cutting.) 1 hese were lollowed ed and planted in the uroeenv tet 95, W. S. Co. As there was neither! the several stools planted, the inner-1 by the uppermost, eyes and the eyes area. sufficient seed nor sufficient space i ences in tonnage of cane in some immediately below, which came up i The single-eye plantings of 11109 available to lay out an experiment on leases being over 200tf. Two of these together, and then gradually by the which were made in January 19"i)' the checker-board plan, the selected . progenies yielded very heavily. Seed , rest, the butt eyes being the last to and not given an S number 'were next seed and the seed furnished by the ! was taken from these two progenies show. The resulting differences in selected. Twenty one of the loo were plantation, the same as wad be'ng ' as a whole, and planted in a progeny-1 height, while very marked at first, i chosen for progeny planting d ita be used to plant the rest of the fi.Md, were! test area next to the seeding nursery were no longer noticeable alter a few ing secured on the number 'of sticks pianieu in uueruaiu jiues. i ue juau-, . eei muhi, relative size ami vigor tation neea was lop seen only, wniiei oium.-i nt ic nnmru " i m mo uum me nciranm iur im.uu- same, ana color and growth that from selected stools body and butt seed mixed. Other Varieties of ty pes. was lop, i" uihbi i'i Kferiii.-., h-iuuiiiiii6 .w uiB in me Miifc.-iiv iri uieit n.ia niaue i remenuous differences were noted progenies being cliscontinueii. ';ata it was noted that the stools arising particularly in type of growth These were taken on the nu'liber of sticks from sticks taken from uniform stools stools were ratooned and the young per stool, relative size of sticks, and ! were on the whole better than those ratoons ilenmnsiinteH ttww.. riiftur Experiment S 9 This was the same the type, both growth and color, ex-! from sticks taken from irregular stools ences to an even more marked degree as S 8, except that the cane used was cept in the cae of the first two pro- but the position of the eye on the than did the original stools Lahaina instead of H-109. Here again genies mentioned, whicu were con- slick had no effect on the size of the; All the stools selected from these the selected seed consisted of top, sidered as a whole and not stool by stool arising from it. Seed from fix Hamakuapoko experiments were iftven a DOCy ana DUtl miXea. 1 IlO piilU'.itllUU OIUUI, Alio .Ulij wiimui e'fem0 lucoc uu aa IT-Jiiaiiveu 111 the progeny test area, five of H-109 1 (Continued on Page 7).