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THE' NATIONAL REPUBLICAN
IS PUBLISHED EVERY MORNINO, (SOXDATS EXCFPTID,) On Seventh street, near G, oppos'te tbo General Pott Office,- by LEWI8 CLEPIIANE & CO. TERMS. To city subscribers, six cents per week, paya ble to the carriers. To mall subscribers, three, dollars and fifty cento per annum, payable In advance. Z If Of o) C h ' Yol. I. WASHINGTON,. D. 0., SATURDAY, DECEMBER 29, 1860. No. 28. vAOQAJ PRICE ONE CENT. MAJOR JACrt DOWNING ON SECE3 8I0N. We reproduce, for the benefit of tlio present day and generation, tbo following letter on Nullification, from tho celcbrnted pen of Major Jack Downing : " Washington City, Jan. 17, 1833. " To the editor of the Portland Courier, in the Mariner') Church Building, second story, eastern end, Fore street, away down East, m the State of Maine: " My Kind and Dear Old Friend : The Presi dent's message, to Congress makes crackling work here. Sir. Calhoun shows his teeth like a lion. Mr. McDuffie is cool as a cowcumber, though they say he's cot a terrible tempest in side of him, that he'll let out before long. For my part, I think the President's message is about right. I was setting with the President in tho cost room last night, chatting about one thing and another, and the President, says he, Major Downing, have you read my messago that I sent to Congress today? I told him I hadn't. Well, says he, I should like to have you read it, and give me your opinion upon it. So he handed it to me, nnd I sot down and read it through. "And when I got through, now, says I, Gin ernl. I'll tell Ton lest whot 1 think of this ere business. When I was a youngster, some of us Dowmngville boys used to go down to be bago pond every spring, and hire out a month or two carting logs across the pond. And one time I, and cousin Ephraitn, and Joel, and Dill Johnson, nnd two or three moro of ns, had each a whapping great log to carry across the pond. It was rather n windy day. and the waves kept tho logs bobbing up and down considerably bad, so we agreed to bring 'em along side and side, and lash 'em together, and drive some thole pins in the outermost legs, and row 'em over together. We went along two or three miles pretty well. But, by and by, Bill John son begun to complain. He was always an uneasy, harum ecaruin sort of a chap. Always thought c cry body else had an easier time than he had, and, when he was a boy, always used to be complaining that the other boys had morn butter on their bread than he had. Well, Bill was rowing on tho leeward side, and he began to fret, and said his side went the hardest, and he wouldn't give us any penco till one of us changed sides with him. " Well, Bill hadn't rowed but a little ways on tho windward sido before he begun to fret again, and declared that side went harder than t'other, nnd he wouldn't touch to row nu that side any longer. We told him he had his choice, and ho shouldn't keep changing so. But he only fretted the more, and begun to get mad. At last he declared, if we didn't change with him in five minutes, he'd cut the lashings, and take his log and paddle off alone. And before we had hardly time to turn round, he declared the Cvo min utes were up, and up hatchet and cut the lash ings, and away went Bill on his own log, bob bing and rolling about, and dancing like a mon key to try to keep on the upper side. The rest of ns scrabbled to as well as wo could, and fastened our logs together again, though we hod a tuff match for it, tho wind blew so hard. Bill had not gone but a little ways before his log begun to roll moro and more, and by and by in he went, splosh, head and ears. lie camo up putting and blowing, and got hold ot the log and tried to climb up on it, but tho more he tried, the more the logrolled; and finding it would be gone goose with him pretty soon if he stayed there, bo begun to sing out like a loon for us to come and take him. We asked him which side he would row if we would take his log into tho raft again 7 '0,' an) 3 Bill, ' I'll row on either side, or both sides, if you want mo to, if you'll only come and help mo before I sink.' " ' But,' said the President, '1 hopo you didn't help the foolish, rascul out till he got a pretty good soaking.' ' He got soaked enough before we got to him,' says i, ' for be was jest ready to sink for tho last time, and our. logs come pesky near getting scattered ; and if they had, we should all gone to the bottom together. And now, Gineral, this is jest what I think; If you let South Carolina cut the lashings, you'll see such a log rolling in this country as you never see yet. The old Gineral started up and marched across the floor like a boy. Says he, ' Major Downing, she shan't cut the lashings while my name is Andrew Jackson. Tell Sar gent Joel to have his company Bleep on their orins every night.' I told him they should be ready at a moment's warning. " I wish you would jest give cousin Ephraim up to Augusta a jog to know why ho don't write to me, nnd lei mo know how the Legislu tor is getting along. " I remain your loving friend, " Majou Jack Downino." The German papers are claiming that Sen ator Seward is a descendant of a German fami ly which was driven out of Germany, in some internal commotion. Tho original name was Siegwart, (Victorywar,) which was gradually changed into the English name of Seward. Thoy say, ulso, that Count John Jacob Sivers, whose name is intimately connected with the liberation of the serfs in Russia, is also a mem her of the name fnmily, and the name si! era is a corruption of Siegwart's son. From the New York Sun. SExnisu Small Pox South. As evidence of the foes which the secessionists will have, to encounter, wo copy tho following remarkable communication, which appears in the Colum bia South Carolinian: " Charleston Polite, Look Out Mr. IMitot . By a letter from New Yurk, thero is reason to apprehend that the Lincoln men linvo been gathering up all tho rags they enn find from the BiiiaU pox hospitals, and intend an incur sion in the South, to chase the secession Con ventions and Legislatures from place to place, until they are raude powerless. "Six men aie on the way, having left New York on Saturday, and will be probably at Kingsvillo tomorrow, to tno-ulate the com loaded with members. Cautiov." Colonel John 0. Fremont may bo considered the richest man living. With tho recent im provements, the monthly pioductsof hia mines are near $100,000. Mr. Fremont is oxpectcd iu New York this week. Organization of the Departments. STATU DEPARTMENT. The whole machinery employed to conduct tho business arising out or ur foreign relations with nil the Towers ol the world Is f r more simple than Is generally conceived. The number cm ployed la the Department of State of the United States is only tit enty-elght, as follows : One Sec rotary of State, (Hon. Lewis Cass,) one Assistant Secretary of state, (Hon. John Appleton,! one Chief Clerk, one Superintendent of Statistics, twenty-two Clerks, one Trarslator, and one Li brarian. Diplomatic Branch This branch of the State Department has charge of all correspondence between the Depirtment and other dlpl matlc agents of the Unite, States abroad, and those, of foreign Powers accredited to this Government. In It all diplomatic. Instructions sent from the Department, and communications to commission ers under treaties of boundaries, &c , are pre pared, copied, and recorded; and all of like char acter received are registered and Died, tbelr con tents being Qrst entered In an analytic table or Index. Contular Branch. This branch has charge of the correspondence, see, between the Department and the con uls and commercial agents of the United States. In It Instructions to t oteofficers, and answers to their dispatches and to letters rora othefpersons asking for consular agency, or relating to consular affairs, are prcpired and recorded. The Disbursing Agent lie has charge of all correspondence and other matters connected with accounts relating to any fund with the disburse ment of which the Department is charged. The Tramtator. Ills duties are to furnish snch translations as the Department may require. He also records the commissions of consuls nnd vice consuls, when not In English, upon which exe quaturs are Issued. Clerk of Appointment! and Commissions Be makes out and records commission, letters of appointment, and nominations to the Senate; makes out and records exequaturs, and lecords, when in English, the commissions on which the) ire issued. Has chargo of the librar). Clerk of theltolU and Archua He takes charge of tho rolls, or enrolled acts and resolutions of Congress, as they are received at theDepaitment from the President; prepares the nuthentlca'ed copies thereof which a e called f r ; prepares for, aod superintends their publication, and that of treaties, In the newspapers and in book fcrm; attends to their distribution throughout the United States, nnd that of all document, and pub lications in reg-ld to which this duty Is assigned to the I epartment; writing and answering nil letters connected therewith. Has ot arge ot all ndian treaties, and business relating thereto. Clerk cf Territorial Busmen The Stat of the lepartment, Jc He has chargo of the seals of the United States nnd cf the D partnient, and prepares nnd alt ches certificates to papers pre sented tor authentication; has charge of the Ter ritorial business ; immigration and registered sea men ; records all letteri from the Depirtment, other than the diplomatic and consular. C erk of rardom and Pauportt He prepares and records pardons and remissions; and regis ters and filet the petitions and papers on which thev are founded. Makes outand records pass ports; keeps a daily register of all letters, other than diplomatic and consular, received, and of the disposition made of them ; prepares letters relating to this business. Superintendent of Statistics lie superintends the preparaticn of tho "Annual Report of the secretary 01 aute ana roreign commerce, as required by the acts of 1842 and 185C. ATTORNEY- GENERAL'S OFFICE. Hon. Jeremiah S. Black, Attorney General ol the United States ; A. B. McCalmont, Esq , Assist ant. Ibe ordinary business of this office may be classified under the following heads : 1. Official opin'ons on the current business of the Government, as called for by the President, by nny head of Department, or by the Solicitor of the Treasury. 2 Examination of the titles of all land pur chased, as the sites of arsenals, custom-houses, light-houses, and all other public woiks of the United States 3, Applications for pardons In all cases of con viction in the courts of the United States. 4. Applications tor appointment in all the ju dicial and legal business of the Government. 5. The conduct and argument of nil suits In the Supreme Court of the United States in which the Government Is concerned. 6 The supervision of all other suits arising in any of the Departments, when referred by the head thereof to the Attorney General To these ordinary beads ot the business of the office is added at the present time the direction of all appeals on land claims in California. INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. Secretary of the Department of the Interior, Hou Jacob Thompson, of the State of Missis si pi. Its clerical force consists of one Chief Clerk, (Mosee Kelly.Eeq ,)twoDisburs ng Clerks, and ten other regular Cleiks; and to its super vision and management are committed the fol lowing branches of the public s rvlce. lit, The rulihe Bands. The chief of this I u rcau is called the Commissioner of the General Land Office. The Land Burt nu is charged with the surey, management, and sale of the public domain, and the Issuingof titles theref r, whether derived from confirmations ol grouts mado by former Governments, by sales, donations, of grants for schools, military bounties, or public Irnnrovements. and likewise the revision of Vir ginia military bounty-land claims, and the Issu ing of scrip In 1 eu thereof. The Land Office, also, audits its own accounts. Tin present Com missioner is Joseph S. Wilson. Its principal officers are a Recorder, Chief Clerk, who also acts as Coram ssloner ad interim, lrl cipal Clerk ot Surreys, besides a Draughtsman, Assis ant Dru ghtS!oan,and Borne 110 Clerks of various grades. 2d Pensions The present head of this bureau Is George O. Whiting, ot Virginia. The Coin nils loner is iharged w th the examlnat'on am adjudication of all claims arising under the va nous aid numerous laws passed by Congress granting bounty land or pensions for the mili tary or naval servics In the revolutionary nnd ubsequent wars in which the United btates have been engaged He Las one Chief Clerk, (John llobb, Esq ,) aod a permanent corps, c nslstlng ot 6ome seventy o her Clerks. 3d. Indians. Commissioner of Indian Atlalrs, A. B. Greenwood, of Arkansas Hd is provided with a Chief O erk, and about fifteen other sub ordinate Clerks. 4th. Patent Office Hon. Philip V. Thomas, of Maryland, Commissioner of Pa'ents. To this bureau la committed tbe execution and perform ance of all " acts and things touching and re Bpccting the granting and Issuing of pa ents for new and useful discoveries, inventions, nnd lm provemen s;" th collection of stttlsllcs rela l'g to agriculture; the collection and dlstrlbu ton of te'ds, plants, and cuttings. It bns a Chi f Clerk who Is by law the acting Commis sioner of Patents In the absence of the Commis sioner twelve principal and twelve assistant Examiners of Patents, some dozen subordinate permanent Clerks, besides n consld rabid num ber ot temporary employees. Samu 1 Tt Shu grrt, Esq., Chief Clerk. An act passed at the last session of Congress prov ded that all books, maps, charts, and other publications, heretofore deposited in tbe De partment of State, according to the laws regula t ng copyrights, should be removed to the De partment of tho Interior, which Is charged with all the duties connected with matters perfainin to copyright; which duties have been assigned by the Secretary of the Interior to the Patent Of fice, as belonging most appropriately to this branch of the service. Uesld s these four principal branches of this new Executive Department, the organic act of 1849 transferred to It from the Treasury Depart ment the supervision of the accounts of the Uni ted States Marshals and Attorneys, and the Clerks of the United States Court?, the manage ment of the lead and other mines of the United States, ni d the affairs of the penitentiary of the United States in the District of Columbia; and from the State Department tbe duty of taking and returning the censuses of the Uni ed States, nnd of supervising and directing the acts of the Commissioner of Public Buildings. The Hospi tal for the insane of the irniy and navy and of the District of Columbia Is also under the man agement of this Department; in addition to which, by laws receully passed, the Secretary of the Interior is charged with the construction of the three wagon roads leading to the Pacific coast Under act of February 5, 1859, " providing for keeping and dls iliutlug all public documents, all tho books, documents, ke , printed or pur chased by the Government," the Annals of Con gress, American State Papers, Atncrlcnn Ar ch res, Jefferson's Mid Adams's Works, are transferred to this Department from the Mite Departme it, Library of Con ress, nnd elsewhere ; also, the Journal and Documents of he Thirty filth Congress. These valuable works are dis trib ited to those who are by law entitled to re ceive tbem, and to such " colleges, public libr -ries, alhenxums, literary and scientific institu tions, boards of trade, or public bssoilalions," as shall be designated by tbe members of Con gress. The Di partnient requires an additional build ing for its accommodation, aud the erection of one has been repeatedly recommended during the last few ears for that purpose. At present, the Pension Olhic i prov idi d with rooms in what Is known as " Wiuder's Building," while tho other branches (f the Department, including the Secretary's uftlce, are all crowded into the Patent Office builalug, tne wtole ot which nill be re; quired at an early day tor the use of the Patent Office, lor which it was originally intended. TREASURY DEPARTMENT. Tho Treasury Department consists of the offi ces of the Secretary of tho Treasury, two Corap tro'lers, Commissioner of the Customs, six Au ditors, Treasurer, Register, Solicitor, Light-house Board, and Coast Surrey. The following is a brief Indication of the duties of these several offices, and of the force employed therein, respectively: Secretary's Office Hon. Howell Cobb, Secre tary of tbe Treasury; Hon. Philip Clayton, Assist ant Secretary; one Engineer In Charge; one Architect, ami three Draughtsmen temporarily employed, and twenty-three Clerks. The Secre tary ot tbe Treasury is charged with the general supervision of the fiscal transactions of the Gov ernment, and of the execution of the lane con cerning the commerce and navigation of the United States. He superintends tbe survey of the coast, the l'ght-house establishment, the ma rine hospitals of tbe United States, and the con struction of certain public buildings for custom houses and other purposes First Comptroller's Office. Hon. William Me dlll, Comptroller, and fifteen Clerks. Ho pre scribes the mode of keeping and rendering ac counts for the civil and diplomatic servile, as well as the public lands, nnd revises and certifies tbe balances arising thereon. Stcond Coinplrollir's Office. J. M. Cults, Esq , Comptroller.nnd Beventein Clerks He prescribes the mode of keenlnc and rendering the accounts of the Army, Nov), and Indian departments of the public service, and revises and certifies the balances arising thereon. Office of C.mmisiioner of Customs Samuel Ingham, Eq , Commissioner, and eleven Cleiks lie prescric.es tue moao oi Keeping anu rcnuering the accounts of the customs, revenue, and dis bursements, and for the building and repairing custom-houses, Ac , and revises and certifies the balances arising thereon. First Auditor's Office Thomas L Smith, Esq , First Auditor, nnd nineteen Clerks. He receives and adjustB the accounts of the customs revenue and disbursements, appropriations and expend itures on account of the civil list, nnd "under private acts of Congress, and reports the balances to the Commissioner of the Customs and the First Comptroller, respectively, for their decision thereon. Second Auditor's Office Thomas J. D Fuller, Second Auditor, and twenty-one Clerks. He re ceives and adjusts all accounts relating to the pay, clothing, and recruiting of the army, as well aBtftrworles, arsenals, and ordnance, and all ac counts relating to the Indian department, and reports the balances to the Second Comptroller, for his decision thereon. Third Auditor's Office Robert J. Atkinson, Esq, Ihlrd Auditor, and seventy-eight Clerks He receives and adjusts all accounts tor subsist ence of the army, iortifications, Military Acad emy, military roads, and the Quartermaster's de partment, as well as tor pensions, claims arising Irom military Birvices previous t 1810, and for ho sea and oiher property lost in the uulllarj service, under various acts of Congress, and re ports tbo balances to the Second Comptroller, fir his decision thereon. iieirlA lucfilor'i Office. A. J O'Uannon, Esq , Tourth Auditor, and sixteen Clerks. He receives and adjusts all accounts for the service ot the Navy Department, and reports the balances to the Second Comptroller, for his decision thereon. Fifth Auditor's Office. Bartholomew Fuller, Esq , Filth Auditor, and six Clerks. He re ceives and adjusts all accounts tor diplomatic and similar services performed under the direc tion of the State Department, nnd regmrts the balances to the t irst Comptroller, tor his decision thereou. Sixth Auditor's Office. Ur Thomas M. Tate, Auditor of the Treasury for tbe Post Office De partment, and one huudred and fourteen Clerks. He receives and adjusts all accounts arising from the service of the Post Office Department. His decisions are finnl, unless an appeal be taken In twelve months to the First Comptroller. Ho superintends the collection of all debts due the Post Office Department, and all penalties and forfeitures Imposed on postmasters and mail con tractors for falling to do their duty ; he directs suits ami legal proceedings, civil and criminal, and takes all such measures as may be author ized by law to enforce the prompt payment of moneys due to the Department; Instructing Uni ted btates attorneys, marshals, and clerks, on all matters relating thereto; and receives returns from each term of the United States courts, of the condition and progress of such suits and legal proceedings; has charge of all lands and other property assigned to the United States In pay ment of debts dne tbe Post Office Department, and has power to sell and dispose of the same for the benefit of the Uolted States. Treasurer's Office Samuel Casey, Esq , Treas urer, and thirteen Clerks. He receives and keeps the moneys of the United States in bis own ofiico, nnd that of tho depositories created by the act of the 6th of August, 1840, and pays out tho. Bamo upon warrants drawn by the Secretary of the Treasury, countersigned by the First Comp troller, and upon warrants drawn by tbe Post master General, and countersigned by tho Sixth Auditor, nnd recorded by the Register. He also holds public moneys advanced by warrant to disbursing officers, and pays out tho snmo upon their cheeks. Register's Office rinley Bigger, Esq , Register, nnd twenty -nine Clerks. He keeps the accounts of public receipts and expenditures ; receives tho returns and mokes out the official statement of commerce and navigation of the United States ; and receives frum the First Comptroller and Commissioner of Customs all accounts and vouchers decided by them, and is charged by law with their safe keeping. Solicitors Office Hon. Junius Hillyer, Solicitor, nnd six Clerks. He superintends all civil suits commenced by the Uniled States, (except those artsino in the Post Office Department,) and instructs tho United States attorneys, marshals, and clerks, in nil matleis relating to them and their results He receives returns from each term of the United States courts, showing the progress and condition of such suits ; has charge ot all lands nnd other property assigned to the United States in payment of debts, except those assigned in payment of debts due the I'osi Office Department,) and La. power to sell and dispose of the Bame Tor the benefit of the United States. Bight-House Board Hon Howell Cobb, Sec retary of the Treiury, ex-officio President; Com W. B. Shtibrlek, 1'nlted States Navy, Chairman ; Commander E. U. Tilton, United States Navy; Major A. II. Bowman, Corps of Engineers, Uni ted States Army ; Cnpt. A. A. Humphreys, Corps Topographical Engineers, United States Army; Prof. Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smith sonian Institution ; Prof. A. D. Bache, Super intendent of the Coast Survey ; Commander Ra phael Semmes, Uniled States Navy, and Captain W. r. Hniltn, ejorpa Topographical engineers, United Scales Army, members, the last two being also Secretaries ; and fire Clerks. This board directs tho building and repairing of light houses, light-vessels, beacons, and buoys, con tracts for supplies, and governs tho personnel of the establishment. United States Coast Survey Professor A. D. Bache, LL. D , Superintendent, and Superintend ent of Weights and Measures. Capt. William R. Palmer, Corps Topographical Engineers, United States Army, in charge of the Coast Survey Office ; Lieut A. P. Hill, United states Army, Assistant. Assistant W. Trowbridge, computer of longitudes. Assistant Chas putlog division Assistant L F. division. A. Schott, in charge of com Pourtales, In charge of tidal Lieut Thomas Wilson, United States Arm, in charge of drawing division. Mr. Edward Wharton, acting in charge of en graving division Lieut John R. Smead, United States Army, in charge of miscellaneous divisions. . Samuel Ilein, Disbursing Agent. George Mathiot, Electrotpist. Joseph Saxton, Assistant to Superintendent of Weights and Measures. POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT. Hon. Joseph Holt, Postmaster General. The direction nnd management of the Post Office De partment are assigned by the Constitution nnd laws to tbe Postmaster General. That Its busi ness may be the more conveniently arranged and prepared lor his final action, it is distributed among several bureaus, as lollows : The Ap pointment Ulllcc, in charge oi me rirsi Assistant Postmaster General; the Contract Office, In charge of the Second Asslstaut Postmaster Gen eral , the Finance Office, In chargo of tbe Third Assistant Postmaster General ; and tbe Inspec tion OfficCj'in charge of the Chief Clerk. Appointment Office Horatio King, Esq, Tirsl Assistant Postmaster General, and nineteen Clerks To this office are assigned all questions wbieb relate to tho establishment and discon tinuance of post offices, changes ot sites and names, appointment and removal of postmasters and route and local nglnts, as also the giving of Instructions to postmasters. Postmasters are furnished with marking and rating stamps and letter balances by this bureau, which is charged also with providing blanks and stationery for the use ot tbe Department, and with tbe superin tendence of the several agencies established for suppljlng postmasters with blanks To this bureau Is likewise assigned the supervision of tbe ocean mall steamship lines, and of the foreign and International postal arrangements. Contract Office William II. Dundas, Esq, Second Assistant Postmaster General, nnd twenty-six clerks. To this office is assigned the business of arranging tho mall servile of the United Slates, and placing tbe same under con trait, embracing all correspondence and proceed ings respecting the frequency of trips, mode of conveyance, and times ol departures and arri vals on all the routes; tbe course of tbe mail between the dltlereut sections of the country, the points of mail distribution, and the regula tions for the government of tho domestic mail service of tho Uniled States. It prepares the advertisements for null proposals, receives the bid, aud take charge of the annual and occa sional mall lcttings, and the adjustment nnd exe cution of the cunt! aits All applications for tbe establishment or alteration of mall arrange ments, nnd the appointment of Mail Messengers, Bhould be sent to this office. All claims should be submitted to it for transportation service not under e ontract, as the recognition of said service is first to be obtained through the Contract Office, as a necessary authority for the proper credits at tbe Auditor's Office. From this office all postmasters at the ends of routes receive the statement of mail arrangements prescribed lor tho respectivo routes It reports weekly to tho Auditor all contracts executed, nnd all orders allectlng accounts for mall transportation ; pre pares the statistical exhibits of the mall service, and tbe reports of the mail tellings, giving a statement of each bid ; also, of the. contracts made, the new service originated, the curtail ments ordered, and the additional allowances granted within the year. Finance Office. A. N. Zcvely, Eej , Third As sistant Postmaster General, anj twenty-one clerks. To this office are assigned the supervis ion and management of the financial business of the Department, not devolved by law upon the Auditor, embracing accounts with the draft offices and other depositaries of the Department, the Issuing of warrants and drafts In payment of balances reported by tbe Auditor to be due to mall contractors and other persons, the lupervis ion of the accounts of offices under orders to deposit their quarterly'balances at deslgna'ed points, and the superintendence of the rendition by postmasters of their quarterly returns of postages. It has charge of the Dead-Letter Office, of the issuing of postage stamps and stamped envelopes for the pro-payment of post age, nnd of the accounts connected therewith. To the Third Assistant Postmaster General all postmasters should direct their quarterly returns of postage; those at draft offices, their letters reporting quarterly the net proceeds of their offices ; and those at depositing offices, their cer tificates of deposit ; to film should also be di rected tbe weekly and monthly returns of the depositaries of tbe Depstlment, as well ns all applications and receipts lor postage stands and stamped envelopes, and for dead letters. Inspection Office. Benj N. C'emcntJ, Esq , Chief Clerk, and seventeen clerk). To this office is assigr'd tbe duty ot receiving and examining the registers of tlie arrival i and departures uf the malls, certificates o' the servlie of route agents, and reports cf mail failures ; of noting the delinquencies of contractors, and preparing I cases theteon for the action of the Postmaster I General; furnishing blinks t.-e mull registers, I and reports 'of mail failures; providing and ; sending out mail bags an I mail locks and keys, ana doing alt oilier things wblcn may be neies sary to sccuro a f.ltlitul and exact performance of nil mail contracts. All cases of mail depredation, of violation of law by private expresses, or by the forging or illegal use of postage stam s, ore under the su pervision of this office, and should be reported to It. All communications respecting Iostmoney, letteiSf mail depredations, or other violations oi law, or mail locks and keys, should be directed, "Chiet Clerk, Post Office Department." All registers of the arrivals nnd departures of tbe mails, certificates of the service of route agents, re orts of mall f ellures, applications for blank rrghters, and reports of failures, and all complaints against contractors for irregular or Imperfect service, should be directed, "Inspection Office, Post Office Department." NAVY DniVMVTMEaT. The Navy Department consists of the Navy Department proper, being tbe office of tbe Sec retary and of five bureaus attached thereto, viz : Bureau of Navy Yards and Docks, Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repair, Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, and the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. The following is a statement or tbe duties ot each of these offices, and of the force employed therein: Secretary's Office. Hon. Isanc Toucey, Secre tary of tbe Navy ; Chnrles W. Welsh, Esq , Chief Clerk, and eleven Clerks. The Secretary of the Navy has charge of everjthlbg connected with the naval Cat-ebllsbnient, nnd the execution oi all laws relating thereto is intrusted to him, uud'r the general direction of the President of the United State, who, by the Constitution, is Commander-in-chief of the Army and Navj. All Instructions to commanders of squadrons and commanders of vessels, all orders of officers, commissions of officers both in the navy and marine corps, appointments of comml-sion d and warrant officers, orders for the enliitment and discharge of seamen, emanato from the Sec retary's Office. All the duties of the difierent bureaus ore perform d under the authority of the Secretary, and their orders are considered as emanntlug from him. The generil superin tendence ot the marine corps Tormt also n part of the dutjis of tbe Secret rj , and all the orders of the commandant ot that corps should be ap proved by him. Bureau of Ifaiy Yards and Docks Commo dore Joseph Smith, Chief of tbe Bureau, four Clerks, onoCivil Engineer,nnd one Draughtsman All the nnvyjards, docks, and wharves, build ings and machinery In navy yards, nnd every thing Immediately connected vvitli them, art under the superintendence of this bureau It l also charged with the management of the Naval As)lum Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Itt pair. John Lentball, Eq , Chiet of the Bureau, eight Clerks, nnd one Draughtsman The office of the Engineer-ln-chlif of the Navy, Samuel Archbold, Esq , Is attached to this bureau, who is assisted by thrie assistant engineers. This bureau has charge of the building and repairs of all vessils of war, purchase of materials, and the providing of all vessels with their equipments, as sails, anchors, water tanks, .tic. The Engl-neer-in-chlcf superintends the construction of all marine steam engines for the navy, and, with the approval of the Secretary, decides upon plans for their construction. Burtau of Proastons and Clothing H. Bridge, Purser United States Navy, Chief of Bureau, and four Clerks. All provisions for tho use of the navy, and clothing, together with the making of contracts fur furnishing the same, como under the chargo of this bureau. Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography Capt. Duncan Ingrahnin, Chief of Bureau, tour Clerks, and one Draughtsman. This bureau has charge of nil ordnance and ordnance store, the manu facture or purchase of cannon, guns, powder shot, shells, ic , and the equipment of vessels of war, with everj thing connected therewith. It also provldis them with maps, charts, ihroiiom clers, barometers, Ac , together with such books ns are furnished ships of war " The Pulled btates Navnl Observatory and llydrographical Office" ut Washington, nnd the Naval Academy at Annapolis, aie also under the general super intendence of the Chief ot this Bureau. Bureau f Medicine an I Surjeru Dr. William Whelau, burgeon United States Navy, Chief of Bureau ; one Passed Assistant Surgeon United Slates Nil, nnd two Clerks. Everything rela ting to medicines and medical stores, treatment of sick and wounded, and management of bos- El till 3, comes within the superintendence of this urcau. WAR DEPARTMENT. Hon. J. B. Tloyd, Secretary of War, W. It. Drinkard, Chief Clerk, seven Clerks, two Mes- ... - -TTii r iiATfcfc W ADVEniiTiiQ. One square, three days ....$1 00 One square, four days 1.23 One square, fire days i I Sd One square, six days US One square, two weeks .....j2.75 One square, three weeks. ,v X? a 50 One square, one month i 0d Onojiquare, three months 10 00 One square, six months 1000 One square, one year 30.00 Every other day and once a week advertise ments, fifty per cent, advance on the above, a Inserted ns reading m itter, ten cents a line. Church and other notices, and wants, twenty five cents for each insertion. Ten lines or less constitute n square. sengers, and one Laborer. The following bu reaus aro attached to this Department. Commanding Generate Office This Office, fit the brad of which is Lieutenant General Scott, is nt New York. Aifutant Oenerats Office Col. Samuel Coop er, Adjutant General. Assistants Major E. D. Townee nd, Major W. A. Nichols, Capt 8. Wil liams, and Capt. J P. Qaresche; Judge Advo cate, Major John F. Lee; ten Clerks and one Messenger. In this office are kept all tbe records which refer to tbe personnel of the army, the rolls, &c. It Is hern that all military commis sions are made out. 'Quartermaster Oenrrafs Office. Brevet Major General T. S. Jrsup, Quartermaster General. Assistants Major E. S. Sibley, Brevet Major II. C. Wayne, and Brevet Major J. Belgcr ; eleven Clerks and one Messenger. Paymaster Oenerats Office Col. B. P. Larned, Paymaster General, Lieut. Col. T. P. Andrews, District Paymaster; seven Clerks and one Mes senger. Commissary Oenerats Oylce General George Gibson, Commissary General ; Assistant, Capt A. E. Shtras ; six Clerks and one Messenger. Surgeon Generate Office Gen. Thomas Law eon, burgeon General ; Assistant, Dr. R. G. Wood ; three Clerks and one Messenger. Engineer Office Gen. Joseph G. Tolten, Chief Engineer; Assistant, Captain II. G. Wright; five Clerks and one Messenger. Topographical Bureau Col. J. J.Abert, Colo nel of the Corps ; Assistant, Capt. I. C. Wood ruff; five Clerks and one Messenger. Ordnance Bureau Col. II. K. Craig, Colonel of Ordnance; Assistant, Capt. William Mayna dier; eight Clerks and one Messenger. AT FRANCIS'S HOUSE-FURNISHING STORE, 4'JO Secenth street, OU can find a complete assortment of House keeping Hardware, Cutlery, bilver-plated Ware, Britannia, Block Tin, and Japanned Ware, Door Mats, Table Mats, Feather Dusters, Clocks, nnd all the useful articles for Housekeeping, together with Ladies' Snfhels, Card Coses, Purses, Tans, Combs, Brushes, Baskets, ic, &i , all seleited with great care, bought for cash, and will be sold at tbe very lowest prices. Punhusers will do well to remember FRANCIS'S House-Furnl'hlng Store, No. 490 Seventh street nov- 2C "LINCOLN STOMACH BITTERS." ONLY sold nt the store of W. Gerccke, No. 49J Eighth street, below Pennsylvania avenue. Also, a great supply just Imported of Swttz and Llnburg Cheese, Sardelles, Sardines, Holl. Herrings, &c. for .ale. QmEm& LADD, WEBSTER, L CO.'S IMPROVED TIGHT-STITCH SEWING MACHINES. A few of the many reasons why these Sewing Machines are preferred above all others. 1. They are remarkably simple la their con struction. A child ran operate them, and understand the mechanism. 2. They are the strongest Sewing Machine made. It is almost Impossible to break or get Ibcin out of order. J. They aro sure in their operation; finishing the work in a uniformly perfect manner. 4. They mako a tight lock-stitch, alike on both rides of the work, which cannot be unravelled. 6. They sdi'cA, hem, bind, fell, run, and gather, vithout basting. I,, They sew equally well the lightest and the htaii'st fabrics. 7. 1 hey sew over the heanest seams without ihanglug tbe tension or breaking the finest threat. 8. They use any No. of Cotton, Thread, or Silk, directly from the spool. it. They use u straight needle; curved ones aro liable to break. 10. The needle baa a perpendicular motion. This is absolutely necessary for heavy work. 11. They have a wheel fled; none others are In constant eontact with the work. 12. They run easily and almost noiseless. l.i. They are not liable to oil the dress of the operator. 14. They do not require a screw-driver to set the needle. 15 They do not have to be taken apart to oil or clean. 10. Tbev do not form rldgeB on tbe under side of the work, nor ravel out, nor are they woste- t nl ot thread, as is tbe case wun au cnain-smen machines. 17. They are capable of doing a greater range of work, and In a more perfect manner, than any other Sewing Machine, as Is proved by the result ot our challenge tot a trial, which has never been accepted. LADD, W i:u3ti:r, & CO., J 18 Pennsylvania avenue, nov J! Janney's Store. THE UNION WILL STAND, NO MATTER WIIOS PRESIDENT! CONSEQUENTLY, I shall remain in Wash ington, and continue to pursue my occu pation ot HOUSE, SIGN, and ORNAMENTAL PAINTING. Gliding In all its branches. Old Glazing promptly attended to. Painting and Ornamenting Cottage Furniture In the best style I also call attention to the Painting of Roots and Brick Walls. All of tbe above I will do as cheap as the cheapest. I therefore solicit the patronage of my friends and fellow citizens of the District. Punctuality strictly observed, and work done in the bist manner. Von will pletse mind your stops, and stop at l T PARKER'S Painting Establishment, No, 531 5ull 53111 Louisiana avenue, north slie, be tween Sixth and Seventh streets. P. S Signs put up free of charge, as usual. nov 2u STURUOTYPU FOUNDRY, Corner of Indiana avenue ami &cowJ strtet, Waihinyton, 1). C. TQVT'v BOOKS, Pamphlets, Wood Engravings, and Jobs ot all kinds, Stereotyped to order. A variety of Business Cuts on hand, for sale, cheap for cash. 0. W. MURRAY, Stereotyper.