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The southern press. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1850-1852, July 18, 1850, Image 3

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The warm Weather has brought Out the
following sprouts from the old Boston Post:
A Pais Hit.?The New York Courier says t
"inventions are advertised for enabling locomotives
to 'consume their own smoke.' Will they
apply to biped, as well as railroad locomotives?
If so, the city authorities should at once order a
supply for the relief of Broadway."
What a Hxathiw ?A down east editor publishes
the following diabolical paragraph
" When you are asked to hold the baby, trot it
hard, pinch it, and make faces at it when the
mother is not looking. You will soon be relieved
of the precious charge."
A man who would write such advice deserves
to be put to bed without his supper.
The Weather.?ft has been so hot in Boston
this summer that several fortunes have melted on
'change.
The following sentiment was given on the 4th
inst., at a celebration in Pennsylvania :
The Dat wr. Celebrate.?May its mornings
continue to be ushered m with peals or joy by unborn
millions.
How unborn millions can shout, wedon't know
?we should think they could shout better after
they were born than befrre
An enthusiastic young gentleman resolved to
gain a reputation as a poet, and to immortalize
himself by his first production. He chose fbrhis
subject the "Thunder Storm," and commenced
in the following beautiftil strain :?
"The thunder rolled from pole to pole,
The lightning spread from sity to sky,
And?and the cattle stuck up their tails and run?
And -and? "
Here our aspiring poet became so exhausted
that he fninted.
THE SOUTHERN PRESS,
CITY OF WASHINGTON.
THURSDAY, JULY 18.18 50
feW'The new Cabinet, it is now said, will
be presented to the Senate on Monday' next.
Messrs.. Winthhop, Dayton, Vinton, Mokehead,
Pkarce, and Graham, are among the
last of rumor's favorites.
ffdg#"The able speech of Judge Buti.er, of
South Carolina, which we publish to-day, contains
some original and important views, which
we shall recur to hereafter.
We shall publish to-morrow the 44 Journal
of the Convention of the Territory of New
Mexico," under whose authority Mr. Hugh N.
Smith, claims a seat in Congress, for the benefit
of the public generally, to whom the facts
may not be familiar.
We presume the members of Congress have
examined the Journal, though from the course
things are taking in the House, it would seem
not. The full proceedings will be found in ExDocument,
No. 17, published by order of the
House, containing the California Message and
Correspondence, in one bound volume.
fr-frfThe Union is entirely too moderate in
its pretensions to the organship of the new administration.
Nobody imagines that its claims
rest on the liberality with which it has, thus
far, treated the new President But the Union
is for the compromise plan?so, it is said, is the
President. And as the Republic is opposed to
that measure, and the Intelligencer is not in favor
of it, what paper can be the organ but the
Union.
A Boaton Notion.
The North Americvn Review, a journal professing
the broadest Nationality, but practically
provincial in the narrowest sense of that term?
has devoted a leading article to the California
and Territorial question, approvingly mentioned
and quoted from by the Washington Union, a
short time sir.ee. In that article the pregnant
admission is made that the abandonment of the
Wilmot Proviso by name, is the best and surest i
mode of securing its practical operation on the
Territories, and the case is thus strongly put.
" Under these circumstances, what are the opponents
of the introduction of slavery to do??
If they insist upon proliibiting it by law, it, is
morally certain that Congress will adjourn without
accomplishing any thing, without admitting
California into the Union, without establishing
any government for the territories, without abolishing
the slave trade in the District of Columbia,
and, very likely, even without passing the
annual appropriation bills, which are necessary
for the continued existence of our own government.
No reasonable person, who has watched
the proceedings of Congress during the present
session, can deny that this result, or want of a
result, is inevitable.
* % * * * * *
Suppose, then, thnt we are willing to encounter
this danger, and to make the sacrifice, however
great, which will result from the breaking up of
the national legislature without the enactment
of any law, except the four already passed. Do
we thereby secure our main object, and gain the
prize that we have been contending for? By no
means. Inaction is just what the South demands.
The North asks for legislation upon the subject;
it asks that California may be admitted into the
Union, with its present constitution, that forbids
the existence of slavery. The South wishes to
postpone Or prevent a measure which will simply
add two votes, both in the Senate and House, to
the party of the Free States.
*******
It is hard to imagine a stronger ease than is
here presented against the continued agitation
of the subject of the Wilmot Proviso, considered
in reference only to the new territory recently
ceded to us by Mexico. It has been shown that
there is no moral obligation whatever to press
the subject; that slavery was abolished throughout
the whole region thirteen years ago, and has
never been revived there; that the elements
themselves fight against it, the laws of nature
being unalterably opposed to its introduction;
that the country has been entirely open to slaveholders
for the last two years, and not one of
them has chosen to transport his slaves thither;
that the inhabitants, a majority of whom came
from slave regions, as soon as they began to legislate
for themselves, voluntarily and unanimously
decreed that it should be for ever excluded
; and lastly, that the more the proviso is
pressed in Congress, the more certain it is that
nothing will be done, and that the South will
obtain all it wants?freedom from any legislation
on the subject."
On these grounds this " National" print sustains
the course of Mr. Webster, because
of its giving the North " the. prize it has /wen contending
for?that is. the sole TtAflLQOQuinn nf I
the territories and the exclusion of the South
therefrom.
This may he a very National view, if NewEngland
be the Nation?and judging from the
tone of this self y'cfiped North American Review,
in annals, literature and polities, such always
has been its fixed belief, and that of its
pOntribntors in and around the town of Boston.
Frrrm the Constituli/malisL
No doubt but the public generally will be
gratified to learn something definite respecting
the wheat crop, which is now generally reaped.
It is generally known that tne fly has done 1
much damage in the eariy part of the season.
Just before the wheat commenced ripening, the j
rust struck it, and spread universally over the i
whole crop, both in Tennessee and in all the
Cherokee part of Georgia, and in every quarter ,
from which we have been able to hear anything
definitely. I have just reaped about one hundrcd
acres, and, in common with all the planters
in this region, and above us, am sntiatied that
not more than half a crop will be nulued. aud
that of an inferior quality. P. I
4
Mote Consciences against the Cottatltutlon.
The Boston Post contains the following communication
:
On a recent visit to a neighboring State, it
was uiy fortune to listen, from time to time, to
the conversation of sercral divinity student*
connected with one of our best theological seminaries.
Their favorite theiuo seemed to be slavery,
and tins obligations to obey the Constitution
; and I must confess that I was surprised
and juiitwd at the character of their remarks.?
There is a spirit of radicalism abroad in our land
which has infected a few ministers of the gospel
and a few laymen, who under its influence are
doing much to destroy all respect for any law,
and to encourage its open violation. For nuninters
ol* the gospel it is time to pause. They
should relleet that, when theij shull have destroyed,
bv their preee|?t and example, a just respect
and sense of obligation to maintain the
laws of the land, in the minds of the masses,
who look up to thorn as their teachers, tlioy will
have done much to destroy in the same minds
all true respect for themselves and their sacred
office; and that from that point it is but a step
to rank and open infidelity. They should look
nlso at Garrison, who once stood us fair us
themselves, and take warning.
One or more of these voting theologians
gravely declared that it would be a most glorious
and praiseworthy employment to go i ito a
sluveliolding State, and entice und aid slaves to
run away from their masters. I am huppy to
know that in noue of their radical notions do
they find the least s> mpatliy or encouragement
from their teachers."
Of course nobody is to blame for their entertaining
such opinions?rfor when a boiler bursts
no blame is ever attached to the captain, but the
public sentiment must be strong indeed when
religions fanaticism is brought to bear against
the teachings and express injunctions of the
Bible.
These wolves in sheep's clothing should be
watched closely, if they attempt to make incursions
on our Southern folds for the pious
purposes proclaimed.
"Let the South be consistent if she would be
strong. Every Southern man now knows that
tne principle of the Missouri Compromise has
been recently changed at the Nashville Convention.
They were unwilling to take the Missouri
Compromise as it was adopted in 1820, and subsequently
recognized by the Texas resolutions.
They have adopted the Missouri Compromise
line, and insisted on the adoption of a principle
which is not to be found in the Missouri Compromise
itself. In doing this, they have abandoned
that adjustment under which they seek to
shelter themselves. They have brought forward
a new principle, although they pretend
that their demand is sanctioned by the acquiescence
of the people for thirty years past. The
Missouri Compromise, as they have brought it
forward, is a new and distinct proposition, which
admits the right of Oongress to forbid slavery
north of a certain line, provided it recognizes it
south of that line, thereby giving to Congress
the jurisdiction over the subject of slavery."?
Union.
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 prohibited
slavery north of 36 deg. 30 min. that was not
taking jurisdiction over slaver)' by Congress:?
but if Congress recognizes slavery south of such
line?that is a new principle?that is taking jurisdiction
!
Southern men arc patriots who assort the
power of Congress to prohibit slavery?but arc
altruists anil dislinir?ni?ta tf ftlntr nnnln"")
j Congres may recognize it!!
| Such is the obliquity of reason and servility
of spirit that conducts the Southern champion
of the Compromise plan to his conclusions.
fngf We take the following from the JV. V.
Tribune. We are happy to find even in suqji a
Northern Ultra as the Tribune, a disposition to
think that the South may have some rights. We
commend this extract to the Editor of the Union*
and suggest to him also to think of it.
We think that if these gentlemen will tike to
thinking awhile, they will get up to 36.30 all
through. But we hope the Union will try to
keep up with the Tribune.
" The Line or 34 Degrees.?If the Slavery
Propaganda would like to have a new State cut
off the South end of California (say all below
35 degrees) with the express right to make its
own laws from the start, nnd to come into the
Union as soon as it shall have sufficient population,
we will think about it; but we do hope that
New Mexico is not to be shorn of a wide strip
across her whole Southern front for the benetit
of Texas. The line hitherto specified in the
Compromise bill is (with the exception of a corner
of twenty miles on the Rio Grande) the ancient,
righteous, true line between the two regions
; it is the line (very nearly) which NewMexico
has claimed in her State Constitution.
To cut off' nearly a hundred miles in width from
New-Mexico and add it to Texas is to alienate
and injure all who, from the side of Freedom,
have been disposed to acquiesce in the Compromise.
As yet, hardly one amendment has been
made to the bill calculated to render it more
acceptable this way, while there have been several
clianges from Mr. Clay's first proposition
leaning to the side of Slavery. We appeal to
the sincere friends of the Adjustment not to
crowd its Free Soil supporters further, unless
they wish to break with all such. The experi- ,
mont !u ovfrn lio'ro??r1/ma "
Non-Intercourse.
Certain Southern gentlemen have been very
roundly abused for proposing non-intercourse
with the North in the. way of trade. The fol- (
lowing organization in Massachusetts goes a f
step farther. What will the manufacturers do? (
New Engi.and Baptist Free Mission Society.?At
a convention in Lowell on the 9th inst. i
a- missionary society was formed, bearing the t
above title. The design of the organization is ,
expressed in the third article of the constitution: {
4i This society shall be entirely disconnected
from slavery in all its forms, and shall not re- '
ccive the known avails of oppression into its '
treasury."' J. N. Barbour, of Boston, is treas- 1
urer. t
Gerkit Smith and his Donees.?Not only
those who give themselves up to the pursuits of *
acquisition, but those even who hike the con- j *
trary course, and irive awav instead of bcanim? i >
up riches, are doomed to vexation and disap- ; c
pointment Gerrit Smith, a private citizen of \ j
the State of New York, has lor some years i f
past been engaged in distributing wealth, and
giving away land in the fee simple, and it may
be said rui bom. What pood lias he done ? 1
He has found out at least one of the certain
and most wonderful characteristics of human \
nature, that men refuse to receive pood ; they t
are determined not to be benefitted?or, if they (
will tike the benefit, they invariably abuse the
benefactor. Last night a meeting was called
of the several persons of the city of New York,
who have received donations of land from Mr.
Smith. Tbe object of the meeting was to ar- t
range some plan to go on. or send some one on (
the land to cultivate it Only two of the indi- t
vidualscalled together were there, ronsequcntly
nothing was done. These persons have re- 1
reived the land, taken the deeds, and remain in i
the city, following their usual poor and un- 1
healthy trades, rather than become free and in- 1
dependent farmers. What a comment this nf- *
fords to the. socialist theorist; they are going t
to equalize all fortunes, and make all men t
happy by plenty and good feeding. They have ,
yet to learn tliat men would scorn the gift of
happiness, even if it was in their power to bo- f
stow it. Thefe 4ocs not exist upon the earth f
Any Animal so wise or so tlnwiao, so sensate and
so insensate, so self-loving and self-hating as i
man. * Oh, miseras In milium mente*. Oh, pectora
ccrra !n exclaimed Lucretius, showing that
man in all ages of the world has ever been the
same.?_Y. Y. Herald.
C Oft ORES8ION A L .
Ia Senate, Weokudit, July 17, 1850. ,
Mr. SEWARD presented the proceedings of a j
meeting held in St. Lawrence county, New York,
remonstrating against the passage of the Com- ,
promise bill, and approving General Taylor's <
policy. ,
A bill to make a donation of land, and grant (
the right of way to the State of Alabama, for the ,
construction of a rail-oad frontr Mobile toOirard, ,
was taken up and passed. (
Mr. WEBSTER introduced a bill for the erec- ,
tion of a monument to the memory of Zachary ,
Tatlor, late President of the United States;
which had its several readings and passed unanimously.
A bill to remove obstructions in the Savannah
river, Georgiu, was taken up and passed.
After some unimportant morning business, the
Senate resumed the consideration of the
adjustment bill,
The pending question being on the following
amendment, proposed by Mr. Benton, to that
part of section thirty-nine, containing the proposed
boundaries of Texas:
Strike out the proposition first, of section thirtynine,
after the word " Beginning," these words :
" at the point on the Rio del Norte, commonly
called El Paso, and running up thut river twenty
miles, measured by a straight line thereon, and
thence eustwardly to a point where the hundredth
degree of west longitude crosses Red river,
being the southwest angle on the line designated
between the United Stales and Mexico, and the
same angle on the line of the territory set apart
to the Indians by the United States;" and insert
aAer the said word "Beginning" these words:
" at the point in the middle of the deepest channel
in the Rio Grande del Norte, where the same is
crossed by the one hundred and second degree of
longitude west from the meridian of Greenwich;
til fence north nlontr thnl Innirriln/lu thirlv.
fourth degree of north-latitude; thence eastwardly
to the point at which the one hundredth degree of
west longitude crosses the Red river."
Mr. WEBSTER spoke for nearly two hours in
support of the bill. He stated that it was his intention
to have spoke on Tuesday of last week,
had the honorable member front South Carolina
[Mr. Bctler] got through. But owing to the
painful intelligence of the dangerous illness of
the late President, his design was frustrated. On
the next morning, the death of the President was
announced. There were various reflections occasioned
by his decease. The Chief Magistrate
of a great Republic hnd died suddenly, but no
struggle ensued. The President had died when
his country had poured her highest honors upon
him. He had run the race destined for him by
Providence,
"Such honors Ilium to her hero paid,
And peacefully slept the mighty Hector in
his grave."
He then proceeded to speak in favor of the bill.
He did not care whether the subject in the bill
were treated jointly and separately. But as they
had been joined, he would not put them asunder.
He was in favor of the early admission of California.
lie would give governments to the territories,
without the proviso, for he believed slavery
excluded from the territories on the Pacific, by a
law of nature. He was in favor of settling the
boundary in dispute between Texas and New
Mexico.
He examined the incongrous character of the
opposition to this bill. On the one side, was
Free-Soilism and Abolitionism opposing it; and
on the other, Southern ultraism.
He concluded by an appeal in ftivor of the perpetuity
and preservation of the Union.
Mr. CLAY said he had intended to speak on
this general subject; but he would not do so until
all the amendments were disposed of. He hoped
they would come to a vote on the amendment.
Mr. HALE replied in a very witty style,
to that part of Mr. Webster's argument in
which he charged the opposition to this bill with
being composed of incongruities. He retorted
with much severity on the friends of the bill.
Mr. HUNTER said he wished to speak on the
general merits of the bill, and would do so tomtirrnw.
if (hp SSpihi(? u nnld nnur nnalnrtnn f 1m
V- " -I.consideration
of the bill.
Mr. CLAY acceded to the suggestion, but
thought a vote had better be taken on the pending
amendment.
The vote was then taken on the amendment,
and it was disagreed to?yeas 18, nays 33.
Mr. FOOTE then offered two amendments,one
fixing the northern boundary of Texas at the
34th degree of north latitude, and the other recommending
to the State of California to permit the
establishment of a territorial government in that
part of the State south of the 35th degree of north
latitude.
After some discussion between Messrs. Dawson,
Hale, Berrien, Davis,of Mississippi,and Foote,
the Senate proceeded to the consideration of Executive
business, and afterwards adjourned.
House of Reprf.sektatives.
Yesterday, immediately on coming together, the
House went into a Committee of the Whole on '
the stale of the Union, on the case of the application
of H. N. Smith, to be admitted as the delegate
from New Mexico.?Mr. McLanf. in the
Chair.
Mr. BAYLY, who was entitled to the floor, '
1
went on to address the committee; saying that un- '
il Mr. McGauciiev had delivered his extraordi- '
lary speech on this question, he entertained no 1
hought of addressing the House. The character '
if that speech was such, however, as to counsel '
lim to take part in this debate. Among other ex- 1
raordinary positions, Mr. McGauohey had held (
hat, after all, no one else had an interest in this '
[uestion except Mr. H. N. Smith. Arguing to '
lustain this position, lie [Mr. McG.] had declared '
lis belief that, in a short time, New Mexico '
vould be admitted as a Suite of this Union. This '
leclaration was of importance, as it was generally *
mown and admitted, tlial Mr. McG. spoke the '
entiinculH, in such cases, of a \crv larsre nartv
lere, who stood prepared to sanction the enormity ^
nvelvet! in such legislation.
Hut this system of usurpation had commenced *
villi the termination of the last Congress. From
hat time until the present, each step taken by r
he Government concerning the territories, had in- "
rolved it deeper and deeper in violation of law and 0
he Constitution.
Jc
Mr. B. had rehearsed and criticised at length ^
he orders of the late President to the military ofliera
in California and New Mexico, maintaining c
hat those orders and conduct of Col. Monroe ^
inder them cspeciully, had greatly served to com- (j
>licate the difficulties now threatening a dissoluion
of the Union. He held the act of sending T.
King, a member of Congress, to California as j
i regularly constituted agent of the Government,
o be a palpable violation of the Constitution of ^
be United States, as well as that of Georgia, a* t;
> proceeded to prove. The payment of the ex*naea
of Mr. King, as well ss the calling of the ^
onventjon in California, and the payment of the
expenses of that body, ha htld to b? clear violations
of the Constitution; defying any gentleman
to show by what authority money had been taken
from the United States Treasury for such expen- i
ditures. But the whole of this action had been
undertaken to bring California and New Mexico i
into the Union, in orderto relieve the Adminis- I
[ration from the difficulties which had come up- j
on it, owing to the deceptive means used to bring i
it into power. (
Mr. B. next discussed the question whether
ilavery was or was not excluded bv nature from i
California. He kail never believed so. Her j
mining characteristics rendered her, of all countries,
the country in which the slaves could be ]
worked to most advantage. Vet the people of <
that region, in voting to exclude the institution, had i
obeyed a very general law. They hud done so only j
to exclude competition in gold mining, and upon i
the same principle they have not long since assumed
to themselves the right to exclude foreign- i
era by imposing on them prohibitory taxes, when
attempting to work mines in that region. i
Mr. B. next reviewed the course of the Whigs
when in time of war. Mr. Polk had authorized
his military officers to exercise limited civil pow- ,
era. Tlial act had been justified by the Democrats,
011 the ground that the President?Congress
having failed to make rulee Air the temporary government
of the territory thus held?by virtue of
his authority as Co in uiauder-i n-chief of the American
army, hud the right to make such a government.
But the circumstances had changed, and with
them the position of the Whigs, who now staunchly
defended the action of General Taylor's administration
in lime of peace, similar to the then
denounced war meusures of President Polk.
If New Mexico was admitted as a State, the
act would be in gross violation of all law bearing
on the question. But he denied the power of
Congress to admit her under the circumstonces,
but he went further; denying also that the House
could legally take any step likely to forclose the
question of boundary in dispute. To admit her
or to make a virtual Territorial Government for
her, by admitting this Delegate, who came from
and represented population residing east of the
Rio Grande, would be in violation of the rights
of Texas, and of all the peecedents under this
government. These precedents were in the case
01 r ermoni a application ror admission as a State,
New York protesting; that of the application of
the State of Franklin, North Carolina protesting;
and the attempt of Western Pennsylvania to set
up for herself, the State authorities taking
ground against jhe dismemberment of her territory
to have beeu involved in her admission. In
all these cases, the Government had scrupulously
refrained from taking sides.
But New Mexico, in her recent action in the
matter of forming a State constitution, had actually
not only over-leaped the boundaries which
were hers according to the claim of Texas, but
also those of the nncient Spanish and Mexican
State of New Mexico. Thus, to admit her, would
be to guarantee that the boundary dispute should
never be settled peaceably. He held that the Supreme
Court had no jurisdiction over the question.
Such had been the opinion of Chief Justice
Marshall, who contended that that Court
could take no cognizance of political questions.
Its jurisdiction was only over questions of intum
and tuum. That Court possessed no authority to
compel the parties to this dispute to appear, and
could not enforce its decisions upon them. It was
therefore clear that it was without jurisdiction.
There was no question of property involved. Had
there been, he admitted, the Supreme Court
might claim jurisdiction.
Mr. B. then proceeded to show, at length, that
the people of New Mexico were by no meuns fit
for admission to the privileges of American state
citizenship; and that to admit Hugh M. Smith us
a delegate, would be to almost ensure civil war.
Mr. CARTTER then addressed the committee
at considerable length in a sppech in favor of the
admission of Hugh N. Smith as a delegate from
New Mexico.
Mr. STEPHENS of Georgia said, that he was
opposed to the admission of this delegate, because
he comes from territory within the limits of a
sovereign State. She (Texas) had been admitted
with the boundaries which she had won with the
sword. Wherever her jurisdiction exhisted,
there was the territory within her boundaries.
But she claimed to the Rip Grande. He (Mr. S.)
believed that the then "Executive was rash and
wrong in resorting to arms to settle her dispute of
boundary with Mexico. Mr. Polk'* deviation
from the republican maxim, that such questions
should be settled by civilians rather than by arms,
had caused all the trouble originally.
Mr. S. argued at considerable length, to show
that dire consequences, indeed, had resulted from
that rash act of the President. He believed that
had Mr. Polk sent to offer Mexico ten millions
of dollars for the Rio Grande boundary, it would
have been accorded without war. But the other
course had been taken?a course pledging the
public faith to maintain the claim of Texas to
the territory in dispute. He (Mr. S.) would never
consent to go behind that record. Mr. Polk
had been naked to define the boundaries of the
territory acquired by the treaty, and in his message
had accorded to Texas the boundaries she
claimed. This act went to estop the General
Government from claiming any portfon of the
territory by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In
defining the boundaries of the territory acquired
from Mexico by the treaty, he repeated, the then
Executive had referred to a map, according to
Texas all she now claims.
Mr. S. then replied to points in the remarks of
Mr. Bayly, to show that the administration of
Mr. Polk was as responsible for the action of
Cailfornia and New Mexico as Slates, as the administration
of Taylor. That administration
iad but one other course left to them to follow,
mless doing as it did, in recognizing the government
established there by Mr. Polk. That other
;ourse was to withdraw all civil government from
California and New Mexico, leaving the responsi>ility
forfaiting to frame suitablegovernments with
Congress. This course should have been pursued,
fie contended further that the sending of Mr. T.
3. King to California, was no infraction of the
Constitution. Mr. K. was at that time no mem- i
>er of Congress.
Mr. BAYLY, (interrupting Mr. S.,) argued to I
trove that, in sending out Mr. King, the late Preident
had violated the law and constitution of J
Jeorgia. <
Mr. S. (continuing) held that the Preaident was 1
lot bound to consult the luws of Georgia in such
natters, and that those laws referred to members
inly after they had been sworn in. He would
lot endorse the propriety of this course of the
ixecutive, but protested against its being denouned
as a violation of the Constitution. He did not
ee the enormity found by Mr. Batlt, in the
ourse of the President in recommending the prole
of California to secure themselves against the
itlabiliiiee, Ac., of military government, by
dopting a civil one.
Mr. Batlt, said Mr. S., had in a former speech,
enied the power of Congress to form governments
dt the territories, contending that the people of
he United Statfes going there, carried with them
he inherent right of self-government.
This, to some extent, was not his view. He
elieved this doctrine of Mr. Bati.v involved a
rave error. 11
Mr. fiiTLT (interrupting Mr. S.) argued thai
he had held in that epeech, that Congress was not
without the right to establish the form of government,
not its substance, however, its details.
Mr. STEPHENS, of Georgia, joined issue with
the gentleman from Virginia. He wished that
both New Mexico and California could have
governments established suitable for their condition,
but not governments invading the rights of
others
He had no ill feeling towards the people of California.
On the contrary, he deaired for her all
The North were clamorous that she should
Imve an anti-slavery government, while the South
claimed that she should have a government adopting
slavery. He was to have Congress make a
government forNewMexico,giving no just offence
to either of the great sections of the Union; one
which should also refrain from trenching 011 the
rights of a State of the Union.
Mr. HOWAJID held that the admission of this
delegate would estop further efforts on the part of
his State, Texas, to settle this boundary dispute
by negotiation. Once done, and she would either
quietly surrender her claim, throwing no obstacle
in the way of the exercise of the authority of New
Mexico over the territory, or proceed to draw the
sword in defence of her rights. This was not said
by way of a threat.
He was but telling the committee the sincere
convictions of his mind, drawn front what he
knew to be the public sentiment of Texas. No1
long since, he had been instructed by the Government
of Texas to demand to know of the
United States Government whether it stood prepared
to carry out the policy foreshadowed in
the recent proclamation oif Col. Monroe. He had
promptly transmitted that letter to the President
of the United^ States, whose answer he was daily
expecting.
He opposed the application of H. N. Smith,
because all the proceedings of the self-styled convention
took place in Texas, at Santa Fe, twenty
miles east of the Rio Grande. He agreed with
the position of President Taylor's California
message, alleging that to make a territorial government
for New Mexico, would be to prejudge
the boundary question. It was not within the
scope of the authority of the House to create a
territory of the United States, which would be
done in thus admitting Mr. Smith. That act was
the formation of both Houses of Congress, and
the President?not of a single branch of the Congress.
It had been urged that the complaints of
Texas, in this case, were unfounded: that she
was, in fact, complaining unjustly. Now, this
was to urge that she had no right to complain
against treason, against her authority, committed
within her own limits; or that the General Government
had seen lit to aid and abet that treason.
In replyt to the argument that Texas desired to
encroach on New Mexico, he urged that, in fact,
there was no such political organization as New
Mexico. This dispute was not hers, but simply
a dispute between the General Government and
Texas. New Mexico did not own a foot of vacant
lands?all lying within her limits being the
property of the United States.
Now, this application of Mr. Smith, as well as
the more recent proclamation of Col. Monroe,
and subsequent proceedings under it, that were
but attempts to deprive Texas of her rights?political?and
of property guaranteed by the treaty
of annexation, as Mr. H. proceeded to show. It
was an attempt to deprive her of her public
lands, with which she. calculated to relieve herself)
from her debt, &c. It was also to take from
her the right to subdivide herself into three slaveholding
States which had been guaranteed by the
treaty of annexation. Thus, to abrogutc the
treaty of annexation after thnt fashion, would be
to authorize Texas to go peuceably out of the
Union; the terms on which she entered it, being
no more binding on her, than on the other party
to the agreement. President Polk had formerly
declared, that the end of the war with Mexico
would be the signal for the abrogation of the temporary
civil government in New Mexico; and under
that pledge, it was, that Texaa had remained
quiet so long. In accordance with thut pledge,
before retiring from the War Department, Secretary
Marcy ordered the military authorities in
Santa Fee to turn over their civil authority,
dtc., to the officers (civil) of Texas. Rut, since
then, the new administration had directed the
officers of the United Stutes to foment u revolution
in that quarter.
The General Government, foreseeing thnt
Texas would defend her rights by arms, had
made preparations to send troops to check-mate
niai movement, sia yet. mey una nol been called
out; but when they were so put in motion, the
real contest would begin.
The General Government had acknowledged
the right of Texas to the territory in dispute, in
the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ; and to admit
New Mexico as a State, created for the most part
out of that territory, without the consent of Texas
would be to so admit one State, created out of the
territory of another, without her consent.
The United States have never claimed the disputed
territory as hers. Congress had never legislated,
even by construction, against the right of
Texus to this territory. It being the duty of
Congress alone to legislate for territories of the
United States. The act of New Mexico (if she
was such a territory) in assuming to make such a
government, was an usurpation. The treaty had
not given the people of New Mexico the right to
take ony such action for themselves, ns Mr. H.
argued at some length to show. They had no
more right under that treaty so to do, than had
the people of the territory of Louisiana, under
the treaty by which that territory had been acquired,
to make a similar government for themselves.
This debate was then further continued by Mr.
Crown, of Indiana, who argued against the
claim of Mr. Smith to be admited, on the ground
that he professed to represent territory and people,
claimed to belong to a State of the Union, and
the representative of a Military Government only
?not of the people of New Mexico ; and further
by Mr. Strong, who spoke against the claim of
Mr. Smith, urging that he was the representative
of no people, that every rule necessary to
be observed in his claim as a delegate to Congress
had been set at defiance in sending hiin here.
The question then being on the amendment of
Mr. McGaugiiet, (previously offered) declaring
Mr. H. N. Smith to be entitled to a seat in the
[lull ns the delegate from New Mexico.
Mr. DOYD moved to amend that by adding,
bat Rabbitt was also entitled to a seat on
he floor, as a delegate from Deserct.
The Chair ruling this amendment to be in orler,
that decision was overruled by the Commitee?yens
72?nays 88.
Mr. 8CHENCK moved to amend the amendnent
of Mr. Gaugiiet, of declaring H. N.
?mith to have been the delegnte elected from New
Mexico, to the 31st Congress ; agreed to.
Mr MEADE moved further to amend the amendnent,
by declaring the said Smith to have been
lected as n delegate from that portion of New 1
Mexico lying north of the Rio Grande only,
n support of this proposition, Mr. M. said,
Mr. Chairman : My obiect in offering this '
intendment is to avoid the decision of a question
it this time fraught with the most momentous
onsoquoneos to tne peace of the country. One
bf the most Important questions whtcK tia4 presented
itself before us this Congress, is the one '
in relation to the relative rights of the United
States and Texas over the territory lying east of
the Rio Graudc.
It is pro|to8ed by this resolution to admit
the delegate from Now Mexico, to decide 1
without deliberation or discussion, a question |
which involves not only the rights of a sovereign i
State of this Union, but also the future peace
and even existence of the Confederacy itself.
It is confidently believed that, had the late
1'resident marched the forces of the Union into
tliat territory with a view of maintaining its authority,
it would have resulted in a conflict of arms.
Gentlemen may sneer at the impotency of Texas
in so unequal a contest, but sir, no one eouldyiay
to what extent it would have involved others.?
The entire South is deeply interested in the
question |ind Texas would not have boon the
only party.
1 hnvo heard gentlemen, whose opinions are
entitled to weight, express their belief that had
the late chief magistrate lived, a eivil war
would have resulted in sixty days from this
time. This was said without any intention of
impugning his patriotism. The right of Texas
to all the territories east of the Rio Grande, is
certainly one that admits of doubt. No one
can say it is free from difficulty. Why, then,
in the mere wantoness of power, the majority
should undertake to decide in this impromptu
manner, a matter which so seriously threatens
the peace and harmony of the country. If gentlemen
from the North do in truth feel that Tove
and veneration for the Union which they profess,
I ask them, in the name of that Union so
venerated, to nbstain from a vote, for which no
urgent motive can be assigned. No one will
say tliat it is of much consequence whether
New Mexico has a Delegate hero or not; no
interest of hers can suffer for the wunt of one,
and why unnecessarily add another to the numerous
firebrands on this floor, which are even
now hissing forth destruction to the Confederacy.
Such a vote would be another outrage
on the South, the more insulting, as it will be
uncalled for and unnecessary, for it will only
evince a general contempt for every right which
she may, under any circumstraccs, contend for.
Mr. FITCH opposed Mr. Mbaqe'samendment,
on the ground that it settled the boundary question
in flivor of the claim of Texas. He was against
Oppressing any opinion upon it.
The question on the amendment of Mr. Meade
i umo tkau n??f n ml it uraa nnt ntrrnad tn Ironu fifl
"v* vvw vv J vwu "u?
nays 98.
Mr. FITCH nextproposed to fartheraniend the
amendment, by adding that, in admitting the said
Smith, the House disclaimed expressing an opinion
upon the boundary dispute betwern Texas
and New Mexico : which was agreed to, without
a discussion.
Mr. GORMAN offered an amendment declaring
Mr. Smith admitted, provided he had been duly
elected by the quulilied voters of the territory
under the election laws thereof.
After a speech from Mr. G. in support of his
amendment: it was rejected.
On motion the Committee then rose.
The SPEAKER next laid before the House a
letter fVom the Hon. George W. Crawford, offering
to submit the question of the legality of the
payment of the interest on the Galphin claim to
the courts of justice, and to plead in its justification,
only the act of 1847, under which the principal
had been paid : which having been referred to
the committee on the judiciary,
On motion, the House adjourned.
CORRESPONDENCE.
Baltimore, July 17?5, p.m.
Executive Heal?Whigs Missing?Honors to
the Deceased. President?Murderous Riot?
Mechanics' Institute?Cabinet Affairs?The
Markets, dfr.
Tl?e excessive hot weather is causing a general
rush of our citizens as are leased with the
time and the means, to the various springs and
watering places, leaving the city quite dull and
inanimate.
It is said that upwards of one thousand
prominent Whigs of New York city are suddenly
missing from their accustomed resorts;
und it is shrewdly suspected that they have
wended their way to Washington, to have an
eye upon the. loaves and fishes that are to be
dispensed under the new order of things.
The funeral procession at Philadelphia, in
honor of President Taylor, will come off on
Thursday the 25th instant, and at New York
ou Tuesday the 23rd instant. Great prepare
tions are making in both cities, and there is
every reason to expect that they will bo grand
affairs, notwithstanding the excessive heat of the
weather. At New York the Odd Fellows have
determined to make a grand turn out, and the
Industrial Congress are to bring out the working
men in full fol-ee.
One of the most murderous riots that has occurred
in this city for some years, considering
the number engaged in it, took place
last night on Fell's Point. The parties were
two gangs, called " Causeway Rangers " and
" Fcll's-Pointers. " James Manley and George
Konig, two notorious outlaws, were armed
with muskets, and fired several loads of shot
into the crowd collected by the riot. No
less than eight persons were seriously injured
by the shot, all of whom were spectators. One
young man, named J. Stiller, received a whole
load in the face, and is not expected to survive.
Manley nnd Konig were both arrested and com.1
XV ? l
milieu ior iruu.
The Hon. James Cooper, U. S. senator from
Pennsylvania, has accepted an invitation to deliver
the opening address before the Maryland i
Institute of the Mechanic Arts, in October next. {
In the Baltimore market this morning, there ,
was nothing doing in Howard street flour. Sales ]
of 4000 bbls. new city mills, were made at 1
$5 50. Sales of common to prime red wheat,
at #1 10 a 15. No change in corn. Whis- 1
Ky, ao i-a cut. in
At New York this morning, holders of cotton
were waiting for steamer news. The advance
of an eighth in the last steamer, however, is
maintained.
The Steamsaip Viceroy.?Halifax, July 15.
A report wus current here that the Viceroy had 1
been got off, but later advices contradict that report.
She is still fast on the roeks, and there in 1
very little probability that she will be saved.
The wind is aouth and foggy. 1
Arrest of a Counterfeiter.?Utica, N. Y.,
July 16.?A man named Henry Eckford, was arrested
yesterday, for passing counterfeit bills on
the Phoenix Bank, New Haven, and the Duchess
County Bank. A large amount was found on
him, and he was committed for trial.
Destructive Fire at Cincinnati. ?Cincinnati,
July 16.?D. Root &. Son's stove foundry, on 1
Pearl street, was destroyed by firs last night. The 1
loss is estimated at $20,000?on which there is an !
insurance of $17,000. *
?
The Choi.era in Cincinnati.?Cincinnati, July 1
17.?The Board of Health report 48 deaths during , '
the past 24 hours?17 of which were cholera, and '
31 other diseases. ' '
Hartford Railroad Matter*.?Hartford, i
Ct., July 16.?A meeting was held at tha City
Hall, last svsning, to dscids upon the question of
loaning bond* to the Hartford, Providence and
Fishkill Railroad Company. The attendance was
quite large. I
. After home fmtlka from Gorernor Trumbull,
Charlea Chapman, Esq., and T. Mallyn, Esq.,
the question was taken, and the resolution authorizing
the exchange of bonds was adopted?vena
413, naya 17.
Mobtality in 8t. Louis.?8t. Louts, July 16.
The City Register reports 212 deaths during the
past week, of which 77 are reported to have occurred
from cholera. CM' the whole number, 213
were children under fire years of age. This statement
shows a marked decrease of mortality front
the previous week.
Melancholy Case or Dbownino.?Albany,
July 16.?Lieut. J. Griffin was this afternoon
upset in a sail boat, opposite this city, and drowned.
Lieut. Griffin served in the Mexican campaign,
with distinguished honor.
LOCAL INTELLIGENCE.
The lovers of fun should by no moans permit
the present opportunity to pass without improving
it. The Adelphi, with its ever-revolving
fan, and its unfailing supply of ice waler, is now
open. In it every variety of taste can lw gratified.
Are you grave ??go and witness the performance
of Mr. Allen, who possesses to a remarkable
degree the facility of extending his
face until it becomes as long as your arm. Are
yon fond of something midway between the
grave and gay??go, and your taste will be
gratified. Are you fond of fun? yes, what
might emphatically be called fun, go and if
Mr. Glenn, and u that Rascal Jack" don't cause
you to put your risible muscles in play, until tintears
shall run down your cheeks, then we arc
mistaken. But above all, are you fond of seeing
beauty ??that beauty about which poets
have written, and philosophers descanted?we
mean the beauty of woman?go and see our old
acquaintance, Miss Marion, who is now performing
nightly in our midst. This young lady
combines with personal beauty,many of the qualities
of a good actress, and is unquestionably
the support of the present company. With a
few years experience she will become one of our
best actresses. Again, wo say to those who
love me piay, turn out.
Personal.?John C. Clark, Solicitor of the
Treasury, has been lying dangerously ill for a
few days past. Last evening he was improving
a little.
Died, in this city, on Tuesday night last, Peter
IIagnek, over 70 years of age. lie was
for many years past Auditor in the Treasury
Department, and was a worthy citizen and a
jaithful Government officer.
DIED.
In this city on Wednesday morning, Henry
St. George, eldest son of Beverly and June S.
Tucker, aged 7 years and 3 months.
[Richmond und Winchester papers pleuse copy. ]
ADELPHI THEATRE.
SANTMYER & Co.~ Managers.
A large FAN has been erected, keeping the
house perfectly cool and pleasant. ICE-WA TER
in abundance.
The last night of Mr. JOHN DUNN, that Rascal
Jack.
This (Thursday evening,) July 18, 1850, will
be presented the beautiftil Comedieta of
MY SISTER KATE.
Tom Chaff, Mr. J. DUNN.
Miss Kale Morton, Miss Marion.
Song Mr. Evelyn.
After which the bcuutiful farce of
DAY AFTER THE WEDDING.
Col. Freelove, J. H. ALLEN.
Lady Elizabeth, Miss Carman.
To conclude with the laughable (hrce of
POOR PILLICODY.
John Pillicody, J. DUNN.
Sarah Blunt, Miss Marion.
THOS. D. RICE, the original deliniator of
Negro character, and Mr. REDMON, the celebrated
Irish Comedian, urc engaged, and will
shortly appear.
Admission Private Box 75 cents, Purquette and
urcss circle ;><) eta. uulery 'A> eta. uoors open at
7J to commence at o'clock.
A CARD.
TY A. PRINGLE, No. .70, East Bay street,
lYs Charleston, South Carolina.?Importer of
French CALF SKINS; Manufacturers Agent
and Dealer in BROOM'S, BOOTS and SHOES:
Advances made on consignment of Brognns of
Southern Manufacture. Parties wishing to consign,
will send samples of their make, und on receipt
of their consignment, a liberal cash advance
will be made." Information promptly imparted,
as to the style, but adapted to the trade.
Charleston, S. C., July 16, 1850.?dly
FERDINAND MOOT/TON,
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW,
Will practice in the several courts in the District,
and attend to the prosecution of claims
against the Government.
Office corner of E and 7th streets, opposite the
General Post Office.
july 14?
f\N CONSIGNMENT.?Oak Tanned Rnssett
V7 BROG.1NS.?1,000 pair Oak Tanned Russett
Brogans, a prime article of Southern Manufacture.
For sale by R. A. PRINGLE,
No. 30, East Bay street,
July 16, 1850?d4m Charleston, S. C.
WORTHINGTON G. SNETHEN,
Formerly Solicitor of the General Land Office.
Attorney and Counsellor at Law,
Continues to practice in the Supreme Court of
the United States, in the Courts of the District of
Columbia, Maryland and Virginia, to prosecute
claims of all kinds against the United States, either
before Congress or any of the Executive Departments,
and to procure letters patent for inventions.
Business confided to his care, will be
promptly attended to.
N. B. Particular attention paid to the prosecution
of claims before the Brazilian Commission
now sitting in Washington.
Washington Citt, D. C. July 11, 1850.
WILLIAM AND MARY COLLEGE.
THE next annual session of this Institution will
commence on the 2d Wednesday in October.
FACULTY.
The Right Rev. John Johns, D. D., President
und Professor of Moral Philosophy.
Judge Beverlt Tucker, Prolessorof Municipal
und Constitutional Law.
Benjamin S. Ewell, Professor of Mathematics
and Astronomy.
Morgan J. Smeap, Ph. D. Professor of Humanity.
William F. Hopkin*, A. M., Professor of
Chemistry and Natural Philosophy.
H. A. Washington, A. M., Professor of History
and Political Economy.
Rev. Silas Totten, D. D., Professor of Intellectual
Philosophy, Belles Lettres, and Rhetoric.
There are two J?urses of study for under-graduates
the regular course for the degree of Bachelor
of Arts, and a Science coume, occupying two
years. Candidates for admission to tnc Science
;ourse will he expected to produce the written reluest
of their parents or guardians. Students not
lesiring to join a regular class may, for special
canons', be admitted to study with the regular
lasses, in those branches which, on examination,
hey may be found qualified to pursue.
The necessary College expense* range between
]P6 and |I96 per annum.
Circulars will be forwarded to all who may doire
fuller information, or specific inquiries will bo
n*werad, if addr?ltd to Professor Mossav J
meat, Williamsburg, Virginia.
July 1&?I ?w,
.. ... l*

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