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Ell wood Fliber A Edwta D? Leon. TERMS. DAII.Y, - |10 00 TKl-WEEKLY, - 5 00 WEEKLY, ...... 2 00 e> Subscriptions payable in advaoce. Any perniu procuring five suWyibcrs shall receive one copy gratis. AU fellers to the Editors to be porr-pun. miNTKD IT a. A. sAor. OpricE, Pennsylvania Avenue south side, between - ^ . .. 9 ' % Is > _ * THE SOUTHERN PRESS. DAILY. Vol* 1. Washington, Tuesday, August 13, 1850. Ho. 49* 5<i and 4^ streets. 3 O U T II E II N CE N T il A L A6KICULTUKAL ASSOCIATION. rpHE Fil'.h Annual Fair of the Southern Cent, ral Agricultural Association, will be held during the week embracing Wednesday, the 14th day of August next, which is the dajr of the fifth annual meeting at Atlanta Georgia. The Committee charged with the duty of pro*cribing such general rules as they may itaeui necessary to a proper management of the approaching Fair, have adopted the following Gckkral R EG UL ITIOW?. 1st The Fair Grounds and Buildings will be opened f?r visitors on Monday morning, and continue open until Friday evening. It is therefore desirable that all person-* ha vug articles for exhibition, shall bo on the ground as early as Friday or Saturday, the 9th and 10th August when a dommittec will be there ready to receive them. &d. The Association has an ample fund, aud will, in all cases, become responsible for the safe-keeping of articles which may be placed in the hands of its officers and committees, (the owner Inking a check for the same,) until the close of the Fair, which will bo announced beforehand, in ample time to givtj them op, orlunty to recover their goods, and to prcvunt thereby the leaving of any goods or articles unprotected after the adjournment of the Association. ,3d. i>larg A.Uoopcr, Kichard refers, Uavid W. Lewis, Wni. Ezzard. and James M. Calhoun, are appointed a committee w hoae duty it shall be to see that all arli'les entering the fair grounds for exhlbitio t,?ha I hive firstbteaeut. r dm the Secretary's book or registry?then labelled w th the owncr'sname and reside >ce?irid price, if for sale?giving to the owner a corresponding card?and then classified and arranged by departments, and in such order as to facilitate the labors of the several committers on premium-; and also to employ such police and doorkeepers and cleiks, as shall be necessary for the protection of the grounds and buildings, and such clerks as they may need in the arrangement and labelling of articles. 4th. There will positively be required, in all case*, a minute and accurate written statement illustrating and explaining every article rent for exhibition? he statement to he delivered to the Si-cretaiy. For instance, if a M chine, a statement of is powers and uses, cost, time of invention, and any joth<*r fact ilwrnie 1 valuable by the inventor or maker. If Horticultural or Agricultural Products, mode of preparation of land and soil, manure and lime of planting, mode ofcultivalinn. If an Ammai, the pedigree or stock, age, mode of raising, &o. If Needle-work or Painting, or any woik ol Art, the length of time bestowed on it, or the amount of labor; the age, if by children or very old persons ; tl.e value, uses, &c. Since this is the most reliable mode of collecting such information as may be worth publishing in the transactions of the Society, vi?itors, patrons and members, all will take notice, that a premium will not be awatded to any article, whatever its merit, unless accompanied by illustrative and explanatory statements, made out in 'egible hand, and in a style fit at once for the press. c.l. l_l it * jm. i iie uciegauong 01 me scrverai couniy societies are requested and enjoined to make out, upon confutation, a report of the present condition of Agriculture in their several counties, of the improvements in farming, tillnge, draining and manuring, which have been or are in progress of b-ing adapted. The lea ling products of their counties, the tpodesof preparation, time of planting and mcde of cultivation. The means and measures of preserving and increasing the fertility of lands. Accurate Agricultural memoirs from the scrverai county societies would make up an amount of valuable information to bo sent out in the published transactions of the Society. 6th. It is desirable to make tho Fair a Central Southern Agricultural ami Manufacturers Exchange We request individuals who have a surplus of choice articles, or who make them for sale?such as choice scrds, machines, stock, &e-?to carry them there for sale, and not alone for exhibition for a premium. 7ih. Premiums.?It is impossible to name inat ?ticc like this all, the various articles to winch premiums will be granted. However comprehensive wc might make any enumeialed list there would still be many articles of merit offered which would not be embraced in it, and yet richly deserving premiums, lest iheicforc the announcement of premiums for particular articles might be coi strued by some into an exclusion ofall articles unannounced, the Committee requests the people generally to observe, that it is intended to give the action of the Association the very widest scope, embracing every thing that is ingenious or useful in business or art. All then, with whatever tliey have for sale or exhibition, arc invited to come. The only regulation further necessary on this point perhaps it, that, on all articles of the highest merit in the department of Stock, Mechanics, Agricultural Implements, and valuable improvements or inventions in any of the departments, a premium of a cup worth $ 111 will.be given ; on the second best articles a cup worth $ 5 will be given, on the third best #2 50 ; on the fourth an honor. And.on all articles of the highest merit in the remaining departments a cup worth $ 5 will be given ; on the second b'-st ? 2. 50 ; on the third an honor; on the fourth, 2J h mor. On miner and miscellaneous articles, premiums from one to three dollars?these, however,are general regulations, and in particular case or cases of peculiar merit the committees will be permitted, indeed are requested, to vary the rule. 8lh. A hall will be prepared and assigned par i cuiariy to ilie Ladies lor tt.eir gardcu products, fruits, flowers paintings, need e-work, &c. Tkey are cordially invited to attend. Their assistance in many dej artments of the fair is absolutely necessary to a proper management. 9th. The facilities of getting to this central point induce us to invite, and to expect thep;esencc and contributions of many of our fellow citizens < f Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee and I lorida. Wc hope they will unite with us in making this institution indeed,what itfls in name, a Southern Central Agricultural Association. 10 h. Tne Picsident upon 'a consultation with such members a< he can call to his aid, shall appoint committees and assign to them their respective deP'lrtments, and to these committees so appointed the committee of reception shnll Itirnish lists of the articles classed and arranged in their respective departments. In order to the perfection of this arrangement, the committee appointed to publish these regulations, will h> re repeat, and er join upon all to take notice that articles for exhibition may be received and arranged on Friday and Saturday the Dili and lOih of August, so that when the President shall appoint his committees on Monday morning, the committee of reception may have their lists of articles, and the several committees proceed at once to the examination of articles, and thereby have ample time to make their reports to the annuul meeting on Wednesday. Thursday will be devoted to sales?Friday to general re-delivery of articles. The exhibition continuing the whole time. 11th. Any alterations of, or additions to, the foregoing rules, will be published at Atlanta early Monday morning of the Fair week. 12ih. The annual oration will be made on Wednesday, the day of the Anniversary meeting, immediately preceding the reports of committees, hv Col. John Billuns. of Athens. Geora-iu. 13th. The Committee have the prospect of making arrangements with the Macon, State and Georgia Railroads, to run accommodation cars early every morning and late in the afternoon, to Griffin, Marietta, Stone Mountain, and Decatur, to give visitors the opportunity of the accommodations of the good Hotels at those places while in attendance upon the Fair. 14th. The citizens of Atlanta have provided comfortable quarters for Committees and Officers, I and others engaged in the laborious business of \ the fair. 15th. The Secretary is directed to publish ' these regulations in the Cultivator, and to pro-' cure as far aa practicable their publication in the ! weekly papers of this and the adjoining States. By order of the Committee of Arrangements. ( DAVID W. LEWIS, Sec'y Southern Central Agricultural Association. Sparta, 25th June, 1850. | MATHEWES & ROPER, Factor# and Commission Merchants, for Cotton, Rice, Bagging small country Prod tics, Vanderhorst's Wnarf^ Charleaton, 8. C. 'v MECHANICAL ARTS & SCIENCES [ D. APPLETON & OO., NEW YORK, have in course of publication, in parts, prick j twenty-five cents each, A Dictionay oi Machines, Mechanics, ! Engine-Wok; and Engineering. Designed frrr Practical Working-Men, and those intended for Ike Engineering Profession. Edited by Oliver Byrne, formerly Professor <tf ( .Mathematics, College of Civil Engineers, London ; .hithor and Inventor of " The Calculus <]f Form,'' "The .Veto and Imjrrored System of Logmithims,'' " 7 Vie Elements of Euclid by Colors," etc., etc., etc. THIS work U of large dvo. size, containing nearly tiro thousand pages, upwards of fifteen hundred plates, and six thousand wood cuts, it will present j working-drawings and descriptions of the most important machines in the United States. Independently of the results of American ingenuity, it will contain complete practical ircan>c? on niecnanics, : Machinery, Engine-wcrk, a<d Engineering; wilii all that is useful 111 more than one thousand dol- j lars' worth of folio volumes, magazines, and other books, among which may be mentioned the following; 1. Dibiiolheque des Arts Industricls. (Masson, Paris.) 2. Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal. (London.) 3. Engineer and Machinists Assistant. (Blackie, Glasgow.) 4. Publication Industriello. (Arinengaud Aine, Paris.) 5. Jamieson's Mechanics of Fluids. 6- Treatise on Mechanics. (Poisson.) 7. Allgemine Bauzeilung mit Abbiidungen. (horsier, VVien.) 8 Organ fur die Fortschri'te des Eisenbahrrwesens in technisrher Bezichung. (Von Wal degg Wiesbaden.) 6. Sherwin's Logarithims. 10. ItyrneV Logarithma. 11. The Mechanicul and Mathematical Works of Oliver Byrne. 12- Silliman s Journal. 13. Algemeine Maschinen-Encyclopedia. (Hulsso, Leipzig. 14. Cotton Manufacture of Great Britain and America contrasted. 15. Holtzapffels' Turning and Mechanical Manip pulation. 16. The Steam Engine. (J. Bourne.) 17. Eisenbahn-Zeitung. (Stuttgart.) 18. Tregold on the Steam-Engine. 19. Pike's Mathematical and Optical Instruments. 20- Diciionnaire des Aits et Manufactures. (Laboulaye, Paris. 21. Sganzin's C vil Engineering. 22. Brown's Indicator and Dynaonmeter. 23. Origin and Progress ot Steam Navigation. (Woodcroft.) 24. tssai sur I'lndustric des maucres textiles (Michel Alcan, Pari'.) 2$.-Macneill's Tables. 26. driers' Mechanic's Pocket Dictionary. 27. Templeton's Millwright's and .Engineer's Pocket Companion. 28. 1 ally's and Gentlemen's Diary. 29. Maiine Steam Engine. (Brown.) 30. Weisbach's Mechanics and Engineering. 31. The Mathematician. (London.) 32. Barlow on Strength of Materials. 33. Hann's Mechanics. 31. Mechanical Principles of Engineering and Architecture. (Moslcy.) 3.5. Journal of the Franklin Institute. 30. The Transactions of tha Institute of Civil Engineers. (London.) 37. The Artisan. 38. Quarterly I'apeis on Engineering. (Published by Wealc, London.) 39. Imperial Dictionary. (Glasgow.) 40. Student's Guide to the Locomotive Engine. 41. Railway Engine and Carriage Wheels. (Barlow, London,) 42. Recueil des Machines Instrumensct AppareiJ. (Le Blanc, Paris.) 43. Buchanan on Mill-Work. 44. Practical Examples of Modern Tools and Machines. (G. Kennte.) 45. Repertoire del'Industrie FranquaiscctElrangere. (L. Mathias, Paris.) 40. Treatise on the Manufacture of Gas. (Accom, London.) 47. Setting out Curves on Railways. (Law, Loudon.) 48. Hodge on the Steam Engine 49. Scientific Ameiican. 50. Railroad Journal. (New Yoik ) 51. American Artisan. 52. Mechanic's Magazine. 53. Nicholson's (Peter) Dictionary of Aiehitee lure. 54. Dictionaire de Marine a Voiles et a Vapcur, (De Bonnefoux, Paris.) 55. Conway and Menai Tubuler Bridges (Fairbam.) 56. Brees' Railway Practice. 57. Barlow's Mathematical Dictionary. 58. Bowditch's Navigation. 59. Gregory's Mathematics for Practical Men. 60. Engineers'and Mechanics' Encyclopedia. (Luke Herbert.) 61. Patent Journal ; London. 62. Lree's Glossary of Engineering. 63. Encyclopedia of Civil Engineering. Crasy. 64. Craddock's Lectures on the Steam-Engine. 65. Assistant Engineer's Railway Guide, (rlaskoll.) 66. Mechanical Principia. (Leonard.) The great object of this publication is, to place before practical men and students such an amount of theoretical and scientific knowledge, in a con dens^d form, as shall enable them to work to the best advantage, and to avoid those mistakes which hey might otherwise ccminit 'l he amount of useful informal ion thus bi ought together, is almost beyond a precedent in such works. Indeed there is hardly any subject within its range which is not treated with such clearness and precision, that even a man of the most ordinary capacity cannot fail of understanding, and thus learning front it much which it is imporlrnt for him to know. From the annexed list of the principal author* I and subject comprised in this work it is sell-evi| dent, that all cilitens engaged in the practical and i useful arts, etc., may derive essential advantages from the possession and study of this publication, ' The following m.>y be especially designated : Millwrights. Moulder and Boiler Makers. Artificer* in Brass, Copper and Tin. : Cutlers, and Workers of Steel in geucral. ! (!nrnpn|pr? ! . BncknalcLT*. VVoikcis in Ivory, Bone, and Horn. Civil Engim era, Railway Contractors, and Contractors for Earth-Work, and Masonry of every description. Architects and Bridge Bui'ders. Builde:sf Master Masons, and Bricklayers. Ship Builders, Masters of Vessel", Ship Carpen- ' ters, and others connected with Building and jj Docking Ships. Block and Pump Makers. Hemp Ure-seis and Rope Makers. Manufacturers of Linen and Cotton Fabrics. Maoufactuiern of Spinning Machines, Roving' Machines, Card Breakers and finishers, Drawing Frames1 Willows, and Pickers, etc., connect- ' ed with Cotton, Flax, and Wool Machineiy. Calcnderers, Bleachers, and < alico Printers. Cloth Folders, and Measurers, and persous inter t e?ted in Sewing Machinery. I Anchor and Chain Cable Manufactorer*. ( Cutting and Turning Tool Maker*. Pin and Needle Makcis. ] Nail and Rivet Makers. ( Bolt and Screw-Bolt Makers. i Nail Cutters. 1 Coiners. I Leather Dressers and Curriers. I Manufacturers of Great Guns and Small Arms. ( Ca die Makers. < Biscuit and Lracker Makers. I LaceMakeis. i Ribbon Wearers. \ Stone Cotters and Marble Masons. j Dyers, Cloth Washers, and Scourers t Coopers. ; | Cider and Cheese Manufacturers " Crown, Crystal, and Plate Glass Makers, Sugar Boilers and ReAncrs, with Propuetors of Sugar Plantations. Manufacturers of Railway, Bar, Rouud Ribbon, and Rod Iron. Wheel, Axle, and Spring Makers. Engine Drivers, and Persons connected with the Locomotive generally. Engineers, and Captains of Steam Vessels. Managers of Stationary Engine-. Lumber Dealers and owners of Saw Mills. Veneer Cutters. Owners of Planing Machinery, Corn Millers, and Persons connected with Bolting and Bran-Separating Machinery. Farmers and Per?ous using Grain-Shelling and Threshing Machinery. Buhl Workeis, Carvers Engravers, and Ornament Makers in general. Persons employ ed in the Manufacture of Gas. Mokers of Copper and Lead Tubing. Linen and Straw Paper Makers. oL:_ n VJ ?u 1 ?il,:.t*. Oiup v/wncrg, nnruui ma-'tcm, aim uvuvia ihci* e?ted in Dredgitig Machinery. Well Sinkers. Astronomers, Philosophcis, and others using Philosophical Apparatus and Instruments. Miner's Engineers, and other interested in Pumping Engines. Persons interested in Canals and Aqueducts. Warehousemen, and others, using Hydraulic Presses, Dynannmetric Cranes, Jack Screws, Common and Feed Cranes. Wo'kers in Metals and Alloys. Tin Plate Workers. Spring Maeulacturers. Wheelwrights, Clock Makers Horolcgists, &c. The publishers have expended a large sum of money to get original drawings of machinery in practical use in this country, and have procured almost every woik on the sudject, whether published in England, France, or Germany, the most essential par's of which being comprised in this Dictionary, render it as perfect and comprehensive as possible. The publishers have endeavored to use great economy in type, so that each page of the woik contains at least four times the number of wor Jh found in ordinary pages of the same size. This has also secured to each plate wo-k ng-diawngs of ample siz-- and clearness, so that a Mechanic may construct accuiately any machine described. The publishers are, in short determined, regardless of cost, to make the work as complete as possible ; and it is hoped every one desirous to obtain the work will procure it as issued in numbers, and thus encourage the enterprise. The work will be issued in semi-monthly numbers, commencing in January, 1850, and will progress wit great regularity. The whole work will be published in 40 numbers at 25 cents per number, and completed within the current year, 1850. A liberal discount will be made to agents. Any one remitting the publishers $10 in advance shall receive the work through the post office free of expense. Notice to Proprietors of Newspapers throughout the United States and Canada. If the foregoing advertisement is inseited fire times during ihe year, and the paper containing it sent to us, a copy of the work will be t,ent gratis in payment. FOB SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. fPHROUGH TICKETS by United States Mail | Steamship GEORGIA, Captain D. D. Porter, United States Navy. On TUESDAY, August 13th", at 3 p. in., from her dock, foot of Warren street, N. It., with the Government mails for San Francisco. The arrangements for the transportation of passengers direct from New York to Chagres, and from Panama to San Francisco, being now complete, the voyages for which tickets were issued nuving been rapidly and successfully performed, the Company are now prepared to issue through tickets to San Fruncisco. The books for the GEORGIA on the 13th August are now open, and passages can be secured on application at the office of the Company, 117 West street, at the corner of Warren street, at the following rates: From Panama to San Francisco?State-room berths #300. Steerage berth #150, found with beds and a separate mess table. From New York to Chagres?State-room #100. Standee berth #80. Steerage berth #50; found bed and separate mess table. Early application will be necessary to secure a through ticket by the Georgia, August 13th, a small number only being for sule by her. RATES OF. PASSAGE. State-room. Standee. Steerage. Charleston .... 25 20 10 . Savannah ... 25 20 10 Havana .... 70 55 25 New Orleans .... 75 60 25 Freight to Chagres, 70 cts. per foot, prepaid. To secure freight or passage, apply to M. 0. ROBERTS, 117 West st., corner of Warren, New York. Aug. 5.?tl3. NOTICE TO CREDITORSTHE UNDERSIGNED, Administrator of the Estate of Thos. J. Johnston, deceased, hereby notifies the creditors of said estate that, in pursuance of nn order of the honorable Orphans'Court, he will be in attendance at the Orphans' Court Room, on Saturday, the 24lh inst. at 10 o'clock A. M. for the purpose of paying all just claims against said estate. THOS. J. JOHNSTON, Administrator. Aug. 5.?3td. (Union & Iiitcliigencer copy.) FERDINAND MOULTON, ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW, Will practice in the several courts in the District, and attend to the prosecution of claims against the Government. Office corner of E and 7lh streets, opposite the General Post Office. 2aw,tf J. Knox Walker, Attorney at Laic and General Agent, Or r hKS his services in his piolession and as Agent tor the Prosecution and Collection <>l Claims before Congress and the Departments, also for obtaining Patents. All business confided to him will be promptly at ended to. 117 If BARRY'S TRICOPIIEROUS. TNARKER, Agent for the above very superior K HAIR WASH, received, this day, 12 gross. Wholesale and retail, at PARKERS' Fancy Comb and I'etfumery Starr, Pennsylvania Av. near National Hotel, nug. 8.?St. FOR THE .SPRINGS. IADIES retiring to the springs or country, will j j find at PARKER'S, just opening, a fresh I itipplv of Toilette Articles, such us very superior j BAY RTTM, COLOGNE, in bottles anil on drought, EAU LUST11AL, OK MARROW, DENTIFRICE, d r., COM B, H AIR, TOOTH, und N AIL BRUSHES, at PARKER'S Funry Comb and Ptrfumtry Store, aug. 8.?3t-l Perm. Av. near National Hotel j Carhhr Pigeons.?We hoar from France of: utonishing results obtained with carrier pigeons, j jy the Societies which in Belgium devote them- | elves to the production of this bird in perfection. rhey are trained ao as to traverse the whole of j Prance from one end to the other in less than a j lay; recently a number were sent to Pntnpeluna n Spain, to be let loose and return by flight to i Brussels. On the 10th ult. the Pigeon-raising Society called the Visible of Brussels, let fly 63 >igeons from Lyons at 5 A. M. Prizes were (tven to the owners of the birds, which should pirckest reach Brussels. The first prize was won >y Mr. J, Vanhuelen, whose pigeon arrived 31 ninutes past 2 o'clock, P. M.; the secpnd prize ras won by a pigeon which came at 39 minutes >ast 2; the third at 20 minutes before 3. The disuses from Lyons to Broeeels by railroad is about | lis hundred miles, which the first pigeon flew in I I) hours THE SOUTHERN PRESS. I _____ *? _ 0C^?The following extracts from the able and eloquent eulogy on Mr. Calhoun, by the Hon. W. L. Yancy of Alabama, we take from the Montgomery (Ala.) Atlas: " The sounds of the American guns, as they swept iu tones of victory over the wave to our shores, not only cheered the great popular heart, but their reverberation in the halls of Congress materially aided the friends of the war in the unnatural and unhappy struggles which they had to encounter with its opponents. In one of those debates, taking advantage of the termination of the gigantic contest in Eunpe, by which England had become free to turu her undivided strength against our couotry, armed iu all that terrible panoply of war with which she had led the van in the attack and triumph ter Degan nis coniesi aner me cnunneis or policy against which he struggled had been worn deep by an uninterrupted tide of legislation, for a quarter of a century. Mr. Jefferson had the advantage of contending with open and avowed federalism. Mr. Calhoun struggled with federalism in disguise?assuming the cloak of Republicanism to cover a heart of consolidation. The former asserted doctrines, while the voices of the framers of the Constitution were yet to be heard in the land, strengthening his policy?confirming his opinion. The latter upheld them when the very name of the author of their most celebrated exposition had been forgotten?when, as he disinterred them from the rnbbish of the past, they were branded as the abstraction of his own biain. Mr. JelTerson proclaimed them when there were but half a dozen banks, and no great organized American system of varied j interests to array themselves again^ him. Mr. Calhoun wrestled for their ascendancy i with a thousand-leagued monied corporation, | whose long and wiry arms wound around the j people and their government?binJingbothi to their altars ; and when the craving appe-1 tites of manufacturing capitalists and of local demands for internal improvements enlisted most public men in their support. It is true, Mr. Jefferson had to contend with such men as Hamilton and Adams? but Mr. Calhoun was opposed at all points by such men as Clay and Webster, and at ! others by Jackson?men, who, in ability, power and influence were inferior to none that ever acted a part in American affairs. In the days of Mr. Jefferson, Federalism openly attacked the constitutional liberty of the individual citizen?producing such intense popular indignation that the public ear was greedily opened to, ?nd the public mind easily convinced by, the simple yet bold truths which promised an effectual remedy. The march of aggression, in the times of Mr. Calhoun, wait stealthy, though not less destructive?was directed against the Statea, and acting indirectly only upon individuals, was not calculated to arouse the public to the immipency of the danger. Mr. Jefferson's task was but a lucid exposition of constitutional truths, the application of which to the administration was superseded by the contest into which the government was shortly after plunged with the belligerent powers of Europe. Mr. Calhoun revived and practically applied them to the affairs of government, changing the course and character of Congressional legisla'ion in the very face of the counter principles of one great party, and in opposition to the prejudices aritl errors of another. Mr. Jetfersnn was a part of the age which gave birth to the Constitution?was deeply imbued with its spirit and principles. Mr. Calhoun had to throw off the erroneous habits of thinking common to his time ?to work through the precedents of a century's legislation-?to discard venerable and most persuasive authority?to exercise an intellectual independence, rarely given tc man, before he could bathe in the fountain head of constitutional liberty, and was himself free of the political impurities common to the statesmen of his age. I repeat, then, that Mr. Calhoun may well contest with Mr. Jefferson the title to be considered "the Apostle of Republicanism." His person and address were very striking. He was tall, slender, and of moBt dis- 1 tir.guished and heroic bearing. He held his head erect, in most impressive majesty. His features were strong?his forehead low, but broad and angular?his cheek bones were prominent?his chin strong and massive, indicative of an iron energy. He had a wide mouth, with thin and ccmpressed lips ; while his eyes were large, piercing, ami brill ant. His whole countenance breathed decision, firmness, and great mental activity. His voice was clear, sonorous, and indicative of earnestness and power of purpose. His gesture was animated and appropriate, though rarely made. He stood erect, firm ?his posture being natural, and in one sense full of severity. His whole person, indeed, was alive with repressed action, yet fixed and immoveable as the premises from which he argued. To sum up all, the stern majesty of his erect attitude?the severe, yet highly expressive countenance?the flash of his brili i it-- * 4 I:L.? > ?< nunc eye?me ijuick, iiuiii|jci-iiivu iuuco ui his voice?the suppressed passion and energy of his whole being, mind and body? the lofty and elevated sentiments which welled up from hisbicast as from a perennial fount?the deep conviction of the truth of every word he uttered?all combining to set before the hearer, in a style of deepest impressiveness, the most brilliant thoughts and the profoundest wisdom, rendered Mr. Calhoun the most effective orator that ever addressed the Senate. I say the most effective ; and, in using so strong a term of eu1 >gy, speak with reference to the fact that during the last fifteen years of which he was a member of the Senhte, owing to his peculiar position in that body?as the guardian of the Constitution against paity views, he was necessarily much oftener on the floor than any other senator; and never failed to command the most profound attention of that . august body. The same remark cannot justly be made as to any other American orator similarly situated. Many thousand years ago, in the classic days of Greece, a prisoner lay stretched upon the rack ; ar.d at the bidding of a noble, looking old man, with bright eyes and blanched locks, a slave plied the tortuie. That old man was the painter, Appelies, and he was torturing an unhappy prisoner given to him for the purpose by Alexander, in order to -catch the true expression of intense agony, that he might transfer it to the canvas on which he was painting Titan, chained to the rock, gnawed by vultures. A deep groan escaped the tortured wretch, in which his very rouI cried out in agony. "Ye Gods!" exclaimed Appelies, dashing down his pencil in despair, " Would that I could paint that groan." iftit it was gone?neeung as the air, leaving but the remembrance of its heartfelt power and truth upon the ear that heard it. Even so do I despair of conveying to your minds' eye a correct p cture of that intangible, yet impressive eloquence which enabled Mr. Calhoun, though always in a minority, to impress not only his views, but also his personal bearing?his action, so strongly upon all who heard him in any of his great eHoits." Lord Brougham's Visit. This has become a fixed fact now, and Punch favors his lordship with a letter of introduction to Brother Jonathan, from which the following is an extract: You will, I know?for Jonathan is abounding in hospitality, with a heart as flowing and free as his Mississippi?you will, 1 know, give a magnificent welcome to Brougham. But, pray, understand this, it may save us a future war?we will not lose our Brougham. I know Henry's ardent, impulsive temperament. You will be giving him a public banquet; and there and then, alter a gorgeous description of the mighty energies of your mighty country?after claiming Saxon brotherhood wit., all of you?he will insist? (and I know the force, the subtlety of his eloquence too well, not to be aware that it . cause you a struggle?a very severe struggle to refuse the favor)?he will insist upon being immediately made an American citizen. But for the extraordinary astuteness (B. has been heard to call it 4 d?d cross obstinacy') of Mr. Crernieux, our Brougham would at this moment have been a French citizen!? in danger, it may,be, of the next presidency; and?by the way?should you nuturalize him, I wouldn't give yourself much chance of a re-election. You will, therefore, be on your guard. Onr Henry must return to us; his genius is the property of the human race ?but bis citizenship is with England. Take any jewel out of our crown; take, if you will, our Koh-i-noor, our Mountain of Light, ? but not our bodily light of Brougham. t 6f course, you will show your guest Ni- i agara ; but I pot it to you as a vital favor, | do not jet Henry attempt to jump tba falls, i over .Napoleon, the opposition made renewed and reinvigo.ated attacks on the conductors of the war?in seemngly exultant tones pointed to the apparei.tly immense disparity of means possessed by the two powers of war, and proclaimed it hopeless longer to contend in so unequal a contest. Nothing daunted, full or cheering hope and high courage, his eagle glance piercing the lurid atmosphere of that dark moment, and seeing the latent elements which were at work in our favor, Mr. Calhoun replied at length, with such power of argument, such glowing eloquence and fervid patriotism, as to kindle anew the almost expiring flame o( hope.? Tempting as it is, I must forego the pleasure of quoting largely from that great effort, and content with a single extract, showing his appreciation of those naval victories : ' Sir, I hear the future audibly announced in the past?in the splendid victories over the Guerriere> the Java and the Macedonian. We, and all nations, by these victories are taught a lesson n?ver to be forgotten. Opinion is power. The charm of British naval invincibility is gone !" Those brilliant victories hod breathed t!:eir never-dying courage and hope into his own tyosom, enabling him to arouse his own great heart to the magnitude of the crisis: to drive back an opposition, encouraged by, if not exciting in, the dangers surrounding the government; ami to struggle against the despondency which was Qreepingover the country, overwhelming the feeble and appalling the stout. The clarion notes of the gallanthearted statesman rang clear and loud over the land, re-echoed from every hill?prolonged, in aspiring strains, through every valley. The despairing and despondent were revived; the faultering and the doubting were firm. " Few but undismayed," cur warriors gathered to their country's standard ; and when the battalions of Wellington's vaunted invincibles landed on our shores, covered with laurels, they were scattered in defeat by the hardy riflemen of the West, who were inspirited by these lofty sentiments, and were led by one who was kindred in the great elements of courage, sagacity and integrity, to the statesman, who throughout that war, had been a beacon-light to the whole country. ******* JEFFERSON ALD CALHOUN. There was a marked difference in the manner in which the two effected their purposes. The one brought to bear in their aid the combined intellect of the whole couni by private correspondence?infused the sublime truths of his political creed into the able men of the country, for he never undertook to speak. The other wrote but little?and making no calculations as to the opinions of others fearlessly announced the principles of his action, relying entirely upon his own exhaustless resources and the mighty power of the truth he advocated. The former had the advantage of acting his part in the early days of the republic, when the Constitution was fresh from tfie hands of its framers, before government had become set in any particular path. The lat Should be insist upon it?which is not at all unlikely?lay the violence of friendly hands upon him, and let him be carried from the spot. How you will enjoy Brougham after dinner; whilst the American women in the drawing-room will hang upon him, bright and thick as the stars ot your spangled banner. There is no man tells a story with a greater fatness of humor?no man sings a song like him ; by the way, when he is in lull force of spirits, do?now, pray donU miss this?do ask him to sing The Three Little Pigs. You will never forget it; from that moment, 1 he three Little i igs will Decome dear as your national e- gle. Moreover, s?t some of the women on him?if, which it is not at all unlikely, he do not volunteer it?to do the conjuring trick of The Chesnutt in Chancery, it tiM had wonderful success with us during the present season ; so much so that the Queen and her Prince invited Brougham to Windsor Castle to play the trick before themselves and children, although (but you, my dear Taylor, in your free and generous country, you have little idea of the malignity of party interest) although all notice of the visit and its object, was, it is supposed, by the influence of L?d J?n R?11, meanly excluded from the Court Circular. Brougham will do you much good, and I earnestly hope that the sea voyage and American air will brace him up for the next half century. Such human gold with all its alloy rarely enriches the generations of men. By the way. 1 know Henry's philosophical curiosity?his thirst lor knowledge ; therefore do not let him too frequently test your gin-sling, your mint-julep, your coblers, and all that variety of drinks it is a part of the glory of the American genius to ofler to lips of a Bacchinal nature. Brougham has promised me to present this to you in his cosmopolite traveling dress. Isn't it signiticant, nay, epigrammatic? His coat, half the union-jack of England?hall the tri-color of France. His waistcoat embroidered with the American eagle, and his trousers the American strines ! Cherish, honor, love our Henry, and for your love to him, accept the increased admiration of yours ever, PUNCH, 85 Fleet street. THE POSITION OF THE EUROPEAN MONEY MARKET. (From the London Times, July 26.) The position and prospects of the money market were never more singular than at the present moment. Every thing is tending in a direction to produce striking changes in the relations of capital ; but in the apathetic trance resulting from our late exhaustion, they aic scarcely noticed. With an increase in th3 quarter's revenue of ?518,000 over the favorable returns of last year, an augmentation in the declared value of our exports of between JE3,000,030 and ?4,000,000, during the same period; a stock of bullion in the bank which has remained, with slight fluctations, at a larger amount than was ever before known ; and the prospect, thus lar, of an abundant harvest, there are also a number of more exceptional circumstances, which furnish still greater indications that a state oi affair is approaching which must awaken the best energies of the country, and which, if wisely watched, may give an impulse to the spread of civilization such as has been witnessed at no former epoch. Each account from California not only confirms, but adds, to all previous anticipations of the growth of that territory, and of the success of those who have thronged to it, and the reflex action of these movements on other parts of the world are now beginniug to manifest themselves with daily increasing force. In the Sandwich Islands, in Australia, along the whole coast of the Pacific from Valparaiso to Vancouver's Island, and even in China, the stir is distinctly felt, and the awakening life thus manifesting itself at the extremities of the commercial system, must soon be acknowledged most powerlully at its centre. Even itCalifornia were announced to-morrow to be a delusion, it would be years before the effects that have already been created by it would cease to operate ; but the tidings received lor a long time past have now convinced all persons that its riches have never been over estimated, and hence the inference is unavoidable that what has yet taken place is only the beginning of the changes to come. According to the recent accounts from New York, it is confidently believed that the gold received in the United States during the next six months will excceu the total of all that has yet arrived. Tae silver mines of South America, too, are yielding a largely increased supply : railroads are being constructed for their further developemcnt, quicksilver is likely to be .urnished in unusual supplies, and improved methods of working are resulting from the application of capital derived from the profits of trade with San Francisco. Coupled with these facts, we have accounts of other gold regions in Bolivia, Venezuela, md South Australia. The less noticed but steady in- , crease in the supply from Russia has likewise to be borne in. mind; and, finally, the j importation which is even now taking j lace j. (rem the substitution ot | aper ami si.ver lor j the gold coinage in Holland, amounting, it is understood, to between ?2,000,000 and ?3,000,000. Under all these circumstances, the rate of money in New England is about 1 3-4 per cent., and at New York, although they are now sending us large amounts of bullion by each steamer, it is also lower than it has ever been for any continuance, 3 1-2 or 4 per cent, being the highest rate that can be E;ot for temporary loans. At the tame time, two things have operated in England to present the glut of money being greater than t is. The remittances on account of the Russian loan of ?5,000,000, and on the Danish loan oT ?800,000 ; the instalments m the first of tbese are now completed, and n the course ot the next two montha, such j imall amounts as may remain on account of , he second will also be discharged. There | will consequently, et far as we can Me at f jreaetrt, be henceforth nothing to dwterb the 1 5*i?tiog tendency towards accumulation. j? easgMaaeaan I. published MTu^^Tkwafcy? and Bated*, a " Tbe Southern Freee,"?Weekly, La puMiibul svsry HaturtUjr. iSTHTMDiB BATCI. For one square of 10 tines, three insertions, f 1 (>? " every aubaequent ineertion, *6 Liberal deductions made od yearly advertising. (y Individuate way forward the amount of tbeir subscriptions at our risk. Address, (post-paid) ELLWOOD FI8HER, Washington City. 1 I ' 1? 11 Step by ?tep, with this tendency, the rate ot interest to be obtained by capitalists must decline. There is no over-speculation in trade to prevent it, and no quarter of the world where the exchanges ate likely to turn against us. The only questions, therefore, that present themselves are, first, as to the point to which the value of money will descend without overcoming the present horror of lII investments which involve risk; and secondly, in what quarter the vent will be found when the overflow of capital shall at last become irrepressible. That the present state of affairs, in which investments that yield scarcely any return, but that require the exercise neither of thought nor faith, are preferred to anything else, will yet continue for a considerable period, seems certain. Railways, in the midst of all our prosperity, show no symptoms of revival, and the gloom which they create will spread a morbid distrust until the ahareh lders shall have resolved to admit what every body recognizes?namely, there is no help for them but in a complete reorganization of their modes of management. FrorJTthis, and other causes, there is reason to anticipate that the revival of confidence will not be sudden, and that, before it shall occur to such an extent as to lead to a de cided reappearance of the spirit of adventure, the period may even be sufficient to enable the Chancellor of the Exchequer to propose a reduction in the Government funds. For the present, therefore, we can look for no striking deviation in the routine chan nels for the employment of money, and henca there will be plenty of time to watch the quarters to which it will ultimately rush. In the intermediate months, there may be a m variety of small gambling movements in some of the low priced foreign stocks or shares, but nothing of a character that will not be limited and transitory. The old burns, in that respect, have become matter of history, and when the general impatience of one or one and, a half per cent, as the rate of interest, shall have gained its full force, a new C^l.l ...ill ka rorinireil fnr tin devfdnnement. IIVIW " III Mv iwv|?i..vW ? | It will then be found, that although the uses of capital had seemed to.us to have narrowed to such a point an to render it almost valueless, such ati idea was inconsistent with the onward course of atfairs, that it was, in fact, merely the silly reaction from opposite delusions, and that although the opportunities for the employment of money were declining in one quarter, they were rising up with increased force in another. Among many new features, the growing wonders of the new world on the Pacific, will, at that date, be rightly interpreted, and it will, perhaps, be seen that while we have thought all safe modes of adventure utterly exhausted, private individuals have been making large fortunes by running steamers, by working coal, by facilitating the transit of emigrants and merchandize, by testing new kinds of produce and means of cultivation, by building piers and docks, and villages that are capable of becoming cities, and by all other occupations that are opened up wherever a new population is suddenly attracted. It will also, most likely, be discovered that the gains thus achieved by quiet enterprize, might have been greatly increased by a liberal command of capital. A period of new hopes and of rapidly increasing intercourse will follow, and if it could be conjectured that past experience would then be listened to, the fqture might tell of nothing but still extended prosperity. Meanwhile, although this would be too bright a view, aud it is certain that just in proportion to the prosperity to be enjoyed will be the strength of the mania by which it will be abused and checked, there can be no doubt of the occurrence of a long interval before any thing like national folly in the way of speculation can again be witnessed ; and there is also reason to hope that even when the eight or ten years at which the usual convulses may be looked for shall have passed, the principles of monetary science will have become sufficiently diffused to cause the number of those who blindly rush upon their de truction against the loudest warning, to be much more limited than it was in 1847. Health of Baltimore. ? Notwithstanding so little has been done by the authorities to stay the progress of disease, yet, so far, the city lias been very healthy ? There is a good deal of dysentery and other diseases of the bowels, which, in most cases, have been supei induced by incautiously eating unripe fruits or vegetables. Great care should Le taken in diet, and no one should drink too freely of ice water when they are heated. Another thing, as the patient is attacked with the preliminary symptons, send for a physician, as delays ar? sadly dangerous, and many have, no doubt, lost their lives by not having a physician in time. Sickness in the City.?Considerable alarm was felt in our town Sunday and yesterday on account of three or four sudden deaths, which occurred from something resembling cholera. From all we can learn, U ~ ~4LrociiU rvf imntiulftnr.it U1CBC lirmim ?uv vuui va mh|?.wwww?v in diet, and an omission to resort to medical lid. In two of the cases, the bowel complaint had been allowed to continue for five >r six days before any medicine was taken, ind in the other cases all kinds of crude vegstables and green fruits seem to have been he habitual regimen. That death should have insued in these instances is not surprising. It is only strange that there have been so few leaths among us, considering the immense consumption of green corn, cucumbers, cherries, unripe apples and raw cabbage which our citizens have indulged in during the last three weeks. Notwithstanding these powerful invitations to the dread scourage, we are happy to announce this morning that it has disappeared altogether.?Ii/iuois State Register. EOne of the most heartleae displays of 1 feeling we ever heard ot took place when Sir Robert Poel wae on hi# death-bed. A Wealthy fanner of Suffolk county caused the lella of the pariah of Buret St. Mary to ring a nerry peal. In another place a landholder sent be crier round with the news u that the tower'* memy" wee ?t the point ef death.