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The southern press. (Washington [D.C.) 1850-1852, August 22, 1850, Image 3

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tlseirtfpMraaseat.^ha^veramwsi omr e??n?? *
tbetn; if uoi, it c&nnot But, if gratjtad, we roust i
go to the Constitution to seek the potior and its '(
extent, and not to transatlantic a rttfers, dealing *
-iu general principles, and. with a atvtnig monarch- j
icei bias perya/giqg ,th? works. 1 repeal a wish >
I kuce already expressed, thai the word sovereign
a ere expunged from dur political vocabulary, and '
the word independent substituted for it. "Plie idea
would ba sufficiently near, and we should. axoid i
this eternal recurrence to European waiters, and
thus aeek any of the powers of our t>w,? Qovcrnment
fn their elementary terms. But let that paaa.
The senator from (Georgia say*, I aojipone by
way of illustrating the extent of our power oyer
the territories, that the governor uiui judge* were :
once clothed with tlie duty oflegislation. This is
ho, sir, with an important limitation.' They did j
nrtf ttnugoaw the* nnuvr nf itrlMnal U.ruiUl inn. hni r
ouly the |M>wvr to adopt such of tlie laws of the 1
States as they might consider suitable to, the circumstances
of the territory. This was the extent |
of their authority, and even this, bad aft it was,
was better than K? have the power of internal lee- j
isjution committed to a remote assembly, equally
without representation, affinity, or reapqrisibili:
ty. The governors and judges were with the
people, made part of then*, and w4re uader that
strong control which American public opinion
never fails to exert upon those within its influence.
Bat, sir, the first plan Adopted by the Continental
Congress was founded u|>6m much sounder principles
than that which was afterwards substituted
for it. That plan was agreed to in 178J, and al-,
lowed the people to meet together, appoint their
officers, and administer their own government.
The change was a step backward in the path of
freedom. But allow me to ask tbepemilpr from
Georgia, if, notwithstanding this legislative precedent,
making the Executive and Judiciary a
quasi legislature, would he, would any member
of Congress venture upon such an e.xperimetit ut
this time? No, sir, 1 trust no such political
expedient, so utterly subversive of human rights
win ever be ugain resorted to Ijy this Government.
U
The honorable senator does not concur in the
doctrine that the people pf the Territories have nn
inalienable right to legislate for themselves, and
that the effect of our supervisory legislation does
not, confer the right upon them, but merely enables
iJieip to exercise it for themselves, ss theucts
we pass for calling conventions to frame copstitutions
are merely nuxilinry, preparing the way for
the enjoyment of great national rights, anu not
nssumiug to dole them out to the true owners.
And ibis is precisely the effect of our interference
in the t sfahfishment ofterrilqcial governments. It
gives the people nothing but (he opportunity to
exercise the privilege of self-government. Their
rights never were ours, but, owing to their peculiar
condition, and to the rather anomalous relation
they bear to us, it becomes our duty to provide
a temporary political organisation for them,
ienviug them to exercise under it their own rights,
not ours, and just as much of }hem as is compatible
with the relation they bear to ut?. To show
th.it the doctrine of the right of infernal legislation
in a Community was a good republican doc$
trine formerly, 1 will read an authority whioh was
once written upoq the heart of every American,
but which, if we yield to this sovereign chym, will
soon beedme a monument of what has beeii rather
than what should be. It is found in the Declaration
of Independence, that powerful and beautiful
exposition of human rights, the noblest. State
paper that ever announced to the world, the aggressions
of power and a determination to resist
them.
" He (t^e British sovereign, said the.Cnngres*
of the revolution) has refused for a longtime, after
Buch dissolutions,to cause others (that is representatives)
to be elected; whereby the legislative
powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to
the people at large for their egercisc; the State remaining
in the mean time exposed t,o all the dangers of
invasion from without, and of convulsions within."
Here, Mr. President, is the emphatic annunciation
that the legislative powers of a Colonial or
Territorial community belong to the people at large,
and hot to the sovereign, Inortnrchial'or republican,
agreeably to this new heresy "Which'is rearing
its front among us. Well, if I am the only
matt.lit the Senate and out of it, as it is said, who
does not bow the knee to the idol, I must seek that
encouragement in the testimony of the dead which
I am not to find in the sympathy of the living.;?
But, sir, I believe noihing of all this. I haveriived
a long and stirring life; and I think I know something
of the tru* sentiments of the American jteoule
upon all subjects where the right* of man are
brought in question. Yea, sir; they need no long
and subtle disquisioiis when such "topics arise.?
They db better than to enter into a cool process of
reasoning ; they feel. Their unerrihg instincts
teach them that he whdplaiins an unlimited pow^r
over a community, if he does not show their consent,
or their participation by representation, prefers
the claim of a tyruiit,'even if it is made in' the
marble Imlls of republican legislation. '
But, Mr. President, how strikingly is our conduct
towards California foreshadowed in this eloquent
allusion to the conduct of the British Goverrilnent
towards the Colonies. The only ditierenceis,
that the one destroyed an existing government,
und the other refused to create one, leaving
the people equally without political organization
and equally " exposed to the danger of invasion
from without and of convulsions "within;" and
leaving to them, also, tlte exercise of those powers
of preservation which are incapable of annihilation,
and which belong to them. Few more striking parallels
are furnished by history for the instruction
of mankind. And tins parallel does not stop here.
It extends beyond the political transactions to the
political doctrines. e have a right, to biud you
by legislation in all rases whatsoever, said tlie
British Government to rhe Colonies. 'We have
an unlimited right to legislate for the Territories,
says the honorable senator from Georgia. Anil
this pretension, faithfully followed to its results,is
I laced in, rather a startling, though true position,
by si metnl?er of the Hotrse of' Representatives,
who said in debate thyre that. V.this Government
could establish a despotism in any of its Territories
beyond doubt; it ppuld sell them into slavery
if it pleased.Iftf wdiitfor the people of California
desired tojvvoid a condition which placed them
in such a suite of ))o1iUcul*degradrition, thus boldly
proclaimed by high mrti in high places.
Now,-sir, a few wvmts "frt(W trnd t' ffHTfiTT. ""I
have already* said ./that -eight teyvitoritd goytrnments
were established by- acts .of Congress over
region.^ not nCquifed by treaty, but making part
of the original jbossessiors of, the United Strifes',
ami 1 asked wheuce came the authority 6>r,t)ve Exercise
of this power, if it depends truly upon,the
right nf acquisition by treaty? Imputes existed
between the Governmem of the Union and some
of the States respecting the claim to these di trict;
the former contending that-thev were acquired by
the blood and treasure of the wltEle Confederacy,
and therefore belonged to the whole Confederacy;
while the latter contended that ihey were included
within their chartered limits, and therefore belonged
to tbem. It was a grave question, and at
one time threatened the gravest consequences to
the infant Government. However, the dispute
was satisfactorily adjusted, and the States interested
ceded their claims to the United State* upon
various terms, agreeable to themselves. Allow
nie now to ask the honorable senator from Georgia,
if it is possible that these cession* of a doubtful
claim could enlarge the jurisdiction of- Cortgrcss,
and confer a power unknown to the Constitution?
The .cessions were not perhaps necessary
to a complete title, but, at any rnte. it was
wise and prudent to obtain them. After they
were obtained and the dispute terminated, Congress,
to ascertain its legal power over the property,
hod to go, not to tnese deeds of relinquish-'
ment, but to the great deed of the people. They
there found that they could *rll and regulate tlir
property, and if they had npt mo found it they could
not have exercised any act of ownership over it,
unless, indeed, we suppose that this important
provision was n mere work of supererrogaUoiK?
a supposition which no man has u right to make.
So much for the care and control of the property;
and now for the right of governing the people,
who mtiy live upon or near if; for be it remembered
that the territorial governments have operated
upon hundreds of thousands of American
Citizens living upon their own land, and not upon
the fagid of th? Cni'ed State*. I lmvo lived, myself,
a large portion of my active life in territories,
but never upon the public land ; and 1 desire to \
know what right rhe General Government had to
legislate for me, merely because they have a constitutional
power to regulate their own property ?i
I repeat, the cession made, whence comes Hie political
power of legislation over the people? And
I repeat also, that fhrls nckCdtHedgrnenl, or trimsfer
of title, whichever it may be,, is as powerless
to confer the great attributes of superior legislation,
As to convert this confederated Government lulo
a eontKrtrdated btir.
I wiH not renew what I have said rcspeclpiZ the" i
chasm-^-which|tf any intelligent [Wwer Coufd'gll
up, h could bC done by the senator froW .Georgia.;
?between the right rrr Mxfahtfubh; fbTmihg ap integral
part of tbe treaty ^Making "'flOwer, -and the
right ^anUni]MdlltgifJtHtotfc,'AWessary, rs the
senator says, to thv use of the property Here is
a leap that ovsrAtridrs the Con*tih", an. Mr. t,
Madison tel.s us that the only legiti-.i;,te defence
4 C?aSriv*io* faMhaunetjiuiion
of t*rrit$fj&l gpx?rtu?*nip wt" the pe?!
r'cistty for fheir di^lon, itt ttie absence of ronen. j
twnul newer, and Judge* MafhhaMv whan captain- j
mg this tmbjee*. aodtworng Uh> authority, first to I
uue aourceuttvd then to another, tuid evidently dm-1
satisfied with hur'jdwn conclusion*^ as" pppear* by i
the irfgiwitnnt Vemartc that "whrchever may be j
the sou roe Whence the power is derived, die pb* '
seesnvt of it ia omjiiebttoned," obwtrvea, ihnt
" perhaps the po wer ipay result from the fact tjiat1
it (the territory 1 is hot within thejurisdiction of!
any particular &ate, and id withiir the jurisdiction ,
of the United Stales." And who does not see
tl^at this is but another name for necessity, or
** i ire vi tub If consequenceand it is rise where
called by this eminent man, resulting, not frpm
eoftstitiitional proeisimrfi, but from undefined political
relation*, which impose obligations necessary
to be fulfilled, but not prescribed in the Constitution
? And in their practical recognition w?!
are bound, by eVery principle of free institutions,,
to encrouoh no further upon the liberty of the
people lliun is neccanary to give Uifiu the benefits
of a just political organization, and to preserve
the relation which should subsist between them
and ua. ?
Mr. BERRlETf. The aenatnr has entirely misconceived
tlur proposition which 1 atnted with regard
to the powers of Congress. He found* the
argument which he has delivered with . so much
fervor and eloquence upon this suggestion, that
because the term stwerrign is not to be found in
the Constitution, Congress cannot exert sovereign
power,
Mr. CASS., 1 did not hear the stateutept of
the senator. ''
Mr. BEURTBN. I have raid that the sovereign
fiowrr over ttu? u<>mnin its in me pwpie oi llie
United States, who art its proprietors, and that
Congress, as the agent of that people, tpus created
by the Constitution to exercise such a portion of,
the sovereign power as is delegated to them. The
argument of the senator is this: look into the Constitution,
unci froiu beginning to end you cannot
find thf word sovereign in it, and therefore y?"'
cannot infer (hat any power exercised by Congress
is a sovereign power.' Now, suppose the
Constitution to grant to Congress power to do an
act which is characteristic of sovereignty, would
it be necessary to say, "we grant to you, the Congress
of the tJniied Stated, the sorereign power to
do such act." The power to declare trnr is a sovereign-power,
and it is conferred upon Congriesa
by the ponstitulion;and does not thisgrapt invest
Congress wjth the right of exercising jsoygraign
power, although thfe t?rm sovereignly never occurs
inthe Coriatitu'tinn ? I suppose this may be
admitted by th^ senator from Michigan; but if
uift, I am not disposed to argue merely fur the
sake of victory in this contest. I am unwilling,
however, to be consideretf as the ndvocate of doctrines
which belong to despotic governments.
The senator telUs us of the complaint made by
our ancestors in the Declaration of Independence
ngainst the King of Great Britain. But by whom
was that complaint made? It was by perrfons
holding their property and their civil and political
rights under the grant of charters from the crown
of Great Britain. They were not trespassers upon
public domain of tliat government; they were not
I here in violation of the laws of Great Britain, but
were exercising rightful powers under the .charters
granted to thfm; but the complaint was op account
of neglect to provide for our rights under
thone charters, and the assumption of powers inconsistent
with theni, and it -was for that reason
that resistance was made. ). j
Mf. CASS. Mrw President, J must have the
last word. [Laughter.] , .. ......
Mr. BERFUEJY'. Certainly.
Mr. CASS. It is ? great comfort where one is
pressed by a powerful opponent. I desire to tell
tbe senator why I dwelt upon his use of tjie word
sovereign at greater length than I should otherwise
have uone. ft was because in this very body, in
tbe discussion upon this subject, the'power of
Congressional action was expressly ami elaborately
deduced fVoiu tbe attribute of sovereignly, and
illustrious foreign names in tbe science of natural
law were huroauced as authority in this question
of American constitutional right, and this, too,
by sortie of the ablest men among us. And I do
riot yet see why the senator introduced the word
iti the manner lie did, unless he attached an importance
ta the attribute rt represents as bearing
upon tbisquestioa of legislative authority. Without
bein^ si? iniendrt], it aim oat necessarily misleads.
l'he. proposition that Congress has constitutional
power to If/fislatr for the Territories, contains
the real doctrine maintained by tbe senator,
timl in words not to be mi&understood. Let- it
not bo embarrassed by terms not merely inapplicable,
but changing in fact the actual scope of the
inquiry, and introducing elements of controversy,
leading us far astray. :/ ; .: r. ' I
Mr, DAVIS, of Massachusetts. I wish to
make a single remark upou one uf die topics discussed
by the senator frpni Georgia. That honorable
senatriV takes exception to the admission of
California, on the ground that the population, in
his judgment, is nW sufficient to justfy the number
of Representatives which that State has seat here.
The data uooii which he founds his information
is n paper published about the first of July. He
estimates the population, at -1:211,000. I would call
the attention of the Senate to another fact in connexjon
with this. > 1 have seen, upon equally good
authority; that is newspaper authority, a recent
statement, and a repetition of the same statement,
that at Fort Laramie, where the land emigration
to California passes, the number of persons actually
counted vyho have passed m'o California,was
more than 38,000 about a month since. There
was a large column of this emigration then in the
rear; bu| they estimated the probultle number,cohsistiug
of men, women, and chrildren, at 50,000
or 00,000 persons; and they estimated that the front
or this column had at that lime reached California:
so that could not hi taken into thb estimation
which, the senator from Georgia had made.
I yrilj add ope word more with regard,to the
population. I received a letter by the last steamer,
frdma, gentleman ofgfeaf frrleHlgehee, copliacted
>with the government there, in which he expresses
-hi#-belief that The population will. bf doubled the
present year. This is .high.authority, -With respect
to the difficulties in regard to the finances for
the support of the government, I may stare that I
have had a cppverMatian with one or" two gentlemen
who arrived in tljg last .at eamerfrnmCb ogres,
and the>ir statement was that California was now
deriving a most ample revenue, and not only one
amply sufficient,'but mtfch more than they needed
from one single sourc.o, They have.levied a tax
upon, the foreigners who gx> to the miniug business
or twenty, dollars per month, nnd from the ex per
flence trey have had so far'in collecting this
revenue, the same gentleman suites that they will
derive a month. If these statements are
to be relied upon", they would seem to answer the
rosifions taken by the senutor from Geergia, and
rdse sirdply to com rmmi cafe them to the Senate.
Mr. BERRIEN. There are two answeragiven
hy the senator from Massachusetts to a portion of
the urgument which I uddret sed to the Senate to
day. Th; first relates t<1 the population of California.
He lias seen-a newspaper stafemerit, by
which the number of a column of emigrant* on
their way to California is esijuaaiedj the number
which has passed at a particular point has been
counted, and lire whole mimber of that cn'nmfi
on their way, cither miidvnnce'or in rear or that
portion which has been,counted, is estimated by
hint at a particular amount. Now, are. we to apply
a constitutional rule with regard to representation
npon the ceideneecnrtiairrrd m such a statement
as this? I ask if the simple statomcr t whioh
has been made bv the senator from Massachusetts
does not show its entire fallacy as a baeis upon
which the rejwesentmioiV *? made to rest. I see n
newspaper which represents this, and I see another
which represents that,-and I combine Litest-;
several opinions, and upon that I satisfy my conscience
in the application of a ronstitnii ri-.l fit ft'
But concede all thai the 'senator has elated as to fhc !
extent of this population* the question is, whether
you will allow California tod*in? iji w iiii m o rapte-,
sentntives provided by taa'tcbiistitutlonrhhd elected
nnder that feonstifution,'n't which time this poptt-!
Liuon was not there. And now 1 hop to inquire
uf the honorable senator from Massachusetts, supposing
all that he has read to be absolutely true :
and veritable, what hand bad these .TO, 40, or j
50,41)0 persone, who, ncdordnpr to Iris statement,
are travelling to California, in sleeting throe rep- '
resentatives whom you areaboui t<) admit ? Un inure
these representatives the representatives of that:
people who are now in the progress of migrating
to California; And of what importance to the
question wliicli wo are considering: in it, how
many are now on their way to California.?, To
make ahy thing like a fiiir statement,a credit*an,
entry per coafr.i, showing the number wltti hate
retnrned, is nerdssery, nnd how many hire fallen
victim* to their labors-in-tha mines It wdi be
perceived--?and that is the poiut Iq which 1 Wish
t.rcT.'l I lie attention Of the Sehhtc - ii. it I talc
mom <*f theseimtor relates exclusively (o petson.x
vfco are tbrir way. to Chd.foruu, who c-iuki
have had no ugsncy "pi electing theser^grcRontatives^
and who are not, rtpresqnied . py them. ;
fliey will he enumfrnted irt the ctensutfabout to
be taken, nnd represented by the' f>ett?oh? thereafter
to be chosen.
With respect to the other suggestion of the
\ I
senator, I think ibiiW'a uttc u unfortqqata as'j c
the otX to Wkttlfl iav* rCfryrCtf: ? have heard 4
?Iao whaA he ha* mentioned, and I praautna from i
the aaine noutw-r* member of tf?e legislature of. I
California?that taxes iyre imposed by |he legisla-! t
tare of OblJf Tina adequate to lb# hufipm t or the
Gov eminent, XoW, air, yoq still regard (he peo- '
]4? of California as qo unorganized body of men,
until yyu give. vuJbluy tp thqj^ opt by your law. ; *
Havln| assumed thlevy a lax of tpenty dollars
per month upon'an (orefj^nera engaged in Ihe :
mines, that.it is supposed, wfll furnish a sufficient |
income for the governMieut of California.' Mr. ; (
President. I have )ieard that California uifords a
very Kinjila.field for the exertise of profrsstonaf'
anient, and here is one of the moat profitable sour- K
ctm of wealth that could have bfcen invented l>y
the pit qf any peraou./ It ta elated that this autliurity
to levy the tax is m>w denied in California; 1
that it is tub judlte befbre their own courts. Sir,
I would not.want a more ample income daring the
residue of my life than 1 might obtain by being J'
employed as counsel for the men on whom these ' (
taxes huve been levied. The source that is relied i .
on, theto, fefr (he revenue of the GoVeriydent is f
..f >n;? <.? v?... ' i ......u .i ? I i
mav vino ifi m 4 A?V?r * WUUIU AKin'St VHUUrt' J
to pay tkul there in no senator in tljiu chamber
who will affirm the right of the legislature of California
to impose this tax under the circumstances I
and at the time they imposed it; and yet thin is |
the only source of the revenue which la to maintain
the State government to which the senator '
refers. That source is already called iu question, t
and is under Tiligation in their own count*. These j
courts, under an influence, unintentionally and
' unconsciously operating upon them?under the 1
influence of the necessities that surround them? !
mat atfivm the validity of that act; but it is not (
possible, when it comes before the Supreme
Coprt of the United Slaves, that such u decision
can bp sustained. It cannot be possible that ?
people who had no right derived fVodi those in
whom the real: sovereignty of the territory and
property in the soil were, vested, can imposd a
tax upon any class of men for the UBe of property
,which belongs to the United States, over which
'those who levied the tax had no iurisdiction^qnd
to which they had.nO title. If vie could suppose
that this California legislature chuld 'exercise any
legisl^t'iv? power, they had certainly no power to
pass laws respecting Jhe property of the United
States on which these hiinerH were employed.
M.r. F<X).TK. f desire, Mr. President, to make
>t person;*! explanation, , I aai infonned that I "was
understood, in t/te remarks which I had the honor
of addressing to (he Chair a few minutes since, as
chnrgihg ihe chair with being actuated by bad intentions,
i certainly did not intend' so to be understood
by any means.- I did say, and 1 say
vet, ilia;, in my judgment, Ihe action of the Chair
was practically unkind towards me, and decidedly
embarrassing to me ; but the motives and intentions
of the presiding officer, I do not at all doubt,
were altogether right and proper. I have no d>ubt
that tne Chair acted with the best .intentions. 1
thought so at the'nme, and thIAk so yet. Buj^he
course pursued towards me has been several times !
felt to be decidedly oppressive to me practically.
The PRESIDENT. The Choir will take occasion
to obwtfe that,, m the discharge of his
ddty, it-is frequently painful to arrest gentlertien
when he perceives that their course of debate is
likely to produce personal remarks. Hence he
desires to arrest it before difficulties, can arise.
With no ufiMemJly feeling ^towards any gentleman,
he will, therefore,"in the discharge of his
duty, arrest, so fur as he-cntv?and he must have
the aid .of senators to enable him to do it?every
attempt to iildulge in remarks not strictly in accordance
with parliamentary law. The Chair
-will.'take occasion to say that he had certainly no
unkind feeling towards the Senator front Mississippi,
or any other senator.^ So far from it, I
think tny eddrse towurd him ought to couviuce
him that it is so.1
J?l ' J.'i 11 .. lifllU.L-.L_U iiP-"-1 '
TJIE SO UT HE UN PRESS.
WASHINGTON CTTV.
THURSDAY, AUGUST 22, lHiiO.
?rr*T" 't~ r-' ? . ," ? r?t?+Voice
of the South.
YYe published in. yesterday's paper, the proceedings
of Six mcetingajof tbe.peojrfts in variouH
Southern States. Our previous numbers fur
two'nibnths have been full of similar records.
Yet they have accumulated so rapidly upon us
that to-day we devote all our available, space to
this duty, and publish the reports of twelve
more. And We, liave about as inauy more on
hand, which we shuH insert tomorrow, for they
conic.to uw front tlip $opth in such mpi|bcrs,
that if laid over for two days, they occug^ulote
bcypnd all the apace wc eau coinuupul. Nothing
illustrates the necessity for establishing
J tliis paper mow powerfully than these facts.
I Kor this is the only paper here at the seat of
j Government that presents these declarations of
the people's wHI to that Government which still
pretends to be the people's.
The lnlr.llige.ncev, the Union, and the Republic,
the professed Organs of party have not con- .
toined id the same period, one-fifth part of these
authentic demonstrations of the people's will.
The reason is obvious. Theso papers had
before taken positions the reverse of those of
the people. Professing to be friends of justice
and right, the Repiibiic supported Geperal Taylor's
policy of converting California and Mew
Mexico into twd frectoil States by the intrigues
Of army officers and Government agents?the
- Union advocated the bnnrie results by the Compromise
bill, which undertook'in addition to sell '
out nt federal expense twenty-five thousand
scjunre mil^s of Northeastern Teyas.to New
Mexico, In. prder to liiako .that iroc-Hoil State
large and-powerful at thq> expense of the South,
although to that part of Texas,New Mexico had
neither pretence of possession nor pretenee of
right. The Intelligencer was non committal (ietveen
Taylor and ClaV, or thoir respective
plans, as it was uncertain which would prevail?
until suddenly one day It was supposed to be
certain tl^at the plan of Mr. 'Clay would succeed
ami the Intelligencer eh me out for it?but in tlie
taeanwhilc it had suppressed or derided every
"Southern popular movement adverse to either.
To 'publish therefore these proceedings of the
people, would have convicted all these paper*
iVo.ii their own columns, ol'iiaving uiisnvptvscnted
the opinions of a largo portion of the Southern
people, aud of having deserted-their rights.
The coalition of Mr. Clay iukI .Mr. Cask, is
one of the most remarkable and iligitiotos, recorded
in political history. Tiwy were chiefs of
rival and hostile parties. Mr. Clay is an avowed j
advocate of emancipation, devoted to the North, i i
a ltd supported hy It iu Ids I'TcsIdcntlat aims. He i i
is an advocate of enormous Federal powers, and
on that aiccomit h s been opposed iiv the Demo- I
cpUui party l'or,twyuitydive years. Mr. C'w i
>vas a leader awl l;;ty candidate of that .piirty for;
I 1h> V*?>lc?v10rfriend-j f
J dp tin- the.Svttth} whir" Iil- iiia principal; .
support ia the hitc VreaMeirtkJ; t'auvasn. And i ^
Ik> was a priitV-Mfct il friend <4 strict limitations oh t
Federal jkjW.^. '
Mr. CrjtV :ind'<r.'-iierriT Ca?s mot In tlu> Sfe'nate j
at the bejgtorffirlg of the i. In-th c.uuli Into j
for the Presidency ruocnily dejeited l>y General t
Taym.h?Mr. Cuw in a M illion of !>i* owu ,
( any, Mr. t;.vs.s before the people.
Th.'sc who know pnfihvh# of tin; history of
those, eontlotaon, ?r -of lupbition^ canre^Wj!' u<*deMand
their i'aoliu^ toward* Gerand-TAriOR,
rod tbcir'unsl&king thirst for power. It van* to 1
U-ii'\j?<vtod that In- would btf i i"inilWate",R>r j
re-ehetion. : He had proven foo itftrifpfWr'tfther i i
of them wpitrafoiy. Bat {h6 ttiigHt.' hof l>o too '
Ktron* i'prJholh. h rifrte<T. Ifis Cdblrlet Wad alfeddy
a f.dhiro. He had lost milch popularity. If {
his policy cbnld be defeated in Congress, by a <
junction of malcontent Whig*, and the Demo- *
I m
p ' . -L.'' ; f 4 .
rata, Ue w ould -W disabled from running ?n-1
>ther Presidential eotorttf.and thus the most for-1
njJab!a competitor would be driven. from that
laid, into which Messrs. Cass and OLaY could
)ir'u mote enter, and try their fortunes.
Bat General Taylor had made a strong move,
Cbo North would cast a heavy Presidential vote
it the next election, Ahd'to that voto lie had
iroj>vsed to add, by the force of Executive and
uilitnry influence, two tuore States, California
end Now Mexico. Mr. Clay and Nfr. Cass of
jourae undertook to overbid him, tuui to carry
lie North a gal oat him. Men of ordinary reuarn
Yoplij have been staggered with the idea of
asking a 1 rger bid for the North than General
PayY-or's. But give to two men the leadorihip
of parties, and inflame their minds with the !
topo of winning such a dazzllug priie as the
Presidency, and they will do almost anything for
lucceas. General Taylor's position contemplated
the annexation of the eastern valley of
the Rio Grande to New Mexico, ;is far down
only as Mexican settlement extended. Tliis
ifter all would have wade a Stute indeed, but
uo great things of a State. Messrs. Clay, Cass
fc Co., resolved to make a spleudid free-soil
State, and therefore run the line of 3J degrees
clear across to the eastern border of Texas, mid
to pacify har, offered ten millions out of the
treasury?about the entire surplus fund by the
way, which would thus cut Taylor's administration
off from the disbursement of that much
money. And they, as weW as Taylor, went for
receiving California as a State, for ratifyhfjj her
monstrous claim of territory* aud all the uuconHtitMrional
measures that luid been adopted to
precipitate her into the confederacy. Having
thus by bringing down the boundaries of California.
to 3'J on the'Paeifie, and of New Mexico
to 32 on the Rio Grande, interposed two
free-soil States as barriers to Southern emigration
into the vast interior region of Utah,
dte., Messrs. Clay, Webster and Cass were
ready to vote a Territorial Government to Utah
without any pderdiet of slavery, excusing themselves
to the North by the declaration thut the
laws of God, instead of free-soil in California
and New Mexico, forbade slavery in that region !
Hut this was not nil. Virginin, Maryland nnd
Kentucky, arc border slaveholdyig States. The
two latter have always been devoted to Mr.
Clav, save when Kentucky deserted liini for
Taylor. Mr. Clay, in order to induce them
to ne?jutesce in the base surrender of Southern
territorial rights, was willing to pass an illusory
fugitive slave bill. ' Virginia is always
Democratic, and bis ltcen rather too submissive.to
the yoke of party. Gen. Cass and
tl?e editor of the Union no doubt sujtpdscd that
she could l>e stultified in the same way. Aim!
tlius was u coalition formed and a scheme concocted
to plunder the South for Northern Presidential
votes, and,^Jest the South should resist,
to divide it by the pretence of a guarantee for
nuu-iLtrv nf fmriliuii dni'M. and trt Modllc.c
tin? border States of the South from a union
with their sister States of the South, and from
their own solemn and emphatic Legislative resolves.
The coalition thus formed, the organs were
put in motion. And as Virginia is thu largest
Slate of the South, and the Vnibn Is the Democratic
ort/an, and circulates in that ami other
Souther^ States, the task of sustaining tl|u contemplated
outrage devolved principally ofV that
paper.* We fin e seen how it lifts been perfonneds-siiow
desperately, and yet how feebly.
Before this coalition vrns forniod the Nashville
Convention was a favoHte nieiwurc at the
South. But it wa? seen at once that no respectable
body of Southern men could meet in convention
:Vjid ratify such a scheme as Mr. Ci-av's
plan. Jnimediately, therefore, every effort was
made to demoralize that Convention. It was
unnecessary?it was dangerous. Congress
would settle nil things in u satisfactory mantlet.
Union, harmony, conciliation, fraternity. The i
eflect was at first to delude the Southern people?they
did not give a large, support to thai
measure. But the firm and sagacious men who
met in thai body were not deceived. They
1?tu i.?? n..?
were lliUUCiaie, UU'_) nciu juuihhl , uui mtj
were not to be intimidated by threats or seduced
by professions.
Tbey took a position which not one man in
all tho South, and but very few men in the
North can be found to way was unreasonable.'?
Yet the parlies to the coalition rejected ity and
denounced the Convention. The orgarfs repudiated
it. The aubiurgaus, .the Washington correspondents
of neutral 'papers, who multiplied
themselves each into eleven men in buckram,
villified it Fi iallyGenor.il Taylor tlirentened
the State of Texas with the stvord?so did Mr.
Fillmore, fdlowing in the footsteps?and Mr.
Clav, in his lost greatest,, grand pneification
speech could not resist the propensity to use
the same threat against South Carolina.
Well, they have all been board?argumorit,
exhortation and menace. And bow hpve they
- J i n.. *i.? a. i
LHJCM1 snswuri'u . lilt; IUU?1 Cllljifiaiti' aim
determined veto that ever was pronounced.
There is no example in this country of so many
anil such large meetings, held in some States in
almost every county, vtyhuut distinetion of
party, irt eontimpt of organs, as have now been
held in Georgia. Alabama, Florida, Mississippi,
and -Texasr- 80nth Carolina }ia? ktdyl-fewer,
because lier people are. united and decided, and
with tlieoi tlio time for argument has passed.
These States linVe afl sustained the positions of
Lhe Nashville Convention. We have U10 most
anipiestronnble evidence that Arkansas is now
ioing the same thing. And Tennessee, notwithstanding
the vacillation of two or three politicians,
had the largest delegation in that C'fm,
- Ff . . J
rcnlion, and they were unanimous.
Here arc eight States that we look upop as
dready decided, North Carolina has just elected
t Governor 00 the 'same platform. -The n^rkl
mrl of Lbtilsinnn, wo' Iistc ho doubt, is nlid if
he initio nilnd. ' f
hut fe ftV'ltig <"it of view all States that are in j
he least doubtful, there arc six who have spoken
n terms that are as emphatic, and in numbers
is unanimous, as ever people ?qx>ko. There j
lever wan, before any revolution* more signal |
md general symptoms of commotion.
' The aftV ta rhatigetf * j.'* _? '
I v i%t!.i *10 if it!Mtaft oT 1
enff tftoalonj I,
From peak to peak, die ratHinc crags among Ik 1
Leaps the live tluindar! JVbf /mm mu lone oiaitL,
tin 1 every mountain now hndl found a tongo*,
fcud Gsorgpm answsis from her em baring crowd,
duck to the Rio Grande drat Speaks lo-her'toJaud/' 1
Those eolflbinc as many eJunumts of (
strength as are to be found in aaf other people !
>f tbo same ithmbers. T^hey batehJlf a tnHfiort 11
f men, one half of whom owns, each his own j1
i if i Hiy^iv t, hi ' i i mil?
home and his own rifle, and knows bow to
manage them. They control the navigation of !
tlie Mississippi. They can cat oft' the communication
with Of ogun and California. They
produce the cotton that sustains our foreign rj
tipde and clothes the world. Let a, collision
arise. between tfieui and the Northern States,
and the spindles 6f Massachusetts become silent,
the grass growf In the streets,of New York, and
tlie grain of the Northwest rots in her granaries.
\
And are these, the States on whom sjmliatiou
and outrage can be perpetrated with Impunity ?
We can tell Presidential intriguants and Cabinet
expectants, and jobbing organs, that tholr power
over this .(juration has departed. It is beyond
even the formality of a majority vote in Senate
or House. And since it has become so juucb
the fashion for power to wave the sword?we 1
can tell those who are foild of that sort of (
adjustment, that tlie liberties of these States i
were won by the sword?and if necessary, by
tlie sword they will be maintained.
CONOR ESSK) K~A L .
IN SENATE.
Wkdnrsuav, August SI, 1851).
A number of petitions were presented nnd appropriately
referred. ''
kilt.lb passed.
The bill granting the right of way, and making
a grant of land to the State of Arkansas, to make
a military road from Memphis to St. Francis.
The bill to extend the port of New Orleans, and
The joint resolution from the House of Representatives,
instructing the Secretary of State to
furnish to the State or Alabama, duplicates of the
books and document* heretofore supplied by* Congress,
which were destroyed by1 the recent burning
of the capitdl of that Stat*, were severally read
a third time and passed.
ll'rcuase or books.
On motion, by Mr. Mancum, the resolution authorizing
Aaron H. Palmer to withdraw from the
files of the Senate the document entitled a Comprehensive
View of the principal manitime <;ountfies
in the East, with a view to its publication,
and directing the secretary t>f the Senate to subscribe
for five thousand copies thereof, was taken
up, and it was modified by Mr. Mangum by authorising
a subscription for three thousand copies.
The adoption .of the resolution was advocated
by Messrs. Mangitm, Hamlin, Foote, Dayton,
and Socle, and. ^pppsed by Messrs. Daw bun,
Rusk, 1>a\is, of Miss., and Atchison.
Mr. uobk moved to uuiend the resolution by
striking out the subscription for fhree hundred
copies, which was rejeqledr-ayes 13?nay?;17.
A number of other amendments wore, proposed
and rejected, and the resolution was Ordered to be
engrossed for a third reading.
fl'uutlvb slaves.
On inoiiou by Mr. Mabon,
The special order, the bill to provide for the:
more effectual execution of the (bird-clause of the
second section of the Const i tat ton of the United
States, was taken up for consideration, as in Com.mittee
of the .Whole. The question being upori
the amendment ni-nmiu?(l liw M- D?> ?
The amendment was advocated by MessrR.
Atciiihon, Footk, and Pratt, and opposed by
Mr. D.ittok.
House or IIetreskntativei.
Mr. THOMPSON, of Pennsylvania, moved to
take up the Senate supplemental census bill with
a view to the appointment of a Committee of
Conference, as the Senate had non-ecmcurwd in
the Bouse amendments. Agreed to." >
The House resolved itself into Committee of
the Whole on the slate of the Union.
Mr. UUllT wus called to the Chair, and the
committee took up tho civil and diplomatic appropriation
bill.
The pending amendment being that matte "\>y
Mr. Jarret, out, of Arkansas, td strike out the appropriation
of $5,000 fbr the purchase of Greenwood's
Island,near Pascngpula, ^fississippi.
Mr. BAYLY, of Virginia^ hoped the amendment
would be adopted.
Mr. DUNHAM, of Ipdiana, though Alhey had
belter let Surgeon General LaWsOn lake it himself.
Mr. FEATHERSTON, of Mississippi, remarked
tliut it was in proof before tlu-* Committee
I of Way* and Means, tliai if authority to purchase
this island was not given, the government,
would be cotppelled to purchase some other saluI
brioua place near this location, for a nulitarydioapitul.
Government had already expended aome
ten or lil'teeu thousand doliarii on this island, and
he thought tho true policy wiih to vote theainounl
proposed by the committee.
Mr. MEADE, of Virginia, inquired an to t'te
necessity of supporting a military honpital at this
place, when there were already two itt the vicinity.
Mr. BAYLY, of Virgihin, replied that it was
true that this island was about midwuy between
the two hospitals, located respectively at 1'ens.ieoln
and New Orleans, but it was necessary to
have some other healthier location, pear these, to
quarter troops at during the sickly season.
The amendment fo strike out the appropriation
was negatived?ayes 47, pays 78. t
Mr. Albertaon, of Indiana, moved an appropriation
of <110,000 for certain surveys in Ohio.
Killed out of order.
Mr. McCLERNAND, of Illinois, moved an
appropriation of ?1.701 30, for Compensation to
Theodore S. Fay, Secretary of Legation at the i
the Court of Prussia, for his services as acting
Charge d'Aflaires at said court, for some eight Or
ten months in 1848 and 1843. Ruled out of order
by the Chair.
Mr. McC. appealed froth the decision of tbe
Chair.
The decision was sustained?ayes 79, nays,54.
Mr, McUJ-KKNAND, of Illinois, moved ?n
appropriation ot $1,673 for the benefit of'KoJieri
M. Wab?h|.for BerviceijinsactiugChurge.dluirnirCB
at Mexico. Ruled oytof order. j
Mr. VINTON, of Ohio, yppeuled front the decision
of the chair.
M r. Mc(lL?ftNAN?) iyiovuJ an appropriation
of $1,500 for compensation for a person to ba hppoiriwd^ta
dragoman and Secretary of the Mission
at the court of Turkey. Agreed to. u
Mr. MoCLEUNAND inored an rfmehdmeht
for compensating John S. Brown for acting as a
dragoman at the afrirokiiid mission for several years i
past. Ruled out of order.
Mr. BAYLY, of Virginia, moved nn appro- I
priatioft of*$1(9,000 for outfits for charge d 'afTiirCs i
at the (ioverninents of Portugal,'New Graiitidu, I
Guatemala, and Ecuador. i
Mr. McCLElLN'A RDstated that such an appro- i
nriation was desirable in the case of the Cliurge at <
Portugal, as, in.conse^nence of the refusal of that i
government (o pay to oyr Churge the/e certain 1
claims, he had probably withdrawn, audit might i
become necessary to give another one an outfit. ?
Mr. CARTTER, of Ohio, was oppouod to thtue
fre?|uent appropriations for oulfiia and iiifita. It f
seemed to njm to be quite a business with the t
Executive to lie picking up exhausted polittnthiiM '
?<]uite 'ton the hflM?and fattening them Up by a \
foreign outfit and infit, ready tor* nfcw campaign, f
By repealing this action at all fdraign courts every c
thirty days, cpiitc on army <>f them would In* mi i
hand by the time the next Presidential battle Was 1
to be fought. 1
Mr. MeCLEftNAND moved an nmfcudment to I
the amendment, providing $9,000 for halary rind t
outfit for a Charge d'affaires at'.Nonr.igun. Agreed I
to; as also wri* the antendmeut as aipcndcd.
Mr, BAYLY, of Virginia, moved an appropri-1 '
ation'of $5,000 fpr conifl^tihation, tp Mr. Ham-|
Midi IUI scrrn-eo ill i linen p.iNins V'lrtrgc Ul.O?a- I
plea. Ruled our of order. T
Mr. TOOMBS, uf Georgia, appealed from the <
derision rff t^e chair. t
The chair was Hnstained in the decision?ayes i
75-^-navH 4S. . *
Mr, MEADE, of Virginia* moved to iucrease n
the appropriation for Commissioner le Cltuiu from I
*6,00 to 47,000. i
Mr. MoCLERXAJVD ?bjcoted to it an unne- t
Cftiaaij, ?
Mr. MEADJB Mi(?porMed hi? morion by some S
remarks.. lie thong hi that in consequence of thr h
crtvu diatomic of that country fiom uk, of the Ihct c
that a reatdeiroe there wan disajfficaftle ju sdfh, f
and th* Swans of living them (meat costing $4 t
per lb. and wood for cnoieng it $12 per cord) ex- 1 f
penshre? flie salary might-to be increased. 1
Mr m LCI A RP, ?T Alabama , moved to amend \
the MtifBd01?"1 '4>y tncrenmng the afntmrtt to f
jftflMMta supported it by some remarks. sS {1
j. Mr, 8g&Q?%Qf df itfeeneylvnaur, opposed it>wi j
die-ground that ? * minister td Chin*, did not t
harem hwnr the expenses of a Wowt residence, I
M Mgh YtnldHr Wal urtcdttsd for It die**
creed to, as, also, was the amendment of Mr. t
Mr adz, <
- - -
*, - .. 1 "I
itlr. mov*d tv appropriation I
jf $W*1,5,9, forbMt tvcrices of'Petyr Parker, at
Secretary and rhargO at China. Railed out of
order. /
Mr. MARSHALL, of ICy', moved an appro- <
ptjatioty oj $?D,0(X) for the reljtjf ?yid ,prole<;yo? J
of persons. employed ip nsvignihijj -western i
witters, to be'dlshursgd hddfyrthe nVecttoii of the i
Secretary of tlid Tirensttry. '
tie remarked that he thoncht that internal, fresh
water sailors often performed tis long Vdy^gea
as tome salt water ones. Hepce they wyfrc entitled
to nuhlifc relief f/ont the physical suffer pigs
to tyjilcn they were UafcJe, as well as those without
opr jurisdiction in foreign porta, ^gryed to.
Mr. BAYLY moved an auiendnien.t appropriating
$5(1,000 for relief, i&o., to a ainular cluaa on,the
Atlantic conat.
Mr. CARTTER, of Qhio, was opposed -to the
auurudmeut, as he waa, also, 10 that just adopted
by the committee. He had hoped that when the
Weal called for art appropriation from the federal
treasury, it. would lie for a mere legitimate purpose,
than this. What right had we to appropriate
money?create a pauper fund?for the class
of persons navigating ships or other vessels in our
waters ? If we could give alms to those navigating
the Mississippi, we could to those on its "branches?to
those on the canals connecting then*, and
)a tltAan An tlto rnilrnuilj nt-isi Avrlihuvtr vAu/la Md
was opposed to all such plundering.
Mr. HALL, of Missouri, moved to include
" every body else" in the catphrgueof public beoeicinries,
under this appropriation. It was disagreed
to, us also >vns lilt,'.motion.of Mr. Davi t.
Mr. KING, of New York, moved an appropriation
of $4,000 for the contingent expenses of
foreign intercourse. Agreed to. | . . ,
Mr. McCLERNAND moved mi appropriation
as indemnity to Thomas Riley, on aw-nnnt of having
hud ins gooda seized by the United States
military authority in Mexico. Ruled out of
order. i
Mr. STANTON, of Kentucky, moved to increase
the pay of the two keepers of the southern
drawen the Potomac bridge from $1,50 to
per day. '
Mr. JONES, of Tennessee, remarked thai he
lied some con /ersaiion with. otie'bf these keepers
in reference to-thli moii<jn,*ahd, iif the pourse of
it, the keeper said.Jie Jfrjew, of. up other bnsinesa
that he could fen'gngtr in hyVniofi lie could make
so much, as hf; pofM'/rtceired, and he, dtd not
doubt but that others could lis found who would
re idi|y accept the place; but lie did not thiuk they
understood the business us well as ha did. lie
thought, therefore, the increase of pay should not
be voted.
Mr, MORTO^f, of Virginia, suid be hoped that
when the gentleman from Tennessee, undertook
to pull off the leeches from the Treasury,! least
Jney should become gorged with; its contents, he
would begin with some more plethoric subjects
than lliosy now ,under consideration. Hp knew
that the gentleman was a faithful watchman, to
that depot go.vertmient treasure, Dut he
thought that upon reflection,.the gentlemen would
come to the conclusion that ilie public interests
would not be subserved py reftutii# iheee drawkeopers
the addition of this Hma.ll, piuuuee to their
compensation. It wan agreed to.
Mr. BIJjOVVjV, of Mississippi, moved no
anpuidincnt appropriating $3,000,fyr gradingjond
iVnproving New Jersey ayenup,, north of the
Capitol. Agreed to.
Mr. BROWN then moved a similar'appropriation
for the Name avenue, youth of (in; Capitol,
whie.h was agreed U>.
Mr. BAyCi.ofVa,,moved an uppropyiution of?250
for completing a payment, dije to Mr. Gornubi'6n
a contract lor supnlyitig paving stones
fo't* 'Pennsylvania nveliue. Agreed jo.
Oir motion of Mf. McCLERNAND, the committee
rose, and the House thcu adjourned.
officTal.
NEW CHANNEL, MOUTH OF COLUMBIA
RIVER, OREGON.
Ornce or tnt CoAst Survev,
Washington, Aug. M.lMfiO.
8ia : I enclose herewith copies of letters,'rcceiVM
ffOm Lieirt . Washington'A. IJartjlett, U'. S.
Navy, Assistant in Coast Survey1 (crpurrtandrng in
the absence (if Lieut. Com. mcArihui) ihinference
to a newly discovered Channel- at me month
of the Columbia River, Oregon. The importance
of litis channel ro the -commercial interests rhakes
it desirable to ?ive publicity to the information
contained ht these lelterdfAliu 1 would respectfully
ask Authority for ibis. > l , ' ?
I have the honor tube, very respectfully, yt&r
obedient servunr, .
(Signed) - Ah D. BACHE,
< Stiprrihtcntlttitf 17, S. Coast SktTry.
Hon. TnoSfAft CoRwiw,
I Sterttary of the T> rnw nj.
U. S. SURVEYING fitCftOONKtl " hWINO,
;< |;;Mou*h;4?'?)?? Rrvmv.Nibw 'ditli, 1 b5Q.
Sin : 1 have lite honor; to .enclose you a copy of
(i letter,which, in tlie absence of Lieut. Com. McAt'thus,-I
have (hi* ,tiny .addressed to, Gertie
Gibus, f 'sq., depuiy --collei'tnr for the District of
Oregon, on the navigation of the bar of the Columbia.
r? <
i am happy to add that Mr. White, the highly
efficient pilot of Hie bar, has this morning resumed
his station here with the pilot boat, Mary TnyJbr.
i think it will be gratifying' to the commercial
interest* of the United States to kndw that the hnr
of the Columbia (one of the noblest rivers in the
world) has been stripped of alt its terrors.
Very truly your obedient servant,
WASH. A. BARTLl^TT,
Lieut. V. S. fCaty,, .Isalst. U. IS. Coast Survey.
Professor A. D. Ba'cH?,
SujicrintenJaul S. Coast Swvey,
Washington, D. C.
\J, S. SURVEYING ScHOONlin " j2w|ng,"
Mouth of the Coltmibiu, Juue 2i>, 1850.
i Sir : In reply to your enquiries as to the eharaoterof
the "New South Channel "in the "Columbia
River, and its practical use by vessels either
by sail or steam, as observed by the party df the
U. S,'Coast Survey now engaged here, 1 have to
state:?in thfe absence -of Lieut.'Cotlid*gl McArthur,
Chief of the HydCographieal Party,?that
the U. S. Schooner Lwmg crossed the bur Of the
14 New South Channel" under charge Of Captain
White, the discoverer of the channel, on the 19th !
April last, ana so perfectly plain tina nrcesstbie
did this new route appear, that <vo pohltj scrircply
believe that we had. really 't.hpn| in" to the'Co-'
U^nrVbia 1 iveri>;or ,6yer JIS bar, av. fampilft ror the
last half cpmury, for difficulty and delay as,tq be
a place of terror to nUapnmen und underwriters.
Since the dute referred to,now over two mbnths,
L have witnessed the nlrnuat daily passage "of. the
b?r of the Mew South Channel" by vessels of all
classes trudinp into (Uc .Columbia River, r.rosing
at pleasure with or without pilots, without delay ,
r>r danger. i .
SincP Mr. White left duty at thV bar, (I hope,
however*, only temjwrarily) five sail -have crossed |
die hrtP without pilots, viz, v the brig MSp?*iiin/' j
harks * Ann Smith" and v* Lilirs/'and dtp %]. S. j
trhoonn4' Kwin?-" under my1 direction twice, so !
;lmt 1 can state of my own knowledge, that any .
observing sea man can cross in ur Ont over thi.f bhr
tafVly and fceitainly without an hbuf*b tfelay af er ;
i.-.vinfr mice idrotisedjih oirtfer to observe the mtlg'es
which'ore weli defined and certain tb lead over in ;
jfpbd water.
We huve not sufficiently surveyed the bar in
itate how uup;h water there is at all stages of the
icei btit the least water L had in crossing, with the ; 1
' Ecwpntj" yesterday, with two careful Icudimen, t
was sixteen feet at half tide (flood) running in on '
i strnright range ofPiJlur Hill Tree,a very remark- r<
ible kind murk, just shut on over Point Adams,1 \
ill L deepened into five fhtliom? inside the point of j
ireukers, on north side ?!'channel, nnd hauled op (
V?r the batir.nn on Sand Island (wind N\ W. half '
M.J having from six hikI seven to Aim fathoms up
o S.vtid Island " Bmcon" two n?le* inside'the !
ink.
Timer from the 5 fathoms outsidcto Srrtd Island '
nca' on," minutes. ]
A vessel goes nut from the anchorage at Sand |
stand into open ocean in from 36 to 50 miuutcs. i <
fhere ju abundant room for any vessel to. work iii
ir put, witli the wind from any point of the com- i J
>aso, and as the tide sets fair through the channel j
n the Deaf water, it greatly facilitates both ingress I"
ipd egress. The ranges iW turning. Claupp SUik !
ire, by my own verification, Point klliec, with '
hilar Hill just abut-in behind ?t .and Poit)( Adam* '
n one with the highest " pap" of the mountains !
o the east'd. in 8 fathoms, a vensc! puaae* elenr, I
it her in earning m or gnibg-out. Ad thai leading
pa|V.' has no name, 1 propose tn distinguish it |
a the " lavn; Peak.." We lurve built a'lW.m
>n Sand Island, on whiei, is* white flap, eighty
act above th# island,-an* etghly-ftv# ft** shove
he high v.Mtcr mark. Around the base of the
lag starf it a Ttioek Rouse 35'feet h'tpK and
5 feet square. it can be seen plainly, m gbod \
veather^l^ milea_at sen'. liji brih?MTp ilio Beaegn
big (Greedy, uijder tVe<Wre of the Ttigfiewf peek
voatwirti. of f'luiiook Po?ai and Pout) Ador4sj;
us! open south of JhWur I Jul Tree, a vcasei-wiH j ,
>e in 1?| jcibrajfcpn ? &>r way lo ^dr,
?r r?nge.ou, vi?i Point Adgms and Pillar Hill. [
Ajnl the usual wind at N, W?*y " here in j
hi western board, is fair for crossing. Vessels J
irons the bat of ih? ne>v channel "nd*r *U steer- s
rnwihd _ a I
iog Mils, or beat up bhanr.el as lbs wmd may be * I
ItJCm* npeft>s*ry t?> tpfk;sh|g op th* tw t/bny
wind. -; ' >11-.
a sailing eoassi cau nut io sea front Sand Island,
of come lit, u> untie than she can run lo Ba- I
Iter's Bay; Hl"t?r winch, if in Baku's Bay, site H
must lake her ch.tnce fur wind and tide to get to I
son. I
The &nchon??? ut Astoria, Tansy Point (east of
Clatnop Beaeh ) and Sand Island are good, with
abundant rf?)iur tor gelling under why at any stage
of the tide. I
As iiutin an practicable, I will designate all the I
points of range for which the new Beacon on Sand
UluniLcaa-bemede aftstiteble.' TFT I
It is n superior position for a beacon light. I
Very respectfully, I
Your obedient servant, I
tSigned) WASH'N, A BARTLETT, I
An"1, V. S. .Vjtj, .ias't. U. 8. CoaM Survey. I
To Gcohgc Gissi, ???., . i
Deputy Collector Port / .' Wares. ' I
[ Fi otn the Baltimore Putriol.) I
Later from California. I
ONf! 'MILLION OP G0L1> BROUGHT. I
.lriirul nf the Steamer I'lulaJdjthia. |
NEW YORK; August nil, A. M.
The steamer Philadelphia arrived here this
morning from; Cliapres, bringing dates from San
FVurteiseo to the pH> pf July, being two weeks
later than previotts accounts.
Highly fluttering accounts continue to ^rrive,
pf new and abundant discoveries of gold in Oregon.
.
The Philadelphia, brings one hundred and thirty
one passengers, and one million of dollars in gold
dust. '
The schooner Flight, from Baltimore, arrived
at San Francisco an the 5th.
The Nteamer New World arrived 011 the lHh,
and the Isthmus on the 12th.
Business generally. cputipueH improving.
..flour continues in good demand mid prices pre
advancing.
Coal is advancing.
Lumber is also in good demand,itud price*improving.
v, . , ' - . f
Domestic goods are lower.
Provisions continue firm and in demand.
The njoupy market continues easy, arpl the
rate of discount.ranges from 8 to 10 per cent.
RKOotfD DESPATCH. ' "-2
The Sihifper'I'hiladelphia brings 15 days later
news fj-om Chugcep, but no mails from California,
as they mfereden at Chagres.
y*K?[?)fUu^ / V.A U.II ;/
Further nows by the Europn.
jHiurw, August 20, A. jCl- ? \
tr 'f ,ENGLAND,ji . ;i j
The (juration relative to Rothschild* taking-his
neat lit the House of Coinihoinr,'has beetr postponed
to the next session, when a new bill m ill
be introddced upon the subject. "fi./ I
The Irish branchiae bill is mutilated by ihe
House of Lords,'has been received ley the House
of Commons, who have substituted a twelve
pound quftlitiedtion, which thlds lTtt,000 votes to
to Irish constituencies).
': The new Cabinet at Washington' is' regarded
by the English loading press with milch favor."
The man Wlu/tfhi-eautncd tHe life 6{ Sir'Jphn
Russell has been committed fix' trial.
The prospects of an abundant' harvest are gene-dlly
gwwr* except for potatoes, 'The rot was
reported to bespreading rapidly;espe^ally in the
southern part of Ireland. -> " > ' '
The board of trade return* for the month ending
the 5th July, show an increase in the declared
value of expectations of .?427,000', cftAipared with
the corresponding morfth of hist year, The aggregate
value of export# during the fust hnlf-of the
present year h.is been ^41,779,544; showing- an
increase of as compared with tit* corresponding
period of Ut49. ' ' The
American Minister, lad v and-daughter, are
on a-visitto the Duke and Ducliesa bf-Nbrthtfniberlnnd,
ut, Amwick Castle. ?*' *
It is said that the Great Britain ?tt^nO?hip4ms
Men purchased for and'ihiwahe-is fo run
with passengers on the Pacific, bfitweln PatNitna
and S*n Francisco. "
FRANCE. . -
o i cs i i - - f j; h 1
ocvcrai oociuiih'.h nave DeeH wranfn m farts
for threatening live lives rpprcff ry^ti yejt.
Tne cKbfeia Itflia lately, disappear A irom ToulYJ^T3/.T70
HSITIHa .
The com crop will not be sOpleninhles unticipateH1.'1
ri' ?fi" > nifiilwM
The Minister of "Wat hue demanded nr|t>tii"r
credit of Pi,557,840 francs to meet tlie escpensCT of
Corttingefit outlays. *
A private letter from Detnbinski states thatihe
Turkish Government, at the demand of tlje'Russian'ahd
Austrian Governments, had ordered 'Mm
to be removed where Kossuth and his cbmpan.ifjus
are c< n iiied.
A lenfible storm broke over Paris .pit Wednesday,
so that for hoars the streets were impassable.
The lieaveus were completely obscured, and in
soiqb bouses candles were lighuid. j
The new law relative to the press has already
had the etfeal of killing several provincial journals,
nnd in all cases tlve circulation of t^e papers, have
been greatly diminished. i t
DENMARK AND THE DUCHIES; t
A protocol recognizing* substantially all the leading
ViaW* Of tlio Tkvivtsh Govefrfrtieht;was aigried
in London - on Saturday by nearly every* foreign
Mmisterat Gptlrt. -A telegraphic despatch,
dated HaMbitCg 1st, saynWilliaeh has declared
that hefyjll hohf the Dnnntfi prpvhrees fespohsihle
fV?r whatever .Hint happen <0 rhe proymcAW flie
Mblsieintrs. No change hn.i taken place in tW
position of flift. armies. Willisfell declares ni.s
troops cannot be drawn from th^'spil of ScIiNskwjg;
Ifolytciii, and that two hundred officers from
various.branches of.the army had recently jo tilled
his standard. . h /if -V k ' >
, The Danish force ta< estimated at 44,0Q0. ^Advices
from. Actora of the 5th, slate that a collision
took place between, the Danes and Uojeuin armies
mur Moli.ede, which resulted in ibedefeat,of
the Danes. Jt is thoagbt that should WiiUaanr/be
victorious in the next battle, and cvom the Eyder,
that Russia add England will'interfere; and should
the Dalies trhintph, Prussia and Hanover will be
likley to attack them; should either Rdssiii ArBhgImsii
interfere, rhere is reason toapprehend ri revolution
in GeripMy which her present rulers may
be unable to coptvrtf. ' "
AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY. 1 1
The Vienna Cabiriet litems to be for peaCe1.'?
There is nothing talked of but a reduction of ffie
I .1 il'AJ i:.
nniiy arm r?:irriiciimeni nnin twnciiumire*.
v RUSSIA AND-TURKKY. ' t <
The emperor Nicholas lias issued a mnt>dnir,
ordering seVen men in each <jne thVmHand t>f lju*
population ofplhe westehi a1ittjt>ajin
each one thousand in nmtie Wther proriHeefr' t6 he
raised for the afhiy; The population of fhjLedtttricts
i'h computed at thfrty'-one miflfon.?r.
Cotton has (><*n rptleft UUiring the week, and all
American description* helotv ftiir haw reaeded one
eighth of a penny. Total sides fifty-nineehrtirstiM
nates, 01 wnicii Hpecmutnrs nave luken iweniy
seven thousand, ?nd exporters ohe thousand
bales. 1 vj'V *
American Stocktf'jn fair demand, With but few
sflering. U. S. sybfjm 8b:a90 uu. s. g ?of
|Hti9, 104?l0^ ; TT tj: G'a of 18G7, llpialOG, also
>fl86tf, 107^108;. IV :'s 8ii?.
ArviornvMr.vr or Cokc-uks*.
lionamong-mehTbers of both Houses hf Oon^fr**,
a that they wiij^ aujouni about life middle offle11
Ell' Til- T I I II
"jfjijq l'mcE* ?* Amnswov. ' < ?< <
Iress Circle and I*Ar<ia^fti' seats 50 cent#.
'JVper Circle '1. . . . , 25 cent*.
Doors opfch jtt. * o'clock. Eti&ji'tafiiaieht to
:drqra#nce>( 8. . ?da**?r
DR. BRO n.Y'S . VtlTMflKlV Bt'Rl.ESQr.
d-H -i- >, . opriu vttovPB. - i
ON TflCHW) VY KVKNINH, AUGUHT 2*
j v t :, ? -.- -*> - ?_
Fira, night of the p-and Open, iu two acta of
TUB Vf? 6f I N I A G I R U: *
- r>r<t* Bite'oS'-te TYiWfW, * '"iJJJ
A burlesque on the Bohemian giii.. ^
To condode with the la unliable burfdtf^TiifoV tjle
. ,c#J?br*t?(l i'dUvet Family,"
i- t T/?H E. LO V IR S .
' vnpnmAKD
\TTOR WfrA
Will prftchee in the several couhr fn the -Pfcwrldi,
rtoo mtri *??td to the prr*ec\Rio>r <W elMftts 1
? :: ; w njsir?? rh*-<3#t*nvmeftt.;,"lV 1; '3
Oflee <**n*r df?B and-7th streets,'oppo'irte the
JwnndTsH ?ft.rr^SuZ
fJ# ?d, 1.? ItyJ^Tr
13 age, is wanted st this office. An expert reader
fill be preferred. Aug. 28.
*

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