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The southern press. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1850-1852, August 29, 1850, Image 3

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THE SOUTHERN PRESS.
WASHINGTON CITY.
FRI DA YrAUGUBT 39 , 1850
Ultraiam, Disunion, Treason.
We have arrived at events and opinions in
tiie siiort period of sixty years, since this Union
was formed, that mark a great revolution in
government and people. The Federal Constitution
encountered much opposition, because of
the new distribution of power it made. The
whole plan at one time was about to foil, from
the unwillingness of the smaller States to liave
have less weight than the larger. Yet at that
time there was no difference of opinion, and
interest between the States comparable in
magnitude to what prevails now. Maryland
was averse to the exercise of greater power by
Virginia titan herself in the couneils of the
Union, although they were coterminous in location,
and almost identical in production, institutions
and interests. So Connecticut resisted
the claim of a superior vote by Massachusetts,
and New Jersey the same demand by Pennsylvania.
The small States acceded- with reluctance
to the compromise, by which, in one
branch of the legislative department, they were
to liave each an equal vote with the large ones,
and in the eloetion of President, when the popular
vote foiled, the States were to elect, each
having one vote.
There were fears of discordant interests and
unequal legislation between the planting and
maritime States?there were fears of Executive
power, of the taxing, the treaty-making and
war-inuking power?there was fear that the
navigation of the Mississippi would be surrendered
by the North. What has been the result!
A large part of the country, now the majority,
was and is in favor of such a tarilF as the present,
and thereby asserts tliat the taxing power
of the Federal Government was prostituted for
twenty-two years, from 1824 to 1846, to the
promotion of the capital and industry of one
class and one section of the country, to the
injury of the other. And now the North complains
that the present exercise of the taxing
power is oppressive and unjust towards her.
It is now attempted to use the war and treatymaking
powers to acquire territory for the
aggrandizement of one section, to the exclusion
and at the expense of another. And there is
imminent danger of the success of the attempt.
Now, any man who will read the debates of
the Federal and State conventions that formed
and ratified the Federal Constitution, cannot
fail to be satisfied, that if the same men who
then deliberated on this scheme of government
were now in being, and were called on to decide
the question, they would reject such a compact
of Union. Nay, if we were not now united, and
a proposal were made to unite, the North itself,
if sincere and consistent in its professions of
hostility to slavery, would decline the offer; and
it is certain that not one single Southern State
would agree to it, without provisions for equality
and self-defence that do not exist in the present
system.
Such were the misgivings as to the result of
this Union, that two of the large States, Virginia
and New York, and one of the small, Rhode
Island, would not accede to it, except on the
express condition set forth in their acts of ratification,
that the powers thereby delegated by
them to the Federal Government might be
resumed at pleasure by their people. And as
they were received into the Union with this
reservation or condition, it at once enured to all
the States, since they united as equals. Yet for
asserting the right, secured by this solemn compact,
as a final remedy for abuses beyond the
worst apprehensions of those who formed the
Union, we hear denunciations of treason now
flippantly made by traitors to liberty, who have
become at once minions and aspirants of power.
The Federal Government had been in operation
rather more than thirty years when the
"Missouri controversy arose. There were then
still many of the sages in public life who had
formed the Federal Constitution. The question
of the extension of slavery was then distinctly
made by the North, as now. The North resisted
the admission ot Missouri, because sno was
slaveholding, and attempted then as now to
prevent the future multiplication of shareholding
States by excluding slavery from the territories.
How was the question met by the Southern
people of that day ! Why they made it a question
of Union or dissolution. No namby-pamby
exhortations of Union, for the sake of the
Union?no impudent imputations of treason, no
insolent menaces of power, detered the Southern
patriots of that day from a determination to assert
their rights at all hazards, and to the last extremity.
And the Union was shaken to its
centre, and it might have been shivered to fragments,
if the rights of the South, Jiad not been
acknowledged. And what was the settlement ?
The territory in dispute, was the entire Mississippi
valley west of that river, except a part of Texas
in the southwest corner. The region extended
from the twenty-ninth to the forty-ninth degree of
north latitude. And the controversy was settled
by admitting Missouri as a slavcholding State,
and establishing the line of 36.30 westward Of
her, to the Rocky Mountains. The impression
prevails, but it is a great mistake that the line
adopted for that adjustment, was the line of
36.30. The State of Missouri lies altogether
north of that line, and extends to about 40.30.
So that the South secured a line of 40.30 from
the Mississippi river westward to the western
boundary of Missouri and beyond that
36.30. So that the average of the line would
be rbout 38.30, almost an exactly equal divi
sion of the territory between 29 and 49 degrees,
which would have been 39. Awl to
compensate her for this half degree which the
South obtained less than 39, she had an excess
up io 40.30 of the Mississippi shore, and she
had aa equivalent of what she lost by the protrusion
of Texas into the Mississippi valley, in
the State of Louisiana cast of the river, which
had been acquired by the treaty of 1803, and the
territory of Florida acquired by the treaty of
1819, and in the superior climate, productions
and settlement of her portion, commanding also
the mouth of the Mississippi. And yet such was
the spirit and character of Southern men in
1820?*21, that on the question of 36.30 they
voted almost unanimously in the negative, as
Mr. Yitlee has shown in his recent powerful
speech, which we sliall publish to-morrow. The
line of 36.30 was carried almost exclusively by
Northern votes?opposed almost unanimously
by Southern. The Southern men of that day
were unwilling to concede a prohibition of
slavery north of that line, and leave the territory
i II iH wmmmmmmmmmmmrn
?? ....... . .* . i
south of it open to northern immigration, el.
though they secured the admission of Missouri
up to 40.30, which was carrying elavory further
North than it existed elsewhere to the Uuion,
and although in Missouri, owing to its vicinity
to the Rocky Mountains and exposure to the
frosty winds from their summit, the isothermal line
deflects to the South uiore than anywhere else
on this continent, and although the South had a
guarantee for the exclusive occupation of all the
territories south of 36.30 in the proximity of
Missouri, Kentucky and other slavcholdiiw
States, which rendered it almost morally certain
And the doctrine of political equilibrium, now
so much scouted by the North, was then steadfastly
asserted by the South. Even Mr. Clay,
as Mr. Yui.ee has also shown, then declared his
determination not to vote for the admission of
a Northern State without the coeval admission
of a Southern one. And this doctrine is essential
and vital in the Sonth. The natural increase
of her people, white as well an black, is
greater than in the North?so much so that, but
for the monopoly of European emigration by
the North, the South, although originally behind
the North in representation and population,
would now be equal in both. But w ith all the
advantages of that emigration to the North, the
Southern being a rural and not an urban people,
multiplies in States more rapidly than the
North. Whilst the ^orth therefore will continue
to preponderate in the House, the South,
if she asserts her territorial rights, will predominate
in the Senate. And this would be the sort
of equilibrium she ought to assert, and she
ought never to submit to any violation of her
rights, that would prevent it
But now what do we behold ? Although we
have seen that this Union never could liave
been formed if such an abuse of its powers had
been foreseen, as have actually occurred?although
we know that such a Union could not
now be formed without guarantees of Southern
right and safety that do not exist?although we
know that our Southern fathers of the last gene
ration only, did not hesitate to renounce it rather
than submit to territorial spoliation, we of
the present day, who dare to assert that we
have any territorial rights, are denounced as ultraists
and traitors, by the North, in whose vulgar
and assinine chorus there arc even Southern
men so recreant and shameless as to join!
It is in vain to deny the fact, or to evade it by
all the prevaricatioiib of non-intervention, or the
still rnoro hollow and hypocritical pretence of
the obligation to admit new States ; it is in vain
to deny that Congress has assumed jurisdiction
over the question of slavery in the Territories.?
And what is the power of the South to protect
herself in Congress on that question now ? Why
in the House she is in a decided minority, which
however powerful in argument, is impotent in
the vote. And there is about as' much effect in
arguing against the wintry blasts of Boreas as
against the Northern majority. And what is the
Southern representation in the Senate ? It is
rendered powerless by the defection of Mr. Clay,
a recently avowed emancipationist, and Mr. Benton,
a free-soiler?neither of whom could have
been elected from his State if his sentiments had
been previously known. And there is the defection
of the Representatives from Delaware besides.
Why this is a Revolution !
And what are the consequences 1 A perpetual
barrier to Southern progress in future?and the
doom of perpetual imbecility.
The vast wilderness of the West and the uninhabited
shores of the Pacific, won by a disproportionate
expenditure of Southern treasure and
blood, arc to remain desolate until in the lapse
of time they shall be occupied by Northern and
European emigration?or still worso, open to that
portion 01 oouincrn pcopie omy, wiucn snail oe
actuated byenterprize so' much, as to renounce the
institutions they prefer,and go to swell the power,
population, and wealth of a hostile section. And
when the South is thus doomed to minority and
proscription, when she is refused a right the roost
clear and the most important, the occupation of
the soil herself has won, when she is dejiopulated
by the desertion of her adventurous children,
she is cut off by her numerical weakness,
from all hope of those public honors that depend
on a popular vote. Let this territorial
spoliation be perpetrated, and henceforth all her
sons of talent and ambition will be proscribed
from the honors of their common country, unless
they forsake their native States for Northern
soil?or unless they do what is now the most
disastrous omen to the South?unless they come
here to offer her rights as a bid for Northern
popularity.
But the evil does not stop here. It does not
stop with the expatriation of Southern enterprize
and capital; it does not stop with the desertion
or treachery of Southern aspirants, who,
like the Irish, find that
" Undistinguished they live, if they shame not
their sires,
And the torch that must light them to dignity's
way,
Must be caught from the pile where their country
expires."
The evil docs not stop oven there. The
South is slaveholding, and the subordination of
the slave depends on the moral prestige of the
master. Let it be known, as it must be known
to the slaves, that in a great struggle for their
rights, the master race of the South has surren
dered, or been overcome by a large section of
people, and on account of thoir hostility to slavery,
and the safety of Southern firesides, can
no longer be relied on. Nay, more than that;
the sense of enualitv and of nower to maintain
it, is indispensable, even to the manners of a
people. Let Southern men surrender now to
power, and the consciousness of their degradation
will make them hang their heads in each
other's presence, and even in the presence of
their wives. Southern honor and courage will
become by-words of reproach, and the resolutions
of Southern States will be a mockery, or
at best, the last and most striking illustration of
that human infirmity, that
" Resolves and re-resolvea, yet dies the same.'*
The hour of Southern destiny has come. Occupying
-the finest and most productive country
under the sun, with a people superior in wealth
to any other, with a character for courage as
yet unquestioned ; it is for the seven millions of
white people to say, with the Pacific on one
side, and half a continent, with the West Indies
before them, whether they will submit to bo arrested
irt the greatest career of progress the
world has yet witnessed.
pff'Thc Southern mail again failed to reach
us last evening, occasioned, no doubt, by the
late storm North and South. There arc now
three jnaita due us.
83? It will be seen by the tubjeiced coi?munication,
that <i numler of the Northern
members are iii a quandary. They desiro to
serve their party by \oting lor the oanibue, bat
are afraid of offending their constituents by
voting for the ten trillions? the price of the ;
Texan clai.n.
It is probable these patriots will at Leapt to
escape the responsibility of their position by
voting for the previous question to cut theirseUts
off front amending or voting on amendments.
We shall aeo.
(communicated . )
It ib well understood that the tea millions to be
paid to Texas, or rather to her bond-holders; was
an indispensibie part of the omnibus. But this
sum is so unreasonable, that many Northern men
are afraid to vote for it. The policy, therefore,
is to exclude all motions to reduce the sum, and
thereby enable such to avoid a vole on that point,
so that they may tell their constituents they were
obliged to vote for or against the bill an it stood
with that sum.
For this purpose the previous question will, it is
expected, be resorted to, in order to cut off all
amendments. But it must be remembered, that
all who vote for the previous question, will stand
self-convicted of depriving themselves of all opportunity
of voting a reduction: as it is well
known that several members are anxious and
ready, if not prev.nted by the previous question,
to move to reduce the sum to one, two, or three
millions.
CONGRESSIONAL.
IN siNATE.
Wednesdat, August 28, 1850.
The Clerk of the House reported the bill of
appropriations, to meet the Civil aud Diplomatic
expenses of the Government for the current
fiscal year. It was referred to the Finance Committee.
Mr. ATCHISON'S resolution to print 1500
copies of the report of Lieut Webster, of the
Coast Survey ot the Gulf of Mexico, w;is
agreed to.
Mr. BENTON'S resolution, calling upon the
Navy Department for a report upon tne expenses
of tne recent experiments of Professor Page,
in Electro Magnetism, was adopted.
The resolution of Mr. HALE, providing for a
iJ.J, A? ,.??L A _ _ f ? - ?
uinci in ciuii ocii.iior iu iiuuiii u irionu 10 me
floor, was, on motion of Mr. Shields, laid upon
the tabic.
Mr. WALKER'S resolution, calling1 for certain
information in relation to Mr. Bodisco, the
Russian Minister, was laid upon the table.
The resolution of Mr. DOUGLAS, providing ;
so to amend the rules as to adopt the estoppel of
the previous question by the Semite, was laid
upon the table.
The resolution of Mr. DAVIS, of Massachusetts,
calling for information from the Post Master
General, in reference to the ojwration of the
system of the ocean mail steamers, &c., after
debate by Messrs. Ufham and Davis, of Massachusetts,
was adopted.
Mr. UNDERWOOD'S resolution, providing
that a motion inuy be made to luy an amendment
on the table, shall be limited to the amendment,
so as not to carry with it to the table, the
bill to which it refers, and all the subject matter
relating to it, as at present, was taken up, and
after discussion by Messrs. Underwood, Foote,
Dickinson, Douglas, Butler, Cass, and others,
ivas, on motion of Mr. Shields, laid upon the
table.
slave trade in the district.
Mr. CLAY moved to take up the bill providing
for the abolition of the slave trade iu the ,
District of Columbia, which was agreed to.
Mr. FOOTE and Mr. PEARCE each passed up
an amendment, which they Bhould ofl'er at the
proper time, but which at present they moved
be laid upon the table and printed. Agreed to.
Mr. ATCHISON, in oraer to test the sense
of the Semite npon the practicability of this
measure, moved to lay the bill upon the table,
and called for the ayes and noes.
The motion was rejected, as follows :
Yeas?Messrs. Atchison, Barnwell, Berrien,
Butler, Davis, of Mississippi, Dawson, Downs,
Houston, Hunter, Mason, Pratt, Rusk, Sebastian.
Soule, Turncv. Yulee?16.
Nays?Messrs. Badger, Baldwin, Bell, Benton,
Bradbury, Bright, Cass, Chase, Clarke,
Clay, Cooper, Davis, of Massachusetts, Dayton,
Dickinson, Dodge, of Wisconsin, Dodge, of
Iowa, Douglas, Ewing, Fulch, Foote, Greene,
Hamlin, Jones, King, Mangum, Pearce, Phelps,
Shields, Smith, Sprqancc, Sturgeon, Underwood,
Upham, Wales, Whitcomb, Winthrop?
36.
On motion of Mr. Ci.ay the bill was then
made the special order for Monday next at 12
o'clock, which was concurred in.
The bill for the relief of the Orange (Va.)
and Alexandria rail-road company was passed.
soldiers' bounty land bill. <
On motion of Mr. Shields, the Senate took
up the House bill providing a grant of bounty '
lands to the surviving officers, privates and musicians,
of the war of 1790, and the subsequent '
wars of the United States. To the officers and
men the bill allows each for twelve months' service,
160 acres; for six months, 80 acres, and
for three months, 40 acres; and where the officer
or soldier is dead, the lands to revert to the
widow (if not married again.)
Several verbal amendments were agreed to, j
and pending a debate between Messrs. Badger, ,
Shields, Atchison, and others, on an amendment
of the Committee of Public Lands, provid- i
ing for a sum of money out of the Treasury in
lieu of the land certificate, on motion, the bill <
was lnid aside, and the Senate went into Execu- 1
tive session. 1
HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES.
Wednesday, August 28th, 1850.
Mr. BOOTH, of Connecticut, asked the unanmous
consent of the House to receive certain resolutions
of the State of Connecticut. Objected to.
Mr. CLERNAND, of Illinois, moved to proceed
to the regular order of business.
Mr. STRONG, of Pennsylvania, rose to a question
of privilege, viz : the consideration of the report
of the Committee on elections in reference to
the contested election of Representative of the 4th
Congressional District in Pennsylvania, between
Mr. Robbins the sitting member, and Mr. Littell
the contestant.
Mr. POTTER, of Ohio, moved to postpone its
consideration for two weeks. Agreed to.
Mr. RICHARDSON, of Illinois, called for the
regular order of business.
Mr. STANLY, of North Carolina, from a
Select Committee appointed some months since
for certain inquisitorial put poses, and among
others to ascertain what officers under the lute
Administration contributed money or newjmaper
articles against the election of General Taylor
?reported in part, and to the ellect that Mr.
Tlinnuik llftrliif* nviH \fr_ C P S??no*fiirlf. turn
witnesses summoned before tlie Committee, had
contumaciously refused to answer tlie questions
put to theift. The former had declined on the
ground that he did not feel at liberty to disclose
the names of his correspondents, and the latter
was indisposed to communicate whatever he might
know about contributions of money for electioneer- ,
ing by public functionaries attacned to one particular
party, unless he should also be nllowed to
state in his answer whatever lie might know in
reference to those attached to tlie other party.
The Committee, having no power to proceed compulsorily,
had declined calling other witnesaes,
least they might avail themselves of similar excuse*,
and concluded to report the facts to the
House.
Mr. STALNY made some remarks explanatory
of the report for the benefit of those wno might
not have neard the report distinctly.
Mr. HIBBARD, of New Hampshire, also
made some remarks in which he expressed the
opinion that the witnesses had but thrown themselves
on their reserved rights in refusing to disclose
their knowledge in the premises. Inasmuch
as the alien and sedition act was repealed, this
House had no authority to compel an editor to
disclose the names of his political correspondents
even though they might belong to officers of the
Government. Nor could they compel an individual
to inform them of the fhct?if auch existed?
that au officer of Government had given money
from hie pocket for electioneering purposes. He
moved to lay the report on the table.
The motion was negatived, ayes 85?nays 108.
Mr. EVANS, of Md., expressed lus astonishment
that the gentleman from New Hampshire
should have committed an act so unprecedented
as to make a speech upon the report, and then
move to lay it on the table. It was, he believed,
the first time a member had so done, and then refused
to withdraw it at the request of another.?
He theu went on to assert the right of the House
to compel the witnesses to answer, and that it ought \
to be insisted on. The venomous shafts discharged
through the Union newspaper, during the
lust Presidential Campaign, against the successful
candidate were notorious. And if any of them
were pointed by a public officer, it ought to be
known.
Mr. MEADE, of Virginia, during Mr. Evav*'
speech, suggested to him to offer and speuk to the
following resolution as there was no distinct question
before the House.
"Resolved, That the liberty of the press and freedom
of discussion demand that editors of public
journals should not be required by the Government,
or any branch thereof, to surrender the
names of their correspondents for mere political
purposes."
Mr. EVANS declined to offer it
Mr. STANLY offered the following :
Resolved, That the select committee of this
House, acting by the authority of the House, under
a resolution of the 6th May last, has reported
that Thomas Ritchie and C. P. Sengstnek have
peremptorily refuse^ to give evidence in obedience
to a summons duly issued by said committee,
therefore,
Resolved, That the Speaker of the House issue
his warrant, directing the Sergeant-at-Arms, to
take into custody the persons of said Ritchie and
Sengstack, that they may be brought to the bar of
the House to answer for an alleged contempt of
this House; and that they be allowed counsel, on
that occasion, should they desire it."
Mr. FITCH, of Indiana, obtained the floor,
when,
The morning hour having expired, the business
on the Speaker's table was taken up, on motion of
Mr. STaoMa , of Pennsylvania, and disposed of.
Several Executive communications were read
and referred or laid on the table.
The supplemental census bill?the bill in relation
to donations of land to ceruin persons in Arlrnrtnnii
ami tka 1>< 11 m\aw<! ?! ? - -? 44 ? ?
miiv. ??iv van vu aiiiciiu uic a^v ciiuurii "an
act to regulate the dutiea on imports and tonnage"
were severally read a third time and passed.
The bill providing for the establishment of a
Territorial Government in the Utah territory, was
read by its title, and, on motion of
Mr. BOYD, of Kentucky, was referred to the
Committee of the Whole.
Mr. SWEET8ER, of Ohio, moved that the
House resolve itself into a Committe of the Whole
on the State of ihe Union with the view of taking
up the bill just referred.
Lost. Ayes 61?nays 140
THE OMNIBUS RECONSTRUCTING.
The Texas boundary bill having been next
read by its title.
Mr. INGE, of Alabama, said as he and many
of those who acted with him, did not regard the
Texas boundary to be an open question?there
being, in his opinion, no question in reference to
the territory east of the Rio Grande, which it was
competent for this Government, or any branch of
it, to entertain or decide, he should move that the
first question in order?shall the bill be rejected?
be now put.
Mr. HILLIARD, of Alabama, obtained the
floor, and said that it was seldom that he addressed
the House, but on this occasion he felt impelled
to give his views on the bill before them. In the
miast of prosperity with the people of foreign
countries flocking to our shores, as to a land emi- >
nently attractive, and " flowing with milk and
honey," we were agitated by conflicting actions
and reeling to such a degree as to threaten our
dismemberment and existence as one great and
glorious Confederacy. The question as to the
true boundary of Texas had been much mooted.
He believed the claim of Texas to be good.
However much he doubted the propriety or the
order by President Polk to march our troops up (
to the Ilio Grande, he thought it did not become
this Government to attempt now to retain possession
of the soil claimed by Texas, and to which
we had forced Mexico to surrender all claim. |
Mr. Hilliard then proceeded to state his reasons
at length for his opinion, but concluded
by saying that he trusted that Texns would not
listen to tne counsel of those who advised her to
maintain her jurisdiction by force, while we were
legislating on the Bubject. Under our Government
there was no room for violence, except in
the last restfrt. As to the bill, as the senators
from Texas had voted for it as a compromise proposition,
he was willing to accept it and ready to
sunnort it.
Mr. McCLERNAND, of Illinois, moved the
previous question, which, being taken, resulted in
the negative. Ayes 168, nays 34.
The bill having had a second reading,
Mr. BOYD, of Kentucky, moved, as an amendment,
provisions for territorial governments for
Mexico and Utah?they being, in fact, the other
Senate bills on these subjects, with one or two
immaterial alterations, so that the amendment
should not be ruled out of order as being the identical
bills on the Speaker's table.
After the reading of this amendment had been ,
in part proceeded with,
Mr. nIEADE, of Virginia, raised a question of
Older on the ground that the provisions were not
germane to the original bill, and also that they
were contained in bills already reported to the
House.
The SPEAKER decided the amendment in <
crder. '
Mr. SCHENCK, of Ohio, appealed from the
Jecision. It waB sustained. Ayes 123, nays 80. l
The reading of the amendment was then con- :
eluded, and
On motion, the House adjourned.
jEj^Exiract of a letter from a gentleman, formerly
resident of Wilmington, North Carolina,
now in California, to a member of Congress:
" Touching the subject of the formation of the ,
constitution for California, I perceive, much misapprehension
prevails in and out of Congress. 1
will endeavor to supply you with a narrative, on '
the correctness of which you may implicitly '
relv.
At the time of the election of delegates for the <
convention, which formed the State constitution, i
and subsequently, when the vote was taken for <
ratifying that instrument, the entire population of i
the country was composed of eager adventurers
in quest or fortune, wno were pressed on every
aide for meanB of living, having not yet reaped
the fruits of their labor in the mines, or of those
who had become immersed in the excitement of
well repaid labor at the mines, had no time to give i
:o the political changes which were in the process <
>f enactment. The politics of the country, con- |
lequentiy, leu into the hands of unscrupulous ,
nen, who had been enticed to the country oy the ]
lole inducement of reaping the first fruits of po- .
liticol organization. The convention, comprised .
>f about thirty men, was controlled essentially in 1
ts leading views, by three or four political ad- {
venturers. Among the number (of the convenion)
who I am sorry to say were also office- !
leekers, and who, as the result proved, were will- <
ng to barter away the rights and interests of the .
South for their own advancement. The true .
Southern men, who were here at the time the vote J
vas taken on the merits of the constitution, were
n the condition ofdespondency; they had no leader '
o look to for counsel, were scattered in different
lortions of the territory, without the means of J
detaining or transmitting information, and with- t
>ut the ability to concentrate their views, they I
>eheld, in dismay and shame, the rights of the i
South betrayed and surrendered by those whom |
hey had a right to believe would sustain them. t
Such were some of the circumstances under
ivhich the so-called California constitution was '
idopted. And surely, no inference should be 1
Irawn, that Southern men in the territory had 1
hanged, either their feelings or views on the sub- 1
ect of slavery. Since the period of the adoption i
>f the constitution, a change greatly favorable to J
>ur institutions haa taken place. Emigrants
"rom the South, with their slaves in large num- |
lera, are pouring into the territory; whilst the j
ide of emigration from the North has sensibly ,
lubsided. Besides, there are men of intelligence
tnd enlarged views front both the North and f
Jotith, who are stronglv disposed to the adoption '
>f measures, which will bring about slave labor in 1
he territory. And I can say, unhesitatingly, and t
without ffear of contradiction, that the Southern |
teart in California, beats stronger and firmer than \
t does at home. In truth, I will add we are or- ,
rnnized, and we are determined to shoulder the (
parrel ourselves, and carry it through, even if
we should be deserted by the timidity of friends '
in the Southern 8tates. Have no fear of our 1
aiccess. <
Many of the men from the North are with us <
in.sentiment and feeling. They have the sagacity 1
to* see, that the introduction of valuable Tabor, 1
without regard to it* complexion, will be a vast
addition to the trade and commerce of a country.
They are not blind to the advantage of cheap food
which will sustain servile labor in u country where
provisions are dearer than any where elae in the
world.
The success, and indeed superiority of slave labor
in the mines is no longer problematical. Indeed,
ilia admitted after a fair test being had, that
those employing slave labor are far more successful
than those who operate with white laborers. The
latter, nnused to the severe and continuous labor
which is necessary in mining, sink under the
weight. On the other hand, the slave accustomed
from early age to the alow, certain and regular
toil required in this kind of operations, averages
ti> hix i>mnlnv?r n reiniineratinir reward.
The lands in this country are uniformly
rich. In the different portions, according to latitude,
wheat, corn, tobacco, sugar and cotton,
can be raised with the greatest success. Emigration
would be renuired of course. But to the
planter this would be easy, and attended with but
little expense. With his slaves he could Bore
his wells und build his reservoirs, and receive
ample remuneration for the trouble or time in
the superiority of the crop, (by this mode of watering)
in quality and quantity. The low lands
of the mines are beautifully adapted to the rice
crop.
In conclusion, let me beg you, and through you
every Southern man in Congress, not to yield one
inch on this question. Let the platform of the
South be 360 30', and hands off in the Territory.
Stand firm, und if in order to succeed, you hnve
io lock forever the wheels of Government, let it be
so, and stand even upon the ruins of the South 1
ere you abandon her rights. For if you yield now |
her complete ruin and disgrace will be only a i
work of time. Fail not to improve the present
opportunity, when the feelings and passions of ,
her sons in every portion of the country are
aroused for the crisis. You have now the best
chance to secure her (the South) future peace either
by concession wrung from her enemies, or by
making her in all time, the aole safeguard of her
own honor and her own institutions.
For the Southern Press.
"How long, Abolition, will you oontlnue
to abuse Southern Patience ?"
The misnamed Compromise, theTexiun boundary,
the Territorial and California bills, the exclusion
of slavery from the District of Columbia?
all threatening outrages on Southern rights, are
scarcely disposed of, when wo have presented a
report and bill from the Naval Committee for
" Mail Steamships to Western coast of Africa." 1
It seems to have originated in a memorial from \
the Colonization Society: and its professed ob- '
jeet to aid in suppressing the slave trade, and 1
to facilitate the emigration of free Negroes to '
Africa. The designs, however, are evidently adverso
to Southern institutions and aimed insiduously
at their destruction. With a view of
quieting distrust, the name of the memorialist is
given in bold relief, as hailing from Alabama, u
slave State. The report, after detailing the Societies'
own exaggerated account of the progress
of their Colony, and of the immense trade which
will bo opon to American enterprise through
Liberia, (the strong appeuls to sordidness which '
abolitionism knows how to make;) sustains the 1
policy recommended in tho reports by an array 1
of names and antupiated documents, many if not '
most of which, were afterwards repudiated by
the parties writing them. It is well known in (
Congress, and which has been confirmed by the '
testimony of Mr. Webster, and many others on j
the side adverse to slavery, that the agitation of ,
the question by Abolitionists and Colonizationists,
(if they be not one, and the same) has re- (
suited with all reflecting and calculating minds; .
that the abolition of slavery by positive enact- .
ments or by removing and colonizing them on
tho coast of Africa, are projects impracticable '
and absurd. The continued discussions and '
efforts made in furtherance of these measures, 1
are solely with a view of irritating old sores; !
for both projects have been exposed as the 1
dreams of funatics and mischief-makers?ex- j
travagant and impossible ofexocution. Professor
Duer, of Virginia, early demolished by statistics '
and calculation, every platform which had .
been reared in the incipiency of the policy favor- 1
ing African Colonization, with our free blacks.
Many of the enthusiasts of thnt day soon gave 1
wny to sober examination, and tho wiser heads, (
who were first mislead by the impulses of a
mistaken philanthropy, readily yielded to what '
reason made clear, and figures, which never do- ,
ceive, demonstarted, Discussion enlightened all
w ho were disposed to receive light The entire 1
South however, who rend, think and search after
truth, have come to the sober conviction, that
African slavery in the United States, is an ordnance
of Providence, permitted for wise designs;
and that the wisdom, and advantage of the institution
to the African heathen, arc made much
more plain than the sickening and hypocritical
philanthropy of bigots in their l?ehalf. The relations
therefore, ns they now exht between
master and domestic at tho South, are irrevocable
by any hitman power, save those whom they
immediately affect. The musters and the slaves
(for rthey make common cause,) nro prepared to
resist any further attempts from abrond, direct
or indirect, to disturb their existing relations.
On these just and enlightened views?enlightened
because they have been forced on us by
close examination?the moral law and reason :
there is now no division of opinion in the South.
The colonization policy has been condemned
by the mass, and you can find no voice raised in
its favor, unless by some colonization missiononry,
or some impracticable enthusiast who may
be desirous, at the public expense., of getting rid n
of some superanuuted and unprofitable slaves.
You will find many disposed to nvail coloni- *
zution philanthropy ; to provide for the old c
negroes that have been worn down in their ser- '
vice, by claiming the credit of making thein free ?
to emigrate to Liberia. Mr. Clay, though 1
reputed as among the Statesmen of the age, r
has on this questio been a mere declairaer.? *
He possesses a p uliar mod of effecting his 1
objects, and brags is boldly at one table as at '
another. He captivates by his address, his poe- '
try, and the warmth of his appeals to the nobler '
but often misguiding impulses of the heart; but 1
never convinces the understanding. Facts be- '
wilder him, and logic soqn demolishes the airy 1
bubbles with which he amuses tho galleries.? *
Mr. Clay comprehends the practical effects of *
colonization on the coast of Africa, as well as lie F
j. _ at. i.:_Ji TT?: it., n
aoun Kit' uiimiii^ uvuua ut uitj uiuuii ui uie ~
States. Ho can chime music on both, but can- fi
not explain the philosophy of either. He leads 11
blind those who follow hitn: like the igiiifalui
in a swamp, the exhalations of his intellect miscad,
until their glaring light becomes extinguished
and the bewildered are left in the dark.
The Committee's report, in favor of the United
States agency through steam power and Government
appropriations, is a new and insidious
woject to resuscitate African colonization of the
ire tended free blacks. Its direct object is to
nake the blacks free, and then colonize them a
n Africa. I.
When Uie bill, as it inay, reaches the Senate
Mr. day win have sumctentiy recruited by the n
uiit baths of Rhode Island, so as to sing halloujah
to its praise. It is the moat insidious and
nost dangerous attack which has ever been
nade on slavery, in the United States. Its de- e,
ligns arc cloaKcd in the panoply of Federal t<
jower. Federal appropiations, and steam na- t|
des are to be the instruments for destroying p
ind disturbing our Southern institution. All li
he operations of the bill betray Abolitionism in fi
ts most certain, insidwus, and most dangerous ^
rormn. It plays on what is supposed to be a
prejudice of the South, the removal of the free ?
Macks from among them, and by its power and 0
ts resources, it stimulates the Aboliticnst, and j,
the sickening Southern philanthropist, to make
ilaves free, that they may lie sent to Africa by v
jovernment appropriation. The Northern fanatics.
the Chapllns, the Scwards, and the Garri- u
ions, are to be all stimulated by Government apiropriations
to rob the South of the slaves, take .
hern North, free them, and thus bring them 11
within the class to be emigrated at Southern
:ost. The owners at the South of worthless
ind unprofitable slaves, are under an assumed a
philanthropy to free them, that the Government ^
emigration ships may take tliem to Africa. Can any ^
one nc blind to these two operations as the el- fc
feet, if not the intent of the law ? It offers a
bounty to the Abolitionist to progress with hia I i
nefarious work of kidnapping Southern property.
It presents a motive to the thoughtless
and misguided at home, to get rid of encumbrances
at public cost, while he claiius the credit
of philanthropy.
This last operation, is however the moat dangerous?it
comes nearer home, and may be j
fraught with great mischief. I do not specu* |
late,lint speak practically on this subject, for I
was privy to a transaction which took place un- !
dor my own eye. A gentleman of the South ;
SnKoritix 1 a umull rrnniv t\ nainvum 14ia rve<\fiuj. '
oum.i < >? pUIW"
sion and pursuits separated him from them, and !
he had uo object to which he could profitably I
direct their labor. He left thorn to themselves
for mauy years. In every respect they were better
off than free; they enjoyed their own earnings,
and on his occasional visits to the neighborhood
where they resided, ho listened to their complaints,
and administered to their wants. On
one of these occasions, and when he had to give
ear to complaints, which are always loudest
from those who have least cause to be dissatisfied,
on the impulse of the moment he said, 44 I will
mako you free, I will turn you over to the Colonization
Society, and provide for you In Africa."
The negroes were shocked at the idea, and resisted
the appeal, so that the master, to accomplish
his object, hud to resort to all the purauasive
arts of the Abolitionists; to talk of the
sweets of liberty, the fine, and productive country
of Liberia ; and how each might have his
own domicil, his farm, and his stock. IIo hod to
go further, before he obtained their consent, and
speak of pnjgres.i, of Governorships, of office, of
African kings and princes. The picture took,
and the emigration was accomplished. But the
seeds of Auolition were thus sown on other
soil, and some of the negroes of tho neighbors,
who hud repeated to them the alluring picture
of the deluded master, who desired to get rid of
an indulged and useless gang, were soon restless
and discontented with their own condition.
We know of several cases, and one that came
under our own obaervation, of u slave who had
heard the syren song of African colonization,
and who, by the indulgence of his master, had
been enabled to accumulate some money, urging
the purchase of himself. He, with some
others, were gratified, and sailed to the colony.
Through such means and influences, may slaves
be rendered discontented with their condition,
and the work of abolition go on until the demand
for emigration, exceeding the ability of
any means or fjoveriiment to accomplish within
a limited period, break out iu insurrection and
disorder. Let it bo understood that negroes
may be freed?that they may emigrate; and
then let the colonist explain how his policy differs
from tho most dangerous form of Abolitionism.
It is true that the colonists assume
this position, and let us look to the high authority
Iw which they fortify themselves on it
The Hon. R. J. Walker, hi a letter appended
to the Naval Committee's report, snys:
"Indeed, I have regnrdea colonization and
abolition as antagonist measures, and that tho
success of the first would overthrow the latter,
md thus rescue our beloved country from the
ianger of disunion."
Vet, in a resolution afterwards submitted, in
sommendation of the colonization poliey, he
uiys: 14 That in founding a new Republican emdre
on the shores of Africa, ho recognizes the
nying the foundation of a system destined to
ucilitatc the ultimate separation of the two races
>f Ham and Japhet."
Governor Wr^jht, of Indiana, says in a
long letter to the society : "So plan the scheme
hat it will be the interest of the free man of
;ulor to go to Africa; and this can be best accomplished
by making Liberia a wealthy commercial
nation. Multiply factories, around which
colonics might bo established, which (growing
nto States, would in due time take their place
imong the States of the Liberion Confederacy."
3r more probably knock, like California, at the
loors of Washington, and demand admission in
lie confederation of Colonists und Abolitionsts.
Mr. McLake, of Maryland, in preamble and
-csolutions submitted to the same society, says:
" Resolved, That the efforts of the American
Colonization Society, to facilitate the ultimate
emancipation and restoratiim of the black race
to social and national independence, uro highly
honorable and judicious, und consistent with a
strict respect for the rights and privileges of the
citizens of tho several Stutes, where the institution
of slavery is sanctioned by municipal law."
Here, then, it is proposed to take this Coloni
zation Society under the special protection of
the General Government?to rear up black colonies
on tho coast of Africa?to populate them
by the slaves of the United States, first stimulated
to assert and obtain their liberty, as free
people of color?to transport thom at the government
expense, or, which is the same thing, if
not worse, by steamers built with the government
funds, and loaned to speculators, who have
every motive to aid in tho freeing of our negroes
by any means, however illegitimate, that they
may enjoy the profit of the transportation.
These combinations, between speculators and
fanatics, to accomplish their object of kidnapping
and liberating, by indirect means, our
Southern slaves, and all aided by tho governnent
patronage, and yet Mr. McLane pronounces
he act as in strict respect for tho rights and
irivileges of the Stutes where slavery exists,
ind Mr. Walkek declares this Colonization as
mtagonist to Abolitionism.
" Ultimate emancipation, and restoration of the
dock race to Africa?and the ultimate scjtaration
>f the two races. Ham and Japhot!"?not ubo
ition. Truly, Mr. Walker must sec through I
i deceptions lens, where the objects are both
nverted and doubled. The race of Haui 'sepnated
permanently from Jnphet's rule, where
3od placed hiui, and intended lie should work;
md Japhct iniule to till his own ground, produce
lis own cotton and rice, and abolition to have
lothing to do in the liberating of Ham from
heso offices. We consider the whole move of
he Naval Committee, as one of the boldest,
be most insiduous, and the most dangerous
neasures which hnve ever been introduced in
Uongress, to disturb the domestic institutions of
he South. We shall endeavour, hereafter, to extose
its impracticability in a^oomplishing ulti[lately
the objects proposed, and the gieat danger
to the South in attempting to carry it out
11 any degree.
HENRY.
ARRIVAL OF THE STEAMER AMERICA.
One week later from Europe.
[Telegraphed for the Baltimore Sun.]
Halifax, August 27?5 P. M.
The Royal Mail Steamer America arrived here
t5 o'clock this afternoon, bringing dates from
.iverpool to the 17th and London to the 16th inst
The steamer Asia arrived out at Liverpool at
lidnight on Monday, 12th inst.
Parliament haa been prorogued by tbe Queen, j
Jenny Lind was giving concerts to crowded, (
ven overflowing houses, at Liverpool, and was
> have sailed for New York in the Atlantic, on .
le 21st inst. Miss Charlotte Cushman is also a '
assenger in the same steamer. Mr. Wilbur is 1
kewise a passenger. He is bearer of despatches i
om England and the Continent to the American <
lovernment. i
The potato deseasc is spreading to a considers- ,
le extent in England and Ireland, and it is genrally
admitted that it will taken large per rentage
ff of the crop. The other crops generally promle
well.
Harvesting is now general, and the weather is
ery fine for farming operations.
MonuJHct uring Duhictt.?Advices from the manfttcturing
districts are still satisfactory, although
'ss business appears to be done in Manchester,
'he same remark will apply to business generally
1 every department of trade.
FRANCE.
The French General Ansemby has adjourned,
nd the attention of the French nation is now
rincipally occupied by the progress of President
lonaparte on his tour through the provinces.
Vith some few exceptions he appears to have
>een favorably received by the people. Wherever.
le went excitement and commotion was produced
n giving him welcome. I
DENMARK.
Some furthtr akirnushes have tekeu place be
I tween the Danes and the Holsteiners. in which
| the latter appear to hare come off victorious.
There are rumors ot an approaching settlement
j of the quarrel between the two contending par- I
ties, under the auspices of Russia, England, and I
France. |
Letters from Copenhagen report that the King |
ol Denmark has cuUlracteU shan t-inarm^e wan
a dread-maker.
j. MARKETS.
Bieadstulfs.?Gardiner A Co.'a circular of iue
16lh August, say# that the weather baa been ve>y
Cuvornble for harvest operations aiitce our laf,
which haa imparled a dull feeling to the co r
trade, and a considerable decline has only be.-n
prevented by unaulhentiaated reports or ahor;.
yields of wheat. Our quotations for every article
show a alight reduction, and the business do. .
to-day waa very trifling, with prices tending in At
vor of buyers.
Provisions,?Beef shows no change in prices
from those of the week previous. Pine qualitie
of pork are in demand to a somewhat greater ex
tent. Bacon of no ordinary qualities command
Aill prices. Inline qualities or shoulders, thelirrivals
are light, and this description meets with
ready sale. Hams are dull, without special al
terstion in prices. Small sates of lard and the
market less firm.
Sugars.?'It is said that there are large orders to
the English market for shipments to America.
Cubas and Porto Ricos have slightly advanced
and there is rather more than an average bushiest,
doing both in Liverpool and London.
Coffee.?In the London and Liverpool market
cotfee can be purchased at lower rates, or a redo
tion lYotn previous prices, but still shippers ui
home dealers are disinclined to operate.
Molasses.?A large business is doing in m
hisses al advancing rates, with market firm.
Rice.?There hus been a large speculative <
mand for East India at an advance of three pet
per cwt. fbr middling qualities. About 50 tier
Carolina have been taken at 16s. 3d. for go
qualities.
Rosin.?Common Rosin is in good reqc 1.1, and
2s. 9d. have been paid for, 1,500 bbls. f trans- J
actions reported in Tar.
Spirits of Turpentine in moderate request at
24s. 6d. for American.
Oils.?For olive, last weeks rates have b in
Atlly maintained. Linseed oil is dull of sale. ! I
has advanced ? 1 a ?2 the tun on pale; no hoi
are now disposed to sell under 24 lbs.
Cotton Market.?The cotton market in I
Cool has been rather dull during the week ' I
>wer and middling qualities have deel n? ?n I
average of jd. per lb. since the 10th inat.
The sales during the week amounting to ilv
35,000 bales, of which speculators took 7,'XK<a'
exporters 14,000 bales. Fair and other Je r
tions, aside from those above mentioned, i
as quoted at the close of last week.
Monty Market.?The market for English
curities has not been so good this week. C IV
day there was a heavy demand and pr, ea
clined. The fall at one period was 1 per re
but some reaction subsequently took plac , >
the latest prices show a reduction of ? pei .
on the closing quotations of the 10th inst. "ii
of Consuls fluctuated from 96f to 96j dur .g t
week, closing, at the Bailing of the Amei a,
| a J decline.
Stocks.?The prices give no report of Am ri
stocks.
Second Despatch.
Halifax, August 28, p. m.
The official quotations for Cotton arn?Ft irC
leans 82; fair Uplaud and Mobile 82; n.iddlii
7i; ordinary 7 a 7J. The total stock at Liverpo<
consisted of 347,000 bales, of which 320,000 a>
American, against a stock at this period last yea
of 755,000 bales.
From the seat of war in Denmark, we learn
that an explosion occurred in the powder labority
of the Schleswig Artillery, which killed ar.
wounded over one hundred men, and caused the
Danes to make a precipitate attack on the Holsteiners,
who chained on the Danes, putting thern
to flight, leaving a great many killed and wounded.
Correspondence of the Baltimore Patriot.
NEW YORK, Tuesday, P. M.
Yesterday afternoon, at luilf-post three o'clock
precisely, the splendid steamer Ohio left her
wharf, at the foot of Warren street, and proceeded
on her way to Charleston, New Orleans,
Havana und Chagres. The pier and adjacent
wharfs were filled with an immense number of
people to withess her departure, and 1 noticed
the silent tear stealing from the eyes of many, as
they wAved their adieu to parting friends. The 4
Ohio carries out one hundred ana seventy-eight
passengers; seventy for Chogres, thirty-one for
Havana, thirty for Charleston, and forty-seven
for New Orleans.
Eight out of ten of the Bermuda convicts are
now in custody, awaiting the sailing of the brig
Swan, to Bermuda, on Thursday next. The
other two got away from the city. The bonds
of $3,000, against Captain Pierce, will only bo
cancelled in the event of his bringing bncb.
a receipt to this port of the delivery of tin
rv?..! -? n? f- ?
I tun * iuuj iiviu vui vuimui uv uvuuuu'i, ur ui
Governor of the convict hulk, Medwuy. On
Sunday night, one of tho eight, named Samuel
Harvey, gave himself up to the Captain of tin
Sixth ward police.
Although less is said in general, about emi
grution at present than heretofore, the numbers
are by no means falling off, and during the a|>proaching
Fall a very great increase may be expected,
as manv are awaiting harvest time, in order
to accumulate sufficient to pay their passage.
Over six thousand five hundred persons arrived
at this port during the past week and the greater
number of the emigrants were from Germany,
some directly, and others via. Havre and Liverpool.
Yestordny morning n mass meeting of the
Irish and American tailors was held at Garriek's
Sixth Ward Hotel, for the purpose of appointing
a committee to draw up a bill for "customer'
work. The customer shops were well represented,
and delegates were appointed, without
any speeches being made, work l>eing the ord
of the day. These delegates are to meet thi
evening at 7 o'clock, at Garrick's, under a per
alty of fifty cents.for each absentee. It ws
stated that the Southern trade is now complete!
In tho hands of the tailors, there being on I
four large shops who have hot yielded *c th
terms proposed.
Between three and four o'clock on iV->r, lay
morning, the ferry bridge at tho foot ot Sout i
Seventh street, gave way, and fell several for
It was caused by the bolt and staple on tl
north side breaking, belonging to tho chu 1
L!-L I 1 J? iL - LJJ a J 1
which nuius tnc unujjc. owne ioaaea coun
wagons had just passed on board the boat, i
another was about to de so, when it fell,
fortunately no person was hurt, and the boi
and load escaped uninjured.
Cholera in Alleghany?Suicide?Railroa< 11.of
Pittsburg, Aug. -2
The cholera, in Fourth Ward, Allegl in
raging very badly, but reports are conflicting.
For tnc 24 hours ending yesterday aftern hi
3 o'clock, there were fifteen deaths. To-d tt
report* vary from 8 to 20 dentil*. The 1 ivei
number, however, ia thought to bo the raofr r??
rect We hear of no deaths in Pittsburg r<>
the epidemic, and the immortality in Allot inj
is confined to a couple of blocks, princ ipal o<
upied by Germans.
Considerable of a riot lias occurred o tl
Pennsylvania and Ohio Railroad, eii'ht oil*
fVom Pittsburg, in which about 100 laborers ;ir
laid to have oeen engaged. The Sheriff Ims
sailed out the military, and proceeded * > tl
spot No lives are reported to have ber.. lo
during the aflVay, but considerable bodily injur
wss sustained.
Vikgikla State Cosvextion Election.?
We have received tho following from a correspondent
:
Jejfer*rm, Berkeley arul Clarke District.
(official.)
Chas. Jas. Faulkner/ 1254 ; William Lucas.
1253; Dennis Murphy,* 884; Andrew Hunter/
599 ; John A. Thompson, 582 ; Henry Berry,
513: R. H. Butcher, 504; Provence McCormick,
321; Wm. C. Worthington, 306; George
B. Beall, 231 ; Cyrus McCormick, 176; E. Pendleton,
150; John F. Smith, 120; Braxton Davenport,
106.
Elected.

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