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THE COLUMBIAN FOUNTAIN.
n KaDAYljPRNP^ ftEC. 2, 1845. BREAD BttTFI*. The consequences of speculations in the necessaries of life are always most seriously fell by that portion of the community least able to endure them. The mechanic, who receives a weekly salary, and is suddenly compelled to pay an advance of two or three dollars upon the price of flour, and other bread stuffs in proportion, finds his salary (barely suificient for his comfortable subsis tence before) reduced to a bare sufficiency to keep body and soul together, by the ex ercise of the most rigid economy, and the endurance of privations incompatible with a comfortable, or even tolerable state of exis tence. Most frequently these so called scarcities in the provision market are not the result of a failure in the crops, but are the effect of combinations for the purpose of raising the price of an article so necessary to exis tence, and which it is well known will be purchased at almost any price. Let the re port go abroad?be whispered, in confidence, to a select few, that there is no jiour in the market, and, straightway, it is spread from one end of the city to the other?dealers are on the qui vive?demand increases de mand?prices increase in proportion?the capitalist takes advantage of the panic, dis poses of his stock at the highest price, and pockets his profits. This system has been carried on to some extent in our coun try?and has been got up on a more mag nificent scale, by collusion between Ameri can and foreign capitalists and speculators. We do not mean to intimate that the pres ent increase in the price of flour is attribut able to any such combination: for the known failure of the potatoe crop, both at home and abroad, is sufficient to cause an advance in the price of bread stufls; but that it will warrant any further advance, or long maintain the present, we are strongly inclined to doubt. At the prices of bread stuffs in London and Liverpool, at the latest dates, American flour, after deducting insurance, drayage, freight, 8lc., would nett $6 56. The New York Herald says : u Since sufficient time has elapsed to give speculators time to cool off a little, and calmly reflect upon the prospects before them in relation to the probable external de mand for flour, there has been a very great change in the complexion of the market, and prices for bread stufls have materially diminished. Immediately after the advices by the Britannia became known, purchases of flour were made to some extent at $7 50 per barrel. The excitement created by such a great and sudden advance, gave a very great impetus to the forwarding business, and the receipts have since been immense, amounting to more than three hundred thou sand bushels within the past week. The mild, soft weather gives us every hope that the canal will not close at present; and, if so, the receipts at this port from the West, will, within the next two weeks, amount to at least five hundred thousand barrels. The stock of flour in this port at this time must be nearly half as large again as it ever was before, notwithstanding the large shipments to Europe. Several ships now loading for Liverpool have from five to ten thousand barrels each on board, and vessels for the shipment of this staple are secured as fast as they can be obtained. Freights are so high that shippers hesitate to pay them, and a decline in the rates would give a great im petus to shipments The best brands of flour are now selling in this market at $6 50 a 6 56 per barrel. The expenses for freight, insurance, &.c., on a barrel of flour, shipped from New York to Liverpool, amount to about $ 1 12, making the cost, landed at Liverpool, about $7 62 s per bbl. " The duty on Canada flour, on 4th inst., was 7i pence per barrel of 196 lbs; duty on United States do., 12 shillings do. " It appears by this, that at present prices for flour in this market, and in Liverpool or London, there would be very little profit on any shipment" We shall continue our remarks on this subject from time to time, endeavor to give our readers early intimation as to the state of the markets at home and abroad, and shall take occasion to notice the effect which the progress of the Temperance Re formation has produced in this respect, and show, in connection, the incalculable bene fits accruing therefrom to the consumer of bread stufls, and convince him that intem perance is a great cause of srarcity, and that when the products of the soil shall be carried to the mill, instead of the still, that bread will be abundant?so abundant that we might furnish the starving millions of Europe with the staff of life at fo.ur dollars a barrel, instead of being, themselves, com pelled to pay 7 and 8 dollars. Correspondence of the Columbian Fountain. Alexandria, Nov. 30, 1845. The ready teal of your indefatigable agent, Mr. Wm. Sherwood, has secured already for the Fountain a considerable increase of subscribers; and the early hour at which (thrdugh the courtesy of one of the oblig ing assistants at the post office) it is fur lushed to ti? [Karons, will, I doubt not, do much towards giving it that circulation here which it so richly merits. On my return from your city last Thurs day evening, I learned with pleasure thai (through the exertions of that untiring champion of the good cause, brother 1 hos. M. Davy,) a public meeting had been gotten up in about five hours time, and that the members of Harmony Division, No. Sons of Temperance, and Association, No. 4, ol United Brothers, would attend in regalia, at eight o'clock., at the Methodist Protestant Church, which, to their great satisfaction, was filled with ladies and gentlemen anxious to close the proceedings of " thanksgiving day " in so appropriate a manner. A Ilymn, appropriate to the occasion, was first sung, and the Rev. Dr. Reese having opened the proceedings with prayer, brother Thomas M. Davy arose and addressed the audience in an impressive manner. His speech abounded with facts showing the awful devastation consequent upon the use of intoxicating drinks, even in our own town, and under our own personal observa tion. He closed his address by an allusion to the prejudice existing against the Sons and United Brothers of Temperance, and assured the audience that, as far as his knowledge of either (which was furnished by a membership in both) extended, they possessed no secret but such as is kept by every mercantile establishment in the coun try, having private marks upon merchan dize. Mr. Wm. D. Massey next followed; and in a short and highly entertaining address, urged upon the young men present, who had not yet given their influence to the side of Total Abstinence, the propriety of sign ing the Pledge, and confuted many of the arguments (if so they may be called) used to defend the practice of moderate drinking. Mr. M. concluded by introducing to the au dience the Rev. John S. Reese, D. D., of the Methodist Protestant Church. Dr. Reese began his address by utterly demolishing the great foundation of rum selling: "If I don't sell it somebody else will," which species of argument he com pared to that of an angler, who insisted that he had nothing to do with the catching of fish, inasmuch as he used no force, but "only" baited his hook, to which the fish voluntarily appended themselves. He next proceeded to show, by sound argument, and a reference to facts, that so insidious is the approach of the foe, and so certain the aim of his fiery arrow, that the only safety for the young especially, was in total and en tire abstinence from all that may intoxicate. He then proceeded, briefly, to exhort the older portions of the auditory to discharge their duty by giving good examples in this matter to the young, and pointed out to them the manner in which unsuspecting youth was led into the snare by following the example of old and respectable moder ate drinkers. The ladies, especially, he urged to assist in the great work, and they nobly responded by giving 23 names to the Pledge, which, with those of three gentle men, who had the independence to do their duty by signing, at the stand, before the entire audience, madd" a total of 26 as the result of the meeting. The ode, "Go, go, thou that enslavest me," was then sung, with much animation, by the whole congregation \ and the meet ing, after the benediction by Dr. Reese, ad journed. Thus was thanksgiving day spent in Alexandria. L. The Bank of Baltimore has declared a dividend of three per cent, for the last half year. The Westminster (Md.) Bank, a semi-an nual dividend of three and a half per cent. The Receiver of the Manufacturers' Bank of Bellville N. J., has given notice that a second dividend of 14 percent will be paid to the holders of Receiver's Certificates, on the 3rd of December next, at the office of A. Whitehead, 575 Broad street, Newark, N.J. Polish Revolution.?The Poles of the City of N. Y. celebrated the 15th anniver sary of the revolution of 1830, last evening at theStuyvesant Institute. The Hon. Wm. T. McCoun acted as President and Hon. Judge Oakley as Vice President. Miles Gray has been sent to the Peniten tiary in Alabama for challenging a nian to mortal combat. Dreadful Affair.?A boy named Ab bot was beat to death by two other boys, in Portsmouth, (N. H.) lately in a quarrel. They beat his brains out and stove in his ribs, so that he died in five minutes after he was carried home. They have both been arrested and lodged in jail. Mr. James Cameron, one of the earliest settlers of Iowa, committed suicide on the tOth instant by shooting himself. Cause, pecuniary losses. i Baltimoke Marklt, J\Tov. 2J). The Brittama's accounts, which reached Baltimore last Saturday, had sufficient time to operate by Monday morning, when mil j lers and dealers advanced prices about 50 cents per barrel, but were unable to effect ?ny thing of moment. Some sales of City Mills and Howard street were made at an advance ol 25 to 37 1-2 cents, but the mar ket was heavy, and not over $6 25 could be obtained, which is about the market rates. The people of the Western states will be particularly benefitted by the advance in prices for bread stullis. The crops of Michi gan, Illinois, Indiana, and Arkansas, have been immense this year. The wheat crop ol Michigan alone is estimated as high as 7,000,000 of bushels, equal to one and a j hall million barrels of flour. The wheat crop of Indiana is estimated at 8,000,000 bushels, the value oI which, compared with last year, would pay the interest for one year on the state debt. The wheat crop of Illinois, this year, will be double that of last, according to the estimates. This year the value will be at least seven millions of dollars, an in crease of about four millions. The immense receipts of produce this year will not benefit the consumer much, as the external demand takes off the surplus, which will reduce the sock very rapidly when the supplies cease. The foreign de mand is at present limited, compared to what it doubtless will be before spring opens. The high prices and great scarcity of sound po tatoes wil increase the consumption of flour among the middle and higher classes of so ciety, and consequently increase the price. This market, through the winter will rule vepr high, and it is our present opinion that shipments of flour will be made from this port to Liverpool and London, at prices full one dollar per barrel higher than those now ruling.?New York Herald, For the Columbian Fountain. The Value of the Pledge. NO. I. The present is evidently an age of im provement. The spirit of enterprize is on the wing, sure of its reward. Literature is advancing with quick steps, and is pouring a flood of light upon the world. Art is seeking ever to amuse, as well as instruct, with an increasing variety. Philosophy is unlocking, with the key of knowledge, the door of learning, which has so long been shut, and promises to reveal a thousand hidden truths to man. Science is moving forward with rapid strides, and like the comet in its swift and noiseless passage through the trackless ether, is leaving be hind it a stream of light. Fashion, the well known goddess of wordly admiration, is ushering in upon the gay world a con tinued change. Custom is frowning upon that which hap long been looked upon as innocent, and is casting a smile of approba tion upon that which has called forth the odious invective of many. The mind of man is hunting for something new?some thing novel. Progression seems to be the prime aim of man. Invention seems to be the reward of ingenuity; and I am inclined to believe that we are a great people, and that this is a great, world in which we live; consequently, when we attempt any thing like a series of original pieces, we should be wide awake. Criticism is looking upon us with the strictest scrutiny. In the hasty production of these essays for your paper, Messrs. Editors, we shall not attempt to preserve a very systematic arrangement of our thoughts, but yield to their wanderings, and in clothing them with language, aim rather to be concise, close, short?than profuse, lengthened, la bored. And being young ourselves, we dedicate them particularly to your youth ful readers, hoping that, in drawing them up without precision, they may be in some measure beneficial to our common cause. The leading features upon which we pur pose dwelling, will be the value of t!& pledge, and individual responsibility to the interests of Temperance. S. N. Washington City, I). C. For the Columbian Fountain. The Son of Temperance. A FACT. " May the choicest blessings of Ileaven rest upon the noble order!" was the fervent expression of a young woman who was seated upon a couch at the side of an in valid, apparently 25 or 26 years of age, whose, emaciated form and features, as well as his feeble voice, proved he had passed through a severe and protracted spell of sickness. The room in which they sat was humbly furnished; but comfort and clean liness reigned throughout, and evidently through the presence of a devoted and in dustrious wife. John Early, the young man, had been united, about two years previous, to one to whom he was ardently attached from his boyhood. His parents were upright and industrious; although but poorly endowed with worldly wealth, they were rich in in tegrity, and enjoyed the esteem and respect of all who knew them in their native city, Washington. Their only son and child, (John,) at the age of sixteen, was bound apprentice to a carpenter, with whom he served his time, to the mutual satisfaction of hia master and himself. Upon his arriving at the age of twenty one, in his joy at his emancipation from boyhood, he determined to celebrate the event with his companions by an oyster supper; and for that purpose, accompanied by some six or seven somewhat older than himself, proceeded to a Kestauraut on Penn sylvania avenue. Before they separated that night, John Early felt, for the first time, the ellects of intoxicating drinks, and had to be assisted home by one of his comjMnions. The next morning, his aching head and trembling hands, soon brought to his recol lection the scenes of the preceding night; and, although alone, he covered his face with his hands, as if to shut out the view of the follies he had committed under the influence of strong drink. That day he mada a vow never to be guilty of the act of drinking again from the intoxicating cup, and for three months most sacredly he observed it. At a public meeting, he was again pre vailed upon to take one glass ?, from that to another; and finally he was taken home almost insensible. From that time forward the appetite grew upon him, until he be came a habitual drinker; and there was hardly a day passed but what he was (more or less) under the influence of rum. The tears of a fond mother, or the remonstrances of a father and friends, were of no avail? the appetite became too overpowering to re sist; and in the short spacc of eighteen months, poor John Early became but little better than a drunkard. One night, while passing along the street on his way to meet some companions at their old haunts, he accidentally raised his head and saw Apollo Hall lighted up, and a transparent sign, with Temperance Meet ing to-night, upon it in the window. Curi osity, assisted by a small, still voice within, prevailed upon him to go in. He became an attentive listener to the eloquent and per suasive remarks of one devoted to the great cause. John, convinced of the ruinous ten dency of the course he had followed, signed the pledge of total abstinence, and became again a man. A kind father and doting mother, that night (upon their knees) poured forth their grateful thanks and heartfelt prayers unto a merciful God for reclaiming their lost son. He again returned to his industrious hab its ; and having constant work from his old master, he, at the suggestion of his own heart, and by the advice of his parents, one year after signing the Pledge, became the happy husband of Catherine Hyde, to whom he had been long attached, and who viewed his disgraceful and downward career with pity and anguish?his reformation with sur prise and delight?now placing full reliance upon its permanency, consented to become his for life. They had been married six months, and were comfortably settled in a small house, at a moderate rent; and, in the words of his wife, " had nothing more to desire, except a pledge that would bind them still closer together, which was also expected in four or five months, and anxiously waited for, as the crowning point of their felicity. About this time a military company, to which John Early was attached, determined to hold an encampment near the city foi two or three days. Although loth to part with his wife for even so short a time, he decided to take part in its duties. Intoxi cating drinks were freely used, and in an evil hour, John again became the victim of alcohol; for two months he was almost daily intoxicated; but the tears of a fond wife and the entreaties of his parents, pre vailed upon him again to sign the Safety Pledge. After six months of usefulness, at the in stance of a true friend, he made application for admission to a Division of the Sons of Teinpcrancc, for further security from the soul-destroying ravager. He gained admit tance, and on the night of his initiation, the faces of his wife and parents were lit up with the gladness of the heart within. Being a good workman, and when sober . industrious, he gradually obtained the con fidence of his employers, and received con stant work. It was ever with a smiling countenance he was welcomed home by his wife; and after tea, sitting by her side, with their babe upon his knee, he said, within his inmost heart, with the utmost gratitude, "Thank God I am a Son of Temperance." ' But the Almighty, in his wisdom, thought proper that they should again bow before his will, and drink still deeper from the cup of adversity. John was engaged in putting up a frame building?the scaffolding giving away, he was precipitated to the ground; and, besides breaking an arm, he received very severe internal injuries. It was then the Order of the Sons of Temperance was fully appreciated. With brotherly Jove and unwearied patience, night after night, by turns, they watched by, and administered to the wants of the suffering brother?the weighty care of whom would hite *n? e* hau?ied the sufferiug wife and ittbther. The weekly benefits of the Institution enabled them to procure many necessary delicaeies, which their straightened means would other wise deprive him of; and, as recovering from his two months' confinement, he was able, in broken syllables, to express his thanks for the valuable services rendered him, it was then his wife exclaimed, with tearful eyes and overflowing heart, with her face towards heaven, "May the choicest blessings of Heaven rest upon the noble Order." Burying Alive.?A most horrid case of burying alive occurred a few weaks since in Baltimore, and which, although generally talked of, has out of respect to the friends of the deceased, been excluded from the public prints. A young lady was taken sick and died very suddenly, as was sup posed by the family and physician, and was placed in her coffin and carried to the depos itory of the family, and placed in the fami ly vault. A few days afterwards, on visit ing the vault, they were struck with the horrible sight of the young lady in her bur ial clothing, out of the coffin, and sitting up against the side of the wall?dead! N. Y. Herald. Horrible Outrages in the Cherokee Nation.?Saturday evening last, just after dark, six or seven armed men, with their faces blacked, approached the dwelling of Mr. K. J. Meigs, about three miles east of this place. As they came to the door they asked for admittance, and Mr. Meigs, sup posing that he recognised the voice of a neighbor, threw open the shutter of a win dow, through which the muzzles of five guns were thrust and pointed at him. He moved to one side, and seized a double bar rel shot gun, which he knew to be empty at the time, and threatened to shoot if an at tempt was made to take his life. After sev eral minutes were spent in parley, during which they tried to obtain admission, as suring him that they would not hurt him, but refusing to set their guns inside the win dow at his request, he expressed a willing ness to open the door and let them in. He then approched a back door, which was not locked, opened it and rushed out, receiving without injury, a fire from his assailants who had run round the house and was within a few feet of the door. As the night was dark, the villians did not pursue him, but entered the house, ransacked its contents, and then fired it. The house and all it con tained were consumed, there being nothing left except its blackened walls and chimneys. At the time, Mrs Meigs and children were providentally on a visit, at Park Hill, or doubtless the whole family would have been massacred and consumed with the building. Mr. Meigs succeeded the same night in making his way about five miles, to the house of his father-in-law, Mr. John Ross, grateful that he had succeeded in es caping a horrible death, though sadly worsj ted in wordly things. A Distressing Scene.?Last Saturday evening in one of the rooms attached to the Fulton ferry, we observed a man in a most beastly and helpless state of intoxication, accompanied by his wife, a young, neatly attired, and exceedingly handsome woman, who appeared to be in the greatest affliction at the degraded and unfortunate situation of her liege Jord. She besought us to aid her in getting the man on board the boat, and notwithstanding his wretched and deplora ble condition, she clung to him with a tena city and affection which would have been more commendably devoted to a more wor thy companion. We were told the man's name, his residence and occupation, but as we learn that he is a skillful mechanic, and generally very industrious, we shall only mention the affair tn its presant shape, in the hope that he will hereafter avoid ex cesses which must inevitably lead to humil iation and disgrace, and eventually to a pre mature grave.?N. Y. Herald. CITY AFFAIRS. Circuit Court.?The jury who retired on Wednesday afternoon to consider of their verdict on the Georgetown libel case, White vs. Nicholas and others, were dis charged last Saturday morning by the Court, there being no probability that the jury would ever agree upon a verdict. The iury were locked up during the Thanks giving day and on the day following, and were kept from their homes and families three nights. The Circuit Court will meet this morning ifter the adjournment of the Criminal Court For the day, and take up the appeal docket. We understand the Circuit Court will be ad ourned this afternoon to the next term in course.?Nat. Intel. Criminal Court.?The December term of this Court commenced yesterday, when the Hon. Judge Crawford took his seat upon the bench for the first time as Judge of our Criminal Court. Wc are sorry to leurn that the criminal calendar is one of unusual length, embracing four offences of the highest grade known to the law, and a great number of other offences, punishable by imprisonment at labor in the penitentiary. There are, we learn, fifty-four prisoners in the county jail; and it seems probable that i considerable proportion of that number will be convicted and sentenced to the peni tentiary. Some of the principal witnesses ire already in attendance from distant States. One of these, Mr. Mastcrton, from Tennes lee, under whose bed at Coleman's hotel, Baker was found concealed with a felonious intent, previous to his taking the Sam Patch leap from the fourth story of that lof ty building, arrived in thw city last Satur day.?Nat. Intel.