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TUCSON, AEIZOISTA Saturday, J anuary 14, 1 87" 1 Delivered before the Sixth Legislative Assembly, in Joint convention, Satur day, January 14, 1871.J MESSAGE OP TEE Governor of Arizona. Gentlemen of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona : It is the duty of the Executive to lay before you, at the commencement of your sessions, such information con earning the affairs of tho Territory, and make such suggestions with re gard to its interests and wants, a; may aid you in your deliberations You have been chosen at a timo of peculiar interest to the Territory. It now exceeds two years sii session of the legislative assembly has convened. During that period, the improvements and population, of tho Territory have steadily increased. Many valuable mines have been dis covered, and the yield from those in operation have been remunerative. Practical experience and prudent economy to a great extent have taken the place of theoretical and extrava gant mining; agriculture has kept pace with the demand for produce and several new farming settleineuts have sprang: into flourishing existence. It is now a demonstrated fact, that Ari zona has locked up in her rock-bound mountains vast deposits of the pre cious metals, ana that ner grazing and agricultural resources aro unsur Experience and the development of our resources have demonstrated the necessity of amending some of our statutes, and of framing new ones. To your intelligent care these interests are confided, and it is to be hoped you will give them that careful considera tton the importance of the subjeci de mands. THE INDIANS. The question of paramount import ance since the acquisition of the Ter ritory, has been, and is now, the hos tility of the Apache Indians. The history of these Indians is written in blood. They have caused the bones of our people to lie bleaching along every highway and in every settle ment of the Territory ; their tortures, murders and robberies, hang like the dark pall of night over every enter prise: stealtlrily they creep upon the farmor in the field, or lie in ambush by the road side for the unsuspecting traveler ; taking little or no risk for their own safety, they spring from concealment upon their victims with murderous effect; nomadic in their habits, they roam generally in small bands over nearly the whole Territory, and cause insecurity and loss of life and property over the larger portion of it. No people in the early settlement of any of our Territories have suffer ed more or met with greater loss of life and property in proportion to) the population and wealth than those of Arizona, and none have faced these dangers and endured the hardships incident to pioneer settlements with greater fortitude. JjThe troops in the Territory have Seen active, and in the main com manded by brave and efficient officers, but the force is entirely inadequate to the prosecution of an energetic, ag gressive war, and no other kind of war will ever reduce the Apache to submission. Several previous Legislatures have memorialized Congress to give the Governor authority to raise volun teers, and our Delegate has introduced a bill for this purpose, but so far no action thereon has been taken by that body. I am of the opinion that volunteers raised among our own people, inured to the climate, acquainted with the" habits or the Indians and the country, aud fighting for their homes and fire sides, would be found efficient and in the end more economical for the Gov ernment than the regular troops. In the month of August last, the Indians made a simultaneous movement along the Southern Overland road. Two stage drivers were killed, one stage captured, and all on board were mur dered ; a train was taken and all with it killed, and a stage station, twenty two miles east of Tucson, was taken and but one of the inmates escaped alive. Several others were killed about that time. The condition of af fairs became so alarming that the cit izens or xucson contributed a sum sufficient to place a small company in the field ; they were mostly Mexicans by birth and not mounted. I took command of the company, and acted a part ot the time in conjunction "With Capt. E. Miles and his command of the regular army; and also, for time with Lieut. Cushing. "We were in the field twenty-seven days, and during that time these men marched on foot above six hundred miles, much of the time over a rocky, moun tainous country. Their endurance and conduct were every tiling that could be desired. I belieye a few companies of this class of our citizens would be iound in valuable in subdu ing the hostile Apaches. The Coyo teros and Apache-Mohave Indians, branches of the Apache tribe, have expressed a desire for peace, and a large Reservation has been set apart for the former by the United States. I visited this Eeservation in June last, and believe the larger number of this band earnestly desire peace. I found they were very poor, with no seed for planting except that furnished by the military authorities, and they were of necessity omigea to roam over a large extent ot country, as Indians always are unless provided with ample agri cultural facilities. I found the mili tary doing everything possible to pro vide them with seed, but were not authorized to supply even their pre sent wants, except in limited amounts. consequently the Indians had to prin- ipaliy depend upon game for subsist ence. JUuch dissatisfaction and ill feeling exist on the part of the set tlers on account of the general belief that portions of this tribe join with marauding bands against them, and as soon as their nefarious work is done, return to their reservation for safety. The Apache Mohaves have received no assistance except from the military authorities, and that of ne cessity has been limited; and from personal observation, strengthened by information received from officers and citizens who have been more or less among them, 1 am convinced they have been for some time past in a suf fering condition; and I shall not be surprised if in a few weeksi and per haps days, they arc again in open hos tility. nree persons were murdered recently near Prescott. and it is charged by well informed citizens to these Indians. They have also band ed together in considerable numbers and made demands on the inhabitants should be exercised over them to the end that they plant, cultivate and harvest their crops m due season, and to prevent the evil disposed from join nig marauding bands to the great injury of our people and the well dis posed ot their own tribe. They do not base their desire for peace upon the' condition that it is wrong to murder a white niau or wo man or steal property. I have had frequent conversations with leadin men of the Apache tribe, and never heard one protess a desire tor peace upon any other consideration than that ot selt-interest. Now, let the fact be once established in their minds that in a state of peace they will be batter fed and clad than in a state ot war, sel fishness alone will do much towards securing and continuing friendly rela tions. Let this policy be adopted, and they will be rapidly drawn towards civilized life, while if occupying large reservations and owning the lands m common, generations may pass away and they will still remain the same wild Indians. On the other hand, if weeks, months, and perhaps years elapse alter they surrender before the Indian Department comes near or of fers a helping hand, and they are per mitted to roam Tit will, quite invaria bly and certainly they will fall back into their old habits, and under a semi guise of friendship, become more dam aging to settlers than when in avow ed hostility The Pima and Maricopa Indians, occupying a reservation on the Gila Eivcr, have been considered the faith ful allies of the whites, but for a con siderablo period in the past, much complaint has been made by settlers jiving adjacent, and by people drivin stock through their reserve, of overt acts on the part of the young men of the tribe. It is alleged that they have frequently stolen property and destroyed or appropriated to their use fields of grain, and have often been impudent and overbearing. Another source of uneasiness to settlers adjoining the reservation has arisen in consequence of the lines of the old reservation having been ex tended, by survey under authority of the government, so as to include many valuable farms belonging to the sel lers who made their locations in good faith outside of tho reservation, many of which have been, at great expense, brought under cultivation. It has been stated that the recent extension of the survey was in consequence of the of Chino valley for food with which ! land having formerly been granted to The Indians retired without actually commencing hostilities, but informed the people that they would return with increased numbers and take what they wanted, liie danger was considered so imminent that all tho families of the valley were removed to Prescott for safety, and quite as much alarm now prevails with thj people as when these Indians were hi avow.jd liosti-lily. The Indians now engaged in open hostility, are the Pinals, Tontos, what is commonly known as Cochises band, ind more or less lenegades .from all the bands that assume to be on terms or peace. It is also a well established fact that the Navajoos, who occupy a reservation in Hew Mexico, have made frequent raids and stolen pro perty and murdered citizens, as far west as Prescott. I believe I have fairly stated to you the condition and position the Apache Indians occupy towards us at present. 1 have given this subject much thought, and ex pended much time in its iwrsonal ex amination, and am led to the follow ing conclusions, as to the policy which ought to prevail in the future. xne .apacne maians nave never manifested the least disposition to live on terms of peace, until after they had been thoroughly subjugated by mili tary power, and any attempt to com promise before they are reduced to this condition, is accepted by them as an acknowledgment of weakness and cowardice; therefore, my opinion is that in the end it would be economy to the government and humanity to both whites and Indians to prosecute the war with relentless vigor until they are completely humbled and subjuga ted; after which I believe it to be equally necessary for the government to be prepared to accept and provide for them in their new relations to wards the whites. These Indians, before they lay down their arms, de pend to a great extent upon theft for their support, and Avhen this mode of supply ceases, hunger and suffering must ensue, unless the government is prepared at once to assist them. They should bo removed to a reservation of such circumscribed limits that con stant watch could be kept over them ; the reservation instead of -being held in common, should be divided into reasonable sub-divisions as would give to each family a home and the neces sary land to grow the food they re quire. They should, also, be stimu lated and assisted to improve and cul tivate their linds, and constant care them by the Mexican or Spanish gov- ernmnt. This would be a good rea son if it were true, but I have taken careful steps to ascertain the facts ia the case, and am unable to find that such grant was over made; therefore, the only matter to be determined is simply the justice of the question and in it i determination the rights of the citizens ought not to be ignored. In view of the fact that the Pimas occupy one of the most favored loca tions for agriculture in the Territory, and have within their old reservation many thousands of acres more than they now or ever will cultivate; and in the further consideration that this extension deprives many honest, in dustrious citizens of their homes and all they 'have, and throws just so much n: jre land open to uncultivation, the extension seems to me manifestly unjust and unwise. As Congress has to legislate upon the subject before this extension can be finally establish ed, it will be your duty to take such action in the premises as you deem advisable to prevent if possible the consummation of an act of greatinju ry to tho best interests of the Territory. schools. Next in importance to the Indian question, none will claim your atten tion over that of devising some plan for the education of the youth of our Territory. The recent census returns show a population of children under the age of twenty-one and over six years, of 1923, and the. mortifying fact has to be admitted that Ave have not a public school in the Territory. There is and has been for sometime a school in Prescott, under the management of St C. Rogers, and much credit is due j that gentleman for his zeal and efforts to encourage education. The Sisters of St. Joseph have recently establish ed a school in Tucson for the educa tion of females, and too much praise cannot be accorded them for leaving home and its smTounding comforts and coming to this remote Territory, to promote education. "With limited means and in a strange land they have overcome every obstacle and in a few months established a school cred- it able to any country, and which is al ready attended by about one hundred and thirty pupil's. But the object most desirable to at tain is the adoption of a school system for free public schools, so that the poor and rich alike can shar,e equal bene fits. In a country like ours, where the power to govern is derived from the consent ot the governed, it be comes a matter of vital importance and necessity, if we are to protect and make permanent our republican lnsb tutions, that the people shall be edu cated; not only this, but history re cords the fact that tho power and glo ry of nations and peoples keep pace only with their enlightenment and intelligence. The kingdom of Prussia inaugurated her grand march of pro gress with the education or her people by compulsory laws. The battles of iadowa and Sedan were grand tri umphs of mind over matter, of knowl edge over ignorance. The soldiers that fill the ranks of her armies, by the fostering care of the government, are educated, and when they carry the banner ot their country from one tri umphant battle field to another, they do so with a lofty intelligence and pat riotism. Prussia through the learned capacity of her people, has been en abled to reconstruct the map of Eu rope, and within the past five years has dictated terms of peace to one of the leading powers, and holds another at this time within her iron grasp, and has aggrandized her power and glory by uniting tho "Fatherland" under one flag and nationality. The little repubHc of Switzerland has adopted a system of compulsory educa tion, and it is estimated at this time there is scarcely a child of sufficient age that has not made some advance ment in education, and the result is that a people who m former times, practised mercenary warfare for a livelihood, under the benign influence of education, has become among the most orderly, industrious and intelli gent of Europe, and take front rank in ill the enterprises oi lite. I am ot the opmion that our gov ernment should adopt -afsystem of free schools for the whole people, and that as soon as it were put in operation, should by law compel the attendance of every child of sound mind and proper age throughout the length and breadth ot the Republic. There aro but two ways of maintaining a gov ernment, one by standing armies and military power, the other through the intelligence and patriotism of the peo ple Our government is founded upon he latter theory, and to make the sys tem complete and insure the perpetui ty of our institutions, it is far more im portant that every man shall be arm ed with an intelligent ballot than ith the most improved and destrue- ve weapon. 1ms system once adop ted, we would be soon enabled to make the proud boast that no nation on the globj is in advance of ours in point of education. I believe it to be the duty of the government to give a helping and to the rniant Territories that are stiiied soon to become States of the Union, and especially do I believe the Territories acquired froin Mexico should receive marked consideration in this direction. The people of these erritones have suddenly been trans ferred irom another government to our own. Spealdng a foreign tongue e call upon them to adopt our cus toms and obey our laws. They are generally well-disposed, law-idling citizens and have but little mius they have and will continue to have an important influence in the govern ing power of the country, and it is es sential that they shonld be educated in the language ot the laws that gov ern them. This question has already been agitated in Congress, and many oi our statesmen taice a liDeral view of it. It is to be hoped that Congress will, at an early period, adopt such measures as will at least insure educa tion in tho Territories ; but until that time arrives, I consider it imperative ly necessary that we shall do some thing for ourselves. The present school law has been found inadequate to accomplish the desired object; m face it has been wholly inoperative. To obtain the means to put a free school system in operation, I Avould recommend that a portion of the Territorial revenues be set apart for school purposes, and that this fund be divided between the several counties of the Territory in proportion to the number of children that attend school. The boards ot Supervisors of the several counties should be compelled to divide the coun ties into one or more school districts, and levy a tax upon all the property ot the county to raise a sutncient iund, with the money derived from the Ter ritory, to maintain for a term of at least six months each year, one or more free schools in each of the coun ties. This will undoubtedly to a small extent increase taxation, but I hardly believe there is a property owner who would not prefer to pay an increased tax than see the rising generation grow up in ignorance ; and the small extra tax that is required to main tain free schools will very soon be doubly repaid in the saving of expen ses in criminal prosecutions. Thie important trust is confided to your care, and I may ba permitted to say that you have the power to build a monument that will last while timo endures, and generation after genera tion will rise up and point to your work if properly done as the first suc cessful advance made in favor of free education in this Territory. I have alluded to the Pima Indians, but in connection with this subject, I desire to observe that I wa3 informed, by the chief of that tribe, last sum mer, that what they most desired. wore schools to educate their children. He said they had means in abundance for their support, but schools were be yond their reach ; that they had asked and plead in vain ior them. He desired my influence in their be half. I immediately called upon tho agent in charge, and was informed by him that he was restricted to the pay ment of six hundred dollars per an num for teachers, and he could pro cure no one for that sum to under take the work. I also brought the. matter to the attention of the Com missioner of Indian Affairs. It is to be hoped that steps will speedily be. taken to educate these people. Ar they are now situated, the young are growing up indolent and in many in stances vicious. The moralizing in fluences of education would do much towards correcting their habits, and might be the means of preventing bloodshed and saving many valuable lives. While in New York, last winter, I received a valuable donation of school books from the publishers, Messrs. Iverson, Phinney, Blakemen & Co. I have given these books to the children of the Territory. They have been highly appreciated by both parents and children, and are t le means of do-' ing much good. I would suggest that a small appropriation to procure books for free distribution would be found highly advantageous. RAILWAYS. Nothing will so surely and speedi ly effect the permanent prosperity of this Territory, as tho completion of a SouthernPacificRailroad or Railroads. It would bring an increase of popula tion to take possession of the unoccupi ed domain, develop its vast and varied resources and forever settle our Indian difficulties. The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Co. already have a land ?grantand . right of way along the Thirty-fifth Parallel to the Pacific Ocean. They are impeded in the prosecution- of their work on account of the line of tho road passing some three hundred and fifty mile3 through Indian Territory. They have so far baen unable to make any satisfactory arrangements with, the Indians for the right of way. The quea'loi is now before Congress, and it is to be hoped that before tho adjournment of tho present session, the required legislation will ,be ob tained to insure an early completion of the road. A bill passed the Senate, with great unanimity, last winter giving land grants and the light of way in aid of the eonstrnction of a railroad along tho Thirty-second Parallel to the Pa cific Ocean. It has not yet been acted upon in the Hbuse of Representatives, but it is believed it will pass that body and become a law at an early day. The company seeking this franchise are throughly organized, and have elected for directors able, influential and experienced men who will un doubtedly command the confidence of the people and Congress. Hopes are entertained that should land grants prove inadequate to its speedy con struction, Congress will give such further assistance as may be absolute ly required to secure the success of this most important international highway . The road once completed, millions now annually expended by the gov ernment in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona prosecuting Indians Avars and protecting the people, Avill be saved, and this whole extent of country will become populous and prosperous, and instead of being an expense, Avould soon become a source of revenue. "Wo have locked up in our mountains treasuries of gold and silver that Avill upon the completion of this Avork bo gradually trasterred to tho commer cial Avorld and the Treasury of the United States. Ihe only pre-requisites to obtain them, are safety from Indi ans and cheaper transportation. The freight on our supplies, machinery, &c. cost from $240 to $3G0 per ton ; but leAV mines or enterprises ot am' kind will pay these high rates of trans portation, and still Ave haAe now a number of profitable mines in opera tion. Yet there are hundreds iale that Avould yield great Avealth upon the completion of a railroad. These state ments are so ovbious that I cannot be-?