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Arizona citizen. [volume] (Tucson, Pima County, A.T. [i.e. Ariz.]) 1870-1880, January 14, 1871, Image 2

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Saturday, J anuary 14, 1 87" 1
Delivered before the Sixth Legislative
Assembly, in Joint convention, Satur
day, January 14, 1871.J
Governor of Arizona.
Gentlemen of the Legislative
Assembly of the Territory of
Arizona :
It is the duty of the Executive to
lay before you, at the commencement
of your sessions, such information con
earning the affairs of tho Territory,
and make such suggestions with re
gard to its interests and wants, a;
may aid you in your deliberations
You have been chosen at a timo of
peculiar interest to the Territory.
It now exceeds two years sii
session of the legislative assembly
has convened. During that period,
the improvements and population, of
tho Territory have steadily increased.
Many valuable mines have been dis
covered, and the yield from those in
operation have been remunerative.
Practical experience and prudent
economy to a great extent have taken
the place of theoretical and extrava
gant mining; agriculture has kept
pace with the demand for produce and
several new farming settleineuts have
sprang: into flourishing existence. It
is now a demonstrated fact, that Ari
zona has locked up in her rock-bound
mountains vast deposits of the pre
cious metals, ana that ner grazing
and agricultural resources aro unsur
Experience and the development of
our resources have demonstrated the
necessity of amending some of our
statutes, and of framing new ones.
To your intelligent care these interests
are confided, and it is to be hoped you
will give them that careful considera
tton the importance of the subjeci de
The question of paramount import
ance since the acquisition of the Ter
ritory, has been, and is now, the hos
tility of the Apache Indians. The
history of these Indians is written in
blood. They have caused the bones
of our people to lie bleaching along
every highway and in every settle
ment of the Territory ; their tortures,
murders and robberies, hang like the
dark pall of night over every enter
prise: stealtlrily they creep upon the
farmor in the field, or lie in ambush
by the road side for the unsuspecting
traveler ; taking little or no risk for
their own safety, they spring from
concealment upon their victims with
murderous effect; nomadic in their
habits, they roam generally in small
bands over nearly the whole Territory,
and cause insecurity and loss of life
and property over the larger portion
of it.
No people in the early settlement
of any of our Territories have suffer
ed more or met with greater loss of
life and property in proportion to)
the population and wealth than those
of Arizona, and none have faced these
dangers and endured the hardships
incident to pioneer settlements with
greater fortitude.
JjThe troops in the Territory have
Seen active, and in the main com
manded by brave and efficient officers,
but the force is entirely inadequate to
the prosecution of an energetic, ag
gressive war, and no other kind of
war will ever reduce the Apache to
Several previous Legislatures have
memorialized Congress to give the
Governor authority to raise volun
teers, and our Delegate has introduced
a bill for this purpose, but so far no
action thereon has been taken by that
I am of the opinion that volunteers
raised among our own people, inured
to the climate, acquainted with the"
habits or the Indians and the country,
aud fighting for their homes and fire
sides, would be found efficient and in
the end more economical for the Gov
ernment than the regular troops. In
the month of August last, the Indians
made a simultaneous movement along
the Southern Overland road. Two
stage drivers were killed, one stage
captured, and all on board were mur
dered ; a train was taken and all with
it killed, and a stage station, twenty
two miles east of Tucson, was taken
and but one of the inmates escaped
alive. Several others were killed about
that time. The condition of af
fairs became so alarming that the cit
izens or xucson contributed a sum
sufficient to place a small company in
the field ; they were mostly Mexicans
by birth and not mounted. I took
command of the company, and acted
a part ot the time in conjunction "With
Capt. E. Miles and his command of
the regular army; and also, for
time with Lieut. Cushing. "We were
in the field twenty-seven days, and
during that time these men marched
on foot above six hundred miles, much
of the time over a rocky, moun
tainous country. Their endurance
and conduct were every tiling that
could be desired. I belieye a few
companies of this class of our citizens
would be iound in valuable in subdu
ing the hostile Apaches. The Coyo
teros and Apache-Mohave Indians,
branches of the Apache tribe, have
expressed a desire for peace, and a
large Reservation has been set apart
for the former by the United States.
I visited this Eeservation in June last,
and believe the larger number of this
band earnestly desire peace. I found
they were very poor, with no seed for
planting except that furnished by the
military authorities, and they were of
necessity omigea to roam over a large
extent ot country, as Indians always
are unless provided with ample agri
cultural facilities. I found the mili
tary doing everything possible to pro
vide them with seed, but were not
authorized to supply even their pre
sent wants, except in limited amounts.
consequently the Indians had to prin-
ipaliy depend upon game for subsist
ence. JUuch dissatisfaction and ill
feeling exist on the part of the set
tlers on account of the general belief
that portions of this tribe join with
marauding bands against them, and
as soon as their nefarious work is
done, return to their reservation for
safety. The Apache Mohaves have
received no assistance except from the
military authorities, and that of ne
cessity has been limited; and from
personal observation, strengthened by
information received from officers and
citizens who have been more or less
among them, 1 am convinced they
have been for some time past in a suf
fering condition; and I shall not be
surprised if in a few weeksi and per
haps days, they arc again in open hos
tility. nree persons were murdered
recently near Prescott. and it is
charged by well informed citizens to
these Indians. They have also band
ed together in considerable numbers
and made demands on the inhabitants
should be exercised over them to the
end that they plant, cultivate and
harvest their crops m due season, and
to prevent the evil disposed from join
nig marauding bands to the great
injury of our people and the well dis
posed ot their own tribe.
They do not base their desire for
peace upon the' condition that it is
wrong to murder a white niau or wo
man or steal property. I have had
frequent conversations with leadin
men of the Apache tribe, and never
heard one protess a desire tor peace
upon any other consideration than that
ot selt-interest. Now, let the fact be
once established in their minds that in
a state of peace they will be batter fed
and clad than in a state ot war, sel
fishness alone will do much towards
securing and continuing friendly rela
tions. Let this policy be adopted, and
they will be rapidly drawn towards
civilized life, while if occupying large
reservations and owning the lands m
common, generations may pass away
and they will still remain the same
wild Indians. On the other hand, if
weeks, months, and perhaps years
elapse alter they surrender before the
Indian Department comes near or of
fers a helping hand, and they are per
mitted to roam Tit will, quite invaria
bly and certainly they will fall back
into their old habits, and under a semi
guise of friendship, become more dam
aging to settlers than when in avow
ed hostility
The Pima and Maricopa Indians,
occupying a reservation on the Gila
Eivcr, have been considered the faith
ful allies of the whites, but for a con
siderablo period in the past, much
complaint has been made by settlers
jiving adjacent, and by people drivin
stock through their reserve, of overt
acts on the part of the young men of
the tribe. It is alleged that they
have frequently stolen property and
destroyed or appropriated to their use
fields of grain, and have often been
impudent and overbearing.
Another source of uneasiness to
settlers adjoining the reservation has
arisen in consequence of the lines of
the old reservation having been ex
tended, by survey under authority of
the government, so as to include many
valuable farms belonging to the sel
lers who made their locations in good
faith outside of tho reservation, many
of which have been, at great expense,
brought under cultivation. It has
been stated that the recent extension of
the survey was in consequence of the
of Chino valley for food with which ! land having formerly been granted to
The Indians retired without actually
commencing hostilities, but informed
the people that they would return with
increased numbers and take what they
wanted, liie danger was considered
so imminent that all tho families of
the valley were removed to Prescott
for safety, and quite as much alarm
now prevails with thj people as when
these Indians were hi avow.jd liosti-lily.
The Indians now engaged in open
hostility, are the Pinals, Tontos, what
is commonly known as Cochises band,
ind more or less lenegades .from all
the bands that assume to be on terms
or peace. It is also a well established
fact that the Navajoos, who occupy a
reservation in Hew Mexico, have
made frequent raids and stolen pro
perty and murdered citizens, as far
west as Prescott. I believe I have
fairly stated to you the condition and
position the Apache Indians occupy
towards us at present. 1 have given
this subject much thought, and ex
pended much time in its iwrsonal ex
amination, and am led to the follow
ing conclusions, as to the policy which
ought to prevail in the future.
xne .apacne maians nave never
manifested the least disposition to live
on terms of peace, until after they had
been thoroughly subjugated by mili
tary power, and any attempt to com
promise before they are reduced to
this condition, is accepted by them as
an acknowledgment of weakness and
cowardice; therefore, my opinion is
that in the end it would be economy to
the government and humanity to both
whites and Indians to prosecute the
war with relentless vigor until they
are completely humbled and subjuga
ted; after which I believe it to be
equally necessary for the government
to be prepared to accept and provide
for them in their new relations to
wards the whites. These Indians,
before they lay down their arms, de
pend to a great extent upon theft for
their support, and Avhen this mode of
supply ceases, hunger and suffering
must ensue, unless the government is
prepared at once to assist them. They
should bo removed to a reservation of
such circumscribed limits that con
stant watch could be kept over them ;
the reservation instead of -being held
in common, should be divided into
reasonable sub-divisions as would give
to each family a home and the neces
sary land to grow the food they re
quire. They should, also, be stimu
lated and assisted to improve and cul
tivate their linds, and constant care
them by the Mexican or Spanish gov-
ernmnt. This would be a good rea
son if it were true, but I have taken
careful steps to ascertain the facts ia
the case, and am unable to find that
such grant was over made; therefore,
the only matter to be determined is
simply the justice of the question and
in it i determination the rights of the
citizens ought not to be ignored.
In view of the fact that the Pimas
occupy one of the most favored loca
tions for agriculture in the Territory,
and have within their old reservation
many thousands of acres more than
they now or ever will cultivate; and
in the further consideration that this
extension deprives many honest, in
dustrious citizens of their homes and
all they 'have, and throws just so
much n: jre land open to uncultivation,
the extension seems to me manifestly
unjust and unwise. As Congress has
to legislate upon the subject before
this extension can be finally establish
ed, it will be your duty to take such
action in the premises as you deem
advisable to prevent if possible the
consummation of an act of greatinju
ry to tho best interests of the Territory.
Next in importance to the Indian
question, none will claim your atten
tion over that of devising some plan
for the education of the youth of our
Territory. The recent census returns
show a population of children under the
age of twenty-one and over six years,
of 1923, and the. mortifying fact has
to be admitted that Ave have not a
public school in the Territory. There
is and has been for sometime a school
in Prescott, under the management of
St C. Rogers, and much credit is due j
that gentleman for his zeal and efforts
to encourage education. The Sisters
of St. Joseph have recently establish
ed a school in Tucson for the educa
tion of females, and too much praise
cannot be accorded them for leaving
home and its smTounding comforts
and coming to this remote Territory,
to promote education. "With limited
means and in a strange land they
have overcome every obstacle and in a
few months established a school cred-
it able to any country, and which is al
ready attended by about one hundred
and thirty pupil's.
But the object most desirable to at
tain is the adoption of a school system
for free public schools, so that the poor
and rich alike can shar,e equal bene
fits. In a country like ours, where
the power to govern is derived from
the consent ot the governed, it be
comes a matter of vital importance
and necessity, if we are to protect and
make permanent our republican lnsb
tutions, that the people shall be edu
cated; not only this, but history re
cords the fact that tho power and glo
ry of nations and peoples keep pace
only with their enlightenment and
intelligence. The kingdom of Prussia
inaugurated her grand march of pro
gress with the education or her people
by compulsory laws. The battles of
iadowa and Sedan were grand tri
umphs of mind over matter, of knowl
edge over ignorance. The soldiers
that fill the ranks of her armies, by
the fostering care of the government,
are educated, and when they carry the
banner ot their country from one tri
umphant battle field to another, they
do so with a lofty intelligence and pat
riotism. Prussia through the learned
capacity of her people, has been en
abled to reconstruct the map of Eu
rope, and within the past five years
has dictated terms of peace to one of
the leading powers, and holds another
at this time within her iron grasp, and
has aggrandized her power and glory
by uniting tho "Fatherland" under
one flag and nationality.
The little repubHc of Switzerland has
adopted a system of compulsory educa
tion, and it is estimated at this time
there is scarcely a child of sufficient
age that has not made some advance
ment in education, and the result is
that a people who m former times,
practised mercenary warfare for a
livelihood, under the benign influence
of education, has become among the
most orderly, industrious and intelli
gent of Europe, and take front rank in
ill the enterprises oi lite.
I am ot the opmion that our gov
ernment should adopt -afsystem of free
schools for the whole people, and that
as soon as it were put in operation,
should by law compel the attendance
of every child of sound mind and
proper age throughout the length and
breadth ot the Republic. There aro
but two ways of maintaining a gov
ernment, one by standing armies and
military power, the other through the
intelligence and patriotism of the peo
Our government is founded upon
he latter theory, and to make the sys
tem complete and insure the perpetui
ty of our institutions, it is far more im
portant that every man shall be arm
ed with an intelligent ballot than
ith the most improved and destrue-
ve weapon. 1ms system once adop
ted, we would be soon enabled to make
the proud boast that no nation on the
globj is in advance of ours in point of
education. I believe it to be the duty
of the government to give a helping
and to the rniant Territories that are
stiiied soon to become States of the
Union, and especially do I believe the
Territories acquired froin Mexico
should receive marked consideration
in this direction. The people of these
erritones have suddenly been trans
ferred irom another government to
our own. Spealdng a foreign tongue
e call upon them to adopt our cus
toms and obey our laws. They are
generally well-disposed, law-idling
citizens and have but little mius
they have and will continue to have
an important influence in the govern
ing power of the country, and it is es
sential that they shonld be educated
in the language ot the laws that gov
ern them. This question has already
been agitated in Congress, and many
oi our statesmen taice a liDeral view
of it. It is to be hoped that Congress
will, at an early period, adopt such
measures as will at least insure educa
tion in tho Territories ; but until that
time arrives, I consider it imperative
ly necessary that we shall do some
thing for ourselves.
The present school law has been
found inadequate to accomplish the
desired object; m face it has been
wholly inoperative. To obtain the
means to put a free school system in
operation, I Avould recommend that a
portion of the Territorial revenues be
set apart for school purposes, and
that this fund be divided between the
several counties of the Territory in
proportion to the number of children
that attend school. The boards ot
Supervisors of the several counties
should be compelled to divide the coun
ties into one or more school districts,
and levy a tax upon all the property
ot the county to raise a sutncient iund,
with the money derived from the Ter
ritory, to maintain for a term of at
least six months each year, one or
more free schools in each of the coun
ties. This will undoubtedly to a small
extent increase taxation, but I hardly
believe there is a property owner who
would not prefer to pay an increased
tax than see the rising generation
grow up in ignorance ; and the small
extra tax that is required to main
tain free schools will very soon be
doubly repaid in the saving of expen
ses in criminal prosecutions. Thie
important trust is confided to your
care, and I may ba permitted to say
that you have the power to build a
monument that will last while timo
endures, and generation after genera
tion will rise up and point to your
work if properly done as the first suc
cessful advance made in favor of free
education in this Territory.
I have alluded to the Pima Indians,
but in connection with this subject, I
desire to observe that I wa3 informed,
by the chief of that tribe, last sum
mer, that what they most desired.
wore schools to educate their children.
He said they had means in abundance
for their support, but schools were be
yond their reach ; that they had
asked and plead in vain ior them.
He desired my influence in their be
half. I immediately called upon tho
agent in charge, and was informed by
him that he was restricted to the pay
ment of six hundred dollars per an
num for teachers, and he could pro
cure no one for that sum to under
take the work. I also brought the.
matter to the attention of the Com
missioner of Indian Affairs. It is to
be hoped that steps will speedily be.
taken to educate these people. Ar
they are now situated, the young are
growing up indolent and in many in
stances vicious. The moralizing in
fluences of education would do much
towards correcting their habits, and
might be the means of preventing
bloodshed and saving many valuable
While in New York, last winter, I
received a valuable donation of school
books from the publishers, Messrs.
Iverson, Phinney, Blakemen & Co. I
have given these books to the children
of the Territory. They have been
highly appreciated by both parents
and children, and are t le means of do-'
ing much good. I would suggest that
a small appropriation to procure books
for free distribution would be found
highly advantageous.
Nothing will so surely and speedi
ly effect the permanent prosperity of
this Territory, as tho completion of a
SouthernPacificRailroad or Railroads.
It would bring an increase of popula
tion to take possession of the unoccupi
ed domain, develop its vast and varied
resources and forever settle our Indian
The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad
Co. already have a land ?grantand .
right of way along the Thirty-fifth
Parallel to the Pacific Ocean. They
are impeded in the prosecution- of their
work on account of the line of tho
road passing some three hundred and
fifty mile3 through Indian Territory.
They have so far baen unable to make
any satisfactory arrangements with,
the Indians for the right of way.
The quea'loi is now before Congress,
and it is to be hoped that before tho
adjournment of tho present session,
the required legislation will ,be ob
tained to insure an early completion
of the road.
A bill passed the Senate, with great
unanimity, last winter giving land
grants and the light of way in aid of
the eonstrnction of a railroad along
tho Thirty-second Parallel to the Pa
cific Ocean. It has not yet been acted
upon in the Hbuse of Representatives,
but it is believed it will pass that body
and become a law at an early day.
The company seeking this franchise
are throughly organized, and have
elected for directors able, influential
and experienced men who will un
doubtedly command the confidence of
the people and Congress. Hopes are
entertained that should land grants
prove inadequate to its speedy con
struction, Congress will give such
further assistance as may be absolute
ly required to secure the success of this
most important international highway .
The road once completed, millions
now annually expended by the gov
ernment in Texas, New Mexico and
Arizona prosecuting Indians Avars and
protecting the people, Avill be saved,
and this whole extent of country will
become populous and prosperous, and
instead of being an expense, Avould
soon become a source of revenue. "Wo
have locked up in our mountains
treasuries of gold and silver that Avill
upon the completion of this Avork bo
gradually trasterred to tho commer
cial Avorld and the Treasury of the
United States. Ihe only pre-requisites
to obtain them, are safety from Indi
ans and cheaper transportation. The
freight on our supplies, machinery,
&c. cost from $240 to $3G0 per ton ;
but leAV mines or enterprises ot am'
kind will pay these high rates of trans
portation, and still Ave haAe now a
number of profitable mines in opera
tion. Yet there are hundreds iale that
Avould yield great Avealth upon the
completion of a railroad. These state
ments are so ovbious that I cannot be-?

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