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THE WEEKLY 1
IMtKSCTO, ARIZONA: SATURDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 20, 1808.
NO MR 39.
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At I'anscorr, Yavai'ai Ooi-xtt, Arizova.
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Business & Professional Cards.
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" )UNEY AND COUNSELOR-AT-LAW,
Montezuma street, I'reseott, Arizona,
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELOR-AT-LAW.
A. Ji. DAVIS,
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELOR-AT-LAW,
Mohave City, Arizona Territory.
P. V. HOWARD; MVD.,
Aztlan Lodge No. 177, F. & A. 1ST.
a Regular meetings of this Lodge on
a -' the tact Saturday of oach month, at 7
o'clock i: u. Sojourning Brethren are
Ajt? fraternallr invited to attend.
' KIWIS' rARI,INf, W. M
James E. McCArrnr, Secretary.
Why is it
That the Prescott jijople wear better clothes,
smike better cigars, chew better tobacco, look
Hndsorcer and are happier than formerly? Ask
HrndtT'on A Co. mylG.
I. 0. 0. F., Arizona Lodge, No. 1.
t-fe of this Lodge on Wednesday even-
.ine, at Masonic I tall.
Member of the order. In trood
.cvc-- tvinuing, are iiitucii in niicnu.
vv A. O. NOTES. N. G.
E. Dakmxo, Rec Sec. auL'UiJ
JT'OH SAIE-A FEW NO. 1. ONYS
Applv to A. G. DUNN.
Preicott, iune 12, 1W,?, tf.
Why is it
Thai the I're.'cott Raw ocll better Liquor
than formerly: Aek HENDERSON tQ0.
KUSTEL & HOPMANN,
M ETA LLUIIG IST6 AND ASSAYERS.
Gold and Silver Bullion Attaytd.
MINERAL ASSAYS AND ANALYSIS MADE.
CU qomracrclal Street, San Frnncitco.
Savrn a!ii Ooui Ones worked In msll lot np
to a hundred jKmndi, by Chlorinatlon
and other method.
Sn Francisco, Oal., Juno 27, 18M. JylSmO .
(iooils well Hought, Sell Them
selves. I). IlExnEBSON-. the enlor partner of
the firm. U constantly employed In San Francisco
wlecllng and buying k""1 by which mean wo
are enabled to lake ad vantage of the fluctuations
h price, and purchase our goods at lower rates
than aay other House In Central Arizona.
my30 D. Hbxdeiuox & Co.
rp"lllrk Mining nml liiltrlalin l)tt,
"P'clul nml Grnrrnl PiMrer-or-Attornt y,
for sule nt Ilie Mlurr Oirice.
Why is it
That Dry Good nro sold cheaper In Prescott
toan elsewhere this side of San KranoUco! En
1ire of ' HENDERSON Jk CO.
THE APACHE RACE.
riio roiimntic wanderings of Catlin, School
craft nml .miiho others nmoiiK the Itulitui tribe.
r North America; the delightful tales of
Utoper, as developed in Ids Trapper," " Liwt
or the Mohicans," eta; tho stirring adven
tures of Captain J0l,n smiti, )iuii jJooll
Chatnlierlm f'nro.n if..... i i....r. . 1
I , -) v...,n, iiuj o nun ii null. 1)1 lioieil
ipioueer, havo invented our Indian races with
rare aim absorbing interest. Hut thev have
iIo tended to convey Talso nnd erroneous im
pressions of Indian diameter, and have con
tributed to misguide our legislation on this
subject to such an extent as tobecomo a most
serious public burden.
Since tho foundation of our government,
Indian wars have cosl ihe people nuarly four
hundred millions of dollars, and tho stream
of cxpondituro continues with mmbatod vol
ume When tho whites were fow and tho
savages many, the cost of keeping them in
subjection was measurably less than it has
been since the reversal of our respective nu
merical condition. Whence arises this ano
maly ? Simply because of our strange Ignor
ance of Indian character as it really exists,
and not as wc havo been taught to under
stand it by writers of attractive fiction, or
tho chroniclers of heroic deeds and romantic
adventures. This sweeping assertion may bo
met with one more plausible and popular,
Infcatise more suggestive, nnd having the
merit of being sanctioned by time. " Is it
possible," exclaims the old school debater,
" that wc have been for more than two cen
turies and a half lighting, treating, and deal
ing with our Indian tribes without acquirintr
a positive knowh dgc of their character I" Such
an exclamation certainly seems to be stagger
ing. It appears to possess tho vital force of
reason and unanswerable argument; never
theless, it is exactly true thnt, as a people,
we know little or nothing about this very
important mntter. Unfortunately, those who
have been the best able, from long and careful
jwrsoriul experience to give tho requisite in
formation, have also been, for the most jiart,
deficient in educational attainments and tho
capacity to impart their knowledge; while
others have given no evidence of entertaining
a just value of its public importance. Satii
fiod with their own acquirements, they hare
not sought to publish them for the benefit of
The white mcos of the American people
boast European origin, mainly that of Eng
lish lineage ; but how much did the British
really know of Americans, even at the period
of our Revolution ? Is not the history of
that struggle indisputable evidence of the
incnt lamentable nnd inexplicable ignorance
on the part of the mother country? Hut,
worse still ; after the Revolution, after wc
had been in ntriei and closest commercial and
political relations with Great ltritnin for over
sixty years, after a second and sanguinary
contest with that country, we have only to
read the works of some of their travelers to
arrive at the superficial and wonderfully erro
neous idea of American character possessed
by intelligent Hritons.
When the two leading commercial nations
of tho globe, each claiming tho highest civili
zation, sjxmking identically the same lan
guage, and governed by tho same general law,
contrive to pas two centuries and a half of
c!no intercourse with such unsatisfactory in-
terujju'wjcugcsbic results, it strange that a
like ignorance should exist between the
American people and the nomadic races of
this continent i
Causes Minjlar to those which operated as
a bar to English knowledge of the American
character have interposed against our acqui
sition ot precise mtortnation relative to the
leading traits of Indian nature. Without bi-
ing captious, it is assumed that British tour
ists have, for the mot part, approached an
with something of an intolerant and preoccu
pied spirit. They came prepaied to encoun
ter ill-bred, semi-educated, uncouth and
braggart provincials, rendered more unendur
able by their democratic form of government,
and jwlitical hostility to the time-honored in
stitutions of their own country. Heference
can as emphatically be mndu to the course
pursued by the British in India, the Spaniards
in Mexico and IVrti, the French in Africa and
Cochin China. The conquering race seldom
care to inform themselves minutely about the
condition and charactcrist ics of the conquered,
and the results have been renewed sanguin
ary struggles and immensely increased cxien
diturcs. Our own dealings with thenomads of North
America havo been but bo many chapters of
tho same record. What has our Government
ever done, in a concerted, intelligent and lib
eral spirit, to acquire definite knowledge of
Indian character, as it exists among the tribes
which wander over more than one-half the
public domain ?
Tho Indian Bureau, with its army of polit
ical camp followers, bent ujwn improving
thoir short and precarious oliicial position to
" turn an honest ponny," can scarcely be quo
ted as evidence of our search of tho neoded
information. Talcs of violence and wrong, of
devilish malignity, committed by Indians,
are rire all along our frontiers; but who ever
hears tho other side? Who chronicles the in
citing causes, the long, unbroken series of in
juries perpotratod by the semi-civilized white
savagos wuo, iiko cam, ucci iroin uie roinou
tive jnstico of outraged humanity, and sought
refuge among the copper-colored savages of
the woods and tho plains ?
Naturally ferocious, warlike rovengoful and
treacherous as were the aborigines of America,
wo havo educated them to a pitch of refine
ment incruolty, deceit und villainy far beyond
their normal standard.
If the white man has come to bo regarded
as ids natural enemy, it may bo set down as
the result of long and murderous schooling.
Tho inherent disposition of tho American
nomad inclined him to hospitality; but that
inclination has been completely blotted out,
and its opposite engrafted on his nature. Le
gends and trrditioin of white men's ingrati- ,'
tude have been handed down through so many 1
generations, and the oxperierces of the living i
have been in such direct accordance with tlicui,
that they have become priuu articles of their
Keenly alive to a sense cf inferiorify of
their armament, incapnblo of subsisting large
bodies of mon for any considerable period,
and perpetually engaged in tho work or ex
terminating each other, tin several tribes
have been reducedto the necessity of employ
ing deceit against force, cjnning against
courage, artifice against honeity. When the
Indian mutilates tho dead body of ids enemy,
lie knows as well as tho most skillful anato
mist that his victim is beyond all capacity of
herniation; but it is done ti terrify, if possi
ble, all beholder, and as a caution to other
invaders, as well as for the enjoyment of a
savage gratilhmlion. Such deeds, while they
horrify, also serve to excite the indignation
and strengthen the resolve of civilized and
enlightened men; but tho aboriginsl is inca
pable of such reflections.
Prominent nmong the tribo3 stand the
great Apache- race. Occupying the largest
regions of the public domain, holdiiy poses
sion of a belt which mustsoon hecomt a grand
! , i ,. . . n
iiuuouui uigiiwiiy, wieimng a sanguiniry swav
over two extensive and naturally rick Terri
tories, and filling the most importaic inter
vening space between the Atlantic and the
Pacific States, we have as little real knowl
edge of them this day as wo peaces cd. when
our acquaintance first commenced. "Iwentv
odd years of unremitted warfare have added
comparitively nothing to our knowledge, hut
have cost thousands of lives and millions of
In point of intellect, in cunning and du
plicity, in warlike skill and untiring energy,
in tenacity of purpose and wondrous powers
of endurance, the Apaches have no equals
among the existing Indians of North Amer
ica. In this wids-sprcad race arQ induded
the powerful Navajo and Lipan tribes, as they
speak identically the same language, and al
most always remain friendlv toward each
other, while they war iion afl other people.
The Aches proper, or those specially known
to us by that name, generally receive their
distinctive appellation from some jwculiar
characteristic, or from the place which they
mostly inhabit. The Coyotero are so named
from a fancied or real similitude t the coyote,
or small prairie wolf; the Mescaleros derive
their cognomen from tlie rneral plant, which
abounds In their country, and is with them
a staple article of food. " The Jicarillas are so
culled on account of their manufacture of a
small water-tight basket resembling a gourd,
and namwljwm in Spanish. The Chirieahui,
Rio MiinbrtM, 1 Pinal, and other bmnebra
of the tribe receive their nomenclatures from
the localities in which they arc generally met.
It Is very common for a cloe observer to
meet a group of Apaehes one day on the
Mimbres or in Apache Pass, and encounter
the same individuals at a subsequent eriod
at the head of the Jurnmla il4 Maert'i, or even
on the I'ecos river, seven hundred miles dis
tant. It will be observed from this fact, that the
distinctive appellations given to tbem by the
Mexican people arc purely gratuitous, and do
not really exist, the tribe boing one, but
ranging over an enormous extent of country.
Certain individual all'eet wrtiwlr kculilitrt,
and when at home (if such a term enn by
any (xiaslbiljty apply to Apaches) they will
resort there to enjoy tlieir plunder, hold their
feasts, and indulge in temporary rvt from
active campaigning. The various bands com
prifing thoso people number JW.COO, of whom
8,000 can be made effective for warlike and
plundering expeditions. A lad of twelve
yearn is expected to take his place among
warriors of matured years and experience,
and is quite as deadly an enemy in their My la
of warfare. The Navajos are about at nume
rous, but confine the bulk of their depreda
tions to New Mexico, while the Apaches pro
per devastate jortions of that Territory, all
Arizona, and nearly all parts of the Mexican
States of Sonora. Chihuahua and Duraniro.
In 1S5U tho probable fighting fofcu of the
Apaches was 10,000 warriors, but they were
not nearly as zealously active nor as hostile
as now, neither were they so well armed.
Their present condition renders tbem much
more formidable than at that period.
A great and grievous mistake has been
mailo in underrating tho numerical strength
and armament of this tribe. The error has
been attended with serious sacrifice of life,
great additional cost, rexatious and ineffect
ive jiolicy, and the continued retontion, by
the Apaehes, of the richest, luinerul n-ion in
the Union not to speak of it as tho grand
immigrant overland highway to the Pacific
Their frequent and extensive massacres and
robberies of immigrant train have served to
place them in jossesion of first-class rifles
and Colt's revolvers. A force of seven hun
dred Apaches was encountered in Apache
Pass by the first two companies of Carleton's
column from California, and every individual
was armed as above described. Although
suoh largo bodies are rarely met, yet it is not
unfrequent to find them in companies of
from fifty to two hundred, and to underrate
such a foe is simply to trifle with our own
lives and interests.
On the northern borders of Chihuahua and
Sonora aro a numbor of small villages, which
are wholly under the control of thoso savages,
and arc used by them for tho purpose of ob
taining arms and ammunition. After a suc
cessful raid into Sonora, tho stolen animals
are taken to ono of these towns in Chihuahua,
when certain men aro selected to couvcy a
number of the beasts to tho more settled
districts, and to exchange them for the de
sired articles, receiving a handsome gratuity
for the service. During tho absence of theso
factors, their families aro retained as hostages
far tho fulfillment of their obligations. When
the plunder is taken from Chihuahua it is, in
liko manner, bartered off in Sonora. Por
tions of tho race carrying on their orterations
in Arizona and New jlexico, find little diffi
culty In having their wants supplied by un
scrupulous New Mexican traders.
Within the past forty vcars, abcltof coun
try comprising tho northern frontier of the
two Mexican States above named, and cover
ing a space three hundred miles long, east
and west, by forty miles wide, has been com
pletely devastated by the Apaches. The once
rirh and magnificent ranchos of the San Pe
dro, tho Barbacomori, tho San Bernardino,
together with many towns and villages once
flourishing, exist no longer. All is deflation,
The greater hardihood, courage anil plucky
determination of tho American people, to
gether with tho superiority of weapons, have
saved Arizona from a similar fate, so far; but
tho struggle has been deiorato, unremitting
and sanguinary. Immense damages hate
been suffered. Settlers have been driven out
time and again; mines of almost fabulous
richness have been abandoned ; from Thcoii
to El Paso, three hundred miles, is one con
tinuous grave-yard, marked throughout the
whole distance with the grim and silent mon
uments ot ueatli irom Apache animosity. .
From the Pima villages to the Pecos river,
eight hundred miles, and from Durango to
Santo Ke, in New Mexico, the Apache is al
most absolute lord or all he surveys. ' To
accomplish this, argues the existence of num
bers as well as intense activity. Depreda
tions, by lunsiderable liodies. are froouentlv
committed in widely separated districts at
me same time, aim Willi all lit remarkable
chergy the Atache is not ubiquitous.
A close jiersonal acquaintance of over eight
years, under peculiarly favorable circumstan
ces, has given the writer such a knowledge pf
these Indians as to efiectually disjiel all his
Insensibly, not surely, the conclusions ar
rived at after a residence of one or two years
in Arizona or Now Mexico are rejected for
fresher ones, and they, in turn, give jilacc to
still others, as experiences ami opportnnities
arise. But to meet the Apache upon his own
ground, to descend to his level, and interest
ourselves in his pursuits ; to converse with
him in his own loneuagc, and gradually con
vince him of our indisposition tn do hitu harm;
to approach him without offensive arrogance,
ami trust him as our ejual ; to be apparently
under obligations to htm for instruction in
his modes of life, and at the same time, to
let him quietly comprehend that wc are not
uneasy at his presence, nor afraid of his in
tentions, is to adopt the only method by
which we can arrive at anything like a cor
rect estimate of his inner nature. Alter all
this has been done, and it is the work of la
bor, perseverance and danger, one may rea
sonably indulge the conceit that he under
stands something of the Apache character;
but not until then.
He who hag once or twice heard the war
whoop of the American savages; who has
contended with them in the arena of .battle,
or who has listened to the tales of their ex
ploit as related by pertons who are supKscd
to be versed in the subject, is verv apt to fe
licitate himself with the belief that he knows
all about them. In no special instance is
Pojx-'s estimate of n ' little learninfr," more
applicable than to this asserted knowledge of
Indian character, so much boasted of by our
frontier settlers, and casual wayfarers through
the region inhabited by nomadic races.
Cautiout, suspicious, treacherous and crafty,
the A;iciie latets all ether rsces en the
ground of distrust and doubt. An Ixlimaelite
himself, all other tuxiple are to his perverted
senses, objects to be shunned or destroyed.
With him, the end justifies tho means. In
debted to as for the refinement of his natur
ally savage instincts, it is but due to him to
acknowledge that his schooling ha not been
thrown away. Excusable as this may apjear
to some, the fact remains that he is a viper,
an untameable, ferocious, sanguinary monster,
lent Uon the destruction of all with whom
he cornea in contact, and only restrained by
lear. As tue interests of the Anaclio race
bear no appreciable proportion to those of
civilized men, it icsmes a duty to impose
that condition of dread, which only will in
sure their discontinuance of revolting atroci
ties, and the safety of our lieotilc.
Tho tribal organization of theso savages
has always hcen misunderstood. We have
taken it for granted that they were similar
to other tnies in this respect- Hut such ts
not me case, l naer every nspect, ana at
all times, the Apaoho is a pure democrat.
Ho acknowledges no chief, no ruler, no au
thority but hi own will, nor does he ever
delegate to another the right to act in his
When in camp, a temporary nilor is elected
to preside over its affairs, and each person is
frco to remain or leave at his or her discre
tion. When on the Mar path, a leader is
chosen to direct proceedings, but he does not
presume to exert control ever individual pro
clivities. The warrior may submit to existing
authority, but it is entirely optionat, and bis
connection with the party may be sundered
at any time he may see fit. The case is dif
ferent among the Navajos, who, in this re
spect, in their manufacture of superior blan
kets, and in tho construction of more durable
houses, together with an inclination to pas
toral life, exhibit much less of the nomadic
This absoluto persona! license and freedom
from all control, which are the highest prized
rights of tho Apache proper, form, also, tho
most insuperable bar to any permanent treaty
relations between them and the American
Government. Our intercourse with other
tribes led us to believe that a similar tribal
organization obtained among Apac.hes; but
it was a fatal error, which has led to a false
estlmato of tlieir adherenco to treaty stipula
tions. If a hundred or moro of them were
gathered together to sign a treaty, that In
strument would be binding upou nouc hut
tho nbsolutc signers. Every other Individual
present, although consenting by such presence,
would hold himself cntily free from its con
ditions. What followrf? Those who havo
not bound themselves continue their original
course of depredations nnd massacres; wo
acciiNo them of want of faith and treachery,
and forthwith proceed to punish the oflcnd
era. Hostilities arc again urged on either
side, nnd those who did sign claim that wo
have violated our contract.
The tribe of which wc treat is, undoubt
edly, tLo most nomadic in existence. They
build no houses, and never remain more than
a week in any one place. Four or five slim
and flexible branches of trees, with the but
ends sharpened and thrust into tho ground,
while the Xajwr iint ate biought tugutlier
and tied, constitutes the only residence of tfio
Apache. Twenty minutes suffices to erect
one, which is abandoned without regret.
Even these ephemeral structures are never
resorted to except in winter, or when the
parties intend remaining for a few days.
From eighty to ninety miles a day. for seve
ral Miccessive days, arc not considered long
marches by these people when in a hurry.
Their horses arc ridden nt a sharp pace
throughout the journcj'. If one or more die
under the fatig-ie, or from any othor cause,
they aro immediately cut up for food, and the
owners continue their mardi until opportu
nity serves to steal another horse.
It is indeed wonderful that with their in
tensely nomadic habits; their alolute per
sonal irre.sjKnsibility ; their widely scattered
clans ; the vast region which acknowledges
their presence, and their perfect non-intercourse
with all other races, except for war,
their language shouhl he so regular and full.
Their verbs have the active and jiassive voices ;
the infinitive, indicative, subjunctive and po
tential moods, the present, imperfect, perfect
and future tenses; thcMngularylual and plural
numbers. Their nouns have the nominative,
genitive, dative, accusative and ablative cases,
with three numbers corresponding to those
of the verbs. Their numerals reach to the
thousands, and arc very similar to our style
of decimal enumeration.
Thus we say, two,twetvc, twenty, two hun
dred; three, thirteen, thirty, three hundred;
four, fourteen, forty, four hundred. In like
manner the Apache says rral-w, two, nahttatah,
twelve, wiifwjw, twenty, nat-tvo-eh, two hun
dred ; bohfth, three, InyeMtaJt, threchundred ;
tinyre, four, rinwiMA, fourteen, ttth-tiK, forty,
and tin-U-J-iJi, four hundred.
The word to-A means no, and all their
negative verbs are formed by splitting lo-dah
to as to place the first syllable at the com
mencement and the second at the end of the
IKxitive verb. For example, the word iul-tah
means, sit down, or sit, and to command do
isot sit, they- say, to-ink-iah-daJi. El-chin,
yathttt, kathte, means, I wish to speak with
you, and To-ft-ditn-yaihUt'hatJitulah, ex
presses, I do not wish to speak withVfou.
Quite a number of words, having quite d8cr
i nt meanings, are only distinguishable apart
from the accent imparted to each; thus, the
word laJt means an arrow, and kah also means
a rabbit, but the latter is distinguished from
the former by a strong guttural accent on tbd
For all objects presented to their observa
tion for the first time, they adopt the Spanish
name, and then append the Apache aspirate,
y. Pah, means iron, and before they were
acquainted with the relative values of gold,
silver, brass and iron, they called gold and brass
ph-kiiJ0, which means yellow iron, and sil
ver was termed jttth-liek-toitf, which means
white iron; but since then they have adopted
Spanish term, and now call gold, oro-Aoy,
and silver ita-hay, while brass retains itt
oritrinal appellation of ht,-Uilx.
The strange regularity of their language
and the copiousness of their numerals indi
cate the possession of superior intelligence ;
but there is an abundance of other proof to
this assumption. About fifteen hundred
Apaches, including many of the most promi
nent warriors and councilmcnof thcMescalero
family, surrendered to the California troops
in the winter of 1EC2. They had been the
most formidable scourges of the country, and
had never before succumbed to any power.
General Carlcton located them on the exten
sive reservation at Fort Sumner, at a joint
called the lfaqite lltdondo, on the Pecos river,
nearly four hundred miles east of tho Ilio
Grande In the distance, one hundred and
twenty-five miles westward, could 1 seen
tho grand peak of the Caption Mountain,
towering among the clouds, whilo the inter
vening space was a rolling prairie, covered
with fine grass, and tho resort of thousands
of antelope and deer. Among the more prom
inent of oar Apache prisoners were Gianatah,
which means "Always Ready ;" Xaleh-in-i Ik
Un, or the ''Colored Beads j" K!otnt or tho
" Hair Hope;" 'J Vw-oA-yay-My, or the "Strong
Swimmer; XaJi-Kah-ym, or "Keen Sight:"
2ah-tanl or " Corn Flower," and many oth
ers imneceshary to name.
These men lost no opportunity to acquire
all the information possible. Such officers as
evinced auy kindness toward them were be
sieged witti questions, and of a character to
excite the liveliest astonishment. On one oc
casion the writer, was addressed as follows:
Tata (you) Inday-Pindah I.ickoyee (people
with white eyes) say that the world is round.
How can that be ? I have traveled tor many
suns, and wherever I went, I found it flat.
Tell me how it Is."
Pointing to tho sublime heights of ElCap
iflrf, the interrogated party said:
" Do you see yonder mountain 7"
"Yes; it is El G;ffan."
" What portion of it do j'ou perceive 7"
" Why do you not see the bottom as well 1
It is broader and larger than the top."
"I do not know."
After this was duly explained the Apache
was caused to look at the sun through" a
picco of smoked glass, in order that he might
Concluded on fourth page.)