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The Madisonian. [volume] (Washington City [i.e. Washington, D.C.]) 1837-1845, August 26, 1837, Image 1

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Thk Madiso.niax will be devoted to tho support of
the principles and doctrine* of the democratic party, as
delineated by Mr. Madi?en, and will aim to consummate
that political reform in the theory and practice of tho.
national government, which has been repeatedly indi
cated by tho general sufferage, as assontial to the jicace
and prosperity of tho country, and to tho perfection and
perpetuity of its free institutions. At this time a singu
lar state of affairs is presented. The commercial in
terests of the country are overwhelmed with emlnfrrass
incnt; its monetary concerns are unusually disordered ;
every ramification of society is invaded by distress, and
the social odifice seems threatened with disorganization;
yvery ear is filled with predictions of evil and the mur
murings of despondency ; tho general government is
boldly assailed by a large and respectable portion of tho
people, as the direct cause of tiieir difficulties ; open
resistance to the laws is publicly encouraged, and a
spirit of insubordination is fostered, as a necessjry
dcfence to the pretended usurpations of the party in
powyr; some, from whom better things were hoped, are
making the "confusion worse confounded," by a head
long pursuit of extreme notions and indefinite phantoms,
totally .incompatible with a wholesome state of the
country. In the midst of all these difficulties and em
barrassments, it is feared that many of the less firm of
the friends of the administration and supporters of
democratic principle* are wavering in their confidence,
and beginning, without just causo, to view with distrust
those men to whom they have been long attached, and
whose elevation they have laboured to promote from
honest and patriotic motive*. Exulting in the anticipa
tion of dismay and confusion amongst the supporters of
the administration as tho consequence of these things,
the opposition are consoling themselves with tho idea
that Mr Van Buren's friends, as a national party, are
verging to dissolution ; and they allow no opportunity to
pass unimproved to give eclat to their own doctrines.
They are, indeed, maturing plans for their own future
government of the country, with seeming confidcncc of
certain success.
? This confidcncc is increased by the fact, that visionary
theories, and an unwise adhereifce to the plan for an
exclusive metallic currency have unfortunately carried
some beyond the actual and true policy of the govern
ment ; and, by impairing public confidence in the credit
system, which ought tie preserved and regulated, but
not destroyed, have tended to increase the difficulties
under which the country is now labouring. All theso
seem to indicate the necessity of a new organ at the
seat of government, to lie established upon sound prin
ciples, and to represent faithfully, and not to dictate, the
real policy of the administration, and the truo sentiments,
measures, and interests, of the great body of its sup
porters. The necessity also appears of the adoption of
more conservative principles than the conduct of those
seems ta indicate who seek to remedy abuses by de
stroying the institutions with which they are found con
nected. Indeed some measure of contribution is deemed
essential to the enhancement of our own sell-respect at
home, and to the promotion of the honor and credit of
the nation abroad. ?
To meet these indications this undertaking has been
instituted, and it is hoped that it will produce the effect
of inspiring the timid with courage, the desponding with
hope, and tho whole country with confidence in tho
administration of its government. In this view, tins
journal will not seek to lead, or to follow any faction, or
to ailvocatc the views of any particular detachment of
men. It will aspire to accord a just measure of sup
port to each of the co-ordinate branches of the govern
ment, in the lawful exercise of their constitutional
prerogatives. It will address itself to the understandings
of men, rather than appeal to any unworthy prejudices
or evil passions. It will rely invariably upon the prin
ciple, that the strength and security of American insti
tutions depend upon tho intelligence and virtue of tho
Tiik Madisonian will not, in any event, be made the
instrument of arraying the north and the south, the east
and tho west, in hostile attitudes towards each other,
upon any subject of either general or local interest. It
will reflect only that spirit and those principles of mutual
concession, compromise, and reciprocal good-will, which
so eminently characterized the inception, formation,.and
subsequent adoption, by the severaf States, of tho con
stitution of the United States. Moreover, in the same
hallowed spirit that has, at all periods since the adoption
of that sacred instrument, characterized its dbpbncb
by thk pkoplb, our press will hasten to its support at
every emergency that shall arise, from whatever quarter,
and under whatever guise of philanthropy, policy, or
principle, the antagonist power may appear
If, in this responsible undertaking, it shall be our
good fortune to succeed to any degree in promoting the
harmony and prosperity of the country, or in conciliating
jealousies, and allaying the asperities of party warfare,
by demeaning ourself amicably towards ail; by indulg
ing personal animosities towards none ; by conducting
ourself in the belief that it is perfectly practicable to
differ with others in matters of principle and of expe
diency, without a mixture of personal unkintlncss or loss
of reciprocal respect; and by " asking nothing that is
not clearly right, and submitting to nothing that is
wrong," then, and not otherwise, will the full measure
of its intention be accomplished, and our primary rule
for its guidance be sufficiently observed ajiu satisfied.
This enterprise has not been undertaken w ithout the
approbation, advisement, and pledged support of many
of the leading and soundest minds m the ranks of tho
democractie republican party, in the extreme north and
in the extreme south, in the east and in the west. An
association of both poluic.il experience and talent of the
highest order will render it competent to carry forward
the principle* by which it will be guided, and make it
useful as a political organ, and interesting ns* journal
of new*. Arrangements also have been made to fix the
establishment ujion a substantial and permanent basis.
The subscriber, therefore, relics upon tlit- public for so
much of their confidence and encouragement only as the
fidelity of his press to their gr;'at national interests shall
prove itself entitled to receive.
Washington City, T). 0. July, 1837.
Our imports for 1836 in round number* amounted to
one hundred and ninety milliAus, and our exports to one
hundred and twenty-nine millions. This one hundred
nnd twenty-nine millions is the invoice price. Now to
this i* to tie added profit, insurance, freight, &c. which
never amounts to less than '.)() per cent so that foreigners
really pay us at least one hundred and sixty-seven mil
lions towards Hie one hundred and ninety millions im
ported, leaving an excess of twenty-three millions which
we owe, and this would be all we owe on that vear'*
operations.?A*. Y. Tunc
^ Thoughts he divine, lawful, elmstf
Conversation be brief, honest, true
Work*be pn>lit?ble, holy, charitable
Manners !>e erave, Courteous,cticfrl.il.
l>iet lie temperate, convenient, solier.
Let your' Apparel ti* frugal, neat, comely.
W ill l>e constant,obedient, ready.
Sleep he moderate, quiet, sc.k.vh i\|e.
Prayers lie short. frequent, fervent
li cereal ion be lawful, suitable, seldom.
Memory tie of death. punishment, t'lory.
Hear "I t lie sdcr.t ,
Me silent I , ? ' understand ;
i. i . i > ami If an to ?. ,
1 rule rst and ( ) rrmcm >er;
Iteiuciulxr ) \,do accordingly.
( see. jud"e not ;
ah ,w,. ) hear, believe not;
All tii.it you ? i . li t _
3 j know, trll not ;
( can do, do not.
On every occasion, w hen you discourse, think first, and
look narrowly what you speak?of whom you *;i A?to
w lu>in you speak?how you speak?and when you spenk?
and what you speak, gpeak wisely, speak truly, li st you
I mi* yourself mto great trouble.
I A 0
Crusaders against the Hanking System of
the States, would be wise in providing them
selves with text Itooks, furnished by combin
ing the opinions of the great leaders of the
| Republican party. They will then wander
forth in their Quixotic career with a better
understanding of the position of their ene
mies, and forewarned of thoso Inns, where,
like poor Sancho, they may get tossed in a
| blanket.
If they flatter themselves that the seeking
ol new and untried paths, the adoption of
1 new creeds, or tho entire relinqoishment of
the old ones, will be countenanced by those
to whom they would fain look for direction,
they must have a singular confidence in. that
jewel of virtues, Consistency. Forourpart,
we will not have the uncharitableness to be
lieve, that these gentlemen whose opinions
we quote, and rely upon with confidence as
the true doctrine, will " turn their backs upon
themselves" and repudiate tho principles upon
which they have always professed to act.
To remedy the abuses of the Hanking Sys
tem by destroying all the Hanks, would be
very much like hanging a sinner for the pur
pose of reforming hiin. We trust the people
I will be guilty of no such folly. We trust they
will be on their guard, and not permit the pre
vailing disorders to blind their eyes to the
true policy, nor allow themselves to be led
astray by the sinister devices of demagogues,
or the extravagancies of fanatics.
We readily admit that our Hanking System
is defective, and we shall cordially co-operate
in any proper measures for a practicable arid
wholesome reform. Hut let us avoid rashness
and violence. The embarrassments of the
country would be wofully involved and in
creased, by punishing the State Institutions
with destruction, because, involved in the
vortex of a wide spread commercial and finan
cial calamity, they were forced to suspend
specie payments. Moderation and forbear
ance will best subserve the purposes of re
form, and turn away the evils, with which the
community would be overwhelmed by any
other course. Let us remember the great
principles for which we have been long con
tending. Let us remember that Congress, iu
relation to the currency, has only power, by
the letter of the Constitution, to " coin money
and regulate the value thereof, and of foreign
coin." The question of a National Hank,
therefore, should be considered settled. Let
us rely upon the already declared policy of the
Government, for the best and safest measures
to promote the "general welfare." And let
us remember, in the language of President
Jackson, that, " instead of being necessarily
made to promote tho evils of an unchecked
paper system, the management of the revenue
can be made auxiliary to the reform which the
Legislatures of several of tho States have al
ready commenced." In this respect let us
sec how far we may rely upon the declared
opinions of Republican leaders.
In his message in December, 1835, Presi
dent Jackson says :
"It lias been seen that, without the agency of a great
moneyed monopoly, the revenue can be collected, and
conveniently and safely applied to all iho purposes of
the public expenditure. It is also ascertained that, in
stead of being necessarily made to promote the evils of
an unchecked paper system, the management of the re
venue can be made auxiliary to the reform which the
Legislatures of several of the States have already com
menced in regard to the suppression of small bills, mid
which has only lu he fostered by proper regulations on
the part of Congress to secure a practical return, to the
extent required for the security of the currency, to the ]
constitutional medium. Severed" from the Government
as political engines, and not susceptible of dangerous
extension and combination, the State Bank* will not be j
tempted, nor will they have the power which we have j
seen exercised, to divert the public funds from the le- '
gitimate purposes of the Government. The collection j
and custody of tho revenue being, on the contrary, a
source of credit to them, will increase the security j
which tho States provide for a faithful execution of j
them trusts, by multiplying the. scrutinies to which their !
operations aiid accounts will be subjected. Thus dis
posed, as well Iroin interest as the obligations of their !
charters, it cannot be doubted that such conditions as f
( ongrcss may sec tit to adopt respecting the deposites j
in these institutions, with a view to the gradual disuse 1
of the small hills, will be cheerfully complied with ; and
that we shall soon gain, in place of the Hank of the U. j
States, a practical reform in the whole paper system of
the country If, by this policy, we can ultimately wit-'
"cM thp suppression of all bank bills below twenty dol
lars, it is apparent that gold and silver will take their
place, and become the principal circulating medium in j
the common business of the farmers and mechanics of
the country The attainment of such a result will form ,
an era in the history of our country, which will be dwelt '
upon with delight by every true frrend of its liberty and
independence. Ii will lighten the great tax which our
paper system has so long collected from the earnings of
labor, arid do more to revive and perpetuate those habits
ot economy and .simplicity which arc so congenial to
the character of Republicans, than all the legislation
which has yet been attempted."
Mr. Van Huron expressed himself thus, in
relation to this subject, iu his letter to Mr.
" Die constitution gavo to Congress express imwcr I
to coin money and regulate the value thereof, and of
foreign com, and it dxpressly prohibits tho exercise of a
similar power by the States * ? ? ? Whether
they also designed to divest the states of their anttce- '
dent right lo uiconx.rate banks, it would now be more
curious than,useful to enquire.' That matter, so far as
it-relates to the mere question of |?i.ver, must be re
garded as settled in favor of the continued authority of
the states Assuming that tins was contemplated by
the framers of the federal constitution, it is then most
evident that their hopes of a sound currency must have
been based U|w>n the expectation that the respective go
vernments would faithfully discharge their peculiar do
lus, and ai faithfully confine themselves to their re
spective spheres ; that the federal government would
exert all us constitutional jwwers, not only by creating
and diffusing a metallic currency, but by protecting it
against a paper.circulation of the same nominal value,
whilst the states supplied such emissions of paper as
"""ht he actual!j demanded In/ the. necessities o] Com
""ire, and not st variance either in denomination or
amount with the existence of an adequate specie cur
'C'tey Had sueh a policy been pursued, there is the ;
best reason fur believing thai a just proportion between <
paper ami specie might har,e been preserved, and a
sound currency uniformly maintained."
Again :
Although I have always l>ecn opposed to the in- 1
crease ol banks. I would nevertheless pursue towards
the existing institution* ? ju?t and liberal couwe?pro
tecting litem in the rightful enjoyment of the principles
which have been granted to them, and extending to
them the good will of the community, ao long aa they
discharge With fidelity the delicate luid nn|iortanl public
trusts with which they have been invested."
The Hon. William C. Hives, in lus excel
lent speech uj>on the subject of the currency,
delivered in the Senate last winter, held the
following doctrine, which seems to have, been
heartily responded to throughout the country,
and by many, considered " th$ most reason
able sentiments upon this subject ever put
forth." Mr. Hives says :
" My objcct then would be, not the destruction of
the banking system and the total suppression of bank
(taper, but an efficient regulation of it, and Us restriction
to safe and proper liinlta ; not the exclusive use of spe
cie aa a circulating medium, but such a substantial en
largement and general diffusion of it, in actual circula
tion, as would make it the practical currency of com
mon life, the universal medium of ordinary transactions
in short, the money of the farmer, the mechanic, the
laborer, and the tradesman : while the merchant should
be left in the enjoyment of a sound snd restricted paper
currency for his larger operations. Such a reformation
in the currency as this, would in my opinion be produc
tive of tho most beneficial results. It would (jive se
curity to Iho industrious classes of society for the pro
ducts of their labor, against tho caaualties incident to
the paper system It would give security to a great ex
tent to the wtiole body of tho community, against those
disastrous fluctuations in the value of property and
contracts, which arise from the ebbs and flows of an
unrestricted paper currency. It would give security to
the banks themselves, by providing them in the daily in
ternal circulation of the country, an abundant and ac
cessible fund for recruiting their resources, whenever
they should be exposed to an extraordinary pressure."
Again, in the language of prediction, now
proved history, he says :
"The requisition of specie in payments to the Govern
ment will not only not avail to bring gold and siUerinto
circulation, but, if insisted on, while gold and silver yet
form, comparatively, but a small part of the actual cur
rency of the country, it will inevitably have the effect of
diminishing their circulation. VV lule bank paper forms
I the great mass of the currency of the country, if the
Government refuse to receive it in payment of the
public dues, and demand specie exclusively, the neces
sary consequence will be to enhance, to a greater or
less extent, the value of gold and silver in relation to
paper. That being the case, gold and silver will no
longer circulate freely. Those who have specie will be
unwilling to part with it, except at a premium ; and those
who have notes will be anxious to convert them into
specie. Hoarding of the precious metals will then
commence, and but little of liiem be seen in circulation.
No one, I presume, Mr. President, attaches much im
portance to the collection of the public revenue in
sjiecie, as ail ultimate objcct, if it can lie made equally
safe In other means. It is only as an instrument of
purifying and correcting the currency, that it deserves
the consideration of a practical atateaman. The great
object is not to amass specie in the public treasury, or
in the vaults of banks, but to diffuse its healthful cur
rency through the business of society, and to bring it
into active circulation ainoiig the people. This can only
be effected by the previous suppression of the small
notes ; and any attempt by the Government, before that
is done, to collect its revenues in specie, instead of pro
moting and extending the circulation of gold anil silver,
tends directly to narrow and diminish their circulation."
The lion. Nathaniel P. Tallinadge, in his
speech in the United States Senate, upon the
Deposite Act, which has been extensively
quoted and commended, expressed the follow
ing views. It is proper, also, to remark, that
these opinions have recently received the
"entire approbation" of about "seven hun
dred members of tho democratic republican
party, in the city of New York,"' whose con
nexion with the commercial interests, and
knowledge of commercial wants, should en
title their views to great weight on subjects of
this character. lie says : .
" What, then, do they expect and desire 1 I answer
110 more, nor no less, than every real friend to his coun
try is willing to adopt, namely, a preservation, and at
the same, time, a regulation of the credit system. In
all such measures of reform I will go as far as he who
goes farthest. Preserve and regulate, but riot destroy,
is my motto. Enlarge your specie basis ; introduce, as
far as practicable, a gold currency, by the prohibition of
small notes ; provide means for coining at the mint;
take all proper measurca-to prevent excessive issues of
bank paper, and tho unnecessary increase of bank incor
porations ; re|>eal your restraining laws, so as to permit
the free employment and investment of foreign capital
Whatever danger there may be, is to be found in the
abuse of the system, and not in its existence. Guard
against these abuses, and correct them when discovered
An entire abandonment of the credit system, and a
return to a sole and rzrlusirc. metallic currency, if it
were practicable, would produce desolation and de
struction from one extreme to the Union to the other.
Such notions ought not, cannot, must not prevail."
Hon. Silas Wright, Jr. in his speech in the
United States Senate, in January, 1831, re
marked :
"The Senator from Massachusetts has asked?If
you will not recharter the bank, or establish a new birnk,
what will you do ? lie (Mr. Wright) would answer as
tin individual, expressing Ins own sentiments, that he
would support the Executive Department of tho Go
vernment, by all the lawful means in his power, in the
attempt now making to substitute the Shite Hunks for
the United Slates. He believed them perfectly and
completely competent to the objcct, and he was wholly
unmohed bv the alarms that had been sounded as to
their insecurity and the dangers that were to be appre
hended from the change. He held that the steps al
ready taken to effect the object in view were all war
ranted by the. Constitution and laws ef the land, it was
his firm opinion that the steps which had been taken
would redound to the honor and best interest of the
country, and ought to be sustained by the People and
their Representatives."
In conclusion, Mr. Wright observed:
" Ho would merely pronounce his opinion that tho
country would sustain the Executive^ arm of the Go
vernment in the Experiment now making to substitute
tho Stale Institutions for the Hank of the Ciuted States
He had the most enure confidence, in the fall and com
plete succcss of the. Experiment "
Mr. Woodbury, in bis Heport to Congress,
in December, 1831, says:
" It is the part of sound philosophy and true political
wisdom to improve lo the utmost, consistently with con
stitutional difficulties, our present mixed currency
When it is remembered that, after long experience,
almost every nation of F.uropc, and especially the most
enlightened and commercial ones, have, though possess
ing lull power to abolish wholly the paper system, deem
ed it good economy and a great convenience to retain it
to a certain extent! for the larger and more distant ope- ;
rations in commerce and finance; when it is considered |
that the paper system is generally supposed to increase i
the activity of tlie surplus moneyed capital of a country, J,
by collecting it into banks, and distributing it speedily,
as needed, and to make a less quantity of circulating
medium, employed in this way, answer the same pur
poset of society with a larger quantity otherwise em
ployed ; snd when it is computed by many, whether
justlv and wisely, need not here bo discussed, that,
through the issues of paper over the amount of specie
in the vaults of lianks, the public is enable to obtain a
temporary use of so much more money, ss if to that
extent, aiid for that purpose, it were a real addition to
the specie capital, and at the same time to realize s sav
ing in the wear and loss of the specie in the vaults,
which it would otherwise sustain in actual use, the ques
tion becomes very doubtful whether, in this commercial
and widely extended country, the anticipation can be
justified, that the States or the people will soon, if ever,
consent to the disuse of banks of paper issues. Hut it
is more probable, that the discussion ami increased in
terest attending this subject will terminate here, a- in
England, not in abolishing all country or local bunks,
though Parliament, like the Slates, possess undisputed
power to do it; but, for tho present at leant, la only
exercising greater care in the regulation of these bank*
by the Slates, and in creating, by l?oth Stale and United
States legislation, a broader liasis of specie in circula
tion, fortne increased security as well of tho banks as of
the community, and for the great and desirable improve- j
rnent of the currency of the country."
Gov. Campbell, in kit sound anil sensible
Message, recently delivered to the Legisla
ture of Virginia, furnisher us tbo following
excellent creed. He says :
"The time is unpropitious, if it were olhei wise desira
ble, to attempt auy radical changes in the policy of the
commonwealth, the system of banking lias been long j
?mce introduced, and we find It filed upon us. 1 he
commonwealth is largely interested lu the stocks of our
banking institutions, through the fund for internal im
provement and the literary fund ; and iho stock which
is thus held, is a part of the security which lias been
pledged to the holders of tho public debt, llank paper
itus lonjf performed all tho purposes of currency, and by
the holders of it, the |>oor and the rich, is counted an
money The merchants and traders of our towns have
been accustomed to look to the banks for facilities and
?id i and through their inetrumenUliiy it was, they have
been enabled to make tlieir purchase* of the planter and
fanner, ll would surely be unwise in a period ol dim
culty, and when private credit is in need of unusual fa
cilities, to put down institutions which are so incorpora
ted with every public and individual interest, anil Ironi
which it would result as an immediate conseqence, and
the difficulties of paying would be augmented, whilst
the debt to be paid would be increased. Tlurt art iKott j
who would have no banks, either slate or federal, and a/c
for enforcing au exclusive metallic circulation. 'I he pro
ject, m the actual condition of the country, I believe to
he wholly mii.raclicablo and the agitation of it at this
period, could have no other effect than still further to
derange the business and oppress every luterest in the
community. And I consider it of the highest importance,]
to maintain the crudit of the state bank., as forming un
der nroiier regulations and reforms, tho only practical
substitute for a United Slates Hank?and their preserva
tion affords the only defence against the dangerous
scheme of a powerful and overwhelming national insti
Again, in a recent toast lie gives us .
" Hard money for our common transactions. Rank
notes, equivalent to specie, for the commerce of the
couutry." Q
In the Address of the Albany General
Republican Committee we find the following I
saving doctrine :
?? We are not advocates for unlimited and extrava
gant credits ; and we trust that all classes in the com
munity will learn wisdom from past and present expe
rience Still, we cannot agree with those who docry
the whole credit svstein. To lliat system principally we
owe our canals and other public works. It has extended
our commerce over the whole world?peopled the wil
derness?built our cities and vilages?founded our col
leges and established our schools, It has given us na
tional wealth and individual prosperity, and if it has
brought some evils in its train, they are not for a mo-j
mcnttobe compared to the advantages which we have
so abundantly realized. None but a dreamer, who
would throw us back a century, can wish to annihilate
credits With such a measure the canal would indeed be
come" a solitude," and the lake " a desert waste of |
waters." Instead of enlarging the trie canal wc might
better discharge our collectors and lock-tenders?aban
don the project of opening other public thoroughfares,
and content ourselves with once more returning o a
state of barter. Our legislature would have little busi
ness on its hands beyond that of declaring the State
bankrupt, and imposing taxes to defray the ordinary ex
penses of the government."
Hon. James Garland, member of Congress
from Virginia, in a recent letter to the editor
of the Charlottesville Jeflersonian Republican,
enables us to add another good authority to
what we consider the true doctrine :
? It should bo borne in nund that wc are now com
pletely involved in tho banking system instituted by
twenty-live independent State Governments, each of |
which will probably adhere to it in some form. How
vain, then, the effort, if attempted, on the part o! the
General Government, by tho mere employment ol its
revenue, to overthrow all these institutions, and how de
structivo the effects, could it be suddenly occomplish
ed I think the wisest and most successful modo win
Imj to invite the co-opcratii.il of the States to a gradual
reformation of the Banking system, by gradually reduc
ing their paper and enlarging the sjiccie circulation of
the country.
Extract from the Aildress of the Republi
can Members of Congress from New York,
to their constituents, June 30, 1834.
"In the present struggle between the'government and
the ticople, and the government of the bank of the Uni
ted States, many of the state banks have rallied under
the banner of the great moneyed power, and have es
poused its interests. The exceptions, however are suf
ficiently numerous, and especially in our own state to
vindicate the policy of such institutions,'and place them
in manv instances, in close affinity with the people. In
deed, although the whole banking system is more or
less liable to abuse, and is only defensible in communi
ties like our own, when actually required by the exi
gences of trade, and carefully restrained by theeffect.vc
regulations and vigilant control, yet it is morally impos
sible that tho state banks, can ever exercise any very
dangerous influence over the politics or business ol a
territory so extended, and a population so numerous as
those hi the United States. Their number would in
deed make them formidable could they all be combined
in one common effort; but for a thousand reasons, such
a comb,nation is utterly impossible In a nation, pom
of view, it i? only by means of a bank of the Lniud
States that "associated wealth," can in tins country,
acquire any great political influence ; because there is
110 other organization by which its power can be extend
ed to every section ofthe Union, and brought to hear by
concerted and concentrated action on all the interests
of society.'' Signed by
Silas Wright, Jr. Abel Huntington,
N 1' Tallmadgc, Noudiah Johnson,
John Adams. C[errllw' Un,#'"g'
Samuel Beard .ley, Ab.jah Mann. Jr.
Abraham Bockee, Charles Mc V can,
Charles Bodle, Henry Mitchell,
John W. Brown, Sherman 1 age,
C C Cambreleng, Job l'ier*on,
Samuel Clark, Win. Tailor,
John Cramer, J,,cl 1.
Rowland IJay. Aaron V anderpoel,
William :l Fuller, Isaac Van lloulen,
Ransom II Glllet, Aaron \\ard,
Nicoll Halsey, Daniel Unwell,
Samuel (t. liathaway, Ucubcn >> hallon,
Edward Howell, Campbell IV W lute.
Wc might quote other authorities in sup
port of these doctrines, which we believe
coincide with the sentiment of nine-tenths of
the republican parly. We sincerely commend
them to the whole people ol tho country, and
for the purpose of impressing them thorough!}
upon the minds of our readers, we shall pre
sent them, several days successively, in our
columns, with such additions as we ma} find
it convenient to make.
Calm thy sleep as infant's slumbers?
lirntlit as untfi l thong'. ?? iliy dreams ;
May each jov the happiest numbers
Sheil o'er ihee their minified beam*.
Or if, where pleasure's wing hath glided,
There evi-r must some pami remain.
Still be thv lot with me divided?
Thine ail the bliss and mine the pain.
pjy and niiiht my thoughts shall hover
Hound thy steps where'er they stray,
As. thoueh dark clouds his idol cover,
Fondly the I'ersin-i tracks its ray
If ibis lie wron?, if Heaven, offended,
If limse bright eyes its rival see.
Then he myvows between vc blended, ^
IIulf l-real'.i'd to Heaven, and half to tnce.
bonapakte's family.
. JcS '"*fry ?.f Jl!? Uon*f*rto being very im
perfect in Scott ? life of Napoleon, it may not, iierhapa
be uiimtereatiiig; to peruse a l.r.ef aLteinent in relation
to those with whom the illu.tnon. conquerer waa con
nected. I ho particulars have been collected from
various sources, with conatderable care, and *o far as
they go, are believed to be substantially correct.
The father of Napoleon, was . |twyer of conti<!er,.
We eminence on the island of Corsica, and died in 1795
at the age of 40 years Eight children survived him'
vit : Joseph, Napoleon, Caroline, Lucien, Eliza, lints'
I auline and Jerome, Utitia Komilint. The mother
was a woman of great beauty, and possessed extraordi
nary firmness of character. She died in Home in 1830
very wealthy. '
Lx-king of Spain and the Indians, is a man of talents
and excellent character and exerted himself very much
at the brat taking ol J'aris by the Allies. In 1794 he
was married to Maria Julia, aged 22 years, and in 1812
had two daughters. He now resides in the United
Mate., near Burlington New Jersey, much esteemed by
a" who know him. He owns 150,000 acres of land lii
the northern nart of tbe Stale of New York, (Jeirerson
county) which he purchased of M. Lo JUy Chaumont.
Eirqieror of the French, was first insmed to Josephine
JJeauharnoia, a Creolian widow and daughter of a St.
Domingo planter She was an accomplished lady At
?Li""V. i 'n,,r'age (1796) to Napoleon, she had
irtTn u e"* Lup-,ne> Fr?"cis, and Hortensia In
i J"" [e',UlJ'*lcd b> Napoleon, who soon after
1 dau??ll,?r "f Frances, emperor of
Austria. By Maria Ixiuisa he had a son, who was
horn March 20, 1814, and whotn he named Napoleon.
Napoleon wm born - . . Aug 15, 1769
r-nu reu the nchool at Drienne - 1779
Passed to that of Paris .... 17^3
Lieut, in the 1st of artillery at La Fere, Sept. 1, 1785
V("'Um ? ? - - - Feb. 6, 1792
r?r 1* rn ? . * " * * ?<:t 19- ,79a
Genera of Brigade - . . Feb. 6, 1794
ueneral of Division - . . 'Oct. jg 1795
Gen in Chief of the Army of the Interior Oct 26, 1795
Gen. in Chief of the Array of Italy, Feb. 23, 1696
First Consul .... Aug. 13, 1799
Consul for life . . . . Au6 2 ,H02
J?nP??W May 18, 1804
Crowned ....... Dec 2> ,804
r irst abdication at Fontaiubleau April 11 1814
Mounts the throne again - . March 20,' 1816
Second abdication . . . Junu22, 1815
Landed at St Helena . . Oct. 16, 1815
D,td / May 5; 1821
Was the wife of Joachim Murat, King of Naples and
admiral of the French empire, by whom she had two
sons and three daughters The two sons Achillc and
I Chark"? J-"""' Napoleon Murat, are settled in the terri
tory of Honda After the fall of Napoleon, and Mural's
expulsion from the throne of Naples, she and her hus
band lived in the Austrian states. After Murafs flioht
and assassination, (srhich latter event happened in 1815
on one of the Sicilian islands.) she resided in greai"
pomp, in the lordship of Ort, but finally removed to
Uouie where she lived in 1825
Was distinguished as an orator and republican in the
council of 500, of which he was president on the 18th
Bmma.re, and declared it dissolved. His ambition snd
talents were scarcely inferior to those of Napoleon, and
he was the most efficient agent m the appointment of
his broker chief consul. He, however, disapproved of
the destruction of the republic, and would not part from
his beautiful and affectionate wife to further and pro
mote the views of Napoleon He therefore displeased
him and was not restored to his favor till after his return
from Elba lie ref.isod the throne of Spain which was
offered to him. He wrote an epic poem 011 Charle
magno. In 1825 he lived in great splendor at Home,
where lie had been a senator. His son Charles Lucien
uonaparte, the author of the continuation of Wilson's
Ornithology, lives in the United States His son Paul
was accidentally killed ontywd the Greek frigate
Hellas, m 1827. 6
K 1.12 a, f.
Grand Duchess of Tuscany, a woman of powerful
, intellect, and masculine character, and had many ad
mirers She was married to Felix, prince of Lucca,
and had one daughter. She died at Trieste in 1820
aged 49 years.
1 K'i!'C of, lIoIIan(1, m"rr'?'d Hortentia Beauharnois.
daughter of Napoleon's first wife. He was a man of
unpretending worth, and alnJicated his throue in f.vor of
his son, rather than oppress his subjects. After Napo
leon s banishment to St. Helena, he went to Home
where he lived in 1825, in great magnificence.
Was first married to Le Clere, Commander-in-chief
of the expedition to St. Demmgo, where he died of the
yellow fever. She subsequently married Prince Bor
ghese, Duke of Guestala ? She was Napoleon's favorite
sister, and was the most beautiful woman in France
and perhaps in Europe. She visited Napoleon while at
f aml u8s,-",0(i '>"? '? his escape. In 1825, Pauline
?>n 1 '"",nensc|y fie! i among other bequests, gave
20,000 francs to the son of Jerome by his first wife.
land'00 *18 n?W 4 waudurur France or Eng.
Was first married to Miss Patterson, of Baltimore,
Mil,, a lady of beauty and accomplishments, and bv this
marriage incurred the displeasure of Napoleon. Bv the
incessant importunities of his brother, he at Until
separated himself from her, and married the princess
royal of \\ urtemburg. After his brother's fall, he lived
a while at 1 rieste afterwards near Vienna, and finally
settled at Home, where he resided in 1820. He had
one son by his wife.
\ iceroy of Italy, 4c and son of the first wife of Na
poleon, married the princess, Augustine Amelia, of Ba
varia, and had one son and two daughters. Ho was a
man ol talents, probity and honor, and great military
skill. Being a particular favorite of Napoleon, he re
warded him with the highest military promotions After
the restoration of I-oms and the aUlication of Napoleon
he retired to private life; and lived at Munich, the capi
ii V ',?v"ril> His income was $2,500,000 a year.
lie died in 1824, universally lamented.
trom the Arw 1 urn American.
I iik Life and Sick vices ok Commodore Wm
Ba.nheidge, U. S. N. I!y Thomas Harris, M D ,
/ mm 1 vo1- Philadelphia: Carry. Lea Blanc h
lhe n.olto which the biographer has chosen for
his work expresses truly the character of his hero
" 1 atria vict<3Vue lau,latu,y praised both by his country
and by those he conquer, Com. Bainbridgc was very
thoroughly an officer and a gentleman?and we know
not the words of eulogy that can add ought to such a
In the volume before us, Dr. Harris has done justice,
to the fine qualities, the professional skill and the ser
vices of Com. Ban.bridge. I,, order to recall some
of the early annals?all glorious as they are?of our
navy, we copy below a long extract from'this volume,
describing the attack ou Tripoli :
An event soon after taught the Bashaw that lie was
neither so secure nor so powerful as he had fancied
himself On the twelfth of July, 1804, commodore
I relic appeared off Tripoli ?. ill. a .mall squadron. ()?
the third of August, at three P. M? commenced a tre
mendous fire between our men-of-war, and the Tripoli
tan castle, batteries and gunboats. Shot and shells were
thrown into every quarter of. the city, causing the great
est consternation among the inhabitants The tirmir
attracted the attention of the officers to the high irrated
window of the prison, from which ihcv observed with
unspcsKable pride three of the A merman gonial-, l^r
down, in ga Ilia lit style, on the enemy's eastern division,
consisting of nine vessels of the same class. As our
vessel advanced, a few well directed rounds of grape
and musketry were fired; as soon a. the vessels came
in contact, our gallant countrymen boarded sword in J
, ?'|d after a fierce contest of fifteen minute., they
captured three of the Trqioliiati ^tinboats?the other six i
precipitately fied. At the moment of victory Captain;
Decatur was informed that his brother, Lieutenant James
Decatur, had been treacherously shot by a Tripolithn j
commander, after he had boarded and captutcd him
I lie fearless Decatur immediately pursued the murder
er, and succeeded in getting alongside just as he was I
r<*tri ating within (he cnetny'a lines, he boarded with only 1
tie*en followers Decatur immediately attacked the
I rtitoliUn commander, who was ariucd with spear and
cutlaaa ?In the contest, which for ? time ap|xiared
doubtful, Decatur broke hia sword near the hilt. Ho
aened hia enemy's spear, and after a violent struggle
succeeded in throwing tain on deck. The Turk now
drew from hia belt a dirk, and when in the act of strik
ing, Decatur caught hia arm, drew from hia pocket a
pistol, and sliot hun through the head During the con
tiuuitnce of tius terrible struggle, the crews of each vea
ael impetuously rushed to the assistance of their re
spective commanders. Such waa the carnage in this furi
oua aud desperate battle, that it was with difficulty Deca
tur could extricate himself from the killed aud wounded
by which he was surrounded.
In thia affair an American sailor, named Reuben
James,* manifested the moat heroic self-devotion See
ing a I npolitan officer aiming a blow at Decatur's head
while he was struggling with hia prostrate foe. and
which must have proved fatal, had not the grnerous and
fearless tar. who had been deprived of the use of both
hia hands, by severe wounds, rushed between the aa
bru and his commander, and received the blow on his
head, by which hia skull was fractured.
The boat commanded by lieutenant Joseph Bain
bridge received a shot that carried away her lateen yards,
by which all his exertions to get alongside of the enemy
were rendered altogether unavailing. Being within
musket shot, he directed a brisk fire, which had great
execution. Unable to manage his boat without sails,
?he grounded near the enemy's batteries ; but by cour
age and great exertions, she was extricated from her pe
rilous situation.
Captain Somers being unable to beat windward, in
order to co-operate wilh Decatur, bore down with hut
single boat, on the leeward division of the enemy, and
attacked within pistol shot live of the Tripolitan vessels.
He maintained the action with treat spirit until the
other division of the enemy was defeated,' when this also
precipitately fled within theirhart>or.
The enemy's boat again rallied, and attempted to
surround the American gunboat* and prizes. This bold
enterprise was defeated, however, by the advance of
Commodore Preble, in the frigate Constitution, which,
by a few spirited broadsides, effectually covered the re
treat of the brave little squadron, which had so signally
triumphed. The frigate Constitution, bomb vessels,
<Vc. created great alarm and confusion in the city, by
throwing shot and shells. The frigate was several times
within the cables' length of the batteries, and each time
silanced those against which her broadsides were di
rected. These advantages, however, the gallant com
modore was unable to secure without more assistance,
for as soon hs he changed his position, the firing recom
menced at the points of the fort from which the men had
been driven.
Availing themselves of the land breeze, which com
menced to blow between 4 and 5 in the afternoon, tho
squadron retired from the action. The damage sus
tained by the Americans was quite inconsiderable, when
compared wilh the apparent danger to which they were
exftosed. The loss of ihe enemy was very great Threo
Imats captured from the Tripolitans contained 103 men.
of whom 47 wCre killed, and 26 wounded. Three of
their boats were sunk, and tho crews buried in the
waves. A number of guns in thi batteries were dis
inounuyl, the city was considerably injured, and many
of their inhabitant's killed. A great portion of the in
habitants and all the foreign consuls flfcd from the citv,
with the exception of the benevolent Mr. Nissen. So
devoted was he to the American prisoners, that he re
mained at the risk of his life and property, in order that
he might contribute to their comfort
During one of the attacks, a twenty-four pound shot
entered tho window of a small room in the turret,
where Mr. Nissin but a moment before had been exam
ining the operations of the squadron. This shot con
tinues lodged in the wall, and was shown to commo
dore Decatur in the year 1815, bv another Danish con
sul. Several shells fell in Mr. Nissin's house, during
the bombardment, but asnhey did not explode, little in
jury was done.
At the commencement of these operations, the Ba
shaw surveyed the squadron from his palace windows,
ami affected to ridicule any attempt which might be
made to injure eith ;r the batteries or the city. He pro
ntised the spectators who were on the terraces, that raro
sport would be presently enjoyed, by observing the tri
umph of his boats over those of the Americans. In a
few minutes, however, he became convinced of his er
ror, and precipitately retreated with an humbled and ach
ing heart to his bomb-proof chamber.
On the fifth of August, the wounded Turkish prisoners,
who had been carefully and kindly treated, were placed
on board a French privateer, and scut to Tripoli. The
prisoners informed the Bashaw that "tho Americans 111
battle were fiercer than lions, yet in the treatment of
prisoners they were even kinder than Mussulmans."
I lie Bashaw applauded the humane conduct of commo
dore Pfeble on returning the wounded, and observed,
that il any American similarly injured should fall into
his hands, lie would treat themi with equal Kindness.
The Bashaw now offered terms of adjustment, but
they could not be acceded to, in consequence of ins ex
travagant demands. Preble determined to quicken his
anxiety for peace, by renewing his broadsides.?Pre
parations being completed for another attack,'tile ac
tion commenced at half past two, P. M, and in two
hours the batteries were again silenced, and much inju
ry was done to the city, 1iy round shot and shells.?
1 he loss which the Americans sustained in this actio
was a serious one. A small vessel was blown up by
the passage ol a red hot shot through the magazine.?
1 hero were twenty-eight souls on hoaid of her, of whom*
ten were killed, and six wounded. The injured, as well
as those who escaped unhurt, wore picked out of tho
water by other boats. Among the killed was her gal
lant commander, Lieutenant James Caldwell.
Ou the 27th of August, the U. Slates sqiiadton again
stood into the harbor, and after directing a rapid lire
for two hours, silenced the batteries and did much injury
to the castle. In this attack a twenty-four pound shot
penetrated the castle, and entered the otficcrs' apart
ment. '1 he ball fell within a foot of Captain Daiubridge's
head, threw ou him as lie lay in bed, at least a ton of
stone and mortar from the wall. He was severely
wounded'in the ankle by a large stone, and from which
he slowly recovered.
During the first attack of the American squadron, thoe
Tripolitan guards lied from their posts on the terrace,
behind the wall of an adjoining building. This cowardly
retreat excited the gibes and merriment of the American
officers. The guard finding that their unmanly attempt
to screen themselves from danger was discovered by the
prisoners, became ungovernably enraged, threw stone*
* The reader mny lie curious to know more of the char
acter and services of this gallant seaman. He is a nativi
ol the state of Delaware, and when quite a boy, devoted
himself to the sea. In 1it)7, he was captured by a French
privateer, and after lus liberation determined to ship, here
after, in men-of-war, by which lie hoped to escape for the
future the hardships and sufferings to which prisoners aro
exposed. In accordance w ith this determination, he ship
ped on board the frigate Constellation, 1709, commanded
by Commodore Truxton, and was m both the actions
which resulted in the capture of the French frigates In
surgent e ami Vengeance.
In 1804, he sailed in the frigate United States for the
Mediterranean, and was a volunteer with Decatur when
he burnt the frigate Philadelphia in the harbor of Tnpoli.
He remained under Decatur's command, in the desperate
action, with the I rifMilitan gunboats, ou which occasion
he performed the net of noble daring already recorded.
After five years' absence, he returned across the Atlan
tic, in a common gunboat, with the lamented Captain
Lawrence. He rejoined his favorite' Captain Decatur, ami
remained with him during the whole <ff the last war. Ho
was in the action wliich resulted in the capture of the fri
gate Macedonian, and in tly; severely fought liattle lie
tween the United States frigate President, and the British
frirate r.mi\mioii. In this engagement he received three
wounds He was afterward* in the United States frigate
<?urrricre, when she captured the Algcrinc luxate Mch
Since the war, he has been almost constantly cruising
in the I 'luted Slates vessels in the Mediterranean, West
fUijyes, and Pacific Occan. To use his own phrase, lie has
seen " ten fiifhtli ntul n* winy ikrimrei^rK.'*
In lh<? autumn of KMi, he arrived in Washington, for
the purpose of obtaining a pension. At that time, he suf
fered very much from adis< ase of his leg, arising from an
old musket ball wound, which caused an extensive dis
ease of the bone. In order to save his life, amputation
was recommended, to which he assented with Ins charac
teristic indifference to either danger or suffering, "though
it was not ship-shape lo put him under jury masts, when
in harbor." 'I he day after the amputation, his symptoms
were so alarming that the oh! sailor thomhl his career w as
near its termination?seemed quite resigned, anil begged
the surgeon " lu rn.ir tiwi i,fi liiuiilnomrly "
In order to suppoit his str< ngth, stimulants were recoro
mended to lum, and it was asked which lie would perfcr,
| brown stout, or brandy toddy, he replied " Suppose, I>oc.
tor. you iriveus both.'* Poor Keuhen.hu no disposition to
Join the temperance society at present.
It is n custom in the navy, lo give; the ssilors on ceriain
| anniversaries an extra glass of grog beyond llieir tegular
allowance. This veteran fl it it his duly to celebrate an
| unusual numlier of thent. Besides the national stimver
I sines, he always celebrated his own birth day?that of
hit favorite commodore, and those of his " tm fighto and
nt mawy tkrmtnlgrm" In this way he contrived to have
I "merrymakings."
This gallant old lar has lieen in the public service near
forty years, and has always Iwhaved with the characteristic
firmueas of the United .States sailor. He is an incessant
talker?well acquainted with the history of the navy?
knows well the character of ail the elder officers?calls
them his friends, and will allow no one to sneak disre
spectfully of them.
Br. lolls, of the I nited States navy, who recently am
I putated his fivnb, informs me thai he has recovered from
j the operation, and is now in good health

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