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THE MADISON! AJN.
VOL. IV?NO. 83] WASHINGTON CITY, TUESDAY, APRIL 20, 1841. [WHOLE NO. 644. THE MADISONIAN. THOMAS ALLEN, F. <11 tor and ProprMu. AGENTS. Lewis H. Dobei.boweh, 34 Catharine street, Phi ladelphia. J. K Wclixn, Pittsburg, Pa. G. W. JiHu, Cincinnati, Ohio. Hbnby 8. Umi, 464 Bowery, New York. Gbobuk W. Boll, Buffalo, N. York. Jacob R. How, Auburn, N. York. Sri.VANUs Stevens, New Haven, Ct. E. B. ForrBB, Boaton, Maaa. Thomas H. Wiley, Cahawha. Alubawa. Weston F. Birch, Fayette, Missouri. J obi ah Snow Detroit, Michigan. Fowzmt & Woodward, St. Louis, Mo. Tiie Madisoniam is published Tri weekly during the sittings of Congress, and Semi-weekly during the recess, at #5 per annum. For six months, $3. The MadisonUn, weekly, per annum, #"2 ; do. six months, SI. No sulwcription will be Uken for a terra short of si* months; nor unless paid for in advance. PRICK Or ADTEgriSINU. Twelve lines, or less, throe insertions, - . $1 00 Each additional inaertion, 05 Longer advertisements at proportionate rates. A liberal discount made to those who advertise by year. Or Subscribers may remit by mail, in bills of sol vent bonks, pontage paid, at our risk; provided it shall uw/var by a postmaster's certificate, that such reuiit tuuc? ,,u been duly mailed. A lilteral discount wil| lie made to companies offive or more transmitting their suliscriptions together Postmasters, and others authorized, acting as our (rents, will lie entitled to receive a copy of the pajier gratia for every five subscribers, or at that rate per c*?l. on subscriptions generally; the terms being fuj bIfxL L?(Urs and communications intended for the estal> Islriiont will not be received unless the postag* it paid. THE LAW LIBRARY. IT is the object of the Law Library to furnish the profession with the most important British element ary treatises upon law, in a form which will render them far less expensive than works of this description have hitherto been. It is published in monthly num l>ers, large octavo, of about 200 pages each, upon fine |>aper, and with handsome type, at ten dollars per annum, and is sent carefully secured, by mail, to every |>art of the United States. It makes, in a year, four large, handsome octavo volumes, of upwards of tkX) pages each, and these volumes include works which would coil, if purchased in the usual foim, from se venty to seventy-five dollars per year. From eight to twelve entire treatises ,00 diiTerent branches of law, ure annually given, and great care is Uken that all these treatises shall be standard, and of undoubted ability and authority. The undersigned has at all tiinea confidently rested the claim of his publication to the support of the pro fession, upon the comprehensive excellence of the plan on which it is conducted, and the charactcr and in trinsic value of the productions to which it has given circulation. He is unwilling, however, to omit to avail himself of the permission, most kindly given, to publish the following extract from a letter addressed to him by the Hon. Esek Cowen, of the Supreme Court of New York: "I renew my thanks to you for this publication. I can hardly doubt that the profession must duly appre ciate its value, and reciprocate your care jn its conduct and distribution, by an adequate subscription and punctual remittances. It is in truth, what it professes to lie, a 'Law Library.' It has already become a manu al in almost all the more useful branches of profes sional business. I am quite sure it will, if properly patronized, stand without a rival in the extent and cheapness with which it will diffuse that kind of in struction most sought by the American bar. It keeps thrin up with Westminster Hall in those departments of legal learning wherein it is their ambition and duty to excel." Subjoined are a few testimonials, from many, which the publisher has received from distinguished sources: 1 rom Judge Sergeant.?" Tho plan of the ' Law Library is such as to recommend it to the support of the profession generally in the United States. It is calculated to enlarge the science of jurisprudence, and to elevate the character of the profession." From lion. John Toy lot iMmai, oj Virginia.? " The references in my digest have been numerous to the excellent treatises published in the Law Library j for the extensive circulation which that periodical me rit*, and ha* doubtless attained, has made these au thorities, it is presumed, generally accessibic through out the United States." "1 am surprised that any member of the legal profes sion should withhold his subscription to your admi rable Law Library." from Chancellor Kent. ?The Law Library is a work most advantageous to the profession, anil I ho|>e and trust that you will find encouragement to jicrso vere in it." I'rom the Hon. Ellis Leicit.?"Your publication is cheap, and of immense value to tho profession " From the lion. John M. Clayton, late Senator fro,n Delaware.?" You are entitled to the thanks of every incml>er of our profestion for the 'Law Library.' It is an excellent thing for us." /'Vom the Xational Gazette?" Mr. John S. Llttell has adopted tho only plan by which valuable works can Ikj brought within the icach of the mass of the profession, and we speak with confidence of b's under taking as eminently meriting jsitronage i??d support. Tho assiduity and experience of the ed><or of the Law Library, and the charactcr ofthe pro?Juctions to which it has given circulation, do not need our testimony." From the Hon. P. liiddle.?"Ol'the numerous trea tises tho Law Library has placed within our reach, at a cheap rate, there are few, if any, which I would not have procuied e'en at the great pricepf imported Law Books." fVo? Judge Layton?" 1 our invaluable publica tion should grace the shelves of every lawyer's li |?ary." Subscriptions for the Law Library may eommence with July or with October, IH40, or with January, 1H-11. Terms?iiaymcnt for one year, in advance, Si0. 1 JOHN S. LITTELL, Lavr Bookseller and Publisher, dee. 22-tf No. 23, Minor St., Philadelphia. N. B. Tiie koteh of the Bank ok tiie Uni ted States will be received in payment foh NEW SUBSCHH'TIONS. MERIDEN ENGLISH AND CLASSICAL SCHOOL.?Instruction will be given in tho comnmn English branches, also in Mathe matics, Li?"n> Greek, French, Drawing, Book Keep ing, Ac Much attention will be given to Orthogra phy .leading, Writing, Comjxisition and Declama tio". It is the design of all engaged in teaching in this School to have it second to none Jin the State. The building is new and fitted up in the most approved style. A new and valuable apparatus has been procured for the School, among which are Steam Engines, a complete set of Electro Magnetics, Gloltcs, Orrery, Maps, 1Sic. No pains will l>c spared to interest the pupils in what will be useful to them in after life'. The Principal devotes his whole time to the School, as he Ims made arrangements with his brother to take the whole charge of the iiecuniary affairs ofthe Board ing department. He also s|iends about one halfofhis time with the pupils, privately to give them instruc tion anil explanation in what they do not fully under stand at the time of recitations. The Principal receives into his family a limited number of pupils, who will be under his constant su |ier\isii>n, ami every proper means will lie used to make them cheerful and hapuy. Verms are from $4" to ft'ji) per quarter, including board, tuition, lights, fuel, washing, Ac. Reference may bo made to Prof. C. Davies, Rev. G. Robins, Hon. Jos. Trumbull, th- Misses Drapers, flic, of Hartford, Ct.: Capt. W. H. Swift of Spring field, Mass. ; Lieut. II. H. Bell, U. S. Navy ; Rev. L. Griggs and L. Cowles, North Haven ; and to the People of Meriden generally. JOHN I). POST, Principal. Meriden, Ct., Nov. 21st, 1840. nov 27-tf \ \ r 11 .SON'S FRENCH AND ENGLISH DlcT vV TIONARY, London lH31t, KI22 large octavo pages, being by far the most full anil comprehensive French and English Dictionary yet published ; con taining full explanations, definitions, synonyms, idi oms, proverbs, terms of art and science, and pronun ciation, iVc. &c, compiled from the Dictionary oft he Academy, Boyer, Chambaud, Garner and others. Ily Rev. Joseph Wilson, Professor of French in St. Gie gory's College. Just imported and for sale by fob 18 F. TAYLOR. SIMMS' NEW NOVEL, The Kinsman or the Black Rider's of Congaree, And Walsh's Sketches ofthe Conspicuous Living Characters of France. Are just received lor sale by F. TAYLOR Spanish LANGUAOE-ComedicaoiLopede Nmi, iiuJ Calderon, 1 vol. Fabula* de Iriarte, 1 vol. Work* of Irartie and Momtin, together in one vol. Don Quixote, 2 vol*. Carte* Marruecaa y Preeio* Selectea, 1 vol. Colmena Eapanela, 1 vol. Abelardo y Eloisa, 1 vol. Hiatoria de la Inquiaicion de Eapana, 2 vol*. Cucntoa y Satira* de Voltaire, iraduccion en veraoe Castellaniw. Alao, Grammar*, Spaniah and Engliah Dklionariea Ac. for aale by F. TAYLOR. ap 1 Transactions of the royal ENGI NEERS, Vol. 4, and Professional Paper* on *ub jecta connected with the Duties of the Corp*, 4th vol. London, 1841. Quarte aixe with manjr engraving*, juat imported, a few copie* only, and Una day rereived for sale by F. TAYLOR. Alao, Life and Work* of Telford, the Engineer, I vol. quarto, with folio Atlaa of pi a tea, London, 1840. Nicholson on Projection and lsomelrical Drawing, 1 vol. Loudon, 18-10. i Muahett'a Paper* on Iron ami Steel, 1 vol. octavo, London, 1840. Robiaon'* Mechanical PbikMuplty, 4 vol*. And other valuable worlu* on the Maine claaae* of I science. *?* Books im|>orted to order from London and Pa ri*. april 12 LANGUAGES.?A third Evening French Class for gentlemen will open on Monday the 12th initant. instruction given w umial, on a ihranrn- I practical |>lan, by which the willing acholar, after 30 lessons, may perfect himself in the acquirement of thia language without a teacher. An evening Spanish Class is now forming. La dies are instructed in either language from half pant 10 to 12 o'clock in the morning. English, Spaniah, Italian, French, and Latin tranalation* in all com mercial, legal, or literary matter*, speedily, correctly, and neatly executed, at the corner of Penmylvania avenue and Tenth atreet. Washington, April 8, 1811?5t PRESIDENTS MESSAGES, containing all the Annupl; Inaugural, and Special Messages ; Pro clamations, Veto*, Sc. Ac. of all the Preeidcnts, com mencing with Washington's first Inaugural Address and ending with General Harrison'a?in one volume octavo, (taged and indexed ao as to offer the facility of immediate relerence. Just published and thi* day received for sale by april 9 F. TAYLOR. FLEETWOOD'S LIFE OF CHRIST, cheap in one octavo, volume of 006 page*, with many engravings, handsomely bound, and containing al*o a History of the Jews, and Iliatory of the Live*, tr|nsactions, and aufferings of the Holy Evangelists, Apoetlee and other Primitive Martyrs. By the Rev. John Fleetwood ; price SI IS. A few copies just received, for sale by ap 3 F. TAYLOR. PRINCE ALBERT METALLIC PEN.^J^t imimrted, are this day received, for sale by F. TAYLOR. Also, Perry's " Raven black" and Gillot's " Ba ron's Pen." On hand more than fifty varieties of the most ap proved Pens of Windle, Perry, Gillot, Chance, Par- I tlow and other*. Goose Quills, No. 80, 90 and 100; and a lot of wild Goose Quills from Hudson's Bay, just received. Imported by the advertiser since January, 1841, ' English Sealing Wax, London Parchment, Rodger*' Pen Knives, Desk Knives and Erasers, English Let ter and Note Papers, French Letter Paper, London Writing Ink, Guyot's French Ink, dec. Writing Papers from the best Amciican manufac turers kept constantly on supply. ap 1 Life and works of telford?Writ ten by himself, containing a descriptive narrative of his professional labors, reports, Ac. Ac. with a large folio atlas of copper plates?just published?a single copy imported from London, by F. TAYLOR. Also, Crewze on Ship Building and Naval Archi tecture, 1 quarto vol. with engraving. Robio<i<vu's Mechanical Philosophy, 4 vols. Britiah Nautical Almanac tor irflJilW I8TC. Marshall on Soldiers. Simmons [Capt. Royal Navy] on the effects of hea- [ vy ordnance. A rmstrong on Steam Engine Roilers. Mushett's papers on Iron and Steel, 1 vol. London, 1841. McQueen's Geographical Survey of Africa and the Slave Trade, London, 1840. Illustrations and descriptive accounts of the Public Buildings of London, by Pagin and Britton, 'J vols. Karraday's Experimental Researches in Electricity. Nicholson on Projection and lsometiical Drawing, London, 1840. And many other of the late English works on sci ence, history, |s>litical economy, Ac. mar 19 IVES OF. THE PRESIDENTS OF THE United States, and Sketches of the rcmarkalite events in the history of the country, from its diatovcry to the present time, in oue volume of 508 octavo pages, with portraits and many engravings, in full leutiker binding $'1 50. Also, in one volume, Biography of the Signer* of the Declaration of Independence, price #1 35. ' Just received for sale I.y F. TAYLOR. mar 19 ENGLISH BOOKS.?The writings of Sydney Smith, the first Editor of the Edinburgh Review, 3 vols. London, 1840. Landor's Imaginary Conversations of Literary Men and Stutcsmcn, 3 vols. Godwin's Commonwealth of England, 4 vols. Palgrave's History of the Rise and Progress of the Commonwealth, during the Anglo Saxon peiiud, two vols, quarto. Llodge's Illustrations of British History, 3 vols. Home Tooke's Diversions of Purley, new edition, in 1 vol. London, 1810. Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, new edition, complete in 1 vol. London, IH10. Cooke's Life of the Earl of Shaftesbury, 2 vols. Archbishop Lcighton's Works, complete in one volume. Southey's Collection of British Poets, from Chaucer to Ben Johnson, 1 vol. Middleton's Life of. Cicero, new edition, complete in one vol. Recontly imported [alone with many other valuable works] direct from London, by F. TAYLOR. ???Books, Periodicals, and Stationery, imfiortcd to order from London and Paris. mar 19 TOTTEN'S NAVAL TEXT BOOK?Just published, Naval Text Book, Letters to the Mid shipmen of the United States Navy on Masting, Rig ging and managing vessels of War. Also, a set of Stationing Tables, a Nnvnl Gun Ex ercise, and a Marine Dictionary, I vol., 8vo., by B. J. Totten, Lieut. U. S. Navy. The above bonk will Imi teceived to-day or to-mor row for sale by F. TAYLOR, who has on hand, im ported directly himself from London, Charnock's Marine Architecture, 3 vs. 4to, many plates. Crewxc's Naval Architecture and Ship Building, mnny plates. British Nautical Almanac fo/ 1813 and 1844. Falconer's Marine Dictionary, enlarged and im proved, I vol., 4to., many plates. Capt. Brenton's Naval History of Great Britain, 2 v*., many engravings. Captain Glascock's Naval Officers Manunl. Griffith on Seamanship, Fordycc's Naval Routine. MacKenxic's Marine Surveying. Robbin's Surveying, Belcher's Marine Surveying. Naval Monitor, by C lax ton, (Royal Navy.) British Naval Biography, 1 vol. Simmons on Heavy Ordnance. Clark's Naval Tactics, 3d edition, Notes by Lord Rodney. And many other valuable works on Gunnery, on Courts Maitial, and all other branches of Naval Science. ??? Books imported to otiWi. march 25 ( 1 UIDE TO TIIE NATIONAI,EXECUTIVE VT OFFICES, Wv Robeit Mills, Architect Public Buildings, containing engraved Diagrams, designat ing the severaj Executive Buildings, their relative po sition, Bureaus, and officers Rooms, and also the ComiiiitUv Rwnim in the Capitol. Price 50 cents. Just published [I841] and this day received for sale by F. TAYLOR. feb 13 Life of commodore perry, by ai?. Slidell Mackenzie, IT. S. N. in 2 volumes is this day received, for sale bj F. TAYLOR. tnar23 *)ort(cal. from the Baltimore Patriot. "WHAT OP THE NK3HT1" In the night of Thursday, before Gen. Hanriiion'i death, he repeated the following veraea from Iaaiah, to one of hia relatione at hia aide, remarking that it had made an impreaaion on hia mind which he bad never been able to efface: ? Iaaiah 31 chap. 11 6l 12 va. He called to me out of Beir, Watchman, what of the night 1 Watchman, what of the night 1 The watchman aaid, the morning rometli, and alao the night: if ye will inquire, inquire yo?return? come.?Maditunian. Out of Set he calleth mo?hear ye the word, Waking drcaina of the |iaai, which my apirit hath beard 1 " Watchman, what viaiona break forth on thy ai^htl Watchman," it calla to me, " what of the night 1' Now it ateala o'er my momenta : what nieaneth that aouml, In my aolitude calling at range echoca around 1 " Day ainka?the gray evening faat looaea ita lijyht! Watchman, old watchman, aay, what of the night 1" " The night cornea apace; but ita darkneaa and gloom Have no fright for my viaion?no phantom of doom: The eye which hath quailed not in teuqieat and fight, Which gazed on the day, ahull look calm to the night! " The night moveth on , but a morning aliall apread Ita orient fluah o'er the realma of the d?ad? Inquire thou, inquire thou, for thou haat the right? The daylight ia paaaing?I teak not this niuiit !" Mount Dillon. ? Without particular reference to the Scriptural con text, or the legitimate Bonification or arrangement of the poaaage itaelf, the reader will perceive that we have appropriated the expreauion to thecircumatancea under which it waa preaented?to that aolemn preaentiment of the future which it waa deaigned to inapire?to thai myaticconatruction which wra|>ped in etrangethoughta the mind of the diatinguiahed man to whom it came, in language of awful monition, but a few daya before the chair of oflice waa exchanged for the cinply ahroud! fBfsccllancous. THE LEAD MINES OF IOWA. A small volume entitled 4 Sketches oj /ou>a,' by John B. Newliall, has just been given to the public. It is full of inreresting information with respect to Iowa and our Western Country gene rally. We extract from it the following account of the Lead Mines and Mining in Iowa : Gai.ena (sulphurate of lead) may be divided into three classes or descriptions, according to the relative per cent, of the pure metal yielded by each. The first class is that which lies nearest the surface of the ground, and, consequently, the lirst species of ore discovered. It is known among the miners by the name of ' ash mine ralon account of its being covered with a substance in appearance similar to white ashes. This substance appears to be a carbonate of the protoxyde of lead. It is generally found insinall bodies at the depth of six or eight inches from the surface, and immediately under the first strata of soil, and lying in horizontal sheets of about one inch and a half in thickness. The fact of this ore lying so near the surface of the ground, in which situation it must neces sarily come in contract with more or less oxygen or atmospheric air, readily accounts for its being covered with this ' ashy' substance. This description of ore is generally found on or near the highest elevation of the bluffs, and by the horizontal position of the sheets, the outer edge becomes exposed to view by continued vvCKiiaara^o M.na, am! fillip JeUllS to the dis covery of the entire sheet. This description of ore, therefore, was easily discovered when the mining region was first explored, as the pioneers might, by ploughing or spading up a small gar den, open to the sight large pieces of the spark ling ore. This species of lead is, for two reasons, en titled to be called the lirst class : first, it yields, oil an average, from eighty to eighty-five per cent, of pure lead, while the other descriptions of ore, at the highest, yield but about seventy five or seventy-six per centum, and sometimes but from forty to fifty. Secondly, because it was the first species dis covered and the only sort known to tlie Indians previous to the settlement of the country by the whites ; it being of so pure a quality that they were enabled to run it into bullets and ornaments with the simple aid of their log fires. It is obtain ed with tlie least expense of any of the varie ties of ore, although never found in as large bo dies as that which lies farther from the surface, the size of the sheet seldom, if ever, exceeding 50,000 pounds weight, and most generally of about one-tenth that size. The second class of lead ore may be found in a soft clay, immediately above tlie secondary rock, at a depth ranging from ten to forty feet beneath the surface. It inay be proper, per haps, to state to the reader that the formation of the earth in the mining region is composed of a more mixed combination of earths than almost any other part of the globe?lying in regular strata above the primary rock. In sinking a shaft, (which is generally of as small dimen sions as convenience will allow, being about three and a 1mIf to four feet in diameter,) the miner finds, for the first two or three feet, a soft light-brown clav, which, at the depth of three feet, gen* rally becomes mixed with small pieces of white Hint, and, as he descends, the flint gradually increases in size; the clay, at the same time, becomes of a darker red, or 'ochreish' color. At the depth of five feet, he finds the flint changcil into a deep blue color, and formed into regular sheets of about two and a half or three inchus in thickness, generally about three sheets lying horizontally above each other, and separated by j? strata of reddish clay of about three inches in thic kness. After sinking through these strata of Hint, the clay becomes of a brighter red, and mixed with a kind of spurious iron ore, frequently in so great a proportion as to carry the appearance of a soliu bed of rust or oxyde of iron. This strata varies in thickness more than that of any other, being frvquently eight feet thick,, and at others entirely disappearing; below this strata lies a soft dark-brown clay, sometimes mixed in a variegated manner with small strea.ks of green, red, blue, white and yel low clay. The yeliuw stiataol clay has the ap pearance of the protoxyde of lead, and often is the only colored clay found in the strata as above mentioned, in which case ft is frequently eighteen inches in thickness, and is more regu lar than the other colors. Theclay at this depth is of a very moist nature, and is found imme diately above the sand or secondary rock, and intermingled with it. About eighteen inches above the rock is found what is called by the miners ' chunk minerald.-riving it3 name from the form, in which it is found, haying the ap pearance of being thrown together without regu larity, being found in chunks of no regular shape, varying in size from half an ounce weight to 1,000 pounds. This species cf mineral is free from every substance but sulphur, which it con tains in greater quantities than'the 'ash mineral, and consequently y iritis a less per centum of the metal, the average being about seventy-five ner ccnt. ; this ore, however, is found in large bo dies, sometimes intermiwd with c.'ay f?r 'n0 thickness of eight feet, and, from the s"'1' ness of the clay, is taken from the oa.'lh with great facility. When the miner has sunk his shaft to the bottom of the mineral, he 'dri,fts' each way from it, hy digging out the earth lor the t ?i?r ,n widlh l'v three in height, until be comes to the extremity of the body o? mineral; he then runt* cross drifts, lear Wi ? "'"or,"lPPort ?' (he clay above, until be obtains moat of the ore; sometimes, how ever, too anxious that nothing shall be lost, he leaves an insufficient support, and is obliged to use wooden props or stays to keep the earth from caving in upon liini, This ore is generally found lying at the heed of a ravine; the surface of the ground mi medially over it has a concave appear ance, and, when the miner selects a place for sinking a shaft, he deceuds a short distance from the summit, where the clay is of greater depth, and where the secondary rock is of a softer na ture, and not so regular in its formation. The strata of clay, in which the chunk mineral is lound as it runs into the hill, frequently forms a horizontal opening between the santl rock, in which the mineral assumes the form of a regular sheet, and lies at the top of the strata of clay, and partially adheres to the upper rock, which may be considered somewhat singular when it is known that the ore is about six times the speei- i uc gravity ol the clay, and would naturally be looked for underneath this strata of clay. The I sheet thus formed between the rocks is not genc ^ X . ,norc than one inch in thickness, and ol (united extent, unless it meets with a per pendicular crevice or opening in the rock, in which case it often decends in this crevice until it rvaoV's another horizontal fissure orcrevice, in which it forms a horizontal sheet or ore Third Class.?This she et or strata is gene rally found from forty to sixty feet in depth. It is hard and solid, varying from two inches to three feet in thickness, and from forty to sixty feet in length, varying also much in width. Mi ners arc often led to the discovery of this species of ore in the pursuit of the chunk mineral; the general course, however, pursued, it* to sink a long shaft on the summit of the b|uff to the sand rock, in order to find a perpendicular crevice or 'seam.' When found, they are enabled to pene trate the rock with much more fncility by the aid of the fissure. When they have sunk to the depth ol forty feet, the opening generally be comes horizontal, and of a width varying from two inches to four feet. In this opening there is generally found a solid sheet of ore adhering to the upper rock, and beneath it is found a soft claf, which, when removed, the miner, with gnat facility, breaks down the mineral from abive, when he places it into a tub, and it is drawn up to the surface of the ground by a wind lass. Sometimes the horizontal fissure is only of sufficient width to contain the mineral, and the sheet adheres to both the lower and upper rock, in which ease it requires much more labor to remove it, as the rock has first to be removed from beneath, which requires a skilful blaster; but from this horizontal opening there is fre quently another perpendicular one which leads down to a strata of lime-rock, al>ove which last isalways found another horizontal opening which contains a sheet o( lead ore, which is generally thicker than at any other depth. At this depth the miners are put to much inconvenience on ac count of water, and, in order to avoid the difli culty as muck as possible, they sink a basin, in which to drain the water, and draw it from thence to the surface in barrels as necessity re quires. (It may be worthy of remark that this water, althoigb mixed and running over several sulphurets, is of the purest quality of spring water, and perfectly healthy ; so much so, thai the miners use it while at work.) The sheets of ore found in these horizontal fissures are more or less mixed with spurious metallic substances, which renders the ore of less value than the two first classes: its average yield is about seven'.y two per cent. A substance, called by the miners 'Black Jack,' is sometimes found iu large quantities in these openings, and which so much resembles galena that inexperienced miners are often deceived by taking it lor the pure ore. In appearance it is very similar to the protoxyde of lead, nn<l, when ex|H>sed to the air, it decomposes rapidly, leaving a substance similar in appearance to small pieces of slate, and, when exposed to a strong heat, it emits large quantities of sulphuric smoke: about nint-tenths of the substance entirely disa] pears. Snnll particles of pure sulphuret of silver are found intermingled with this species of ore: pica's of two ounces weight have been discover ed. At the outer edge of this sheet a substance known among miners by the name of' dry-bone,' is found, which has the appearance ol melted quartz, being very hard and full of pores, and seems to have been formed by volcanic action. Many of the miners believe it to be the infantile stale of lead ore, from the fact of its having small portions of ore imbedded in it; and, what is somewhat singular, the octagonal shape of (he ore is much better preserved in these particles than in any other species of the ore. 'Dry-bone ' when exposed to n strong heat, loses nothing but a small portion of sulphur which is in com bination with the particles of ore: no effort has yet succeeded iu dissolving the substance. Another substance found in this opening in great abundance is chrystalized sulphur, which, iu consequence of its Dei air in contact with ga lena, and entering into combination with it so easily, has a greyish appearance, which renders the vnlue of the ore deceptive to the eye. Sul phur, at this depth, is also found in combination with lead and arsenic together, so that it pre sents, when broken, a beautiful appearance, the small particles having the appearance of orpi j mcnt, but its color is of a more greyish cast. 1 Dust mineral' is a species of mineralofsoine ' what singular formation. It is sometimes found at the depth of three or four feet from the surface of the ground, intermingled with sand and clay, and in small particles about the size of a grain of sand. It has a bright and sparkling appearence when taken from the earth, and is separated from the clay and sand by being placed on a fil ter in a swifl current of water; the sand and clay being washed away, while the mineral, from its specific gravity, sinks, through the filter into a box beneath. This mineral undergoes the pro cess of smelting with less heat than any other except the ' ash mineral,' yet it does not yield so much per centum of the metal; it, however, has never been found in large quantities, and is con sidered of but little value. ' Kloat mineral' is small detached pieces of 'ash mineral' which have, by the washing of the rains and repeated frosts, become exposed to view. It is found in the bottom of ravines and upon the side of the bluffs where it is clear of grass. It is seldom found except in small pieces of about an ounce in weight, and is considered of no importance further than it denotes the exis tence of a body of mineral in its vicinity. I'HOCESH or SMELTING. The first process observed after the discovery of the mines was smelling in log furnaces, which were constructed in the following manner: a stone wall of about two feet in thickness, eigh teen feet in length, and ten feet in height, was erected at the lower side of a small hi.lock, with an inclination of about thirty five degrees, and Irom the extremities of this wall two wings were built on the upper side, thereby making a hollow space of a triangular form, at the bottom of which a small Hue was left for the double purpose of giving a draught to the fire, and for the lead, when melted, to run intoa vessel placed beneath. Irom which it was put into the moulds by a la dle?when the furnace was finished, logs wire rolled into the space on the upper side, and the lead ore intermingled with fagots and charcoal until the space was filled up, when the logs were ignited and melted the ore, or destroyed the com bination of the lead w ith the sulphur. When the heat was not sufficiently intense, quick-lime was thrown on to increase it. But it was ascertain cd lhat the heat could not be intensity by thi? process to obtain all the leadUh. mineral contained, consequently cupoUJ" ces' were c onstructed in tie following nianner. a large oven was first built, to which waa c BHMl a ' stack' or chimney of front forty tolif ty feel in height for the purpose of giving draught to the fire, and thereby increasing heal; the mineral was then |daced in this ov? n intermingled with charcoal, fago's and quick lime, when the combustibles were ignited. "na the oven, with the exception of small vent-holes, is closed up, and the lead, as it is separated from ihe sulphur, sinks to the bottom of the oven, and is drained off into a basin, from which it is dip ped by ladles into moulds. But these lurnaces, from ihe cost of construction, and from the con stant need ot' repair, have given way to 'blast furnaces,' which are now generally used. These are constructed similar to a blacksmith's forge, having a large billows which is worked by water power, and the mineral, after being beaten up into small particles, is placed on the forge in small quantities mixed with charcoal, lime, and small pieces of pine or linn wood, where, by the means of the bellows, a strong heat is produced. The lead, when separated, tuns off on an incli ned ' apron' into an iron vessel, from which it is dipped into moulds. These furnaces, when well managed, cause the ore to produce more lead than any others yet introduced, bui an inexpert-1 ehccd smelter may produce contrary effects with Yhem in several wf a: for !n*ni?e, if ?<*> much ore be put on at one time, or if the heat is not kept uniform, a portion of the lead will combine wiih the charcoal and lime, and form ' slug ; or should the heat be too grdat, the lead is rendered brittle and of an inferior quality. The chemical change produced in the smelting of lead is, that the sulphur is driven off by means of the heat. The charcoal at the same time ab sorbs the oxygen which has, by exposure to the air combined with the ore ; the lime also absorbs the sulphuric acid, which i? formed by the union of the sulphur of the mineral, ihe oxygen of the air and the water from the wood, which lorms a sulphate of lime. The metal being thus freed from other substances by the heat, becomes fused, and, from its specific gravity, sinks to the bottom and runs off. external indication* or the existence or MINERAL. Krom observations by the miners, it lias be.n discovered that there are several external ob jects which denote the existence of lead ore. li has bei n remarked that blur gr?*? alone grows in the vicinity of mineral. It has also been per ceived lhat over a heavy body of mineral there is a sway or concavity in the external appearance of the earth; likewise over perpendicular crevi ces a peculiar vegetation has been found to exist. An interesting and somewhat singular occur rence in mining is, that perpendicular crevices running north and south, seldom, il ever, con tain lead ore, while those running east and west are seldom found without more or less in them. TheSe last two are sometimes found to run tor miles in a straight line, crossing several ravines in their course; thus when a perpendicular^re vice, running east and west, is found to contain mineral, on one bluff its course is taken, and shafts are sunk on the adjoining bluff. GEMS FROM EMERSON'S ESSAYS. Forms ?Why, being as we are surrounded by this all creating nature, soil and fluid as a cloud or the air, should we be such hard and magnify a few forms? Why should we make account of time, or of magnitude, or ol form ? The soul knows them not, genius, obey ing its laws, knows how to play with them as a young child plays with greybeards and in church es Genius studies the casual thought, and far back in the womb of things, sees the rays part inir from one orb, that diverge ere they fall by infinite diameters. Genius watches the monad through all his masks as he performs the me tempsychosis of nature. Genius detects through the fly, through the catcrpiller, through the grub, through the egg, the constant type of the.indi vidual; through countless individuals thefixid species; through many species the genus; through all "?enera the steadfast type; through all the kingdoms of organized life the eternal unity. Nature is a mutable cloud, which is always and never the same. She casts the same thought in to troops of forms, as a poet makes twenty fables with one moral. Beautifully shines a spirit thro the bruteness and toughness of matter. Alone omnipotent,it converts all things to its own end. The adamant streams into soltest and prec|sc form before it, but whilst 1 look at it, its outline and texture are changed altogether. Nothing is so fleeting as form. Vet never does it quite denv itself. In man we still trace the rudunen s or hints of all that we esteem badges of servitude in the lower races, yet in him they enhance hi. nobleness and grace; as lo, in jEschylus, trans formed to a cow, offends the imagination, but how changed when as Isis in Egypt, she meets Jove, a beautiful woman, with nothing of tm metamorphosis 1'eft but the lunar horns as the splendid ornaments of her brow. Archetypes.?The trivial experience of every day is always verifying some old prediction to us, and converting into thiags for us also the words and signs which we had beard and seen withou heed Let me add a few examples, such as lull within the scope of every man's observation, ol trivial facts which go to illustrate great and con spicuous facts. . A lady, with whom I was riding in the forest, said to me, that the woods always seemed 10 her to wail, as if (he genii who inhabit them sus pended their deeds until the wayfarer has passed onward. This is precisely the thought which poetry has celebrated in the dance of the fairu s which breaks off on the approach of human ti t. The man who has seen the rising moon break out of the clouds at midnight bas l.een like an archangel at the creation of light and o the world. 1 icmember that being abroad oni summer day, my companion pointed out to me a "cloud! which might extend a garter of a mile parallel to the horizon, quite accural! ly' in the form of a cherub as painted over churches a round block in the centre which it was easy to animate with eyes and mouth,supported on either side by wide stretched symmetrical wings. What appears once in the atmosphere may ap pear often, and it was undoubtedly the arche type of lhat familiar ornament. 1 have seen 111 tf, ? sky a chain of summer lightning which at once revealed to me that the Greeks drew from nature when they painted the thunderbolt in the band of Jove. I have seen a snow-drift along the sides of the stone wall which obviously gave the idea of the common architectural scroll to a but a tower. GncATNEH* op Simplicity.?The costly charm of the ancient tragedy and indeed of all the old literature is, that thc#persons speak simply sneak as persons who have great good sense with out knowing it, before yet the reflective habit has become the predominant habit of the mind. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old, but of the natural. The Greeks are not reflective but perfect in their senses, perfect i in their health, with the finest physical organi i /ation in the world. Adults acted with thesiinpli city andgrace of boys. They made vases, tragi dies, and statues such as healthy senses should ?that is, in good taste. Such things have con tinued to be made in all ages, and are now, wherever a healthy physique exists, but, as a class, from their superior organization, they have surpassed all. They combine the energy of manhood with the engaging unconsciousness of childhood. Nobody can reflect J--? conscious act wilh regret orxoniempl. Bwd o hero cannot look down ou the word^or gw^ ui a child. It i? as greal as they. Tht atU* of these manners is, that they belong ?? ? ^ and are known to every man in virtue o h in? once a child; beside thut always there arc individuals who retain these chf rac^r'*''f'-r person of childlike genius and inborn in rgv I, still a Greek, and revives our love of the muse of Hellas. A great boy, ? 1 good sense, is a Greek. Beautiful is Nature in the Philoctetes. But in reading Ibjw hoe apostrophes to sleep, to the stars, . mountains, waves, I feefiime pM^ngaway as an ebbing sea. I feel the eternity of mail, the identity of his thought. The Greek had, it the same fellow beings as I. The stm and nwx . water and (ire, met nis heart precisely as . meet mine. Then the vaunted distinction be tween Greek and English, between < la88J??'! * Romantic seems superlicial and pedantic. W ntu a thought of Plato beconus a thought to ni? when a truth that lired the soul of Pindar "res mine, time is no more. When I fed that we two meet in a perception, that our two souls are tinged with the same hue, and do, as it were, run iuto one, why should 1 measure degrees 01 latitude, why should 1 count Egyptian years Self-Relunce.?Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to lhat iron string. Accent 1 he place the divine Providencc has found for you; llie societies of your cotemi'oraries, the connexion of events. Great men have always done so ana conlided themselves child-like to the genius oi their uge, betraying their perception that I tic Eternal was stirring at their heart, working through their hands, predominating in all tlieir being. And we are now men, and must accept in the highest mind the same transcendent des tiny: and not pinched in a corner, not cowards (teeing before a revolution, but redeemers and benefactors, pious aspirants to be noble clay plastic uuder the Almighty effort, lut us advance on Chaos and the Dark. What pretty oracles nature yields us on tin-s text in the fact and behavior of children, babes and even brutes. That divided and rebel mind, that distrust of a sentiment because our arith metic has computed the strength and means op posed to our purpose; these have not. 1 heir mind being wnole, their eye is as yet uncon quered, and when we look in their faces, we are disconcerted. Infancy conforms to nobody : all conforms to il, so that one babe commonly makes four or iive out of the adults who prattle and play to it. So God has armed youth and puber ty and manhood no less with its own piquancy and charm, and made il enviable and gracious and its claims not to be put by, if it will stand by itself. Do not think the youth has no force because he cannot speak to you and me. Hark . in the next room, who spoke so clear and em phatic ? Good Heavens litis lie! it is that very lump of bashfulness and phlegm which for weeks has done nothing but eat when you were.by, that now rolls out lliese words like bell-strokes. It seems he knows how to speak to his cotem poraries. Bashful or Uld, then, he will know liow to make us seniors unnecessary. The Uhebof Ad\ ersity.?The compensation! of calamity are made apparent to the under standing also, after long intervals ot time. A fever, a mutilation, a cruel disappointment, a low of wealth, a loss of friends, seems at the moment unpaid loss, and unpayable. But In sure years reveal the peen remedial force that underlies all facts. The death or a dear friend wife, brother, lover, which seemed nothing but privation, somewhat later assumes the aspect ot a guide or genius; for it commonly operates re volutions in our way of life, terminates an epoch of infancy or of youth which was waiting to be closed, breaks up a wonted occupation, or n household, or style of living, and allows the for mation of new ones more friendly to the grow th of character. , It permits or constrains the for mation of new acquaintances, and the ri"ceP tion of new inlluences that prove o the hrst importance to the next years; and the man or woman who would have remained a sunny gar den dower, with no room for its roots and too much sunshine for its head, by the falling of the ? walls and the neglect of the gardener, is made the banian of the forest, yielding shade and lryit to wide neighborhoods of men. The Worth or Books.?The effect of any writing on the public mind is mathematically measurable by its depth of thought. How much water does it draw ? If it awaken you to think; if it lift you from your feet with the great voice of eloquence ; then the effect is to be wide, slow, permanent, over the minds of men ; ilI the pages instruct you not, they will die like (lies 111 the hour The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion, is, to speak and write sin cerely. The argument which has not power to reach my own practice, 1 may well doubt, will fail to reach yours. But take Sidney's maxim: " Look in thy heart, and write." lie that wiites to himself, writes to an eternal public. 1 na statement only is (it to be made public which vou have come at ill attempting to satislv your own curiosity. The writer who takes his sub ject from his car and not from Ins heart, sliou <1 know that he has lost as much as he seems to have gained, and when the empty book has gathered all Us praise, and half the people say, ??what poetry! what genius, it still needs fuel to make (ire. That only profits which is profitable. Life alone can impart life; and though we should burst, we can only be valued as we make ourselves valuable. There is no luck in literary reputation. They who make up the final verdict upon every book, are not the partial and noisy readers of the hour when it appears; but a court as of angels, n public not to be bribed, not to be entreated, and not to he overawed, decides upon every man's title !? fame. Only those books come down which ui serve to last. All the gilt edges and vellum and morocco, all the presentation-copies to all llie libraries will not preserve a book in circulation beyond its intrinsic date. It must go with .111 Walpole's Noble and Royal Authors to its late. Blackmore, Kotzebue, or l'ollok may endure (or a night, but Moses and Homer stand forever.? There arc not in the world at any one tunc more than a dozen persons who read and under stand Plato;?never enough to pay tor an edi tion of his woiks ; yet to every come duly down, for the sake of these 1 w per sons. as if God brought them in his hand. No book," said Bentley, " was ever written down bv any but itself." The permanence of all books is fixed by no effort friendly or hostile, but by their own specific gravity, or the intrinsic importance of their contents to the constant mind of man. 'Do not trouble yourself too much about the light on your statue,' said Mi chael Angelo to the young sculptor ; ' the light of the punlic square will test its value. Ladies 1 rho cultivate flover* will gratefully receive the following recipe for destroying a very troublesome reptile. It is taken troui lio vey's Magazine of Horticulture : Worms in pots may be easily destroyed, sim ply by watering the soil with lime water, which may be made by putting a piece of lime, weigh ing about 2Hh. info a pail of water; when the whole is slacked, and well stirred up, it should be allowed to settle. The clear water may then be turned off, and the soil in the pots should be liberally watered with it. The worms will soon leave ihe premises, by crawling out upon the surface, when they may be taken out nml de stroyed. If any remain, another watering may be applied. W e have never found any dilliculiy in destroying them by this method. An lnridr.nl.? An a straml>oat was aboill Ira^ng Whirling, crowded with passenger*, a hearties* niioi observed, lhat he regarded the President'* death s? :? public Meaning. The remark startled those who lioar.l it. and for a time deep silence was the only answer which was made. At length a man venerable in ap pearance and ycara, in a voire stifled with grij' , ? 1 that *u?h wanton levity was not ronaiateni? ith American, and that he would not travel <ntU ? ?. .nk a., ^ in this opinion, and the ' "* 0>( onshore ** being unfit to two^u'f