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if Mich had not Wen retained; and lo signify
ami his counsel, if hi. defence was overruledh?* ' was Hi* wish of the Government that lUe should In; liken for tlie immediate removal ol ? ?Jw,.t of error, lo the Supmne Oourt o? ?he U. ^ StaiM Tlii? was 8U which the Present d.rert?l lo Ik- done. W there are any part of it which W|U O?l ?l Ihe line Of bis duty] u the l^^dent rn fauU for far nislling McLeod with the legal tv.denceofthe .?o? of In. Government of hi. -ct a. a n.lion.1 actl Or f Lee ,.... that he ?? assisted by .Mo council Or for wjuiui to then) thai the place of the excilemcnl was nolthc nioht suitable place lor a fair and impartial trial I Or that this Government, being the only re sts.,. sible party known lo foreign Gover.iu*nU,v.iabwl thai the opinion of the Supreme Court of the United States mighl lie taken, in a pro|ier and legal form, upon the question of public law, if it should In; ruled againat the Yriuonerl Ws. thia succumbing to a foieign Power! Was this yielding lo threat or menace! Wa. thia acting under the influence of fear or an unnecea^ aarv panic" Wai ihia cou.ae calculated honor or dignity of the country, or to put aI h? any of ita interests! l>r unnectssaiily ^ in hostilities! Let the sober and enllghtene J men! of the people anawer. M Crilten 111. suggested that the 1 ilen were communicated to the Brill , htm. I dialely or before the depatch w '^ ev!nee a de feel sure l hat this cannot be ,uff!,|ai|). although il aire hastily to conciliate Urea ^ ,|,J, documents be dnes'not appear, troin any ' ' j" n;caled, yet, if ihey lore us, that .hey were so couunun.cat* (.llher were, there was noih ng f lh<1 erl. necessary or propel$????would do no good tiah Government- viewa of our Govern The M.-tructionaahow^l theview. ot OU^ ^ meat on the que* ,on " ' lly v?l, ?ur inatilutiona sr,y u,r" ' itiiinr in the instructions which the honor or in j vi ceulcd from the Government of Ureal Britain. y ?u. rr clear and explicit; and a copy of them waa sub acqueotly communicated to Mr. Fox ?f Slate, in connexion with ... note ol A -1 There could be no sacrifice ol honor in a Hank and Hieedy avowal of what the Government bad done in t!ie discharge of ita duties to a foreign Government, ao far a* the Conatitution and the laws of the co n y ""l believe'l' hTve now referred to all the particulars? the n'iecificationi of complaint which have btc ..L ,.i hv the Senator. Having commented up gugs, ? > (,u Jrew from them all this infe i ik.t n|)?(>n('t' ot American spirit. A-* ? then^lir.etiv refer to them, and inquue whether these C0'^'^ra;yaX.tu,reS'\,::"uitab1e.anguage, to an implied threat. There was n?;l,l^,^l0J0^ siderthe language as conveying any such '"'IShould not have admitted the rule of public law in such a decided and explicit manner Ne her ho nor nor manly frankness required him ??l?" ? -g doubt uiKin a point of international law wtnc sustained by every principle of J r~~?, ?"d by every modern writer on the la ? Attor I (.? should have abstained from sending the Attor nev General to the State of New York to perioral the acU s|>ecilied in his instructions. McLeod And what were those acts! To furnish Mcl^etHJ with the evidence of the recognition ?wn Government. This was just. 1 he British Go vernment had no communication with the authorities of the'State of New York. Their avowal was to the Government of the United States. No principle? public nolicy can overrule the great principle ol jus Uce.'w'hich deinanded of thia bovernmen. thM hey ?hould not withhold fiom |an individual arraigned or murder evidence in it- pos-ssion wh,ch he deemed e^ nential for his defence. '1 he Attorney General was to see t'tat McLeod had able counsel. Was it de rogatory to the character of this Government, or evi dence ofl'ear, that it was desirous that an individual | whose discharge bad been demanded ot it, finder the law ,.f nations, should have the benefit ot skilful lega advisers ! Was it ihe opposite oMm?ri?.n .>p>ntiand energy, that the Government ot the United otate? should wish, uniler #uch circumstances, that the indi vidual whocouid not be released from confinement under judicial process otherwise than by judi cial process, and in a manner conformable to legal principles and the course of practice in the courts ot justice, should enjoy the advantage of professional men to aid him in theii judicial proceedings 7 I he Attor nt v General was to suggest to the counsel for the pri soner that the President was impressed with the propri ety of transferring the trial from the scene ofthe princi pal excitement to some other and distant county. Ap pealed to as the President had been for the release of McLeod, was it strange that he should be an nous that he should have a fair and impartial trial ? Is this anxiety the result of fear of the power of Great Bri tian 1 Does it manifest a disposition to yield to threats and menace. 1 Is it discreditable to the American character that its Chief Magistrate should wish thai justice should be fairly and impartially administered ( The Attorney General was to signify the wish of this Government that a writ of error should be brought i from the decision of the Court of the State of New York to the Supremo Court of the United States, if that decision was adverse to the immunity claimed by | the prisoner under the law of nations How proper and suitable was ihe course thus pio|H?sedto betaken. I he Government of the United Stit.s, alone responsible (it r>MjHvnsitilc at all) to foreign Governments for any infraction of puhlicliw, was desirous ot having the opinion of its own judicial tribunal u;mn the question of Mich infraction, should it become necessary t>y the adjudication of the State Court. Surely ihe inani- | testation ot such a desire was very far from evincing n . irit ot servile fear, or the want of proper energy | I' was intended to express the opinion ot the Presi- i dent, that the prisoner was entitled to the opinion ot j tin- Supreme Court, if n cessary, and that the Execu- | live deemed it pr..p?-r that such opinion should be oh- j taiurd in the form prescribed by law Now', I inquire ^ whether, in any of these proceedings, considered sepa- j riitely, or in all conjointly, there is manifested any i thing exejit an ardent desire that this Government should act justly and perform il- duty according to the acknowledged principle, of international law 1 And yet. II e late President, the present President, and every Head of Department stands charged willi being wanting in enrr^jy, as not evincing an American spirit, and acting iii a manner discredits!) e lo the American character. Mr. President, the American People will cast no j such siig hi upon ihe character of the illustrious dead, or the honored living This reproach will be repu- I dialed by the great lusty ot the freemen of this nation Tins magnani nous people will continue lo be, as ihev ever have been, just to all nations but jealous ot their own honor, and ever ready to vindicate their rights Instead ot treating an unauthorized invasion of their ternt >rv as the wanton, lawless act of an obscure indi vidual and looking to his execution as a maletact-r, as a reparation for the insulted honor of the countiv.thry will hold the na't n which avows it? the principal m th. act ?liie nation by whose order and under whose authority il was donf?responsible. And while .uch nn individual as n-w tills the Executive chair is their President?while such men as now cot siitute his Ca liinet are Ins constitutional advisers? while a Congress exists which knows w hat are the rights ot the nation, and, knowing, will sustain and defend them, this great nation will hold the authors ot wrongs done to | tier to a just responsibility, anil maintain her integtily, i her honor, and her rights, unsullied and unimpaired. | THE,FISCAL BANK The plan of the Secretary of tho Treasury excites very much commenl. Some are particularly pleaded Willi this provision,some wilhlhal, ami sonic with the other?whilst uthrrs except to this, that, and the other. l"|K>n the whole, we are not advited that public opinion tins assumed a detinue form in respect to the entire selieme. This was to be i xjiected, whatever project was presented. The opinion* of men are so variant ? different person* have so many peculiar not ions of I heir nw 11, in relation to the current , thai no plan, at lirst, c ?ul<l he expectcd to cominanJ universal approbation I'ut this, by decrees, will wear awav. The expurga tion of llie more obnoxious details?coming in aid of conciliation and compromise, and the conviction that some efficient system must be established, will, in the til l. com.nand an adequate support. For our part, we do not feel sufficiently conversant with the subject of such vastness, and comprehension of detail, to express a decided opinion upon all and etery pari I.ike others, we highly approve of some of tlie provisions, whilst there are others not altoge ther so s iii-factory. If the scheme be practicable, and the Mix k be taken, there is no doubt that it will lie at tended vvi h one good effect?it will remove the cur rency question from the arena of party |*>litics and si lie it forever. I5ut lor the piesenl, we are willing to follow the ex ample of President Harrison and ('resilient Tyler, and submit the whole question to the assembled wisdom of the iiaMon. ? fiieh. Il'hiif. A c,.rrcs|iondent asks us to scourge Isaac Hill and divers o'her Locofoco editois, for their ferocious as saults upon the dead Mr. Ogle We cannot under t.iki (hi bus.lie*-. In some of the Ilisiern countries, I hev I ive persons regularly emp oyed, whose In 'sir iii s i! i? to drue the hyenas and other wild beasls out i>( (In ^r?>? vards - L uncillt Journal. t\om the S. V. Times and Evening Star. The Fwcat, Agent.?Th*t the plan of a Bank furnished by the Secretary of the Treasury meet* with objecliona in many of ita detail*, i? quit'' natural and accountable. lie was aware that the locotbcos wanted no bank at all?that some of the whig* had scruples on the subject?that one interest deaired the institution in one place, aud another interest icouiwl it in another place?that one demanded it ahoujd deal in foreign exchange*, while the other *a? in lavor ol confining it to domestic exchange*; in short, not to proceed with objection* to uiany of the details, the Secretary of the Treasury, aware that opinions could not be concentrated or objecliona known until a bill of aoine kind waa prepared, olleiathe nreaent bill for the conaideration of Congresa, and it there is any in tention to ,?.* a Bank bilFat all, or the whig, have aulTuient lorce in the Senate to BOCOOipliah that desira bie object, here ia the plan ofa Bank objectionable it ia true, in aome of ita delaiU, yet autficiently guarded in many to cofer constitutional acruplc*, the basis of the objection*. With thia plan before Congreaa, lei that body proceed, earneally and xealously and in good faith, to make auch ainendmenta as will reconcile pub lic o|iinion, and do aomething to regulate the currency and realore confidence and nation*! prosperity. Objecliona have been m^de tint by locating the mother Bank in the Diatrict of Columbia, you call in i|ueation the conatitutional power of Congress to in corporate any Bank. Although that power bus been exercised, and very property to, in perilou* time*, ne | vertbeleaa doubt* iiave exiated, and do at thia moment exist, whether that |>ower ia *o clearly defined aa to authorize Congress to eatabliah branches in the aev eral State*, without the conaent of their Legislature*. Weouraelve* have never entertained doubt* on the subject; rieveiUieless, the President of the United States himself haa frequently questioned the power* of Congreas on thia subject, and hi* aaaent to a Bank bill mu*t l>e predicated on the tact that the mother Bank ia to be located in the Diatrict of Columbia, wheie there are no doubts that Congreaa possesses every power to eatabliah a Bank. Ifwedeairelo have auch an institution, wc inuat give and take; we muat reconcile opiniona; we must compromise prejudices and allay hoalilities, and do the best we can in the premises. l'he President may be wrong iu some ol hiaview*, but he ia honest in tlieui. and ao far he ia to be sustained. The Whig* cannot hope, nor ahould they desire, to dure the President from any conatitutional objecliona he may entertain, but rather meet them, yield to them, and enable him openly and consistently to do all he can to promote the general proa|ierity. We know the fact, that in the early staneof the difficulties with the old U. Slates Bank had Mr. Diddle, having lean confidence in a coercive power, gone to General Jackaon and raid, " li e wilt take such a charier as, under all circumstances, yuu will/eel yourself justified in signing," the Bank would have been chartered, and the country would have been safe. We have never considered the mother Bank al Washington in any other light than a* a mere auditing department?a mere balance wheel. The capital of the Bank must lie located where it is wanted, and it ia riot wanted in the Diatrict. If, therefore, all the Con stitutional objecliona to a bank ure overcome by loca ting it in the District of Columbia, with branches else where, let it be done. We are in favor of obtaining the content of the Legislatures to the establishment of branches; but the mere consent only coupled with no power to control the capital ol manage the Bank. Se veral Legislatures will, for a time, refuse conaent; but when the Institution ia successfully in operation, and the currency made uniform, and thing* woik well, ercry State will consent, on the ground that it will add to the active cash capital, and bv its circulation mate rially add to the prosperity of the Stale. Let the Whigs, therefore, compromise?give and take?do the beat ihev can, but gel the Bank, and rely on lime and circumstances to make it work right. Senator Taltmadac.?The Philadelphia North American, in announcing the publication of the s|>ecc!i of lion. N. P. T<i.i.M*rx,K, at the dinner given I him "by the friends of the State and National ad- J ministration." on the -tilh ult. says .? Mr. Tallmadge'a speech is characteiixtic of the man. Frank, fearless, and full of ready thought. He was among the earliest to break away from the trammels of "the Magician.'' It was mainly through hia in fluence that the delusion which hung so many years around the |x>lit ical character of the ex-President, was dissipated. Mr. Tallmadge did aa much as any other individual to defeat the election of Mr. Van Buren. It was no personal pique or vulgar prejudice which stimulated his exertions. He was con*cienliou*|y op posed to hi* course, and after Mr. T. avowed Ins op|io sition, it waa carried on with undaunted courage and abilit". Aa an extem|?raneous debater, he ia liral rate. At all the public meetings last fall, he always was received with distinguiahed applause. His history of ihe origin and progress of the aub-Treaury Bill is cu rious, and the predictions of its downfall have now be come matter* of history. Mr. Tallmadge'* talenta and his private virtues are an ornament to hi* country. The paity which receives his friendship and co-opera tion, is'certain of having an erudite, honest and spot less statesman. It may rely upon him at all times, espe cially in great emergencies. A BANKRUPT LAW. Gibbon, in hit " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," vol. 3, page 1 tt-l, holds the following lan guage : " At the expiration of sixty days the debt wag din . charged by the low of liberty or life; the insolvent i debtor was cither |>ut to death, or sold in foreign slave- ' ry beyond the 1 iber ; but [f several creditur? wer.e \ alike obstinate and unrelenting, they might legally ; d^mrm''Cr his budy, and satiate their rerenge by this | horrid partition." Such were the legal rights of property, as establish- ; ed in the lamous code of the Twelve Tables of An- j cient Roman Law. It is worthy of note that the same ( argument used by the Romans to justify the partition I of the body of the unlortuate debtor among Ins ere- | ditois, is now employed to justiiy, in the nineteenth century, the peculiarly American practice of making innocent and unfortunate debtors slaves lor life lo their heartless creditwis. In the next sentence to the one above quoted, Gibbon says : " The advocates for this savage law have insisted that it must strongly operate in deterring idleness and fraud from contracting debts which they were unable to di>charge." We are willing to concede that a debt past due and unpaid is prima Jacie evidence of guilt, and in default of property that the debtor ought to be punished. All we contend for is, that when the debtor can prove in open court t!ia< III* failure to redeem Ins promise to pay it purely a imsf une, and not a fault, and that he tins honestly ap, imi ttie whole of his etlects to the dm chaige ol tiis pecuniary liabilities us fa. as they w ill go, that in such case should public policy anil the rights ol' humanity demand the forgiveness of the I detit. The God that made us command*all men todo unto others as they would have others do unto them ; and no man ha< a rijiht lo ask t'orgivene s ol lus Hea venly Father, that does not fret Iv forgive those who trespass against him. There is no viriuous man who tinds himself, by some unforeseen calamity, unable to |*y all his debts, that is willing to have Ins creditors liold judgments over linn duMig his whole life, which he can never even ho|ie to cancel. Why, then, should creditors have the legal right to inflict a cruel moral wrong upon innocent debtois, when the wrong works no beneht but a positive injury lo the creditors them selves. The Federal Constitution render* it the duty of Congress to "establish uniform laws upon the subject of bankruptcy throughout the United Siates." It is conceded on all hnmls, hv political opponent*, as well as by personal and political friends, that there does not live nil abler or sounder Constitutional lawyer than Daniel W< lister. The following is his deliberate opi nion, most solemnly expressed in the United States Senate, in regard to the |ia*sage of a Bankrupt Law. " I low can we, how dare we, make a perfectly dead letter of this part of the Constitution, which we have sworn to support 1 The insolvent persons have not the power of locomotion. They cannot travel fiom Slate to State. They, are prisoners. To my certain knowledge tin re are nnny who cannot come here to the seal of G vernment, to present their petitions to Congress, so great i? their tenr that some creditor will dog their heels, and arrest them in some intervening I State, or in this District, in the ho|ie that friends will appear to save them, by payment ol his debt. "These are truths, not creditable to the country, but they are truths I am sorry for their existence. Sir, there is one crime, quite too common, winch the laws of men do not punish, but which cannot esca|>e ibe justice of God . and that is, the arre-it and confine ment of a debtor, bv his creditor, without any motive on earth, but the hope that some friend or relative, perhaps almost as |>oor as himself, lii* mother, it may be, or Ins sister, or tin daughters, will give up their own little pittance, and make beggars of themselves, to save turn from the horrors of a loathsome jail. Hu man retribution may not |>e net rate the thnty heart that perpetiates it . but an hour is surely coming, with more ilian human retribution on Ills wings, when that llinl shall be melted, either by the power of penitence and grace, or in ihe tiros of remorse. The friends of a Bankrupt Law ei|>ect the efficient influence of Mr. Wcbsier id favor of this great and indispensable measuro of national relief. By his mas terly sp?ichcs, and those of General Harrison, Clay, Crittenden, Clayton and all the moM distinguished Whig stautmen, in support of a Bankrupt Law?by iu unanimous recommendation by a lale Whig Legis lature of thw Brest State, and Whig Legislatures of other State*?by ill ardent and xealou* advocacy by ninety-nine out of every hundred Whig presses in the Union?and more than all, by the prayer of hundreda of thousand* of petitioner*, and the demand of the Sovereign People, the Whig Party in bound and pledged nut to |ieiuiit " the Constitution to remain a | iierfeetly dead letter," *o far an the right* and interests of both breditors and debtota may be benefitted by a wise and humane law on the subject of Bankruptcy. CANADIAN PARLIAMENT. I.oril Sydenham's Speech. ? In an extra frooi the Oswego Commercial Herald we have the proceeding* at the opening of the first united Parliament of Cana da, on Monday laat. The inenilier* of the Council and Aaaembly were swoin in at noon, after which the Assembly proceed ed to the election of Speaker. Austin CumIIkt, I jmj member for 1 Iuntinguon, waa elected without opjio *ition, th" nomination of Allan McNab being with drawn, at Iii* own request. Mr. Cuvillier in a merchant of Montreal, a French Canadian, lie wa* at one lime a Papineau reformer but ?eroded from that distinguished gentleniin aome yeaiaago. 1 ie i* reckoned, however, among the reform er*, or rather anti-uniom*t?, and i* a man of decided ability. While a member of the Parliament of Lower Canada he wa* comiderrd one of ita foremost men. The *peech of Lord Sydenham touches upon se veral topics of interest, but as much of it reiatea lo matter* not of general importance, and aa we are much Rlrailened for room, we mak* only a summary with extracta. The tirst aublect alluded to is the McLaod case; as to which, however, his Lordship only says that he has ?'the (JLueen's command* to assure her faithful subjects in Canada of her Majesty'* fixed determination to protect them with the whole weight of her power." Next come* the post office. A commission has been appointed to inquire into and rc|>ort upon the whole post office system of British North America, with a view to the establishment of a plan securing improve ments within the colony equal to those alresdy obtain ed in the communication with the mother country. Bills will tie prepared on many subjects of great im portance, prominent among which are well develojKHl and extensive public works, the improvement of the navigation from the shores of LakeKrie and Huron to the Atlantic, and the establishment of new internal communication in the inland districts?for which the home Qovernmeut will call on the Imperial Parlia ment ta afl'ord assistance. The relief proposed will be a loan of a million and a half sterling, under the guarantee of the Imperial Treasury. A scheme for the settlement and disposal of the public lands will be submitted. The following passage we quote verbatim It appear* highly desirable that the principles or lo cal self-government, which already prevail tosomeex tent throughout that part of the piovince which was formerly Up|M*r Canada, should receive a more ex tended application there, and that the people should exercise a greater decree of jsiwer over their own lo cal all'airs. I have directed a measure u|>on this sub ject to l>e submitted to you, and 1 solicit your earrest jatienlion to the establishment of such a form oflucal self-government for those districts of the proviirea which are unprovided with it, as may insure satisfic tion to the |ieople, while it preserve* inviolate the |ffr rogative of the Crown, and maintain* the administra tion of justice pure trom party and popular excitement. The subject of immigraton is next averted to.?The publir works intended to be undertaken will aflVrd large encouragement to immigrants, and farther the home Government will assist in laciliating their [its sage from the [sirt at which they laud to the place where their lubor is to be made available. To tkis end a vote of money will lie projiosed to the Imperial Parliament. Due provision for the education of the people is strongly recommended. Lord Sydenhair announces the determination of the home Government lo devote annually a large sun for the military defences of the province -andfempha i ballvfdeolares the fixed determination of the Clueen o minntain her North American |ios?e*sions at all hat The speech concludes with an earnest appeal to the rovincial Parliament to second the efforts of the ome Government. DlcU, In thin cilv. on Sunday morning, Mrs. FRAN CES SELDEN, wife of Major Cary Selden, in. the 54th year of her age. She wan an humble Christian, a sincete frienJ, a dutiful wife, and an affectionate mother to her devoted children. Her meekness, disinterestedness, piety, and resignation, were illuHtrated In a persevering devotion to every domestic and religious duty which adorns the excellence of female character, and mum soften the dibtreuses of her afflicted family, by offering the assur ance that her sufferings have ended here, and that she ha* gone to the mansion of bliss, to receive her high rewards in a joyful anil eternal life. In this city, 20th instant, Mr. ISAAC COOPER, aged 64 years, for many years a respected resident of this city, leaving a disconsolate widow and a large circle of family connexions endeared to him. " Their loss, his eternal gain " "VTOTICE.?The Public are respectfully invited to J_\ attend the delivery of an Address, by Richard S. Coxe, E*<| ,upon the life and character of VVm. Hr.NRY Harrison, late President of the United States, before the National Institution for the Promotion of Science, (of which he is a member,) at the Baptist church on 10th street, this evening, at H ,:'clock. ROBERT LAWRENCE, WM TURN BULL, BENJ OGLE TAYLOE, Committee. NOTICE is hereby given that an election of nine Directors of the Union Company, and for nine Directors of the I'nion Potomac Company, will be held at the office of James Wm. McCulloch, in Balti more, on the third Monday in July next. By order of the Board : june 24?law3w D GREEN, President. Three Capitals of 2'.out) Dollars. Amounting to $75,000. On SATURDAY, 20ih June, lft4l,the U N I O N L O T T E R Y, Class No. 6, for 1841. Will be drawn at Alexandria, D. C. GRAND PRIZES. 1 of $25,000 ) 3 of 25,000 Dollars 1 of 25,1*00 > AitE 1 of 25,000 \ 75,000 Dollars. I prize of 810,000 I 50 prizes of SI.000 I do 5.IHI0 50 do 5O0 1 do 2,477 I 50 do 300 50 do of 8250?05 of $200, &c. Tickets $ 10?Halves S5?Quarter! $2 50. Certificates of packages of 20 whole Tickets, S140 ( 0 Do. do. 20 half do 70 00 Do. do. 2t5 quarter do 35 00 For Tickets and Shares or Certificates of Packa ges in the above Splendid Lotteries,?addiess D. S. GREGORY ?Si CO. Managers, Washington, D. C. Drawings sent immediately after they are over to all who order as above. juno l7-d3tAcl MRS. THOMSON hasjust taken, and fitted up, the well known stand, as a'Boarding House, at the corner of Wth street, anil Pennsylvania avenue, where she will lie pleased to accommodate Members of Congress, or others, who may honor her with their custom. june 17 (lORCORAN <Si RIGGS will purchase or collect J drafts on any part of the Union. Drafts on Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, anil Bos'on, always for sale. Slate, City, Bank, and other Stocks, liought and ?old to order. june I?tf /""CLASSICAL DICTIONARY by Professor An thon of Columbia College, New York, Just published, 1W11. and this day received for sale by F. 1'AYLOR, in one volume of I 100 pages (CORPORATION at Washington Six per Cent J Stock, for sale by CORCORAN & RIGGS. june l!>-3t /CULTIVATION MANUFACTURE AND FOREIGN TRADE OF COTTON ?By the S'Kretary of the Treasury?Senate Document ?120 (wiges with Notes and Tables A remaining co pies f it sale by F. TAYLOR, price 37cents. * ma v I / 1 K< >L< H AS A SCIENCE t| plied to the He 'X cl.nnation ot Li ml from the Sea, the Construe turn of Harbors, the Format ion of Rail (toads, and the I >isenverv of Coal By John llnoke, 1 vol. London, 1H.J0, just importeil by F T AYFOR. and other valu able works on Geology,Mineralogy and other branch es of Natural Science. may 4 O UT LINES OF ANATOMY AND PHYSI _ OLOGY, translated from the French ot Milne Edwards, by J F. Lane. M IV, I volume octavo, just published 1811 for sale by F TAYLOR. THE MADISONI AN. WASHINGTON CITV. THURSDAY, JUNE 24. 1841. In TlllWB THINUS WHIt.'H ABC KMKNTIAL UtT TIIKHE ?e UNIT*?IN NON-KM?NTUL?, UBMTV ; AMD I" all thinum chasitv.?Auguilin. THE McLKOD ('ASK. The correspondence between the Stcwliry of State and Mr. Fox, and the recent debate* in the Senate upon tins subject, parts of which have appeared in our columns, have, we think, placed this 44 vexed question" in clear light.? The speech of Mr. Huntinuton, of Connecticut, which will be found in another part ol this pa-, per, is an able and natisfactorv argument, meet ins,' nearly every point of objection presented by the ingenious Senator from Pennsylvania, Mr. Buchanan, and explaining and vindicating the views and conduct of the administration. hat inferences may we draw from what has thus far been said and written on this subject ? First, it appears, both by American and Eng lish law, and from the nature of law in the hands of municipal authorities, that McLeod, being once in Court, cannot get out except by habeas corpus, or by the regular action and course of law as administered by the judic ial forms. The Secretary of Slate has brought this point home to the Briiish Government, in his letter to Mr. Fox, and they will see the un reasonableness and futility of their demand.? They have the lesson at home, in (he action ol their own courts. Next, the law of nations is competent to as sert its jurisdiction over municipal courts in such a case, and may come in with the power of a habeas corpus to the rescue of a prisoner. The law of nations is above municipal law, and may suspend its action, or effect. In other words, municipal courts may coniider, and are bound to consider, not only whether a prisoner may be set at liberty by their own code, but whether he, being a foreigner, may plead in bar of judgment, the law of nations. Munici pal courts cannot set aside the claims of this latter code, except at the hazard of war. It seems to have been made clear in the de bates of the Senate, first, that the attack upon and the destruction of the Caroline, was an act of war, since the British Government acknow ledged it as their own act. And next, thai in dividual responsibility in acts of war is merged in that of the great public parties. This prin ciple brings ihc case of McLeod under the law of nations. Nevertheless, he cannot be released, till the case be heard and dccided upon in court by this rule. Messrs. Buchanan, Benton, and other Sena tors, are clearly at fault in this argument. They are involved in the gross paradox or absurdity, that an aggrieved party may bring two parties into court for the same offence, and hang the one, and shoot the other, the first as a passive agent, having nu power to authorize, without being hung or shot, because he was acting un der a fore.gn and independent jurisdiction, and the second, because, being an independent and corporate sovereignty, it authorized the act.? No doubt the latter is amenable to the law of nations, or to the laws of war; but the former could not, with propriety, be hung for doing that which he would have been shot for not doing. The peculiar and persuasive eloquence of the Secretary of State has brought every American feeling up to the mark, and we do not believe there is one citizen of this republic, who would not look upon Mcl^eod with as much pity as contempt for his silly boasting, bid him go and hang himself, and turn with lofty pride to hold to account an equal and sovereign power that has violated our soil, shed the blood of our citi zens, laid waste our property by fire, and out raged the feelings of humanity, by drawing the living with the dead of the ill-fated Caroline, while the vessel was in flames by the incendia ry's hand, into that torrent which bears its bur den to swift and horrible destruction ! Since the deed is avowed as a national act, every man sees, that national redress alone can be demand- | ed. When the British Government says to our j Government, 44 We did it," are we to persist in ' saying to Alexander McLeod, 41 You did it, sir," and then hang him for it ? The sugges- i tion alone is enough to awaken the indignant scorn of every American heart ? The argu ment of Messrs. Buchanan, Benton, & Co., would quench the civilization of three thousand years in the fiie of their hot words, and revive the usages of the most barbarous nations and ages t THE RICHMOND ENUU1RER?FISCAL AGENT. The Richmond Enquirer ia growing exceed ingly impudent, and on some points recently has shown itself mendacious. Some time since we publi>hed a communication favor.ng the sub scription of the General Government to certain State work^, to which we totally dissented in the same paper in our editorial columns. The Enquirer, however, put forth the most obnoxious features of the communication, omitting the ed itorial disclaimer, and palmed upon its readers the false pretence that such were the principles of the Madisonian. We gave it time and oppor tunity to correct the misrepresentation. But it doubtless served its purpose to produce the false impression, and it prefers it shall remain. In this instance the Enquirer has fulfilled the pre diction of scripture, viz : "that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to sedtiring spirits and doctrines of devils ; speaking lift in hypocrisy, hat-in# their con science stared with a hot iron." In Ins last paper the editor has scribbled a long editorial in favor of a long session of Congress, in opposition to his Baltimore brother, and in ridicule of the Trea-ury plan of a Fiscal Agent, affecting at the same time (most absurd pre sumption) to be the organ, the adviser, and the dictator of the President, while lie charges a i want of veracity, and a want of dignity upon liis cabinet.- He even intimates that the Madi j soman falsifies the views of the President, and undertakes to deny that the President approves , of the "general features" of the Treasury plan ! Was impudence and vanity, the like of tins,ever equalled in an opposition print? We did not J say that the President approved all the sugges ? t ions of the Treasury Department; we intended j to be understood as expressing our opinion I ruerelv that the principle of the plan was ap ^ proved And ?u we understand it to be. Some of the details may be objections > . ^ ^ limp* should be oniUted-^nie imp' (hem in Seuate committee have alr< a > " rt.lenCe i it..i ilii rt- can be no preu some particulars. Swing's plan claim* that the principle of Mr. 1- l . any thing new, or surrender, any thii g -f ^ a oubstantive proposition, standing y . gav, it is perfectly constitutional. V\ c a "y,,nd that the lent of the State, can make a thing constitutional which before was ul" IZLl AllwecUimU .hatCongreMhjU undisputed power to establish a bank in > met and that the States have a right, equally indisputable, to establish banks within their juris r. No?f??ii8h enough,o dc;ny 1 s i r 4'?riv vpon To pronounce the Prl" 'XL- of Mr. E"I'" "< J""""1"" plicable and unjustifiable. ' Hut the Enquirer concede, something, li seems to abandon the sub-Treasury tc,.U ate and even approaches the long-denounced, lu way house," the State Bank system whtch Mr Wise seems to thiuk the worst of all. * Enquirer admits that 'a Jucal agtncy may be established from Washington, through thesound specie-paying banks, or other agencies, ^aud at several point,, which, With wise and well guarded restriction*, ...ay answer all the purposes of the Treasury." The Madi.ou.an would b inconsistent if it did not admit its belt.-1 ?i ? truth of this proposition. The columns o ? paper in 1837-'3? will bear testimony that we E. spent much time and labor in endeavoring ,o prove ... Hut the President, in his message, int mated that the State Bank was disapproved, and the Secretary of.he! rea , J L Finance Committee of the^enate have presented different propositions. Shall w e attempt to set up our humble opinions in oppbsi tion to either ? We have spread before our read er, both the report of Mr. Ewing and that of Mr Clay. It remains lor our friends in i gress to adopt such plan as shall seem best cal^ culated to succeed and to promote the gnat iu t,rests of the country. We trust some satisfac tory plan will be adopted, and we hope that all branches of the Government will, by proper con cessions, so harmonise as to carry out the wishes of the People. We are content to leave the whole matter to the wisdom of those whose du ty it is to act upon it, not doubting that their dis cretion and conciliation will accomplish the great objects we all have in view. PROVISION FOR GENERAL HARRISON'S WIDOW. Wc wore no let* .hocked than mortified at the course of debate in the House of Representative. on the b.ll to provide lor the widow Harrison and family especially a. the opposition to filling up the > an $25,000, or one year s salary. It is obvious that the eitr.ord.nary .xpenses of moving to Washington, and setting up here, added to the derangement of do meslic affair, at North Bend, must have amounted to many thousands of pecuniary sacrifice. Would a urea, and generous nation measure the indemnilic. tion to the family by an exact estimate of the disvan tage and loasl It would be an insult to every good feeling to .oppose it. The American People would never have been able to respeet themselves, they would be forever infumou. in the eye. of the world, if they had been capable of providing less than a year s sala ry. It may be doubtful whether that will fully indem nify the family for the losses which the estate will have incurred by the generou. saciifice. ol General Harrison on the altar of his country. We were es|iecially .hocked by the argument built on the follow clause of the Constitution ?" 1 he Pre .ident shall, ?t stated time., receive for hi. services, a compensation which shall neither be increa^d nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that pe riod any other emolument fioni the L'nued States, or any of theui"?by which U was attempted to be shown, that, as General Harrison served only one month, a quarter's salary would be a very liberal allowance' Gracious Heaven' we might say?what was this rule intended for, a living man, or a dead one In reading U, one would suppose it was intended for a living man. But when the decree of the Almighty come, in, and arrest, the career of the incumbent ot tin. high place at the end of one .hort month, as tounding half the world with the event, and tilling the nation with teat., are the feeling, of thai nation to be insulted by its representative. as soon as they lake their seal, in the National Councils, while the mourning emblems are hanging over the Speaker s ; Chair, in being told, that the lamented patriot served b?i one month, and therefore his bereaved family are j entitled only to one month's |Ay 1 Would to Heaven, ! tha the record of that argument could be blotted troni | our annals! It Wat conceded, indeed, lliat the heart ot" the na tion goes for a libeial allowance, while cantidtrahon puui-es, Fur ourselves, #f want nothing but heart in such a matter. There are time* when it i? better toi a nation to be governed by its heart, than by the cold neiui ol' calculation, anil it tliio is not one of those oc casions, We know not where to find it. Avaunl, ye that would Count dollar* and cents on the grave ot a nation's Chief, and protest that it costs too much u> bury him! Wc desire no fellowship with such sordid spirits. They c.mnol have sou s that we would company with. l'liey cannot be patriot*.? They can have no conception of the moral sublimity ol patriotism. They would sell the souls of a wLole nation for money. We lament that the Ilnlls of our National Legisla ture should have been disgraced by such a scene If Congress had passed that vote tub lilentio, without a single word?if they had looked upon the crape which hang in mockery on their arms, and ii|>on the drapery of mourning which they ordered to be suspended in those Chambers?if they had recollected the feeling of this whole nation when the news of Gen. Harmon's death saluted their ears, they should have been lietter fitted to treat this subject as becomes a great and be reaved people. The people arc right, and will be right They will enlv regret that their representatives could have been guilty of such levity on such a theme, and that they could have done any thing other on this oc casion than the noble acts which might have been elected, and which alone could honor them. We say to Congress in the name of the people?for wc are persuaded the people will respond to the senti ment?give to the IIatrison fsinily one month's /><ay and no more, or else do something worthy of the na tion. General Harrison was inaugurated the 4th of M*rch and died the 1th of April, 1841. To I* more exi.ct, it wanted 11 hours and 30 minutes of a month, from the tune lie took the oath of office till his spirit ascended to Heaven to give account for hit life of de votion to his country, and for the brief hour of his high honors. We desire these men to be scrupulously eiact in the settlement of this account, if thev go on that prin ciplc. If they and the nation must l? damned to in famy, let there lie a good reason for it Let it lie proved, that General Harrison lived II hours and 3<l minutes lesa than a month afier hi* inauguration, and that, on Constitutional and commercial principles, his widow, heirs, ?X?cuton, and assignee* are entitled to whatever fraction of a year's (alary thu rule may de (ermine?so many dollar*, ao many ccrils and ao uiuiv mil la?so much, and no more! Yea, let ua be gre?lly infamous, worthy of txa.t, ?r greatly nohle. Presidents do nol die often No oiln i haa died in our history, and will nol |?rba|?. again : r a century t?> come. There is one consideration that ought to lie addi I Kveiy one knows, the people all know, that a pul I man, who consents, at the |ieo|ile'a rail, to l>e a < a.i dale lor the Presidency, if he be worthy ol Mich ?? honor, enter* upon a career of devotion to hi* country which necessarily involves the sacrifice 0f prnale , lerests, othei than hi* country's gratitu , on a lar. .* acale. The salary of 895,000, with the dignity of t|? office lo suppoit, cannot be named a* a compensation Honor, anil ? lie, high [gralifii ation of nerving one* country, is I he reward. Never did a man, with more patriotic or more holy zeal, resign private advantage for public good than General Harrison, in yielding to the call ol Ins coun try. It must be app.irent to all, that Inn private oute anil fortune, us inherited by hut widow and family will have suffered, in all probability, tsore than one year's salary as President, by the unexpected an.I mournful event of his death at surh a time We ?hai| be greatly disappointed, if it should proxe that the appropriation of S^JS.OOO will be a fair indemnification We certainly do not believe it. Can a noble minded, grateful people consent that to the widow's tears of bereavement, and liereavrment so deep and inconceivable, shall be added a ruinous embarrassment of her estates, by the generous sacri fice of hnr depuited husband 1 The widow Hamsun ami her family are left at North Bend?the mil ? kiiuiCb hoic! They any nothing? they auk nothinr The story is a short one. Indeed, our heart is op pressed with pain, when we think it is necessary to say any thing on this subject. Thanks lo that God who has given the American people a heart, which will brook no argument on this theme, which leajs. heaven-moved, to the point we aim at, and is then b\ a challenge from on high, long before it could be prompted by any earthly movement. With a soft and gentle hand, without one word, with naught but tear* of sympathy and regret, the American people would inarch and deposit the trilling boon in the widou - hand, and turn to thi ir homes with silent indigri.iti.iri at the unworthy conduct in the Capital of the Nati. n which has so grudgingly, captiously, and fadiuusU voted them leave to do it. tiie globe and extra globe. The Globe has established a moat unenviable noto riety. The recklessness of its course is pretty gene rally understood among lho?e who have an opportunl ly of correcting its misrepresentations and unfuirne-s by having access to other channels of information Its principles and its party having been overthrown by an abused and oppressed people, it seeks to revenge 11 ( self on those to whom the confidence of the people lia* j been transferred. Its special employment now i* tn I misrepresent and give one-sided views of the proceed ings of Congress^ so far as such a course can be brought . to bear unfavorably upon the friends of the Adminis tration. Scarcely a day passes but the Globe contain. [ some unjust and unfair imputation on individual mem bers. Some members, particularly are constantly and habitually caricatured, and ihnr course and remarks wholly perverted. We apeak, of course, of the edito rial, and not ofthc reporters' columns. Every thing i? distorted; and whoever looks to the editorials ot that paper (or any thing like a just, or fair, or liberal ac count of what is passing in Congress, will look m vain. All this is well understood here; and il all lis read ers abroad had the same opportunity that we have ot' detecting its errors and injustice, we should have deemed it unnecessary to say a word on the subject But hundreds and thousands of the Extra Globe, tilled up with the choicest fictions and the most "malignant fancies," arc sent into every section of the country, and read by those who have scarcely any other source of political information. It is thus that the poison is instilled into the public mind, and thousands ol honest, well-meaning people, imbibe erroneous views ol men and things. We took occasion to look into a number of the Lx tra Globe a few days since, and we found I. made up of perversions and the grossest misrepresentations ol the piinciples and proceedings of the Administra ion and its friends. It was a distillation ot their "daily abuse of the Government, reboltlod and corked up t-r distant markets. This isihe same Extra continued, which so many of the j>re?cnt ojiceholdert, in this ciiy and elsewhere, have heretofore been industriously fir culaling by cart loads. It is not now seen much here, except in the Congressional folding-roomt, and in packages of hundreds at the boarding-houses ol th.e Opposition members, and on their way through the post office?East, West, North, and South Every uighl, just after dark, the negro servants, from the boarding-houses and elsewhere, m.y be seen bending under sacks full of them, making tlieir way to ttie |>o*t office. Its circulation is kept up with astonishing in du-try , and what amount of error and delusion it may instil into the minds of the confiding and unsus pecting. in a given space of time.it may be difficult to estimate. Bui it will, perhajis, l>e seen, by and by, un Uss our friends, in every part of the country, take some pains to counteract the poison. We know, indeed, that the intelligent ofthc Globe* own party do not even profess to place confidence in its political statements. There are hundreds, if not thousands, who take it for certain purpoiet, but who take some other paper to get correct political informa tion. We sebbim notice the misrepresentations of the G obe to which we hav? alluded. To expose them?l| would take loo much of our time. But we have fe.t it due to our friends, in both Houses of Congress, to ihe Administration, and to the public, to put tlie honr.-t people of the country on their guard against the poli tical influences of a publication so unworthy of trust and confidence. PitTonui. II.t.1 "TUITIONS or the Bible, N York Robf.iit Scahs. This is a very neatly printed, octavo volume, upon a very popular plan, and has already run thiough nine editions It contains two hundred engravings, embracing views in the Holy Land, and remarkable objects mentioned in the Old and New Testaments, repiesenting, also,sacred historical events, copied frem celebrated pictures by the old masters, the lands< ape ncenes made from sketches taken on the s[m>i The editor h;>s also desetilted the several subjects in a concise, yet comprehensive and satisfactory man m?, and thus made a volume useful for the general reader, and highly accejitable to the Christian commu nity. We understand an agent for the sale ol the volume is now in the city. MORMONS Extract of a letter from the vicinity of Nauvoo (Illi nois.) "The excitement ?n both sides of the river agninst the Mormons is increasing very fast I be conduct ol Jo Smith snd tbe oilier leaders is such at no commu nity of trhilt men can tolerate, Il is the entire ab sence of all moral and religious principle that render I hem so obnoxious to tbe GentiUs of all denomina lions, wherever they reside. J.i Smith was yesterday arrested, between Nauvo. and Umncy, by the authorities of Illinois, on a requi sition from the Governor from Missouri. May jusii" lie meted out to him for Ins villainy. "Martin Harris, who was one of the witnesses n the hook of Mormon, and who has been for some tun' lecturing in Illinois against the Mormons, was I'"1"' dead last week, having been allot through 'he He was, no doubt, murdered.