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R. i>ougl*M, *f Alton arte, V?- John Rowiett, of
Petersburg, V?., J. W. Compton, of Louisiana, and H Nieoll, of the oily of Now York. The Committee having obuued leave to ail during th? session of the meeting, retired, and on their return reported the fotiuwiiig preamble and resolutions : Whereas, we regard ibe Constitution of the United State*, aa a federative compact between aoveirign Stale*, and aa the aole instrument by which the Gov ernment of the United Statee puwease* and exercke* power; and whentM, we b.liuvr that when (he pow er# conferred by the Conatitution' are transcended by the Legislative Department, it becoiuea the duly of the President to inteipoee hi* constitutional veto ; and when a*, we find in the Conatitution no provision which authorise. Congress loaatabliah a Bank of the United States; therefore, 1st. /faulted, That John Tyler, President of the Untied Statee, in refusing hia sanction to the bill en titled "An Act to incorporate the Subscribers to the Fiacal Bank of the United State*,'' ha* acted under a proper *enae ol' hi* official duly ; and regarding the Message in which he ha* communicated to the Senate hi* objection* to the bill a* denying to Concres* the right to incorporate a Bank of thu United State*, he has, in our judgment, given a correct interpretation arid aound construction of the provision* of the Con stitution. &1. lit sotted, That from hi* former course and oft repeated opinion*, the country had a right to expect the refusal of hi* sanction to the bill to incorporate the subscriber* to the Fiscal Bank of the United State*. 3d. Huulved, That his integrity in resisting per suasion, and his firmness in disregarding menace, com mand our highest admiration. 4ih. Haul red, Thut jhe proceeding* of this meet ing be signed hy the Chairman and Secretary, and a copy of them be transmitted to the President. 5th. Hctolred, That a copy of the proceedings be sent to the Madisonian, the Globe, the National In telligencer, the Richmond Enquirer, and thu Rich mond Whig, with a request that they will publish the' same. Which said preamble and resolutions being separately considered, were unanimously adopted, anu thereupon the meeting adjourned. TH. H. BAYLY, Chairman. Henry Nicoll, Secretary. FOR TUB MADISONIAN. SOUTHERN LITERARY MESSENGER. Mr. Editor: I enclose you a short critique on the number of this popular periodiial, for July and Au gust, which has just made its appearance ; and my re marks will have, at least, this recommendation, that they are made after a careful perusal (a very unusual circumstance, you know, for critics) of the various articles. The first article is on Spain?rebuking the deroga tory and denunciatory spirit in which that country and its gallant people are too often spoken of here, and throughout Protestant Christendom,? and endeavor ing to show that the reproaches usually cast on them were the fuults of the age rather than of the Spaniards themselves. The article is well written, foicible, and striking. The " Fatherlpss Daughter," a tale of treachery> desertion and misery, is finely conceived and affect ingly told. " Adventure and Scenery in the Far Southwest," is greenish, sophomore, and unworthy the Messenger. " Leigh Hunt," by H. T. Tuckerman, is in the usual style of that interesting essayist " Aboriginal Names," " Extracts from the Journal of an American Naval Officei," and " Murty O'Hanly," are all well dune, and woith reading. " The Clarionet," by Wm. Carleton, is a story of a higher caste of thought?full of nature, pathos, and * ouching incident?and calculated to inteiest the feel ings and improve the heart. There is also a biographical sketch of " L. E. L."? an account of the University of New York?remarks on the Wyoming Valley?and a notice of Lieutenan1 Maury, U. S. N.?which display ability, and are highly creditable to their authors. We cannot say aa much for ''Paintings in Pro file," and we hope the artist will hereafter send his wares to some other market. Bi sides these articles which wo have particularly noticed, there are no less than forty-nine others, inclu ding |>oetical piece* and literary notices, and affording a large fund of valuable and interesting reading. On the whole, this is one of the ablest among the many able numbers with which Mr. White has re galed his patrons, and we trust it will be the means of adding to the purse of the Editor, as well as of increas ing the reputation of his journal. X. THE BANK BILL. It ix no longer a question of doubt that the Exchange Bank Bill of Mr. Sergeant, should it be sent to the President for his approbation, will be vetoed, indeed, his friends hold him bound to veto the new bill upon the same principles that he vetoed the modified bill of Mr. Clay. The bills are said to oe twin sisters, and belong strictly to the same family. The impression seems to gain ground that it would be best, everything considered, that no bank bill should be passed at this session of Congress. I he President nas not had tuna to deliberate fully upon this great question' By December next he and those who inny surround him as Cabinet members, may be able, in all probability, to submit some hill tor the regulation of the currency that may inset with pretty general approbation. No time will he lost by putting the matter off for the present. Neither the stock in Mr. Clay's bill nor the stock in Mr. Sergeant'* bill would have been sub scnhed?supplementary legislation would certainly be required in both instance*, before subscription. Under these circumstances, the strongest bank men in the country ought not to object to the postpone ment of the whole question for examination during a lew months. The great error result* from some of the Whig party, who aie for what they call prompt action. 1 hey have met, they say, to pass a hill, ami think a bill must be passed forthwith. For our selves, we are for full deliberation on all subjects, espe cially when a charter for a Bank of the U. State* is to be passed upon. The rapidity with which the second Bank bill pass ed the Mouse would seem to have excluded the usual course of deliberation. It is now before the Senate in its hasty march. Some.think it will be laid on the ta ble. It this should not be the case, it will go in quick time to the White House, when it will certainly be ve toed. The present week has u multitude of stirring events of great political moment hanging on Us skirts.? I'Uil Am. Setdinel. ADJOURNMENT OF CONGRESS. As the Land Bill lus passed the Senate, and only waits the concurrence of the House in a single amendment, w hen this shall have taken place, would it not be wi?o in the Whigs to adjourn I All the great objects of the extra session, except the estab- | lishment of a Fiscal Agent, having been achieved. The Whigs have done nobly and their constitents are well satisfied. Their friends are filled with joy, and their opponents are covered with dismay. As lor the Fiscal Agent, the Government can man age without it for the short period ofthrec months. Let it rest in the Senate where it now is, anil be taken up again at the commencement of the regular session. Let it spirit of mutual confidence and forbearance prevail. Lot the Cabinet in the mean time continue to occupy the station* which they so ably (ill, and in which they have the confidence of the President anil the country. Let the members mingle again freely with their constituents. Let tliein ascertain their wishes in refe rence.to the fiscal uff^irs of the Government, and what the character of that agent is which they wish them to substitute for the Bub-Treasury. Let their wishes, without curtailment or eAggeration, be ex pressed in the provisions of the bill. Let tin* bill be I issed in a spirit of harmony and good will. Let it in this form, and with these advantages, be presented to the Executive for his approval, and notwithstand ing what has occurred, we believe that this approval will not be withheld.? Phil, yorth Amtrican. li -ral Pirt in LjiccU J/im.? A great fire occurred in Lowell, Massachusetts, on Thursday night, at a pUce called liiV Acre, ami occupied principally by iti*!i laborers, /'ire ehtirt blucjttti/'w-oden buildin ?, ui I parts of others, were consumed I Several work shops were also destroyed. AIniui fifty poor families were burnt out, losing the greater portion of'heir fur niture and effects. It is said th.it a Mr*. McLaugh pn and her infant were buried in some of t e ruins " i'he heart in its physical sense is not sufficient for a kite's linner ; yet the whole world is not suffi cient lor it." ?toftttfl*.Skrt?fnth Coitflrcga. FIRST SESSION. inTenate" Monday. Aujjuil '.JO, 1841. Mr. ARCHER presented the proceedings and reso lution* of a mealing of cni*en* of Orange county, Virginia, against the measure* of thi* amnion, thedi* tribuUon of ihe proceed* of the public lands, a national bank, Jkc , and approving of the cuuw of President Tyler, in bia veto of the bank bill. On hia iuotion, they were laid on the table, and or dered to be printed. Mr. CLAY presented a jielilion of citizen* of Phila delphia, praying that bleaching jiowder be exempted from duly. He aaid tliia wa* a question on which much diversity of opinion exiated. It interested deal er* in the article, but wa* not of very general interest; be hoped the Senate would act a* it thought projier ou the subject. Mr. SUMMONS presented a .imilar petition fro.n citizen* of Philadelphia. He *aid he had voted against the exemption from duly of Ihoae article*, but troin the facta ataled in thi* petition, and olhera, which had amce come to hi* knowledge, he *bould vote the other way when the amendment came up in the Se nate. .. . . Mr. WOODBURY presented a letter which he had received on the *ume subject, which he would wmh read when the Seriate came io act on the mat ter. It wa*, with the petition*, laid on llie table. Mr. TAPPAN *ald they had been confined hero a great while) three nionlha in thi*exhau*ltng weather they bad been laboriously occupied, and it wa* not asking too much of the majority, that they ahould Ax a time for adjournment, that tney might be able to inform their familie*. He moved, therefore, to take up the resolution previously submitted, for an adjourn ment of Congress, so that some time might be fixed; and on the motion he called the yeas and nays. Mr. CALHOUN hoped the resolution would lie taken up. The majority were sufficiently nutnerou* to fix iheir own time; let them fix it; it wa* desirable in every point of view, and? Mr. CLAY. I wish to know whether the question is debatable, and whether 1 shall have a right to an swer the Senator. The PRESIDENT said it was not debatable. The question was then taken, on taking up the re solution, and negatived ; Yeas '21, nay* 5?. Mr. KERR, from the Committee on the Judiciary, reported the resolution for the distribution ot lue printeil?return* of the 6th census, with the amend ment of the House, in which iho committee recom mended a concurrence. He explained that the amendment provided for the printing ot "JO,000 copies, not of the aggregate returns ot' the census, but ot a compendium of it, connected with the census ol other years, and for a correction in the returns ot Mont gomery county, Maryland. The compendium would be a very useful work, and he hoped the Senator 1mm Alabama,(Mr. Clay, who had previously opposed thi*) would not object to it. The committee were unanimous on the subject. Mr. CLAY, of Ala., waived his objections, and the question was taken, and the amendment of the House concurred in. FISCAL CORPORATION BILL. Mr. BERRIEN, from the Select Committee appoint ed on thi* subject, reported the above bill, from the House, withoul amend meat, and aaked thai it be made the special order for W?dne*day next. THE REVENUE BILL Was then taken up, and Mr. BUCHANAN oflered the amendment,of which he liud given notice, to repeal the act of 14th July, 1832, which released from duty iron winch was used in the cunstruc ion ol railroads on inclined planes, and to provide that there shall be levied on railroad iron beieatter imported, a duty ot 29 per cent, ad vulotem, provided that it shall not oj-e rate on iron already imported. Mr. CU 1 HBER 1 wished the Senator to postpone I he amendment, to afford bim an opportunity for Us examination, as it was a matter in which Georgia wbb deeply interested. . Mr. CLAY, of Ala , was opposed to the amend ment, and wished its consideration postponed. Mr. HUN TINGTON moved an amendment to the amendment, to provide also that iruii " that may be im ported pnor to I at Dec. 1(441," be exempted from duty. He briefly stated the reason lor this amendment?to re lieve corporations from paying a tax on the article for which orders had already been sent, and tor wi.tch a ux ought not justly to be levied. Mr MILLER was 111 favor of the amendment ol the Senator Iroui Pennsylvania. Strange as it might seem, England for ten years had had the monopoly in the manulacture of railroad iron, for this country, and had imported it free of duty, while we were impos ing dunes on other articles, we hud refrained trom a .luty on this, which could be manufactured here in abundance. It ought to be imposed; and under the operation of the amendment to the amendment, sufficient Qotice would be given, before it went into ope ration. There had not been a single aiticle imported, which had carried more specie out ol the country.? He hoped the amendment would be adopted. Mr BERRIEN opposed the amendment. It would be productive of extreme injustice to Georgia, and other Southern States, which had commenced their railroads under the o|>eralion of the law by which railroad iron was exempted from duty. If to the ex pense of the construction of their works, there were to be added u duty on the iron to be used, the coat would much exceed what was contemplated at the time of their commencement, under tho law which then existed. It was inconsistent with the purposes of equ ty and justice that they should be subjected to the payment of a duty which they could not have an tiClCeCUTHBERT entertained similar views with his colleague, and oppoaed the amendment. Mr. CALHOUN said this question was one of great and vital importance to the Southern Slates, which had now commenced extended lines of rail road, under the expectation of the exemption from duties of the iron to be used in them. They ought not to be interfered .with, but to have the same advan tage that had been enjoyed by the North in the con struction of their railroads. There was but two modes of defence to the Country; one was their Navy, and the other the facility of trans portation by railroads of ammunition and men. He asked in the nameofan entire section of the country, that they should not be interfered with. His opinion wa- that 12 1-2 l?'r cent, wuh the land, would give ample protection for the revenue. They could appro priate ten millions per annum to the Navy, and carry on the Government, if proper economy were used in its vaiious departments. . Mr. BUCHANAN should be brief as possible, as he wished to arrive at the termination of this extra session. He was much surprised at the argument ol the Senator from South Carolina, and should have supposed from the opinion* of the Senator, he would have been in favor of the repeal of the act of 1832, as he had long opposed the system ol internal improve n?Mr CALHOUN had objected lolhe system of ap propriating the public money for internal improve " Mi. BUCHANAN, asked if this Government had not appropriated ft.r>00,000 per annum, according to the official statements given by the Senator from Connec ticut, (Mr Huntington,) by exempting iron troin duty for the use of railroads, was not this a direct ap propriation for the benefit of the railroad corporation*! If the Senator had this side of the argument he would make the Senate resound, with the plea that all duties must be equal, and uniform, and not a duty of twenty per cent, levied on most of the imposts, while the article of iron was of all the rest exempted.? The doctrine of ' vested rights' almost, had been brought forward by the Senators from Georgia ? The very same argument would apply to any cmanje whatever in the tar,fl", because the whole community had made contracts, under the existing rate of tariff; which they supposed would continue. The question was within a nut-shell; what was ill We were hlcfecd with a country abounding with coal and ore, equalled by none. The art of smelting iron with an thracite coal wa* more understood, and the representa tives of the States having this coal and ore, were ask ed to a'tree to have the foreign article come in free bf duty, while all other iinr-orl? were taxed twenty per cent and that because this was wanted for railroad*. The domestic railroad iron could be obtained as cheap, and of as good a quality as Ihe foreign article. Why should ihis article alone l?e exempted from duty 7 Mr CALHOUN replied to the argument* of the Senator from Pennsylvania, and contended that no cause could justify the imposition of a duly of twenty percent, ad valorem on railroad iron, which would be tuinous to the interests of Southern State*. Raw-hides, by the bill, had been exempted from duly, but what greater reason was there for the exemption of tliia article from duly, than of railroad iron. \ Mr. BUCHANAN contended that foreign hide* came in no competition with domestic, but were re quired for manufacture, in thiseountry, it was lor our benefit that they should be imported ; but this was not the case with iron ; there wi re most ample supplies ol that, and coul connected with it, in quantities >-uflS cient for the use of llie country, anil as cheap as it could b? imported. He hoped the amendment would |tri'vail, as it was founded on eveiy principle of reason and justice Mr. HUN FINGTON declined to modify his amend ment, by changing the time, as had been suggested to him, he thunghl it wm * proper lime to giv? node* lo nnpoiters of the article, who might now have wide luinga orders. Mr. CUTHBERT Mid the purpose of the law of 1832, exempting irou from duty, wa? to eiicourtf** en terprise for general ("ublic, benetit, |.>r lliu establish ment u| railroads. Flits objee.t li.nl nut yet Iwu ac l uiupluhed , the railroads of liu Stair, and of llie Southern Slate..,, were not vet completed, aud lin y ought to have the saute advantages extended lo them a? those ol the North had had; and, for thia purpose, I Ihe law ought not yet to tie repealed. Mr. CLAY, of Aid., said ihe Senator froui Con necticut (Mr. Huntington) had offered his amendment U> protect the people of bi* State, and then he was willing the law ahould be repealed. He bail over looked the Slatea of Alabama, South Carolina, and others, who had commenced their railroads under the law protecting the iron from duly, and he waa willing that the law ahould be repealed when time enough hau been given to the people of Ilia State to provide against it. He (Mr. C.) op|>oeed tin* j if the law waa Ui be r?v pealed, he wi*Ii<h1 it lo come at once, Mr. HUNTINGTON said he waa inllucneed by no mailer of fact exiating in hit own State, but he 0 tie red it for the benefit of thoae corporations of the Senator's and oilier Slates, which had aent theif or der* for iron. Hie object in offering hia amendment waa the general benefit of the country. Mr. KING contended that this notice ought in the same manner to lie extended to the importer* of all good*, a* well as of railroad iron. This amendment, also, so far postponed I'm time for the repeal of the law, thai orders might now be isHued and the articles i imported l?elore it took effect. To carry out the prin ciple for which the Senator contended, he ought to confine it to articles of all kinds, the orders for which had been issued. If he could be satisfied that domes tic iron could be secured as low as the foreign article he would be willing to put an equal duty on it with other import*. Mr. CLAY, of Ky , said Senators on lbs other side had expressed much hope that ihe session should terminate, and yet three hours had been occupied on this single amendment relating to iron, one article of the many in the bill. If they wished to adjourn, let them acl on these measures. Until this bill was de cided on, and the Bank bill, they would fix no day for adjournment. If gentlemen on the other side would let the measures be disposed of, he would then unite with them in fixing a lime to adjourn. As lo this amendment: the law Was pusscd freeing iron from duty, when the Treasury was overflowing ; this was not now the case, and all that ought to be done wus to allow companies which had undertaken their works under tho consideration of the law, to have equal benefit* of the law, and then lo rojieal the act. He should vote for the amendment to the amend ment, and the amendment itself. There being now nearly an equal capacity to produce iron in America, with Europe ; in less than five years were this amendment adopted, the foreign iron would lie brought to a much less rate than at present, as there would be an American rival in the trade; and Ihe consequence would be a reduction in the price of the atticle. II the amendment were adopted, and any companies which had commenced Ihetr works under the former law, should make out their case and peti tion Congress to relieve them from paying the duty, ??ad no doubt but it would he granted. . Mr. CALHOUN said the Senator from Kentucky ir he was so anxious to adjourn, could give up these bills, and then ihey could immediately close the ses sion. Let them give up tho Bunk bill. (Mr Clay never; never ; we will slay here till Christmas first.) hey had brought us here, (continued Mr. Calhoun) ho'! i <y W0U glvu ut*ltle measure they could go Mr. WALKER said tho Bsnk bill was so had that even the Senator from Kentucky had not made up Ins mind whether to vote for it. (Mr. Clay had ne ver said so. He had not communicated his intention to the Senate, but might have his uiind made up, firm ly on it.) 1 ' Mr. WALKER continued, and expressed his in "ntion of voting for both the amendments. 1 he amendment to ihe amendment was adopted. I Mr. PRESION udvocatid the amendment. The exempting iron from duty had virtually made large appropriations for internul improvements, and, more over, it was part ial in its operations. Under this sys tem ol legislation, his State and many others had been and now are engaged in the construction of lailrouds and their legislation should not be hastily or suddenly T'70,r", iTl'is was not an argument against the change of the law, but aguinst a limitation on the amendment; and he woul.l much prefer that the law be repealed excepting so far as it applied to the iron for railroads' whose construction had now been commenced; this ought to be left free of duly. Mr. MERRICK moved a recoqsideration of the vote, by which the amendment to the amendment had adopted. The object was to reject that amend ment, ami then frame the amendment so a* lo apply to railroads, the construction of which was now com menced. Mr. SEVIER contended that this was a most sol fish, absurd, and unjust proposition, as i would favor but one or two Stales, while others who were to com mence their works next year?his State and others? would receive no benefit. Mr. SIMMONS should vote for the amendment, on the ground that the duty was required lor revenue, and wouldJbe drawn, not from Ihe pockets of the peo ple ot this country, but from foreign iron masters, and give the preference to manufactures of out own coun try . | After some remaiks from Mr. TAPPAN against ' the amendment which had been adopted, the question was taken, mid the motion to reconsidtr was carried by a vole of 26 to 20. .Messrs BUCHANAN and BATES spoke brief ly, when? A message from the House of Representatives was received tlut they had concurred in the amendments of the Senate lo the I distribution bill, except the 2d 3d, and Gth amendments. ' DISTRIBUTION AND PRE-EMPTION BILL. On motion of Mr SMITH, of Indiana, the Rev. enue bill was laid on the tabic, and the Distribution taken up, for the considerutiun of its amendments. 1 he amendment* dinagreed to by the liouwe were read, and are those which provide that the distribution shall be made to the States according to their respec tive Federal representation in tho two Houses of Con gres a. Mr. SMITH, of la., moved that the Senate recede from these amendments. Messrs KING, FULTON, CALHOUN SF V1ER, BENTON, and WOODBURY briefly on SMITH, of la , CLAY, and DIXUiN advocated this motion. The question was then taken, and the amendments were receded from ? by a bote of 20 yens to 18 nays. Thus tl.e Distribution bill is finally passed. The Senate^hen adjourned. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Monday, Aug 30, 1841. Mr. ADAMS brought up the subject of Ihe Smith sonian bequest, and addressed Ihe House for some time in favor of a new and more correct legislation on that subject. lie proposed some motion upon- the subject but did not press it. Mr. EVERETI offered a resolution to the effect that Congress ought not to adjourn till some measure were adopted providing for tho sale-keeping of the public revenues. Objected to. I etitions lor a National Bank were presented bv Messrs. STANLY, BARTON, and P.O. GOODE Mr. MOORE presented a petition of a citien of Louisiana relative to u promised new mode of remov ing obstiuctionson the bars of rivers. Mr. MORROW, from the Committee on Public Lands, reported the Distribution bill as amended bv the Senate and recommended a concurrence in the Senate amendments. Mr. JOHN C. CLARK moved the previous question. A call of the House was moved, and rdered with out a division. One hundred and ninety members answered to their names. On the calling of the absentees, the House refused to excuse Mr. BOTTS,?(ayes'tis noes 9H>?Mi OLIVER, Mr McKEON, Mr. j. D. JONES, and several others. Many were excused on account ot illness ut their families or themselves. Mr. W1SE then raised a point of order. He urged that a? the benaje amendment* made a new appropri ation both of money snd lan.l tliev must be committed to the Committee of the Whole, according to the rules. The Chair decided that inasmuch as the original lull of Ihe House appropriated all Ihe proceeds of the public lands, a mere change in the disposition of a part of inewt* did not ie<|uire commitment. Mr WISE appealed; but ihe House sustained the Speaker: Yeas 107, nays82. Mr. LINN Bi iY I) moved to lav on the Mble. The House rtfuttU to lay on the table: Yeas 85 nays 111. After some desultory deb.te on points of order re lative to the application of the previous question, the main question wis ordered lo be but Yeas llll navs 112 * 3 The fir*t amendment (in favor of the territories) was passed without a division. The second amendment changing the ratio of dis tribution from the Federal reprisentative number to' tbs Joint representation in the two Hou*?* of Con gress,) was rejected : Ymii 61, nays 13B. Thi third amendment, providing for the JiBtnbu tiun to the Distiict ?u rejected without ? division The fourth and liAh amendments wen- concurred in without a division, 'l'he with was rejected. The seventh amendment (suspending the di?tribu lion whenever tbe'duties on any import* should exceed 90 per cent,) wan concurred In : Ywi 108, nay* 94. The remaining amendment* were concurred in without a (liviMun. Mr. HARRIS move I a reconsideration of the vote by which the aeveuth amendment w?? adopted Mr. WARREN moved to lay that motion onthetahle, hut afterward* withdrew it. The ilou*e refused to reconsider?Yea* 91, Nay* 100 Mr ATIIERTON offered a joint rerolution for the adjournment of Congress on Monday the sixth of September. Olijected to. Moved to suspend the rule* House refused. Mr. WISE leported from the Committee on Naval Affair*, a resolution calling on the Secretary of the Navy for a repoit of the name* of the Naval officer* who have been on ahore, without leave, for five year*. Adopted unanimously. On motiun of Mr FILLMORE, the House took up the Seriate amendment to the Fortification hill, making an appropriation of 030,000 for military sur vey* on the muritime frontier. Mr Fillmore moved a concurrence of the House) and after some brief ex planations between Messrs. Pickens and Fillmore, the House refused to concur in the Senate amend uient Yea* 88, nay* 94. Mr. FILLMORE then moved that the House con cur in the scrond Senate amendment relating to the location of a Western Armory. After some remark* from Mesar*. Irwin, Pope, and Thompson, the House adjourned, without taking the question. THE M ADISONI AN. WASHINGTON CITY. TUESDAY, AUGUST 31, 1841. In THOBK THINGS WHICH ARB ESSENTIAL LET THERE BE UNITY? IN WON-MS1NTUL*, LIBERTY J AND IN ALL TlltNUS CHARITY.? Au gut tin. THE LAND BILL, Distributing the proceeds of the sales of the public lands among the several States according to their ratio of population, finally passed Con gress, yesterday, and only wants the signature of the President to become a law. Mr. Clay, of Ky., yesterday stated his be lief that Congress would not adjourn u-til the Bank and Revenue bills are disposed of. EXISTING LAWS OF THE TREASURY. Since the repeal of the Sub-treasury act of 1840, and of the Deposit act of 1836, the Exe cutive Departments of the Government, under the direction of the President, have conformed their administration of the public funds to the state of the law as it is left now existing upon the statute book. The repeal of the laws above mentioned leaves iu force the act of 1789 es tablishing the Treasury Department, and the act of 1822, which repeals and amends other acts. The Treasurer, by the law of '89, is the receiver and keeper of the public moneys, which are at all times subject to the inspection of the Secretary of the Treasury and the Comptroller, and as he reports to Congress and not to the President, he is to be regarded, though appoint ed and removeable by the President, as a sort of semi-congressional officer. No money, how ever, can -be taken from the Treasury by him, or any other officer of the Government, high or low, except upon warrants issued by the Secre tary of the Treasury, iu pursuance of appro priations by law, and couutersigned and regis tered. The following is the section of the law of 1789, which relates to the duties of the Trea surer: " ? 4. That it shall be the duty of thetreasurer to re ceive anil keep the moneys of the United States, arid to disburse the same upon warrants drawn by the Se cretary of the Treasury, countersigned by the Comp troller, recorded by the Register, and not otherwise; he shall take receipts tor all moneys paid by him, anil all receipts for money* received by him shall be en dorsed upon warrants signed by the Secielary of the Treasury, without which warrant, so signed, no ac knowledgment for money received into the Public Treasury shall be valid. And the said Treasurer shall render his accounts to the Co nptroller quarterly, (or oftener if required,) and shall transmit a copy thereof, when settled, to the Secretary of the Treasu ry. He shall, moreover, on the third day of every session of Congress, lav before the Senate and House of Representatives, fair and accurate copies of all accounts by him, from time to time, rendered to, and settled with, the comptroller as aforesaid, as, also, a true ami perfect account ot the state of the I reasury. He shall, at all times, submit to the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Comptroller, or either of them, the inspection of the moneys in his hands; and shall, prior to the entering upon the duties of hi* office, give bond, with sufficient sureties, to be approved by ihe Secretary of the Treasury and Comptroller, in the sum of one hundred anil fifty thousand dollars, pay able to the United States, with condition for the faith ful performance of the duties of his office, and for the fidelity of the persons to be by him employed, which bond shall be bulged in the office of the Comptroller of the Treasury of the United States. The following is the amendatory act of 1822: t t. Beit enacted, #c. That the second section of the act, entitled " An act making alterations in the treasury and war departments," passed the eighth day of May seventeen hundred and ninety-two; the sec ond section of the act entitled " An act to alter and amend the several acts for the establishment and regu lation of the treasury, war, and navy, departments,' passed the sixteenth day of July, seventeen hundred and ninety-eight; and the seventh section of the act, entitled " An"act to provide for the prompt settlement of public accounts," passed the third day of March, eighteen handled and seventeen, be, and hereby are, repealed, from and after the thirtieth day of June, eighteen hundred and twenty-two. 4 "2. That on Ihe day and year last aforesaid, all mo neys which may remain in the hands of the treasurer of the United Stales, as agent of the war and navy de partments, shall, under the direction of the secretaries ?t those departments, respectively, be repaid into the treasury, and catried to the credit of the proper depart ment upon the book* of the treasury. 4 3. That all moneys appropriated for the use of the war and navy departments shall, from and after the day and year last aforesaid, bedrawn from the treasury, by warrants of the secretary of the treasury, upon the requisitions of the secretaries of those departments, re spectively, countersigned by the second comptroller of the treasury, and regiateied by the projier auditor. 4 4 That so much of the said act of the third day of March, eighteen hundred and ijejenteefl, as is repug nant to the foregoing provisions, he, and is hereby , re dded, from and after the thirtieth day of June, eight een hundred and twenty-two. [Approved, May 7, 18-22 J TAX ON TEA AND COFFEE. The Opposition are raising a great clamor about the provision in the Revenue bill before Congress laying a duly on tea and coffee. This is called a 'Whig^ 'British,' &c. tea tax; this is un just. The proposition originally, came from the other side, as the following extract from the re port of Mr. Woodbury, late Secretary of the Treasury, of the 18th of January, 1841, will show: The report, after speaking of other modes of revenue, says: " Another mode of raising the same amount of rev enue would therefore be preferable, if it could l?e ac complished without including those artielrs. Suppose, then, that there should be selected fiom the free arti cles those which may be regarded most as luxuries, thon&h not in every respect belonging exclusively to that cfass, such as tea, coffer, snd silks," Ac, "a duty of twenty per cent, on those, after paying the expenses of collection, would yield about the same amount of five millions." The reader will ascertain, by glancing at the j extract from the Journal of Commerce, the value and pertinency of the denunciations of the N. V. Courier and Enquirer. So reckless is it in abusiug us, that it has even laid its terrify ing blows upon the bare back of poor old Chief Justice Marshall, and denounced the language of the Supreme Court as the " slang comment of the Madisonian." We confess our obliga tions to the editor for the compliment which this "slang" implies. It inay not have occurred to the public that there is a remote cause for the abuse which tin Courier heaps upon the President. President Tyleh is the author of a report of a Committee of the U. S. Senate, in 1834, who investigated the affairs and conduct of the Bank of the I . S. We will not quote the report, lest the edi tor, whom it shows to have been an extensive borrower, should ''shatter our right arm." 1' will be found in the Register of Debates, vol. 9, part 2. In the Appendix, page 203, it treats ol the Hank "rendering the press tts stipendiary, by bestowing gratuitous rewards on editors, or ma king to them extravagant loans." We refer the reader to that division of Mr. Tyler's report. MR. BUTTS' CAH1). While Mr. Botts' address to the public was in the form of a hand-bill, to be thumbed and read at " Coffee-houses," we did not think it necessary to notice it. We should not now ad vert to it had it not been dignified by a publica itien in the Richmond Whig, N.Y.American, N. i York Courier and Enquirer, and the N. Y. Commercial Advertiser?papers, which by the 1 act, havedone what no paper, of any party here would do?given currency, and, if possible, gra I vity, to a venemous and insulting attack on the President. We will allow Mr. Botts the benefit of say ing, through our columns, that his first letter was not intended lor publication in the newspa pers, but he says, "I wrote that letter to Mr. Lynch, commencing, as before remarked, and as the letter shows, " Dear sirbut in the hur ry 'of preparing a number of letters for the mail, which was about to close, it seems I inad vertently directed the letter to the " Coffee House," instead of Jas. H. Lynch, Coffee House, Richmond, which is my usual mode of directing documents and other papers to him. So much for the writing and direction. Now as to the publication. Mr. Botts says: " The ides of iU publication no more entered into my mind, than the publication of the conversation that 1 hold daily with my messmates at table; it ha? been not only without authority, but in violation of everv principle of confidence recogniied among gentlemen. But Mr. Botts admits, "That my expectation and detign wat, that it should be read by thote of my friends and conitUu en ts vho trere in the habit of attending Mr. Lynch't READING ROOM " Now then, although Mr. Botts insists that it was indecent and ungentlemanly to publish his private letter, we ask the reader, if, according to the gentleman's own showing, the letter was not really a public one, "expected and de signed" so to be, and in fact published by the author himself ? It was iutended for a " read ing room!" And what is a reading room, but a place where published and current news is con centrated and exposed? It is a room open to those whoare subscribers,orareintroduced bv ?uh?*" bers. Well, cannot all the world share the be nefits of the reading room by complying with its terms? Most certainly. Our conclusion therefore is, that Mr. Botls published his own letter, and that such was his "expectation and design." And has not the President a right of defence, when such a letter is published to Mr. Botts' friends and constituents ?" And is not ? treason" always to be arrested and exposed upon the instant, wherever discovered ?-or is it to be allowed to concert and prosecute its plots undisturbed? Suppose Mr. Botts belonged to an army, and in time of war, he should disco ver one of his fellow-soldiers engaged in a plot to " head" and " fasten" his "Captain," would he not expose him, and bring him to the punish ment he deserved ? So much for the publication of the letter in the Madisonian, which, however painful, we I think we have shown to be justified. Now, as to some (not all) of the collateral matters al luded to by Mr. Botts, in his card. Speaking of Mr. Tyler, Mr. Botts says : " The very measure of compromise, adopted against the wishes and judgment of every Whig in Congress, to please his particular friend., who wer. generously inclined to interpose, and who incurred the hazard of sacrificing themselves to save him from the alternative of a veto, he generously turns to his own advantage? lashes them across the face with the instrument they had thu* furnished him, and then attempts to turn the whole party of fiiends who placed him in power into ridicule. Some men are blind and cannot see. Others have their vision and will not see ; but there are things that 1 cannot shut my eyes against if I would, and would not if I could. We presume that amongst the things which Mr. Botts " cannot shut his eyes against," is the "Rumor" which attribute* to him the author ship of the "compromise" to which he refers. Rumor says, that Mr. Botts presented that very ii measure of compromise" to the President; that the President, without hesitation, declared that it would not answer; and that, with a lull knowledge that the President would veto it, he (Mr. Botts) added his influence and vote, to those of others, to introduce that " measure ol compromise" in the bill, and to urge it through Congress. If Rumor, therefore, speaks the truth, does it not seem as though Mr. Botts was one of those who " have their vision and will not see?" and that he "shut his eyes" to the character and fate of a measure, whose origin and defeat he now "generously turns to his own advantage?"' He now ' lashes" Mr. Tyler with the fragments of the noose, which proved too weak for the vic tim it was apparently designed to "head and "fasten." But though this did not succeed, Mr. Botts wrote, in his letter of the 16th, that he irould be >lheaded vet." We will not go into other matter* treated of by Mr. Botts. ' It is sufficient for us to say that he stands nearly alone iu Congress?the Whig party generally declaim and reprobate both his letters; and as for the effect of his address, it carries with it its own antidote, tn the venomous spirit in which it is conceived, and the coarse ness of style in which it is communicated. We omit to notice the unfounded and unintel ligible personal reference to onrselves, in a para graph remarkable only for its want of perspi cuity, taste, and justice. It ia very euy tu account for the abhorrence" with which the ?.d,iur uf the New York Commercial Ad vertiser protes.es to look upon our course While id this city laat June, in purauit of an office which he could not obtain, he engaged in the petty bunne** of peddling lalarhooda about ua at aecond hand, fbi which we called him to a prraonal responsibility. He cannot forgive ua tor detecting and arreating him in the *ct ?f committing a personal injury. The aditor ia now a recipient of Government patronage, and pub lishes Mr. Both' circular, agreeing that hia justifies tion i* complete, and that the general caat of the let ter ia " gran and dignified I" 1 he Alexandria (iaictut pronounce* our declara tion that " Whig papers and Whig politician*" are pouring out angry denunciations against Mr. Tyler, aa "destitute of foundation." The Mayor editor may tell that to the matinee, but beaurely will not venture to riak hia reputation in any place endowed with ? read ing room, or a "Coffee Houae " The few York Timea (Whig) aaya, that Mr. Ar nold'* speech in Congress, abuaive of the Preaident, excites but one feeling in that city?" unmitigated disgust." The Petersburg Intelligencer (Whig) aaya* " the language ascribed to Mr Arnold deaervea the severest reprehension." To the view* of "An Old Whig" we cordially aay amen. We have twice recommended a postponement ol the Bank question. All that any body aaks is DO days A word to the wiae ought to be aufficient. The bill *11, however, repoited to the Senate yesterdsy without amendment, and made the order of the day for Wednesday next. We understand that Col. Todd haa been confirmed by the Senate as Minister to Russia, and Gen. Wool aa Brigadier General U. S. A. Duel..?Mr. A. Belmont, agent of the Rothchilds, and a Mr. Haywood, fought a duel at Elkton, Mary land, laat Wedncaday. Mr. B., it is aaid, was shot in the hip. The cause was a difference of opinion about the honor of a married lady. Whether tho truth waa established or the difference reconciled by making a hole in Mr. B.'s leg, we have not heard. Exquisite Dialectics?Whig papers denouncing the publication of Mr. Bolts' letter, aa unjustifiable and mischievous, and then publishing it themselves. ^ The Deerslavkr, is the title ot a novel by J. F. Cooper, just published by Lea & Blanchard, Phila delphia, two volumes. One of the prominent charac ters is ths Deer slayer?who ia no other than the popu lar favorite, " Lenthrrstocking"?the veritable Natty Bumppo of some of Mr. Cooper's former novels. In this work Natty appears as a youth of eighteen, and exhibits the first blossoming of those qualities which have been striking in his character through the whole seiies. The scene take* the imagination back to the primitive daya of New York. For aale by F. Tayj lor. Xcto i'ortt Comspontiencir. New York, August 26, 1841. The Harpers have published Mr. J. S. Buck ingham's Travels and Observations in America this week, in two spacious octavos of about 1000 pages. It seem? to me a very heavy per formance, though filled with common-place talk. He grossly misapprehends or wilfully libels the Whig jwrty at every opportunity, and insists that they are the special upholders of monopo lies, banks and slavery. I doubt whether he will be read to the end by one-fourth of those who attempt him. Mrs. Lewer has reprinted Blackwood's Maga zine for August, in which the all but everlasting story of "Ten Thousand a Year" drags its slow length to a conclusion. It possesses a kind of interest, though the most base-spirited, tuft moratiipiDg, mi^rhjpVAHo 9tviy wf ellu day. Could any one believe that 50,000 copies of it have sold in this country ? Stocks all declined further to-day, and U. S. Bank closed at 10 a 1-4, a decline of 1 per cent. Indiana Bonds 57 ; Illinois 56; N. Am. Truat Company went down to 5! The Grain Market is still active. Oenesee is quick at SO 75, and 87 is asked for best brands; Troy $6 75; Ohioand Michigan $6 50a fp75; Georgetown and Howard street 86 75 a 87; Brandy wine 87. The stock is still light. Sales of coarse grains at about the prices I last quoted. Ashes 85 75. Cotton has declined a shade farther; Teas were also a shade lower at auotion yesterday. Yours, Harold. New York, August 29, 1841. The news here is so meagre that I will not encumber your columns, pressed, as 1 see you are, with important matter. Business is tha main point, as I could hardly touch on political topics just now without danger of embarrassing you at Washington. In the Markets there is little change, but the rise in Flour has been completely checked for the present. Common brands Genesee, 86.75; Troy, do. Michigan, 86.50. New George town is held at 8G.87 a 87, but it is not probable that any large quantity would command that price. Virginia Wheat, 81.37 1-2; Rye, 70 a 75. Wheat, Rye and Corn are scarce. in Cotton there i< no change since my last.?* The market is firmer. Ashes 85.75. Very ncarce. Stocks, which had been running down for some days, rather rallied yesterday. U. S. Bank, which has been down to 9, rose to 11, and closed at 10 1-2. Railroads also im proved. Our Canal collections show a receipt of 857,400 the third week in August, against 85^,963 last year; increase 84,537.] Our Loco-foco Mayor and Common Council have been busy the past week in turning off the city watch. All the watchmen opposed them in politics. I think this is carrying proscription a little lower than was ever before heard of. The next thing these fellows do, I expect to see them turn all the Whigs out of our city prison, if they find any confined there. It has been raining here by spells for a dreary while. The wind has taken a lease of the Northeast, and is driving down upon us the most penetrating showers. I wish we could give of our abundance to some of the burnt-up sections of the country. Lowell, Mass., was visited by afire on Friday morning, which burnt up five houses, the dwell ings of poor people. The aggregate loss is not great, but, the individual suffering is consider able. Yours, v Habold. T*e Cnrrn* Hocsr Commissiomess, on the eve of breaking up, addressed a letter to ihe Collector, Mr. Cruris, approving the reforma introduced by him into the Cuatom-House into the manner of keeping snd accounting for the f?b|jc moneys, in the reduction of the enormou- incidental expenses of the office, and that of the number of, persona employed They alao say that nothing ha* appeared which in any manner implicates Mr. Curtis, in the diachaiging of his official dutie*. The testimony borne by all the Commissioner* to his ddigenee, intelligence and fidelity, esnnot but he gTsteful to Mr. Cortia and hia friend*.? Nnt York Amtrican.