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The Madisonian. (Washington City [i.e. Washington, D.C.]) 1837-1845, December 01, 1843, Image 1

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To the Senate and
I House of Representative* oj the L\ S.:
I If MM J People oicr hiiil ouse to render uptbunka
I to the Supremo being for pivreiitul care ami proicc
lion extended to ttiem in all the trial* arid ditiiculties
I to winch they have been from time to tune exposed,
we certainly are that Pwy||> l-'rom the liiot i-cdlt- I
rnent of our forefathers on this continent?through
Al " """ ' ? >n C Q Uft V- I
I ihe dangers attendant upon uie uttlT111"'.' "* - ?
I age wilderness?through along period of Coloilisl
I dependence?through ilie war of lb? Revolution?in
I the window which led to theadoptioa of the existing
I I Republican forms of (xovcriiineut?in tin; lu.yirdain
I cident to a war sub?i qu> inly waged with one of the
I < moat powerful nations of thee nth?in the inciease
I of our population- iu the ipraid of the Mtl and sei
ences, and in the slicngth and durability con'crred
I on political in>iituli< n* emanating from the People
I and sustained hy their will?the supeiintendence of
I an overruling Providence hue been plain1)' visible.?
A? preparatory, therefore, to entering once wore upon
I the high duties of legialution, it becomes ue humbly
I to acknowledge our dependence upon ilim ae our
I guide and protector, and to implore a continuance of
I Ilie parontul watchfulness over our beloved country.
I We have new cause for the expression of our gruliI
tinle in the preservation of the health of our fellow
cAizene, with eou.c partiul and local exceptions, duff
ring the paet season?for Ihe abundar co with
ff wh cb the earth hae yielded up its frui s to tliu labors
of the husbandman?for ll.e renewed activity which
I has been imparted to commerce ?for the rcival of
j trade in all its depaitments?for the increased rewaids
attendant on the exercise of the mechanic ails?for
*' 1 ?,k * """"l.lmn .n.l ikn nin.
Ir me conuuuou giuwvu rr,M,,WM B,,u w,midly
reviving prosperity of tlic whole country. 1 shall
f be permitted to exchange congratulat ons with you,
gentlemen of the two Houses of Congress, on these
auspicious circumstances, and to assure you, in advance,
of my ready disposition to concur with you in
the adoption of all such measures us shall he calculated
to increase the happiness of our constituents und
to advance the glory of our common country.
Since the last adjournment of Coiigtese, the Executive
has relaxed no effort to render indestructible the
relations of amity which so happily exist between the
United States and other countries. The triaty lately
concluded with Great Britain has tended greatly
to increase the good understanding which a reciprocity
of interest is calculated to encourage, and it is
most ardently to he hoped that no hing r*ny transpire
to interrupt the relations of amity which [it is so obviously
the policy ofhoth nations tn cultivate.
A question of much importance still remains to be
adjusted between theml The territorial limits of the
two countries in relation to what is commonly known
as the Oregon territory, still remain in dispute. The
Uuited Stales would be at all times indisposed to aggrandize
themselves at the expense of any other nation;
but while they would be restrained by principles of
honor, which should govern the conduct of nationsas
well as that of individuals,from setting up a demand for
; territory which does not belong to them, tliey would
as unwillingly consent to a surrender of their rights.
, After the most rigid, and as far as practicable, unbiassed
examination of the subject, the United States
Lave always contended that their rights appertain to
the entire region of country lying on the Pacific, and
embraced wiihin the forty-second and filly-fourth 40'
of North latitude. This claim being controverted by
Great Britain, those who have preceded the present
Executive, actuated, no doubt, by an earnest desire
to adjust the matter upon terms mutually satisfactory
to both countries, have caused to be submitted to the
British Government, propositions for settlement and
final adjustment, which, however, have not proved
heretofore acceptable to it. Our Minister at London
ho. i.o.lor I. ..,rl,l <ho
I ? ? =) tuv onilJCCl IU
the consideration of that Government; and while
nothing will be done to compromit the rights, or honor
of the United States, every proper expedient
will be resorted to in order to bring the negotiation
now in the progress of resumption,to u speedy and happy
termination. In the meantime it is proper to remark,
' that many of ourcitizens are either already established
in the territory, or are on their way thither for the
purpose of forming permanent settlements, while
others are preparing to follow?and in view of these
facts, I must repeat the recommendation contained
in previous messages, for the establishment of
military posts, at such places, on the line of travel,
: L as will furnish security and protection to our hardy
0 adventurers against hostile tribes of Indians inhabiting
those extensive regions. Our laws should also
follow them, so modified as the circumstances of the
case may seem to require. Under the inlluence of
our free system of government, new republics arc
destined to spring up, at no distant day, on the shores
of the Pacific, ?miilar in policy and in feeling to those
existing on this side of the Rocky Mountains, and
giving a wider and more extensive spread to the principles
of civil and religious liberty.
1 am happy to inform you that the ca?es which
have arisen, from time to time, of the detention of
of American vessels hy British cruisers on the coast
of Africa, under pretence of being engaged in the
slave trade, have been placed in a fair train of adjustment
in the case of the William & Francis,
full satisfaction will be allowed. In the cases of the
Tygris and Seamew, the British Government admits
that satisfaction is due. In the case of the Jones, the
, sum accruing from the sale of that vessel and cargo
will be paid to the owners?while 1 cannot but flatter
myself that full indemnification Will he allowed
iui uuHi<i?rs suaiuiiii-u 11\ mc ucicillion ol I lie
vessel?anil in the ease of the Douglass, her Majesty's
Government has expressed its determination to make
j indemnification Strong hopes are therefore entertained,
that most, if not all of these cases will he
speedily adjusted. No new cases have arisen since
tho ratification of the Treaty of Washington ; and,
it is confidently anticipated, that the slave trade, under
the operation of the eighth article of that treaty,
will be altogether suppressed.
The occasional inteiruption experienced by our
fellow citizens engaged hi the fisheries on the neighboring
coast of Nova Scotia, has not failed to claim
the attention of the Executive. Representations
upon this subject have been made, hut as ycl no defi
nitive answer to those representations has been received
from the British Government.
Two other subjects of comparatively minor importance,
but nevertheless of loo much consequence to he ;
neglected, remain still to he adjusted between the two
countries. By the Treaty between the United States
and Gre.at Bi ilain, of July, 1613, it is provided that no
higher duties shall be levied in either country on articles
impor ted frmn the other, than on the same articles
imported from any other place. In 163G, rough
rice, by act of Parliament, w as adin tied from the
roast of Africa into Great Britain on the payment of j
u uuij ui um: |*r-.finj u gunner, wmic me same article
from all other countries, including the l/nited
States, was subjected to the payment of a duty of
twenty shillings a quarter.. (i{u Minister at London
has lroni lime to time brought this subject to the consideration
of the British Government, but so far
without success. He is instructed to renew Ins iepresenlatioiis
upon it.
Home jeais since a claim was preferred against
the British Government on the part of certain American
merchants, for the return of export duties paid '
by them on shipments of woollen goods to the Uni- j
ted Slates, alter the duly on similar uiticles exported
to other countries had hcen repealed, and consequent- i
ly in contravention ol the commercial convention j
, between the two nations securing to us equality in j
such cases. The principle on winch the claim r?>tlias
long since been virtually admitted by Great Bri- |
tain, but obstacles to a settli ment have from lime to
time been interposed, so that a laigc portion of Ihe
amount claimed has not yet been refunded t >ur
Minister is now engaged in the prosecution of the
claim, and I cannot but pei-uadc my-clf that Ihe
British Government will no longer delay its ad justment.
1 am happy to br able to say that nothing lias occurred
to diH'Uib in any degree the relations .if amity
which exist between ibc United Suites nn.l France,
Austria and Rus<i.i, us well us with the other Powers
of Europe, since the adjourmmti' of Congiess.?
Spain has I ct n gitab d with internal convulsions for
t . iauny years, iroin ihe effects of which it is to l?e hop d
he in destined spic.lily to ic. over?when, under a
more bleral system of commercial policy on lo r pmt,
our tra?;c with her may again fill lis old and ao/in
as her continental possessions are concerned, its almost
f.raaken channels, thereby adding to t e mil
tual pu.sperity of the two countries.
, , The Germanic. Association of Customs and Commerce,
which, since its establishment in 1833, ha?
been steadily growing in power and importance, and
consists at this (lire of tnore than twenty German
States and embraces a population of 27,000,000 ol
people united for all the purposes of commercial
intercourse with each other and with foreign
states, offers to the latter the most valuable
exchanges on prineiples more liberal than ate
otfeied in the fiscal system of any other European
power. From its origin, the iinportanoe of the
L- *
?l]? J
German Union has never been lout sight of by the
United State*. The industry, morality and other
valuable qualities of iheGerman nation, have always
been well known and appreciated. On this subject 1
invite the attention of Congress t > ?ho report of the
Sectelaty of State, from which it will be seen lhul<
while our cotton it admitted free of duty, and the
duty on rice has been much reduced, which has already
led ton greatly increused consumption, a strong
disposition has been recently evinced by t hat groat body
to reduce, upon certain conditions, their present duty
upon tobacco. This being the first intimation of a concession
on this interesting subject ever made by anyEu(4>pean
power, 1 cannot but regard it us well calculated
to remove the only impediment which has so farexirt' d
to the most liberal commercial intercourse between us
and them. In this view, our Minister at Berlin, who
has heretofore industrioudy pursued the subject, has
been instructed to enter upon the negotiation of a commercial
treaty, which, while it will open new advuntuges.to
the agricultural interests of the United States,
and a more free and expanded field for commercial
operations, will alfect injuriously no existing interest
of the Union. Should the negotiation he crowned
with success, its results will be communicated to both
Houses of Congre-v.
1 communicate hctewith certain despatches received
from our Minister at Mexico,and also a correspondence
wmcn nan rrc nuy occurred between the L.uvoV hum
llrut Republic and Ihu Secretary of Stale. It must
tie regarded as not a little extraordinary that the
Government of Mexico, in anticipation of a public
discussion, which it bus been pleased to i?<IVr from
newspuper publications, na likely to take place in Congress,
relating totho annexation of Texas to the United
States, should have so far anticipated the result of
such discussion as to haver announced its determination
to visit any such anticipated decision by a formal
declaration of war against the United States.?
If designed to prevent Congress from introducing
that question, as a fit subject for its calm deliberation
and final judgment, the Executive has no reason to
doubt that it will entirely fail of its object The
Representatives of a brave and patriotic people will
suffer no apprehension of future consequences to embarrass
them in the course of their proposed deliberations.
Nor will the Executive Department of the
Government fail, for any such cause, to discharge its
whole duty to the country.
The war which has existed for so long a time between
Mexico and Texas has, since the battle of
San Jacinto, consisted for the inoet part of predatory
incursions, which, while they have been attended with
much of suffering to individuals, and have kept the
borders of the two countries in a state of coustant
alarm, have failed to approach to any definitive result.
Mexico has fitted out no formidable armamcr.t
byiand or by sea for the subjugation of Texas.?
EifPt years have now elapsed since Texas declared
her independence of Mexico, and during that time
she has been recognised as a sovereign power by
several of the principal civilized states. Mexico,
npvcrtheless, perseveres in her plans of recon
quest, and refuses to recognise her independence.
The predatory incursions to which I
have alluded, have been attended, in one instance, j
with the breaking up of the courts of justice by I
the seizing upon the persons of the judges, jury j
and ollicersof the court, and dragging them along I
with unarmed, and therefore nou-combatanl citizens, 1
into a cruel and oppressive bondage, thus leaving j
crime to go unpunished and immorality to pass un- !
reproved. A border warfare is evermore to be dep- |
recated, and over such a war as has existed for so i
many years between these two States, humanity lias
bad great cause to lament. Nor is such a condition j
of things to be deplored only because of the individ- j
uzl sullering attendant upon it. The effects are far j
more extensive. The Creator of the Universe has '
given man the Earth for his resting place, and its ,
fruits for his subsistence. Whatever, therefore,
shall make the first or any part of it a scene of desolation,
affects injuriously his heritage, and may be re- j
garded as a general calamity. Wars may sometimes !
I...i -11 i ? . i
in bringing them 9peedily to a close. The United I
States have an immediate interest in seeing an end I
put to the state of hostilities existing between Mexi- {
co and Texas. They are our neighbors, of the same |
continent, with whom we are not only desirouo of I
cultivating the relations of amity, but of the most cx- |
tended commercial intercourse, and to practise all
the rights of a neighborhood hospitality. Our own interests
are deeply involved in the matter, since, however
neutral may be our course of policy, we cannot
hope to escape the ellects of a spirit of jealousy or. |
the part of both of the power*. Nor can this Gov- '
emmcnt be indifferent to the fact that a warfare, such
as is waged between those two nations, is calculated
to weaken both powers, and finally to render them,
and especially the. weaker of the two, the subjects of 1
intcrfeience on the pait of stronger and more jKiwerful
nations, which, intent only on advancing their own !
peculiar views, may sooner or later attempt to tiring i
about a compliance w ith terms, as the condition ol
their interposition, alike derogatory to thefiation
granting tin in and detrimental to the interests of the
United States. We could not be expected quietly to
permit any such inter erencc to our disadvantage
Considering that Tejas i? separated from the United
Stales by a mere geographical line, thai her territory,
in the opinion <>f many, formed a portion of the teri,
tory of the United Slates, that it is homogeneous '
in its population and pursuits with the adjoining
States, makis contributions to the commerce of the j
world m the same articles with them, and that most
of her inhabitants have been citizens of the United |
States, speak the same language and live under
similar political institutions w 1U1 ourselves, this Go- '
vrmmcnt is bound by every consideration of interest j
a? w< li as ol sympathy, to see that she shall be left
free to act, especially in regard to her domestic af- \
fairs, unawtd by force, and unrestrained by the policy
or mcws of other countries. In full view of all
these considerations, the Executive has not hesitated
to express to the Government of Mexico Imw deeply
it deprecated a continuance of the wa>, and how anx ,
iomly it desired to w itness its termination. I cannot
tint think that it becomes the United States, as the
oldest of the Ainericau Republics, to hold a language
to Mexico upon this subject of an unambiguous character.
It is time that ttiis war had ceased. There
must lie a limit to all wars ; and i' the parent State,
after an eight years -truggle, lias (ailed to reduce to
submission a portion of its subjects standing out in
revolt against it, and who have riot only proclaimed
themselves to lie independent, but have been recog- i
niscd as mjcIi by other Powers, she ought not to olDcct
that other nations will quietly look on, to their oovi
" .^T< K. ...
' - 1 1 .ttaMsiO
cedure, to say the least of it, wears a harsh aod un- I
friendly aspect.
1 lie 1IOIU1IIIC1I19 Ull IIIC Clililll.H rCCCIlUJ www UJ
the Convention with Mexico have been punctually
paid as they have fallen due, and our Minister is enimaged
in urging the establishment of a new commission
in pursuunce of the Convention for the settlement
of unadjusted claims.
With the other American Stales our relations of
amity and good will have remained uninterrupted.
Our Minister near the Republic of New Grenada,
has succeeded in etlecting art adjustment of the claim
upon that Government for the schooner "By Chance,"
which had been pending for many years. The claim
for the brig " Morri?," which had its origin during the
existence of the Republic of Columbia, and indemnification
for which, since the dissolution of that Republic,
has devolved on its several members, will be
urged v/itli renewed zeal.
I have much pleasure in saving that the Government
of Brazil has adjusted the claim upon that Gov- j
eminent in the case of the schooner " John S. Bry- I
an," and that sanguine In pes are entertained that the
same spirit of justice will influence its councils in ar- '
riving at an early decision upon the remaining claims; '
thereoy removing all cause of dissension between I
two Powers,whose interests are to soinc extent inter- j
woven with each other.
Our Minister at Chili has succeeded in inducing a |
recognition bj, that Government, of the adjustment :
effected by his predecessor of the first claims in the j
case of the " Macedonian'." The first instalment has 1
been received by the claimants in the United States.
Notice of the exchange of ratifications of the (reaty
with Peru, which will take place at Lima, has not !
t yei reacneu mis country, Dut is stioruy expected to he
received, when the claims upon that Republic will j
doubtless be liquidated and paid.
In consequence of a misunderstanding between this
Government and that of Buenos Ayres, occurring
several years ago, this Government has remained un- ;
represcnte 1 at that court, while a minister frflm it 1
has been constantly resident here. The causes of irritation
have in a great measure passed away, and it ,
is in contemplation, in view of important interests .
which have grown up in that country, at some early ,
period during the present session of Congress, with ; |
the concurrence of the Senate, to restore diplomatic 1 |
relations between the two countries. _ ,
Under the provisions of an act of Congress of the , ,
last session, a Minister was despatched from the Uni- j
ted States to China, in August of the present year, !;
who, from the latest accounts we have from him, |
was at Suez, in Egypt, on the 25th of September last,
on his route to China. ?
In regard to the Indian tribes residing within our |
jurisdictional limits, the greatest vigilance uX the (
Government has been exerted to preserve them at j j
peace among themselves, and to inspire them with j.
feelings of confidence in the justice of this Govern- j
merit, and to cultivate friendship with the border in- j j
habitants. This lias happily succeeded to a great ex- L
tent; but it is a subject of regret that they sutler them- t
selves in some instances to be imposed upon by artful ' r
and designing men?and this notwithstanding all L
the efforts of the Government to prevent it. I?
The receipts into the Treasury for the calendar ?
year 1843, exclusive of loans, were little more than i r
eighteen millions of dollars; and the expenditures, I t
exclusive of payments on the public debt, will have t
Deen about twenty-ihrce millions of dollars. By the I ,
Act of 1842, a new arrangement of the fiscal year j 8
w as made, so that it should commence on the lit day j
of July in each jear. The accounts and estimates ' ,
for the current fiscal year, will show that the loans 11
and Treasury notes made and issued before the close | ,
of the last Congress, to meet the anticipated deti- j |
cicncy, have not been entirely adequate. Although ' j
on the 1st of October last, there was a balance in the :,
Treasury in consequence of the provision thus made i |
of ?3,ill4,082 77, yet the appropriations already ' ,
made by Congress will absorb that balance, and leave ,
a probable deficiency of two millions of dollars at ,
the close of tfij present fiscal year. There are out- |
standing Treasury notes to about the amount of four ,
millions six hundred thousand dollars ; and should |
they be relumed upon the Treasury during the fiscal ,
year, they will require provision lor their redemp ,
tion. 1 do not however regard this as prohatde, sine# ,J
they have obviously entered into the currency of the e
country, and will continue to form a portion of it, if a
the system now adopted be continued. The loan of t
< us injury, upon a protraction of hostilities. These j
United States threw ofl their colonial dependence, '
and estahlished independent Governments; and 1
Great Britain, after having wasted her energies in
the attempt to subdue them for a less period than |
Mexico has attempted to subjugate Texas, had the I
wisdom and justice to acknowledge their independ '
ence, thereby recognising the obligation which rested |
on her as one of the family of nations. An example 1
thus set by one of the proudest as well as most
powerful nations of the faith, it could hi no way
disparage Mexico to imitate. While, therefore, the
Executive would deplore, anv coltis^m with Mexico,
or any disturbance of the friendly relations which
exist between the t wo countries, it cannot n< runt that
Government to control it* policy, whatever it may
he, towards Texas ; but will treat her as by the re- |
cognition of her independence the United States have 1
lon^ *mre declared they would do, as entirely inde- |
pendent of Mexico. The high obligations of public j
duly nitty enforce from the constituted authorities of
the United States a policy w hich the course persevered
in hy Mexico will have mainly contributed to
produce ; and the Kxccutivc, in surli a contingency,
will w ith confidence, throw itself upon the patriotism
of the People to sustain the Government in il- course.
of action.
Measures of an unusual character ha%c recently j
been adopted liy the Mexican (rovemment calculated
in no small degree to atfeet the trails of other na- :
tions with Mexico, and to operate injuriously to the i
I'liilcd States. All I reigncrs hy a derree ol the 2.TI '
day of September, and after sis mouths from the
day of its promulgation, are forbidden to carry on
the business of selling hy retail any goods within the
confines of Mexico. Against this decree our Minister
tins not failed to remonstrate.
The trade heretofore carried on hy our citizens
with Haute Fo, in which much capital was already
inrcstcd, and which tvs* becoming of daily increasing
importance, has suddenly bee,n arrested hy a decree
ol virtual pronimnon on the part ol the Mexican
Government. Whatever may He tlie right of Mexico
to prohibit any particular courfte ofttrado, to the
citizens or ?uHjcrt* of foreign power*, this late pro
ion, amounting in jo oi'-jyio nts, lulls due on ifie ,
1stol" January, 1845, and niu-t be provided fur or r
pnMpom d by a new loan. And unless tbe resources ,
of revenue should be materially increased by you, v
there will be a prubahle deficiency for the service of
the fiscal year ending June JUlb, I84u, of upwards of r
about four millions of dollars. s
The delusion incident to an enormously excessive G
paper circulation, which gave a fictitious value to j
every thing, and stimulated adventure and specula- ?
tion to an extravagant extent, has been happily sue- >
cecdcd by tbe substitution of the precious metals and
paper promptly redeemable in specie, and thus false a
values have ihsappcarcd, and a sounder condition of 0
things has been introduced. This transition, although Sl
intimately connected w ith the prosj>crity of the coun i,
try, has nevertheless been attended with much embar- a
ra-smcnl to the Government, in its financial concern- n
So long as tla foreign importer-could receive pay- <
incut lor their cargoes in a currency of greatly lc??
value than that in Europe, but fully available here in ?
the purchase of our agricultural productions, their 0
profit* being immeasurably augmented by the opera- 0
lion, tbe thipments were large and the revtuues of
the Government became supeiabundant. Hut the j,
change in tbe chaiaclei of the circulation from a ,,
1 ? I 1 -- ' ? - ? *
iiimiiiiiui .urn .i|'|mh ihij n il laiur, hi inp hcs; stages
ol ill existence, lo an obviously depreciate I value in |,
ilv second, to llial it no longer answered llic purposes u
of exchange or barter, and its ultimate substitution
by a sound metallic and paper circulation coinbiiud, ?
has been attended by diminished importations, and a t|
consequent fulling oil in the revenue. This has in u
duced (Jongro-s, from to resort to the expedi- j,
ent of issuing Treasury notes, and finally of funding t,
them, in order to supply deficiencies. [ cannot, r
however, withhold tin- remark that it is in no way ?
compatible with the dignity of the Government that ,|
a public debt should be created in time of peace to ..
meet the current expenses of the Government, or | p,
that temporary expedients should he resorted to an f,
hour longer than it is possible to avoid them. The w
Kxecutivc ran do no more than apply the means ,|
whioh Congress places in its hands for the support of M
Government ; and happily for the good of the conn- r
try and for the preset vation of its liberties, it passrs?rs
no power to levy < tactions on the people, or to force a
from them r uitributions to the public revenue in any j,
form. It can only recommend such measures as may,
in its opinion, be c lied for by the want* of the pub- v
lie service, to Congress, with whom nlonr rests the
power to " lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and
excises.'1 This duty has upon several occasions here- ,(
tofore been performed. The present condition of p,
things gives a flattering promise that trade and coin- n
meree are rapidly reviving, and, fortunately for the p
country, the souices of revenup have only to be ,,
opened, in order to prove abundant. p,
While we can anticipate no considerable
increase in the proceeds of the sales of the c
public lands for reasons perfectly obvious to all, for sc? n
veral years to come, yet the public lands cannot nth- e
erwise than be regarded as the foundation of the c
public credit. With so large u body of the most ^
fertile lands in the world under the rontrnl and ^
at the disposal of the Government, no one can rea<bn- ,t
ably doubt the entire ability of the Government to meet
its cngugeni< nt? under every emergency. In seasons of j.
trial and difficulty similar to those, through which we
are paving, the capitalist makes his investment in the n
Government storks with the most assured conlidenee ^
of ulliinatr reimbursement; and whatever may he said h
in a period of gre at financial prosperity, micIi n* ex- |,
isted for some years after I should regard it as j
suicidal in a season of financial embarrassment, either w
to alienate the lands themselves, or the proceeds aris- r
ing from theirs iles The first and paramount duty
of those to whom may he entrusted the adminiMra M
lion of public affairs, is to guard tho puhlir credit,? ,
In re-establishing the credit of this eentral Govern-1 |,
merit, tho readiest and most obvious mode is taken to ,]
restore the credit of the Slates. The extremities ran
only be made sound by producing a healthy action in |(
(he Central Government, and the history of the pre- p
sent day fully establishes the fact, that an mere an in
the value of the stocks of this Government will, in a
majority of instances, he attended by tin inerea-i in p
the. value of the stocks of the States. It fhould, c
therefore, be a matter of general congratulation that c
amidst all the embarrassments arising from surround- (
ing circumstances, the credit of lbs Government n
should have heen so fully restored that it has been
enabled ellocl a loan ol seveq million* of dollar-to
redeem that amount of Treasury notes, on terms
more favorable than auy that have been offered for I
many years. And the six per cent, stock winch was j
created in 1(34:2, has advanced in the hands of the J
holders to nearly twenty per cent, above its par value.
The confidence of the people in the integrity of their
Government has thus been signally manifested ?
These opinions relative to the public lands do not in
any manner conflict with the observance of the most
liberal policy towards those of our fellow-citizens
who press forward into the wilderness and are the
pioneers in the work of its reclamation. In securing j
to all such their rights of pie-emption, the Government
performs but an act of retributive justice for suf- j
ferings encountered and hardships endured, and finds
ample remuneration in the comforts which its
policy ensures and the happiness which it imparts.
Sliou d a revision of the tariff, with a view to revenue,
become necessary in the estimation of Congress,
1 doubt not yon will approach the subject with
a just and enlightened regard to the interests of the
whole Union. The principles and views which I
have heretofore had ocoasien to submit, remain unchanged.
it can, however, never be too often repeated,
that the prominent interest of every important
pursuit of life, requires for success, permanency
?uu mauuiij m ivguiviiuii. i mh can oiny ut: attained
by adopting as Ibe basis of action, moderation
in all things, which is as indispensably necessary to
secure the harmonious action of the political as of
the animal system. In our political organization, no
one section of the country should desire io have it?
supposed interests advanced ut the sacrifice of all
others ; hut Union being the great interest, equally
precious to all, should' be fostered and sustained by
mutual concessions and the cultivation of that spirit
of compromise from which the Constitution itself I
You will be informed, by the report from tltfc
Treasury Department, of the measures taken under
the act of the last session, authorizing the re-issue of
Yrcusury notes in lieu of those then outstanding.?
The system adopted in pursuance of existing laws,
seems well calculated to save the country a large
amount of interest, while it affords conveniences and
abviates dangers and expense in the transmission of
funds to disbursing agents. I refer you also to that report
for the means proposed by the Secretary to in:rease
the revenue, and paiticularly to thai portion
>f it which relates to the subject of the warc-houstig
system, which 1 earnestly urged upon Congress
it its last session, and as to tfie importance of which
uy opinion has undergone no change.
In view of the disordered condition of the curren:y
ut the time, and tfie high rates of exchange bewcen
different parts of the country, 1 felt it to be intumbent
on me, to present to the consideration of
iour piedecessors, a proposition conflicting in no decree
with the Constitution, or with the rights of the
States, and having the sanction not in detail, but in
irinciple, of some of the eminent men who had pre:eded
mo in the Executive office. That proposition
:oiitemplated the issuing of Treasury notes of deloniinations
not less than five nor more than one liunIred
dollars, to be employed m payment of the obligations
of the Government in lieu of gold and silver,
it the option of the public creditor, and to an amount
lot exceeding $15,000,000. It was proposed to mako
hem receivable everywhere, and to establish at vaious
points depositories of gold and silver to be held
u trust for the redemption of such notes, so
is to ensure their convertibility into specie ?
So doubt was entertained that such notes
* uM have maintained a pur value with golJ
md silver, thus furnishing a pupei curiency of equal
'alue over the Union, thereby meeting the just expectations
of the people and fulfilling the duties of a
jarentnl Government. Whether the depositoties
ihould be permitted to sell or purchase hills under very
iiuiled restrictions, together with all its other d? tails,
war. submitted to the wisdom of Congress, and was
' garded as of secondary importance. I thought then,
ind t:.ink now, that such an arrangement would have
been attended with the happiest tesul s. The whole
natter of ibe currency would have been placed w here
y the Constitution it was d< signed to be placed?
jnder the immediate super vision and control ofConjrces.
The action of the Government would nave
.wen indf|>eiideiit of ull corporations, and the same
ye which rests unceasingly on I he specie currency J
mi (;uaiu> ii ugaintii nuultcrullon, Woiilil nNo hue
etlfii on the paper currency, to couirol and regulate
i? issues a< tect it i.gamst depreciation. The r aimcas
>n? winch would forbid Congrest t'roin parting
?it It tin- (Kiwer over the coinage, wnu'd eeeni to operate
villi nearly equal force in regard to any aubatitulion
or the precious metals in the form of a circulating
nediutn. Paper, when substituted for specie, contilutes
a standard of value by which the operations
I society are regulated, arid whatsoever causes its !
eprecialion, affects society to an extent nearly, if 1
ot quite, equal to the adulteration of the coin,
for can 1 withhold the remark, that its advances,
contrasted with a Hank of the United Slates,
part ftoni the fact that a bank was esteemed as
hnoxmus to the public sentiment, as well on the
core of *l xtdiency us of conMitutionality, appeared I
) rnc to be striking and obvious. The rc lie I which
hank would afford by an issue of 15,000,100 ol its
otcs, judging from the experience of the late United
Itates flank, would nut hare occurred in less than
fteen years , whereas, under the proposed arrargcu-nt,
the relief arising from the issue of *>15,000,0- 0
I Treasury notes would have been consummated in
ne year ; thus furnishing in one-fifteenth pari of the
line- iri which a bank could have accomplished it, a
aper medium of exchange, equal in amount to the
eal wants of the country, at par value with gold and
ilver. The -avirg tu the Ciorernmcnl would have
ecu equal to all the interest which it has had to pay
n Treasury nuts s of previous as well as subsequent
sues, thereby lelicving the Gqi'criunent, and at the
line time affording relict ty the people. Under all
ae responsibilities attached to the station which 1
ccuDy, and in redemption of a pledge given to the
1*1 vviljticn* .11 llic tlU9C U1 II* 111*1 3C**IUII, 1 *UUIIlll
(I the suggestion to it* consideration at two come- ,
utivt sessions. The recommendation, however, met (
itti BO f.ivoi :.t it* hands. White I am free to admit, .
i,it the necessities ol the times have since become ,
icatly ameliorated, and that there is good rca?on to
ope that tlie country is safely and rapidly emerging
oni the difficulties ai.d embarrassments which every
here surrounded it in 1*41, yet I cannot but think
nit its restoration to a sound and hcallli^ condition
'ould be. greatly expedited by a ie-ort to the e.xpedint
in a modified form.
The operations ol the Treasury now rest on the
ct of ITh'J, and the resolution of lHlti, and those
iws have been so mlmmisteicd as to produce as
real a quantum of good to the country as their pronoons
ale capable of yielding. It there had been
ny distinct ex, cession of opinion going to show that
utilic sentiment is averse to the plan either us here
rfore reeoriiincr.ded to Congre-s, or in a modihad
irm, while my own opinion in regard to it would iclaiu
nnchajged, 1 should be very far from again
resenting it to your consideration. The Oovernleiit
has originated with the fctates and the people,
jr their own benefit and advantage; and it would be i
ubversive of the foundation principles of the politial
edifice which they have reared, to persevere in a
leasure which in their mature judgments, they had
ither repudiated or condemned. I he will of our
onslitueuts, clearly expressed, should be regarded as
ie light to guide our footstep* ; the true ditl'erenrc
clwcen a monarchical or aristocralical government
ml a Republic being, lliat in the first Hie will of (lie
?w prevail* over the will of the many, while' in the
* 1 the will of tin many should he alone consulted
The report of the Secretary of War will bring you
cquamled with the condition of that important
ranch of the public service. 'I he Army may
o, regarded in consequence of the small nuttier
ol the rank and tile in each Company and
tegimcnt, as little more than a nucleus around
, fuch to rally the military lorce ol (lie
ountry in ca-o ol war, and yet its services
I preserving the peace of the frontiers art of a most
important nature. In all crises of emergency, the
chance of the country is properly placed in the nutia
of the several Slates, and it may well deserve
lie consideration of Congiess, whethei a new and
lore perfect organization might not ho introduced,
aoking niauily to the volunteer companies of tin.
Jnion lor th< present, and of easy application to the
rent body of the mditiu in time of war.
The expenditures of tho War Department have
ircu considerably reduced in the hot two years,
ontingcncics, however, may arise, which would
all lor the filling up of the regiments with
, lull complement ol men, and make il very driiuhle
lo remount the C ups oi Dragoons,whi.li ny an
ct of ilic Ins; Congress was directed to hedis-olved.
I refer you to tbo accompanying rrjsirt of tho Soc#
? II H 1 - --
retary for inf. rmution in relation to tin* Navy of tlie
United Stale*. While every elfort lia* l>e< n and will
continue to he made to retrench all supeifluitir* and
io|> ulf all excrescences which from time to time may
have (jrtiwn up, yet it ha* not hem re urded a*
wi*e or prudent to recommend any materia! change in
annual appropriations. The interests which arc involved
are of too important a character to lead to the
recommendation of any other thau a liberal policy ?
Adequate appropriations ought to he made to enable (
the Kxecutive to fit out all the shifts that are now in (
u course of building, or that require repairs, for active
service in the shortest possible time, should any (
emergeney arise which may require it. An efficient t
Navv, while it is the cheapest means of public defence,
enlists in its support the feelings of pride and
confidence which brilliant deeds and heroic valor a
have heretofore served to strengtheu and confitm.
1 refer you particularly to that part of the Secretary's
Report which has reference to recent experiments
in the application of steam and in the con-tmction
of war steamers, made under the superintendence
of distinguished officers of the navy. In addition
to ot'ier manifest improvements in the construction
of the steatn engine and application of the motive
power,which has rendered them more appropriate |
to the uses qf ships of war, one of those officers has
brought into use a power which makes the steam
ship most formidable either for attack or defence.
1 cannot too strongly recommend this
subject to your consideration, and do not liisitate to
ex ore** niv entire ci nviction of it* oreut imimrtancc.
I ..all
m. van jvut |/ni kivumi UViVHUUll QI9U lit III <11 |IWI liuil
of the Secretary's report which bus reference to the
net of the late session of Congress which prohibited
tin; transfer of any balance of appropriation from '
otlier heads of appropriation to that for building, J
equipment, and repair. The repeal of that piohibition
will enable the Department to give renewed employment
to a large class of workmen who have been t
necessarily discharged in consequence of the want .
of means to pay them?a circumstance attended, especially
at this season of the year, with much priva- c
tion and sutfering.
It gives me great pain to announce to you the lost
of the steam ship "The Missouri," by fire, in the Bay
of Gibraltar, wheie alio bad stopped to renew her sup- =
plies of coal, on ber voyage to Ali-XunJria, wiih
Mr. Cusbinir, the American Minister to China
on board. There is ground for high commendation
of the officers and men, for the coolness and intrcpid.ty
and perfect submission to discipline evinced under
the no st trying circumstances. Surrounded by a
raging tire, which the utmost exertions could not i
subdue, and which threatened momentarily the explosions
of her well supplied magazines, the officers 0
exhibited no signs of fear, and the men obeyed every
order with alacrity. Nor was she abandoned until
the last gleam of hope of saving her bad expired. It
is well worthy of your consideration whether the
losses sustained by the officers and crew in this unfor- l
tunate affair should not be reimbursed to them. 1
1 cannot take leave of this painful subject without j
adverting to the aid rendered upon the occasion, by \
the British authorities at Gibraltar, and the coruinan- j
der, officers and crew of the British ship of the line j
"The Malabar," which was lying at the time in the 5(
bay. Every thing that generosity or humanity could
dictate, vva? promptly performed. It is by such acts
of good will by one to another of the family of na j
lions, that fraternal feelings are nourished and the | gj
blessings of permanent peace secured. I g?
The Report of the Postmaster General will bring > gr;
you acquainted with the operations of that Depart- I gj
inent during the past year, and will suggest to you ! gj
such modifications of the existing laws as in your '
opinion the exigencies of the public service may re- , 41
quire. The change which the country has undergone i o*
of late years in the mode of travel and transportation I _
has afforded so many facilities for the transmission I 3;
of mail matter out of the regular mail, as to r. quire j
the greatest vigilance and circumspection in order to |
enable the officer at the head of the Department to j q
restrain the expenditures within the income. There
is also too much reason to fear that the franking
privilege has run into great abuse. The Department
nevertheless has been conducted with the greatest !
vigor, and has attained at the least possible expense, I
all the useful objects for winch it was established.
In regard to all the Departments, I ain quite
happy in the lieJief that nothing has been left undone
which was < ailed for by a tine spirit of economy, or -j*(
by a system of accountability rigidly enforced. This
is in some degree apparent from the fact, that the
Government has sustained no loss by the default of t
any of its agents. In the complex, hut at the same 1
tune. Iieain it ill machinery of our system of Govern- 1
nicnt, it is not a matter of surprise, that some remote 1
agency may have failed f^r an instant to fulfil it> dc- | 1
sired other ; but 1 Icel confident in the assertion, that
nothing has occurred to interrupt (he harmoriio..s ac1011
ol the Government itscll, and that while the p;c
ws have been executed with efficiency and vigor,
he rights neither of States nor individuals have btcn
r;#iipledon or disregarded.
In the mean time the country has been stcadiy
advancing in all that contributes to national
jrcaMicss. The tide of population continues tin- -pu
iroLcnlj to flow into the new States and territories, ,
where a refuge is found not only f >r our native horn
ellow-citzens, but for emigrants from all parts of the
ivilized world, who come among us to partake of the 1 p
jlcs.jngs of our free institutions, and to aid hy their I
abor to swell the current of our wealth and power. 1
ll is due to every consideration of public policy 1
tint the lakes an I rivers of the West should receive
ill such attention at the hands of Congress a* thr
Constitution will enable it to billow. Works in fa- |
orablc and proper situations on the lakes would lie , Cc'
bund to be as indispensably necc??ary in case of war
o carry on safe and successful naval operations, as
ortiticalions on the Atlantic sea board The appro- |
inati ii made by the. last C ngrcs* for the improve i
nent of the navigation of the Mississippi river, has
teen diligently and efficiently applied. 1
I rannot close this couiinunication, gentle i en. >
without recommending to your most favoratde
-onaideration, the interests ol this Ihstrict. A|?pointed
hy the Constitution i s cxrlusive legisla- *
lors, and tornung in the particular the only anomaly
in our system of Government of the Legislative body
heing elected by others than those for whoa* advantage
they are to legislate, you will feel a superadded
obligation to lo< k well into their condition, and to '
leave no cause for complaint or regret The Seat 1 ,,
of Government of our associated Republics cannot , '
but be regarded us worthy of your parental carv.
In connexion with its other interests, as urll a*- ,
those of the whole country, 1 recommend that at
your present session you adopt such measures, m or- .
dcr to carry into effect the Smithsonian be<piest, as
in your judgment will he be?t calculated to consummate
the liberal intent of the testator.
When, under a dispensation of Pivine Providi
nre, I succeeded to the Presidential office,^hr state 01
of public iill'airs was rmharrassing and Ci ideal. To
add to the irritation consequent upon a long standing ~
Controversy with one of the most powerful nations I
of modern limes, involving not only questions ol
boundary which under the most favorable rirenm m
stances, are always ernbarr i-?ing, but at the same time
in portant and high principlesof maritime law?border
. , J.: J ...i:.., r.L- in
? wiiiiuvt i ?'i. iw iwitii uii- ( iu/.rns itno nunjecta Ol me
two countries had engendered a state of feeling and of
conduct which threatened tlir most ral.imit, u? Consc
qiencfs. The hazards incident to this *t te ofthinp* m
wi re gr ally hiightrned by the am"! and i nt ^ >r in< n
incut of a subject of Great Mr lain, who acting as it ve
was allegi d, u? a part <d' a mil tnry force, ha I aided in
the commission ol an act violative of the territorial jurt-diction
o the I' nited St ate#, and involving t he miirderol'a
rit / n of the State of N?w York. A largo "
amount of (I tints ngiimt the GoVernnu nt of Mi lico rc
remained uniidjuMC !, nnd a w >r of several yer.ra'con- v
tinuanre with the savage trihea of Florida still pre* [
vailed, attended with the desolation of a large portion i
ol that beautiful territory, and with the sactilicc of j many
valuable lives. To increase the embarrass 1 "
rucnts of the (Government, indivdul and S|ate crrdit i 1
had been nearly stricken down, and confidence in the
General Government wa" *.o much impaired that 1 ,Vr
loans of a small amount could only he negotiated at
a considerable sacrifice. As a necessary consequence
of the blight which had fallen on commerce and mer',mi
il industry, the ships of the one were thrown B?
out of employment, and the operations of the other
11it<I been greatly diminished Owing to the condition
ol he currency, exchanges between difleicnt tr'"J
the country had become ruinously high, and tr?' >' ""
to dei end on a d< pri-cintid paper currency in torn in t
ing its t,ansa, In.t.s f al.all be rmutlcd toeoncramlaW brK
the country tin-,.., dor an overruling Providence pea. e ?
? I* Dn lervedn Ith tul a ? rlflt t ' ?twn i honor, h
the war in Florida was brought to n speedy termina- o
turn ; it targe portion of the claims on Httho hne
been fully adjudicated and are in a course of payment,
a tide jnettos has heeo rsmdeeed to us in other
in alter 3 by other eetiow; eenS*Mee between ro?'
and man is in a great ins sewnawhanl;?i the ered t
of thi? (ioTernment fully wd perfectly re^et%hhshe< .
Coin ineroe is becoming more find more aatended
in its operations, and manufacturing and mechanic*!
industry once more reap the rewards of skill and lrbor
Jioueslly applied. The operations of trade re t
on a sound curreoey, ?ud the rates of eachange ar<
reduced to their lowest amount. In Uus condition o
filings I hare felt it to be my duty to bring to yoLr
favorable consideration matters of great interest m
.?.? pickui miu umiuatc iuuiu, auu ill? Ullljf BCSIl O
which I feel ill connection with the future is, and
will continue to he, to leave the country prosperous,
and its institutions unimpaired.
Washington, December, 1843.
The editor ol 'the Madtsonian oilers as an inlucerneiit
to agents who will make it a business
0 ob'ain subscriber* in tUt country, one-thiko
11* all advance payments fok NEW Sl'BSCRlilks.
It being impossible to have a personal
icquaiutauce with the agents in distant places,
my person wishing to become an agent will be
ecognised as such upon procuring from the
learest Postmaster (whetherDeniocratorWhig)
1 certificate of his good chart cter. This ar'angenrent
is suggested simply because theedior
can confide in those whom the Government
:oufides in?and not because the Postmasters
irold olliee under the Administration which the
Madisoninn supports.
The above proposition is made, and the liberal
per cent, offered, with a view to ptipihI '?>
tlier the alrtady large circulation of the paper
during the ensui'Mg?^p^ When topics of unusual
interest will beoiWussed, and which discussions
should be extensively disseminated among the .
The daily paper 810 00; tri-weekly $5 00;
veikly $2 00; invariably in advance. Agents
irocuring neic subscribers, will retain one-third
if the money.
Address J. B. JONES,
Washington city.
Capital 50,000 Dollars!
n Saturday the 9th December, 1043, the splendid
/ill be drawn at Alexandria, D. C.
splendid prize of $50,000 is $50,000
do 20,000 20,000
do 10,000 10,000
do 7,000 7,000
do 5,000 5,000
do 3,658 3,658 .
> prizes of 1,0 O are 50,000
> 500 25,000
I 400 20,000
300 19 500
200 13,000
100 6,500
80 5,200
50 3,250
> 40 2,500
U) 30 3,900
>80 20 93,600
;,040 10 270 400
2,396 prizes amounting to $000,600
78 Number Lottery?13 Drawn Ballots.
Tickets $10?Halves $5?Quarters $2 50.
crtifirates of packages 26 Whole Tickets $140 00
Do. do. 26 Half do 70 00
l)o. do. 26 Quaffer do 35 0^~
30,000 Dollars ! 12,000 Dollars !!
Class No. 59, for 1843. I
.> i>c drawn .it Alexandria, I). C , Saturday Di_- fl
cember 1(1, 1843- I
prize of |90^M0 1 prize of $3.'2l'7 I
of 12,000 1 of 3,(NX)
of 6,000 1 of 2,500
of 3,500 40 of 1,000
50 prizes of $500. kc., kr., kc. fl
Tickets $10?Halves $5?Quarter* $2 50 I
i tifieates ofa package ol 26 whole tickets, $ 1.10 00 H
Do do of 26 half do 65 00 fl
Do do of 26 quarter do 32 50 H
Class 60, for 1843. I
be drawn at Alexandria, D. C., on 8aturdar, tho I
2:id December, 1843. I
rize of $25,000 I 1 prize of $1,500 I
do 10,000 | 10 do 1,000
do 5,000 I 15 do 500 I
do 2,000 | kc. kc. I
66 number lottery?13 drawn ballots. I
Wholes $10?Halres $5?Quarters $2 50. I
ti fir ate of a package of 22 whole ticket* $100 I
Dl do 22 hall tickets 50 I
Do do 22 quarter tickets 25 I
Class No 61, for 1843. I
> be brawn at Alexandria, D, C , on Saturday, De- I
cetnber 30th, 1843. I
10,000 Il0,000-w,080-wi300-t8t000- I
IS ' -11tM6 11"'/. i?| $1 .wo? I
30 of $ 1.0(H)?50 of $250, Ac. I
*8 number lottery?14 drawn ballots. I
Tickets $10?Halves $5?Quarter* $2 50. I
' M I fl r :? 11 * i if I'.ir k:i?r? nt J?, wtllill t M k . t - $ 1 .'<( I I
Do do 26 hall do 65 I
Do do 26 quarters do 32 50 I
For ticketMnd shares or certificates of packages I
the a)iove 'v^iid lutteries, address I
J. (4. ORKC.ORY k CO.,
.Manager*, Washington I
JLj* Drawings sent immediately after they are I
rr :.|| 'V ho order a- n'-ove. I
nor. 15?2aw3wdkrif I
A AVID A B MR1), {liitr of ,\'nr York.) I'rHOI.
7'rrRir, In ill its TlfWH hranrhe?. respectfully I
form* I'm eltilflN I.f llir MilfowHi awl ridtttj, I
;?t, hnvnm HMdo this rily the place of his ptflM- I
of residence, ho i- prepared to Jo all kinds nVOflt I
his lino of business, viz:? I
Window nmi Bod OMiiM outdo nod pal up in lira I
i (-t ?t* i??; Carpets cut, nrade nod pal down, In lira I
.' -i manner. Oil 1 Mkl MM! Matting, Ittod and I
it don n '; Hoi - nod I hnr?. ro-otaHod, ?nj ro co I
-i ind I'apei Hanging done with neatness and
spateh, and on the most reasonable terms. I
k Idanoo on Hitfi itmnl, baiwM i H Md I. All I
ton loA with Mr. Dodson at .Mr. Clagctt's, or .it I
CripptoCWMnnt Wnwkooae 11 trtral, will I
in inillli lll ill' liter tioli W .'1-t.
(M aENcrcLOi imii"i < ran \ I
j Ilf o, I
I .,,.,1 lop I'..'| , of V ^ r ii ) ! i rr . ,< i p \ I
, , , , ,,| . .. 11 ..I I'" ! <>?? . tm -.lie l.\ K IA , I
r, price >" "" l'rltc ? this eoillitrv he- I
; fifteen dollar*.
w Works lately imported from London, by I
F. Taylor. |
)rmaM.?on nn >l:?rnirr?t, on Ur??scs, ami 011 Farm
I vol oolmo.
i.lni'on on Manures and Fertilisers, 1 toI. Hvn
:tn\ on Tilling and Fertilizing l,and, I vol. Hvn
lie Practical tiardcnri by C Mcintosh, Canleti
o Die King of the Belgians,
lie Conservatory and Hot House, by R Rait
Ige, 1 vol.
log on the Carnation, 1 vol.
daniV l)ome?tir Poultry, 1 \<>l nnd many r
ct 14

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