Newspaper Page Text
1 I ::r: I 1 yl 1 1 ' A r&jC X I V I P j . A 1 1 A II 1 n
' PROVE; ALIs THINGS J HOLD .FAST TIIATWIIICH IS GOOD. voi-nIEI1 Xiu: KXAM1NER; bales AOTANPE. ,KS FORTH DOLLAR. rlV I'OI SEVMOUK. itiin . ...a i.aw tS. rM (be .... aaa lb' fna-lic s-icrc.. M 4KSII ALL. k.nre cur commerce? m nd mercantile operations and uMI Ii ete The otnect oi luninirivc IS tlIAt , rt L es irom a from abroad, ur Jci at Its Ver' dlflU'- A ii.at its must dq'1(l the DUiUter tluir la the four hundred i!i 1; w C ,,,canij slaves in Virginia, hundred and fifteen thousand in l.UKl III flectiial I-- &H.ird ne MIC r j!i imitations or merchandise, the nie """,k'r of free anJ uA' i2mrid- would do! The answer CI "'T'1 of ujatevcr . "X nurrbased l lt'e inttSter 18 lm,uh'? l. I, glutei? necessary, and their of puichas for themselves are noth """""Vill having the whole returns of our trails, nime in mc uwa -j,e'int vicious of Southern slaves, !rt lff vonnt of Virginia and South Carolina , r ,n,M' -.r U;!! litviii the very i'K tetter enable tis to meet our foreign r '"i-vxi at the points from whence we iin "a Fveiy met chant, every banker, will rr no. B.:tto do Mr. Wickliffe jus- unontliU branch of the subject: he ha.s iiu'l-t for years that our commerce with the t and North is ruinous; that it has drain rj as coiuunily of all our specie, and is r uJir. us into absolute poverty. The VUppi Mb has been equally unfortu. we kiiJ, vord.ng to him, Georgia and urf Cdwlmas are tl.e only source of wealth T0 -.o them we sell, from them we ought v. Commerce has mistaken iu own interests and the merchants do not know liti true maiket. Be it ob.xeived, however, ani, as ti.use States have nothing which, in ttie present condition of our industry and of tiif .rs, could possibly import but negroes, it mtiole and entire commerce of Ken t,,kv would be reJured to the slave trade. Will it advance agriculture more than it ii'-BMat'tuie-s or commerce? Ask the ticd fields the waste and depopulated isiirts of lower Virginia. Will it ini pve tiie condition, the morals, or the har of our piesent race of slaves They ! present a sort of inferior nual p)pu Ij'joii a degraded caste, to le sure, but in iciiigent and virtuous u hen compared with ti hrutal and saage ma.es in the Atlan tic States. From the Minllneas of their uamber they tir rendered more viluable as ynants, but perfectly inignifi ant es ene aiics. Neither the government nor their ii;ss:ers feel any terror fiom ttiem. Their very weakness improves their condition, and is the source, to them, of kindness and in ddleme. In wai.y instances, they are a uitof hau-rhold dependents and humble tiiends and are olVn found in the same field laboring in company with their mas ter. Willi u, resistance or insurrection is impossible. The husband ran leave his .te, the mother her rhild, without appre-U-nsion from this oune. 1'hantoms of cotiSngraiion and massacre haunt not our slumiiers the terrors of St. Domingo, or of Northampton, vei not our waking thouehts. Will it strengthen us politically? Look at the state of the representation in Congress between the free and slave States, and the question is answered. Shall the government of Kentu ky let go the heck- rem which they now hold in this law, upon ste rrowui ot the most threatening evil in I tr.e ' onstitution of American Society? Nation of 718,303. New York, upon a l cave said that I considered negro slave- rjM a political misfortune, The phrase u toomiid. It is a cancer a slow con- wnin cancer a withering pestilence n unmitigated curse. I speak not in the spirit of a puline and false philanthropy. J was born in a slave State I was nursed 7 S slave mv lif. haa luon ko I k-e. To me, custom has made the rela, tin familiar, and 1 see nothine horrible in 1 aai a Virginian by descent every cross in my blood, so far as I can trace it, ;nthe paternal or maternal line, is Virgin-1 'fen. Ilia til lX 1 Stt :n ko Knlnn in wh,ch 1 ever reside, save Kentucky. I a wuever iNoruiot the Chesapeake Bay. "y fneiidi, my family, mv svmnathies. mv MaU,j, ,y eaucation, are Nirgtnian. et consider igro slavery as a political can- cer and a curse. And she taught me so to coider iu Hear her own early declara- ttons ponder on her history look at her rciu conuiuon. The d.-Wat and rr..rniHrir fr th pod people" of Virginia, in convention as- uiea, on the th June, 1776, in the preamble to their first consiitution. contain- S me memorable declaration against the cuYernment of f7eorge , of England, d setiin? forth their rrimnro. mnn oAen, present tl,e following as cause of re- hellion and disniembeiment from the Brit- empire, that the aforesaid George had 'iideavored to pervert his kinclv office "into ieo! ana xmuvnorifihl "hy promptine our neeroea to rise in arms anst us those very negroes whom, by n infiuman vst of hit n,vni,r K A lefujed ls permission to exclude by law" DreaniMn tn ,n.n,ioi iv -.rl 'fginia. One of ihn r.,, i,.n r ,i,- v uiiiciiuru a 4IIIMIIIIHIIIII Aiilenran rt.L.t:- i . if I ..... .v.uiUllut at least in irginia, i Wa t.ie "inhuman" refusal cf the British rfown, to latify a law nrohlhlim th ;m. Prtation of slaves. I srst number, that almost the first use made "7 that venerable and renown Punmnn. ea.th of her newly acquired liberty was! ;n effort to arrest, bv legislation th in I cease of that tremendous evil of which she ""piams so bitterly against the Kine. In 4 w, just after the adoDtion of the Flpr. l onstituuon, Uiat point of time which jerms the true starting post of these States, . uie rce ol nauons. what was the aitna. uon of Virginia? Occupying the most "irai position upon the American sea- ooaro havin? the rptpqt tsnt f in .L ii . O p...v v.tvill VI Ui We llninn .L- r ., y,. , aucicuuig irom UjC tnesa-i Pe Bay to the line of North Carolina, and from the Atlantic ocean to the Ohio river covering a surface of 70,000 Mjuare miles embracing under the mildest lali tudes the greatist varieties of soil prolific of tie richest and.m&t dissimilar products; intersected in every direction by the noblest navigable streams, connecting her moun tains on the one aide with the Ocean, on the ottisr with the bright waters of the Ohio she seemed to comprehend withm herself nl tue elenientf ol ertpire. XNature never spread out a fairer, a nobler theatre for the enterprising genius ol liberty and industry than the btate of Virginia. In the dtversi fied productions of the different portions of her extended territory, there were laid the foundations of the largest domestic trade of any estate in trie, nor id. ; Aooundjng in minerals of every ppetiesfrom gold to lead. with the iinest salt wells QU the contineut, her : valley teeming with grass and grain. and her lowlaiids giving her a monopoly in the then .richest htaple of the planting States, what more cot j Id the aakat the hand of Hcavenr VA shs want manufactures fche had the Lnest water power, the most abundant materials, find the easiest commu nications. Did she desire foreign com merce? The ocean lay before her, and the inlet of the Chesepeake, meeting the waters of her own 1 otoma:, washed her entire eastern border.' Behind, and touching her, ay the great valley of the west the fair est portion of it once her own that valley which w as competent to sustain countless millions of men which was destined to comprehend within its capacious bosom many States States whose consumption is even now incalculable, and whose powers of purchase and of payment far exceed even their vast demand. This trade which sustain the commerce of Pennsylvania and New ork, and the manufactures of .New England this enormous trade, which is still in its infancy, but which, even in its cradle, is competent to absorb and digest the capital to koep in full and profitable em ployment the commercial industry of cities containing more fiee people than are to be found in all the broad territories ot the Uld Dominion might, and sliould have been, all her own. It seerrj indeed to have been designed for her by nature, and to have templed her by every inducement of cir cumstance and position. She had but to extend her arm and grasp it with all its treasures in full monopoly, I hiough lite Ohio river, and her western streams, it was brought home, to the very foot of her moun tainsthat barrier ptissed, and it was pour ed through various channels, dividing and watering her whole eastem territory into the bosom of the ACantic. No State liy so convenient to none were piesenlect so many facilities and ao few difficulties, in the acquisition and entire command of the trade of the West. Did she lack the in tellect to percttive the genius to compre hend her position and her interest? Oh, no! Magna mater rirum, she had produ ced a race of men "with minds to compre hend die Universe," men whose names and actions placed Virginia first in fame, as she was in power and position, among the States, and threw a splendor over her early history, which itill shines in lingering and melancholy radiance round her worn and faded brow "a gilded halo, hovering o'er decay." They saw, and would have seizwJ, all her advantages, deorge Wash ington, great in all things, and having stretched befoje his prophetic vision in long perspective, the future fortunes ot the em pire he Lad founded, warned Virginia of the importance of the West. He first project ed the connection of the Chesapeake with the Ohio river, through means of the waters cf the l'otomac and Monongahela. They lacked not the intelligence. Had other States the start of her in ponulalior ? Let us compare "Virginia with New York, the onlv Stat which could challenge a com- parison with her. In 1790, Virginia, with 70,000 square miles of territory and internal rewurces, such as I have desctibed, contained a popu- surface of l..,uoy mmare miles, contain! a population of 340,120. This stitement exhibits in favor of Virginia a difference of 24,3 - 12 square miles of territory, and 438,. 188 in population, which is the double of New York, and 68,000 more. In 1830, after a race of forty years, Virginia is found In jtsintstn 1 Ol 1 ilVi annlg ami M1 nrk 1.91 8.C0S. which :xhibiu a difference in favor of New York of 707,203. The in- crease upon the part of Virginia will be seen to be -563,197,, starting from a Iwsis more than double as large as that of New Va.L 'Pl.u Irnr.DU nf Mauf VnrV tlfVkn basis of 340,120, has been 1,578,588. This exhibits a positive diilerence in in. crease of 1.115.391 human beimrs. Vir- ginia has increased in a rat.o ol ol er cent., and New York in that of five hun. dred and sixty six per cent. What the next census will show we cannot tell. The total amount of property in Virginia, under the assessment of lbS.was S211.y3UJiUa 1 The azmtM vaiuation of real and per onal property, in Now York, in 1839, was o-t,uuu,wvj, exniuiung aiirxceas.iunew Vork over Virginia, of capital, of . $ 142,. statesmen may omer acoui poi- 7 or tne me8"9 l eroploywl in the promotion of the public good, but surely ey ought to be agreed as to what prosper- "7 means. I think there can bo to dispute lhat New York is a greater, a. richer, a more thriving, prosperous, and powerful otate man virzirua. v imi uu uttaaiuin:u the difference? We have already seen that. U advantages merely physical as to all the orieintl elements ol grandeur, wealii. power Virginia was unsurpassed. Has arriilpnt nr misfortune ODerated in this cane? -. vm Has a desivotic uovernment bowed the spirit .r1 nmrJ ihn Hirt nf Virtrinin? llaauhe v"""t"" " Buffered under the desolations of war or scouree of pestilence? Over this fair land, a balmv atmosphere and purest skies, smile heth and cheerfulness. Healing fountains of mineral and medicinal waters burst from her mountains. The most delicious balhs, the most salubrious springs, tempt from eve- T land "-he pilgrims of affliction and dia- ease. With war she has nothing to do; azainst iw daniers, iu horrors, or its bur dens, she has no piovision to make. Her government arid people are not charged with the care or expense incident to deieiice The broad shield of lha Union is spread be- b her. Ih potent arm ol that govern I ment which combines the atrenztb and rev I . a I t Ct..l . 1 ii.M. IK. c,,uc" v" suites, hm iui mv I wjrole. fl the protecUon of each, U pledged LOUISVILLE, KY.i SATURDAY; ' DECEMBER 23, 1848. to maintain her rights and her safety against all the world. There is but one explana. lion of the facts I have, aliown. There is but one cause commensurate with the etlects produced. The obe , which has staid the inarch of her people, the incubus which has weighed down her enterprise, strangieu ner suipenuoua impume to its increase, is equai commerco, kept sealed her . cxhaustlefs ly admitted tiid des'red, by those who seek founuiius of mineral wealth, and paralysed its repeal, and U t'Mj obvious for argument. I er nils, manufactures, and improvements. Between these opposite views of policy the U negro slavery. This is the cancer which countiy. must dec uts .There, are persons las torroded her revenue, laid waste her lowjancU, banished her citizens,, and swaL bwed up her production. '1 his is tho lufag. f zinc, the least approach to which fills her to prohibit their .importation ji merchai with terror. This i the slumbering volca- dise. ,i'his appears tame to lf trifling th no whicli will bear no handling. The the subject. Jf it be the. policy of KenLii ky imallest breath to fan. the slightest threat to stir: its hleeniiiir Ibtt unextinguished fires, c.rivca her to madness. Oh! well might he it urse the tyrant who planted Uus dark piague-spoi ujhu ner virgin uosom. . .. i 1 have given the total popu;auon oi ir- inoi.uer uoiicy, wny men repet yjanogcjin, jnw, at. the two peiiods, and shown, the t. i Where is lUe ArftTeore K-rTTrt pcr- total tncrense. Let us examine the relative lor tunes of the two races a to their numer- ical progress. In 1710, there were of whites M l 881. in 1830. 741.018, showing an in-1 create in forly years, of l,iGi, or afiout I 6 per cent., a little over one third. In I 1790, the slave population amounted to 1 03,427 in 1S30, to 409,757, showing an ncrcase within the same penod, of 00, I 30 blacks, ting one hundied and thirty three per cent, increase on the original num-1 ter, i If we examine th other slave Slates, we I will perceive the same principle at work. In North Carolina the black population I has increased in a ratio of one hundred and forty-five per cent.; and iu South Carolina, about three hundred per cent. In the for- mer State, the w hites have increased in a ratio of about thirty per cent. In the latter a little over eighty jcr cent. Throughout, it will be found on examination, that within the period embraced by the census, being forty years, the black population has in. creased within the blave States, faster than the white, and comparing the slave States with the free, that the total population in- reaes in the latter with far more rapidity than the former. The slave States of this Union, at the last census, contained five millions of people, of which two were black. The nee states contained eight millioos of whites. Eight to three, u the proportion between the whites, in these two sections of the United Slates. It is in vain to say, that the tremendous difference alreadv indicated in the growth of Virginia and New York, was the result brutal, unproductive, and unimprovable Af of the soil of Virginia. That her lowlands rican slave, from Virginia and Carolina? a aie poor and exhausted. They were not al- ways so. One hundred years ago, and Vir- ginia below the mouritaias was the mostde- sirable portion of America. Her condition in 1790, proves how much she had been preferred, snd how vastly she had got the start of all the colonies. Her present pov- erty and exhaustion, are the result of the system of slave cultivation the most slov- nU- nA ir. nrn.lnrtive of anv. The skilful and prudent husbandry which has ... . .1 made the rocky and inhospitable regions ol ana an improving conouion, ana we surest line iiuiiiivmgoiuinanceui i3dj,iwuouu K. Kiiplnnd adenuate lo the sunnort of I means in the power of the State of retain-Ices ihe repoit of the Legislature, which he two millions of people, would have preser- ved the plains of Old Viiginia in their ori- ginal fertility. But the reason, such as it is r.nnni ar.nlv tn Kentucky. . Comnare her with Ohio or Indiana. She. too, has her mineral mountains her sealed up fountains of wealth her thousand sources of capital ik... -i. .11 ,a ik.t nil :. I.kui Hr arum, and flnwrr. and fruit, irush from the earth until the land 'o, V. rnmn.ru h all lml a iuijn v .i. " v.. ' " I ke is with Ohio, in all the elements; of so cial strength and iwlitical power, and tell Whihpr I 111V HIV ' f I .u. .... .. ,i, ..t.n;n .:.i, ik. I uirn, o luiuuom uis inaiiiiiig mui nr ,h,i am.n.irrnirir. a . . . . . . . J I stales willi each other throw but this in-1 gnxlient af slavery into the one, and I care nnt . Loiur liiow lx ennal in nil n hir ri. llVb T. V . ... -w-. . ... . - - - I whether the slave State have I pop ours that . her voti do, she thribbles us in people, and numbers two millions. The lolls from her canals amount to 8501,300; about double our whole revenue. Her rep resentation in Congress will be in propor lion to her people. But why compare her with Kentucky f W ith the restless and un. nmislnff AnerffV w'lif h belonPS tO ft COtnmU- .r(;ia r chn hn nnatfA ii loner I Ull Vl.llli-l w J - C I ' r ---pi since, ohe will now tane ner stauon, miru i ..i ii .1 .. ar.J I m hp nnirm and Vireinia. who twenty years ai-o stood first in power and plae vr rr n a thn nrrurv ol I'residcnts. me I mmhpr f States, the Droud. the chivaliic. vlel.1 m hr honors, and ouietlv fall in the rear of this creation oC yesterday. Vet- Iv. these same "Goths and Vandals" ihe free mechanics and artisans, the object of Mr. Wickliffe'a classic horror are the . r- ..t I most renowneu ui uuuuuorora. "cua nn- gers daunt them, and no labors tire." They o . . . .. i c' 1 mt thronirh mountains tnev new oown ior-1 .... .... .,.,1 ests uicy uu.m up v....- -.v, . the ocean with the lakes, the lakes witn me i.:t.. 1 ward, to meet and en oy the supplies thus c l-j u .t ..;.,.:.,. :nA,,.t,v A 1 1 1 111 u Mini 1 m ii 111 inLiiiii Lnjuuuu iui a lUrillailCU UJ lUCll "IwiwiivLia muuJMi - comparison of the history and progress of ihe States of Uiis Union, leaves no doubt of .1 r... .U-. : -II .U. nnoinpc. . . . . . ' . i oonulation. m industry, in nscai resources popuinuuii, in i.uu .7, to the government, in rauiiipiiea cm uur- m.mts,8and extended and difused comforts ... .- .u. . rl ara inteuigenco among mc uio -I say, there is no doubt that, mniculars, the advance of the has been wonderfully the most the people in ail these pi r.w. C1.1.. ho 4 rwen u?onilirlilll V 1 . . f 1 ..':.i ,i iK.'i;.iinr. u wi.Unmir at verv 1 0 L'lU. UIIU MIW MliWiivv ax 4 olservation that is taken. ... I have ascribed it to negro slavery. What other circum- stance is there that is peculiar to the one section of the Union, to which this remark, ,111 IVU Vt . find the population, we would doubtless, find the Eciple here, as In everyU.ing else, to cor- fespond with, and explain the fact. ' . 1 have run out these papers to such un reasonable length, that 1 nav not room w a a 1 a. trace the nodi operandi oi wayery inrougn all its deuuls. That the law Ol lBJd.COm RrwctA or every ouer advantage, the fatal influence the part 1 played then. The trial o Ma- Carolina was appeased and Ueneral Jack- of this poison is immediately perceived. In hon disclosed the fact that there was a reg- son robbed, as Mr. V icklifJe thought, of 17'JO Ohio was a wilderness. In 1&10, if ular plan of operations, and band of agents, his prey, seems to some persons utterly un- her nonulation bear the same propoition'to in Ohio, for the abduction of our slaves accountable. I have put it altogether, and II a a . livi . f . 1 II 1 .1 a. aa.. at . a., aa rivers they conquer time and space they Jackson had been just elected, ior sec- usuuiwohic. r, subject nature through all her kingdoms and ond term, to the Presidency of the Ln.ted everything, as it did once before. If thts in all her elements, to the uses of men, and States. The majority in Kentucky was de- does not mean that the authority of the Gen- i.: i i !,: Kr,u dr. :.ii.M;e him. The nuarrel of South eral Government over the currency, at least. able difference in progressive power can be of the Union was a compact ueiwe.. iuc haT anticipated tnereirom oraer in uit ascribed If we would examine philosoph- States in their political capacity a treaty finances, and stability in the currency. ically into th process of production, the between independent sovereignsof which Such a system of duties, or tariff, if you sources of wt allh. and the principles of each, of course, was to be the judge aa to please, as wiil wipe off the present debt of I bined with other circumstance! fias had tendency to cluckits advance in Kentucky and to keep it stationary for. jjie last ten years, is admitted tyr the enemies of the law and proven by the"staiistica of jhe country, That the repeal of that law would give a I wuo say, they clesire,.a .modification. of ,the I law, so as to peiuiil citiaena of the Stale to introduce slaves (or, tyi own .Die, hut su'H to prevent, fo far as she may, by legislation. the increase of slaves within. her boders. without violating the constitutional runts of masters and emigrants, then the lo,.aa H 'i wkijm.u iu uk jwiiir,, imai. muting ever) tociy mat wants slaves to in troduce them for their own use, and per milting traders to bring them ir for sale! The IratL-rs woulJ bring them in for the use ol the citizens, and would bring in no more than would be permitted for such use. 1 rohibit the trader from selling, but allow the citizen who desires it to import, and he will appoint the trader his agent to import I for him, and pay him a commiSNOn, tmtend of buying from him. We will be thiovrn II 1. -i t r int. iii.' duck upon ine law oi 131, wnicn nad do effect at all. If the law of 133 had ben passed in 1500, and enforced, Kentucky, without violating the vested liehts of any body, would have so reduced the evil, that it would have terminated of itself, or could have been easily done by the act of the ma- ters, or the purchase by the Commonwealth But Mr. Wickliffe styles me an abolition- ist. He calls slavery a blessing. Will the slaveholders in Kentucky answer his appea.', and fall in with his reasoning? Will the? repeal this statute call a convention of tie slave States break down all restrictions ou die free importation of slaves from every Pin ot the coaipass, where slavery lie .Mississippi nas overtraded hersell n slaves; shall she throw back her excess upon us: And will the slaveholders do this not to advance their wealth not to improve the laceoi tueir country not 10 uuroojce new branches ol industry not ta invite skill. intelligence, and capital, and improvement, social, moral, or physical but lo keep out manufacturers, and mechanics, and artisans? ill they bung in the vicious, degraded. race winch ha brought down ujh.ii those Stales the double curses of weakness and danger a race from w hich irginia would have extricated herself while it was yet possible, if she had been permitted a race which was inflicted and riveted ujion her by a foieign tyrant ere she was yet free? Will they bring them here as an ally and an inMiument, by which to lower thvs ges of labor, when those very" wagesare the highest indication of an advancing society, speaking upon this resolution, he recur to i.i .l.i- ii: r..: . c p icol J , "g her citizens within her bosom, of stop- ping the tide of emigration, and alluring back its current? Will they enlist ifce Af rican race to keep out and to duve ou, their own? To render themselves and theirprop- eity more secure against the attacks of the abolitionists? Is South Carolina more e- cure with her 315.000 slaves to 265.000 citizens? If. as Mr. Wickliffe charges, the British Government is leagued with lie Ab- oliuonists to destroy the tenure of s.axery . ... I by force, is it a wise measure of defeice to increase the number of that domestic loe, till it exceeds your own? The idea aid the Rrimnirtnt nnncar to me to bonier or mad- .. . o . . , .. I ness. Atiolitionist lam none. anJ M r. IIV.LflT. 1 : 11. ...I.. -. : I icaiuie anuwj u. vu me omy nuasiun i when that subject was ever fairly behre the uuvcniiiinii 01 jeniucKV. i u an 1:1 me ... ' . , ijegisiature, ana Air. v icitnne Knowi wen i from the river counties. When thr.t fact was laid before the Kentucky Legislature, I no man there pressed more earnestly for the I sending of a special commission to Ohio, with a demand that she should legislate in I such manner as to protect our nropertj, and j punish her citizens lor its violation. I he commission was sent, and she did legislate I to our entire satisfaction ?so power on , . , , . , , i . . - r -.1 I anr h with rnniAni innn il iripntrR wirn I - me internal regulations or policy oi my na- tve State. I he session ot iJJ w as trie nrst oi my i service in the councils of the State. I had occasion that winter to observe with some attention the principles and the policy of the Senator from Fayette. How he came to vote for the law prohibiting the importation or slaves, I am at a loss to conjecture, it ...i r : .i . wrl criinnn r , his policy then, or with his couwe ana w . ..r. ti f ik An,. od ects since, ine auuauuu """" n.,iff;n th. r.Pr;Iatiire. the Dartv to .y - -0 " ,. . A which l neiongeu, was very rtu im. 1.1111 11 v ul-ui iiib mil' a - Carolina with the General Government had .hoA Ua The convention of that ivat-uvu ..w. - State, at Columbia, had I ptsaol lu ord.n- ance. The Executive had transmitted a nur 1 wiv prniil.'llt. WllQ ail aQCUeSS I. . r,., . i. rr.k : tUat nr. taiure. me pnm-wiw r , rm iar tn the ainaiiiB mm m uuU.vo, ... - world. The doctrine that the Ckmsuuiuon r .v.- tt:. sai.a ur.-wnot n form of eov- i ,ure n. u . ernment founded by. and operating immedi- ately upon, the people the mselves that there was no direct relation of government I and cltl.ena. of allegiance and protection, I ' a a e l g-a between the individuals in the several Nates and the Federal auinoriues-nai, m uum, . there was no such people as the people iof the United Mates, dui mat tne couamuuuii H t,U. Il V .wa ! j I the extent of the obligations it imposed, and 1 . . f t J iL. the. extent or the obligations 11 tmposeu . anu as to the cases of its infraction formed the ground work which suprted the right to Tin States were informed that i! nullify. The States were iniormea inai 11 l(a tariff WB HOt modified to suit the vjews jlini r.rfti;a or if any attempt should uiu ii .ail - t.r.. r : .n her! she would se - 1 444' v " ' - cede, and that would be a signal of srenera dissolution. Kentucky, it was stated, would ol course, go with her, since she woul surely not "continue to pay a tribute of ty per cent upon her consumption, to the nortnern states, for the privilege or bem united to them; when she could receive al her supplies th round the Dorts of South Carolina .without paying a single cent of triDuie. l he .Legislature of Kentucky responded, in a reiort and resolutions, in w nicn are repudiated the power of nullify ing an act of Congress by any State, togeth. i . . . -. er with all the reasoning upon which it was ciauueu. 4 ne very coniiottaoie invitation to cheapen our consumption bv divsolvin? the ; Union, and receiving our supplies mrougn me port ot Uiarleston. was dec In ed, lor various reasons. fhe Senator from Fayette, in a sneech. which occupied 'seventeen closely punted columns ol the (commonwealth, assailed the prujcipies oi ine xvutucky report and ie?o- riiuorirrotisea uenerai Jackson like a good whig, but maintained the construction given by South Carolina to the Conititution; in short, showed himself opposed to any expression on our part of disapprobation of ier course, and voted against the report and resolutions. Notwithstanding the Sen ator s kindness, or at least indulgence, to the milliners, and his argument to show that the eastern trade, and our commercial con nexion with the north were a ruinous busi ness to us, and that our true market was the south, he still was a most devoted friend to the tariff. The next proposition from South Carolina, on which Mr. Wickliffe and my self were called to act, as members of the same Legislature, was to create a Bank, common to four States, and as many more as could be brought into the arrangement the controlling power to be at Charleston, nd a branch in each of the States parties to the charter. I regarded this as part and arcel of a system of policy, which was to prevent the re-establishment of the national authority over the currency, by enlisting as many States as possible in a sort of bank- ng confederacy, with which the establish ment of a truly national institution would. of course, inteifere. That, indeed, was the avowed object in a report made by Col. Memminger, to the South Carolina Legisla- hire just before he started to Kentucky. he Senator from r ayelte argued that this branch would have the same beneficial ef fect upon the exchange, which the Bank of e United States had. That there was no onger any hope ot seeing that institution revived, and that we ought to adopt the best substitute we could. While 1 am writing e.e papers, a resolution has been before Senate ol Kentucky requesting upon le part of Kentucky, the establishment of an United States Bank. The Senator from' syette lakes the giound that all the confu sion and disasters which befel our currency banks, from 1316 to 1S20, was attributable to the old United States Bank that the same results would occur again, ccc. So ntimately.. are the .savaral pacta of bia ays em connected iu his own mind, that in had then opposed, intimates that the author was a federalist, although everybody in both Houses adopted the report, but himself and two others, and assails Air. Clay for com promising ihe tariff. Some persons consid er all this as inconsistent and unintelligible It does not strike me in this l.ght. 1 have been a close observer of Mr. Wickliffe for a lengthof time, ajid upon a series of meas urea. His mind and his policy are indeed "a mighty maze, but not without a plan r i ry i- 1 o delend the ordinance oi oum oaronna. nullilying ihe tann, and at tne same time to be a warm protective tanit man, looks a , . . , . . . Ill little odd. lo aouse uenerai jacason s i i r i 1 proclamation at me top oi tis speeu anu ...:.k ik. rnl .,nrA..iiru.l mnl.niu nHIs iui iuc iu wuihwuiw .ivi.m.v, defend the ordinance, may not seem strange; uus a- " . , . . I'lCS.l vuy wi ma vuuijjiumia, vj uim wiuU1 added thereto the argument on the negro law." South Carolina vowed, in the face of men and Heaven, that, unless the tariff wa9 modified, she would secede, and that Kentucky would go along with her. Well, Jlr. Wickliffe vindicates her right to do so, anj proves, or at least, tries to prove, that Kentucky's interest lies with the south, and . . . ikni 1. & . at am Mnnitinm in minAiii' mil uiui ii imwhi wihh.ivu mv . , v. iat the same time, is lor screwing up the tar iff to the highest notch, and is in a perfect lury wiuj iui. via. iui iciuug n uww w the Carolina standard. Now this either means that Mr. Wickliffe wishes Carolina driven out of the Union, and Kentucky to go along wnn ner, or u i me arraiuesi non- 3ense that ever fell under my observation. wf. icanne r..BH u j oi i ai l cmui i dbuk, locaiea ill xvenuicay, I i u . . ,. . wtou. i. i... . I rnl 5riiiir our storks in the least have the i j . . . z most benehcial tnlluence upon our com- I , . S,lt lh.t n Rank of i... " . . K so far as the south and southwestern Mates are concerned, should be transfened to outh 1 , Carolina, then 1 confess it n 'l7 plicable Lastly, Air. W icklifle thinks lOllllttl Uie eiatca biiuuiu iro I ve. .natinc ohiects of his hate and execra- o i t on the free mechanics and manufacturers . --- of t Iconrenfwn of the slave Mates should be called to concert measure &c. ow what does this mean! To each and all of the Senator's plans I have been opposed. For years 1 have look I " - - , ed to the restorauon and exercise of the just powers oi tne uenerai uovernment over me 8Ubjects peculiarly commiUed to its charge Dy me ionsuiuuon, wun anxious nope, i I I 9 I ft lne national treasury, and furnish an a bund- I m a . a a a lhe nal ant re, ent of c ian revenue lor nauons 1 oDjects tnuepeoa- the pioceeds of the sales of tba pub- i,c lands, will enable the latter l una to De distributed among the States, to which. J 1, they are in all iustice eotided. Pend, w . . - ; rha of narties and tha susDension e of all beneficial action upon the part of th uenerai uovernment upon the currencv. have snuggled hard against excessive bank ing in Kentucky, though I have sustained o far as my humble abilities and limited influence would go, the character and th credit of the institutions of that kind, w hic we were in some measure forced to estab lish. hile in the councils of mv nativ State, through a very remaikable and diffi cult political era, 1 have kept my eye fixed steadily upon the national authority, a the only point ofpolitical contact between the States of thu Lnton. 1 have resisted everr thing that looked like interference from anv quarter, with our internal policy, and every euori to entangle us in alliances with other States. I have seen Kentucky, through a perioo oi eignt years, maintain a wm and just moderation upon subjects which seemed to nave run other States mad. I Ier curren cy is sound, her credit unimpaired 1 hope, herpublic debt not at all alanninz. and he wra iii-siKniucarii. i'oised on her own brave centre, she has beaten off both aho. litionista and nullifiers. She fears neither. and abhors both. May he pursue and main, tain her own internal and settled policy, without reference to any judgment, opinions, or interest, save her own, is the prayer of oi one wno loves her w ell, and has tried to serve her faithfully. l'eceinber, 1840. AM.KMlrr aa4 aaa faaallr.' IL- en . ' - , ue lonowing is extracted Irom the Tribune of the u'ironde: MWe found the Cmir seated on his bed. On our entrance he immediately rose and squeezed our hand witn warmth and dignity. His stature is above the average; his whte woollen clothes exhibit in fine relief his superb face, which adorned with a long black beard: his white hands" are perfectly shaped, and his feet seem surprised to feel the softness of carpets, alter having been so long accustom, ed lo tread the sand. 'Since I Eave confided myself to the honor of the French." remark ed the Emir, 'I have not had occasion to repent it a single moment, and 1 can well understand that weighty reasoi.s at present prevent the realisation of my dearest wish, to live and die at Mecca. I will wait." he women forming the family of the tuuir, are lodged in a suite of three rooms joining his own apartment. His mother in habits the most distant. She is a woman of seventy years of age, with a sad and deject ed mien, but her eyes sparkle occasionally ke those of her son. She was indisposed when we visited her, and was reclining on matress, before an immense brazier, sur rounded by young black and white female attendants, who appeared to seive her with great zeal and attachment. In the second room were the three colored wives of Atd- 1-Kader on iheir matresses, with their chil- ren in iheir arms. The faces of the latter are very pretty. Iheir heads are entirely shaved. They say ban iour' and shake hands very willingly. The women are all habited in white stuffs, a sort of long gown, and double tunics of muslin or cloth, fas tened at the breast by chains of silver. On their naked feet they wear rings of the ame metal. Their head-drew conceals their hair entirely. Their ears are pierced for immense ear-rinrs, which reach as low as their shoulders. Some of the women in this room were tatooed on the face and aims, I in tne most curious manner. 1 hey appear- ed resigned to their fate, but much astonish-1 A at lha amiM nf tha siinminsltniv wrwrl.l ... . 5 'I The third room is the most rur ou- of a . It is a large saloon, darkened bv the partial r.f ikj. aKiillara tit falnl link, tk.ll obtains ir.eress beimr'inrreav.,1 hv that of - .. f on ciiuiipiuiis inc. neie nr louiiu uie iiiic wifriuf the Kmir. on a sofa, uairhinc over her Children at play. She is afiout lorty years old, and her face is handle, and, tnongn me expression oe soinrwnai severe, it is by no mean. Dad. Her White garments An. I ma.Ia kn 1 It... r L. I.I.mL I OIO 11 J it. 1 C11114 licaici lit (ill viivc Ul 111 c nia.a concunmes. uer saa gianre seemed to ask . i . i Heaven what would be the future fate of her nnltnnv Tamitv (if th I Tin r1nnirhtira nl M U u fi j . . . J . a ... ... vuu....... w... the Emir, one is a superb beauty. Her face is one of those ideal ones that haunt the imaginations of painters, and her eyes are such as when once seen, can never be for- gotten. Her bare arms, perfectly shaped, are encircled with very simple: bracelets. Her hair is adorned with a large riband and some flowers, which announce that ihe wo men of the desert, are as vain and as fond of borrowing the 'foreign aid of ornament' as their more civilised, and, therelore, less li..:.. r c excusaoie aiders W. xuro. Cap! are f a Slaver with ever treat aia vea. rear Haw- Capt. Kennard, of ship Goodwin, from rv. ........ t.a frn,n ll.ta Citntr 1 " !l.. - i..:- .:.t. r t nn reporis tcm a ui.g u. upasiu slaves', arrived at St. Helena in October, havin? been captured by II. B. M. shi p Britoraart, on the West Coast of Afnca, She had been j. k...j.j .Biot uiues 07 iu M. ship Dart, when she was always repre - sented as the American brig Frederica, with! American colors and papers. She was ta ken at Congo river, at which place it appears she had been delivered to Brazilian purcba- sers. The cook, who was on board at the .time, of her capture, was on board previous to her being delivered to the JJrazuiaiu. She was sent to St. Helena for adjudication I color, and it should first b tried oa an old piec In ilia tiiiirallv PvMirf 4 Knnf fnrtv ft( thelaf tha asms silk. . u negroes uicu ou u.c jgc. uc ouic. . . tl. i . were put in the depot, and when in proper condition, if ihey are willing, will be sent . tl... W InJ,. rln IU UNO VI M1U "W1IUUUI1M1UU1. The vessel captured, if we do not mij- take, was a British bottom, condemned at Key West as unsea worthy, purchased by Americans, and sent to Rio Janeiro, under a sea letter, and thence proceeded to Africa. Uotton Advertiser. On IBM MTmy I lallfeeata. Since Oct- :h three steamers, seven ahirja. and several vessels chartered by gov ernment, have leu iew xors. ior wum. . . . . . , r --l:r.. nia. while nearly as many more have leit Rfton and Baltimore for the same destina tion. The ship Sea Queen cleared on Fri 1T.1 for San Francisco, with two hundred and thirty soldiers Ol u. o . . a 1 1 er infantry, under Mijor Miller. The nopulauon of this State, by the cen su4 taken in 1 847, amounted to 427,75 u.m nf vehirh there were arhite males. nm. t i m am. t -,1 XU9.071, iciuaica, i,wjj un .wivaj maleN 8,930; fetrales, 10.812; taale slaves, IWw; lemaaca, iu,yoo. WHOLE NUMBER 80. RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE. Prasrrvnon M Ntsreai. Frera tba Mi tiaaary HanOd ( ! bar, Wa that lb aative uiaaioaary prwata have ka mac par reauaby Ik Patriarch Mar Shmioa. A tire preacher. Deacon Caergia, callad ea Mar hiiua carryiaf with kin aa a araaanl t th Patriarch a ahaea from his awa flock. Bat this ligaiury iastrad of traaliaf kiaa kiauly a ad courteously, abaaed kirn "ia th puaarat ataa ner, and thraaUaioa thai it ha want abaat preaching say more, ha (lha Patriarch) would eat off kia aoae ami lipo,antl hara them patch ed apoa rncccaaina fur the mouaUioeara." On another occasion thisnmo Patriarch threatened two native prieata aa follower -It von do not qait tho miaaionarica, I will cat off joar bearua and hare them worked into moccasiaa for the moantaiDeers. And do not think that von will keep ant of my reach. 1 will saiz Ton in th atrects, or even follow yon into tho koaaea af the tnlaaioaaxiea if need he." Soon aft or thla a child of one of theae prieata died, bat .Mar Shi mon refuaed lha father the privilege af iutarriag the remaina beaide thoee of a deceased litter ia the only barring fronaa in thaeity. OitMta -ummtmrn mar aoimoa wreaieooa u aand lh Roar da to kill Deacon Gaerr ia. n native wrieat. f ka preached anv mora ia the moBDUma. Ilia reply was. 1 am willing to die preaching tbegoapoL" Of late the efforts of the patriarch to dvalroy the noiaaioa have been mora violent lhaa ever; but it is cr.tifvloj to Icara that not! cf the Nealorian eccleataaiica, incladiaj th nisaops, lake the side of lb miasiOB. MrBDta or Ktv. Daniel Bieb. Rev. W. W. Hill, of Loaisvill, baa reraived a letter con veying lha sad confirmation of the laUllipnca, thai kev. Daniel Baker, wh kaa bean laborina- as a Missionary, under th cara of th Presby terian Board of Mission, for som months past, ia Texas, was murdered ia cold blood bv th Canianch Indiana, on his way from San An tonio do Bexar to Victoria. 11a waa also aralpod by th savages. The t"srir saya he waa en of th most extensively known. Laborious, use ful, and generally beloved Ministers of the Pres byterian Church, having labored in protracted meetings in nearly all lha State and Territories r th L a.on. lis waa for n number of Tears Pastor of n flourishing Church In Washington City, whence ke removed to Frankfort, Ky., to take charge af th Church there. From that placa he waa called to Holly Springs, Mis., where he remained until he went to Texas. Hundreds, penaiia we may say thousands, ia ail part of the I'uion, unite with the Churches an- uer bia ministry, who will drop lh tear of pity a they read the story of his cruel death. tkil adelphim San. Cnaeorat. Chcbcm Dtbovi t Fiai. CA'fefwa. Fa.. Dec. 10. Th new Episco pal Charck at this placa waa deatroyed by fir last nichL The fire broke out about 8 o'clock a the evening, originating from a furnace la th cellar, and harried all attempts to extinguish, it- It waa burned to the ground nothing saved and no insurance. AaaivsL or Miioiabje. The Missionaries wha sailed from Providence in th brig Smith field, ou tit l-'th of Jan last, arrived at Elinira. Africa, Augualst, and expected to reach Ga boon on the 20th. Tbey were, accenting to a letter, in "pretty good health and spirits." Riv. Abseio N'icos Dc Silt, pastor of th a . . . 1 . a L. six baaored rortugaese, wn wea irons in Island of Madeira to Trinidad, and who are now soul emigrating t th Tailed States ka arri ved ia Atw York.. AGRICULTURAL. Fiut l tae Amerksa Agmaltartet. How to Tin Oil raoai Faria Rub really , and presa with blotting paper till all the oil on the surface ia removed; then cover th epot w,lh r Vn?th I "I oiner wnil ooaoroaai iki aa n uuuaiv clay, "grease balls," 4.C Pat sett paper over this, and turn th other aid of tho oil spot np, and cover that in like manner; lay it under n light press for a few hoars, snd then scrapo off th chalk, which. WUI fc saturated won ou; a reoeat th process until it has all been absoroed; then rub it gently with a cambric handkerchief I so as to runoff th dust and alam. Thro I: . .11 ...,.11. fnnTV1 aaf- "r ,u"r -pp""--"- - c"nU DirT OS TlHIH. Th durability f th 'k l proverbial; yet how many ineisnce arc thereon record of ship's timber naving oeea f..ILi naaoaad. a a t reaatr ra- I t.l-.mnf avan bvfara th vessel could b Inanched. Other oaken limbers, of th earn x9 timber, and set np as land posts, wnerainej I still remain almost aa bard as none. I . r . I lO luraOTC THE W11UT1 r inn i ,,, . ttlMt,a-. . . ftsj ir. iauid to s I improved if yon graft it over with th earn - I riatv. nrnvidrd Tour scions Com from Ira J 'I J w 01 S"4"!- How to Bliaoi Hoey Dark-colored heaey may b bleached by exposure in the open air for -4 daj e and n.ghu, during cold and frosty I weather. T Iso VxLvrr HavlBtr ripped the valve apart, tak each pise separately, and holding it t irhfJe ia both hands, stretch it ronnd n warm stove-pipe, th wrong side of th velvet against ih. imnm -m a win remov me ei rive the surface of th material a freak and new i appearance, veives cannot - I Ma. as when siread eai ea a sua muumMxw ,m00thlT 0Ter u,. pU. or ' .' .v l-w... . ..Kia. i .i i Aiuuffr wav. t w v. . -- . I ,nH than ta cover it with a wet cloth aad hold I it MBj(r th velvet passing it to and fro b- I r.ih Far this oroceas. the velvet mast s I stretched ver n vacant spac between tw ta- , . tlM,h: k, w-irhtar I ha k-e.u Th vapr !.,(.; from the heated iron and wet cloth, w id rais th pii of u velvet, wnii,ax " another, person will brush it ap. with a .kaa. Velvet has greatly th advaatag of all ether Ik fabrkka ia th facility with which it can b l .Uk joined, or eewed together without sv external appearance of the seam. .Y-ss Lmli House Bk. To Iaos Sa.a-ijUk cannot be Ironed amoothly ao as to press out all th crease, without first sprinkling It with water and rolling it up tightly in a towel letting It rest for an hour r tw. If the ire a in th least to hot A will injur la . -- , . , J . vi ..v )V. I unffni coiorou suaa ar iiwwvii-, . .. s,Uway.nnng.er tha annlktwa of an iron. Blmia. arawa. j olive, grave, Ax-. generally look vary wU aftar I Iraainr. I . v. i I ... .1.. Siuae anouia mwaj 0 wh w,ius id. Cactio. 1.1 th I'ea vw Glass Taasxu. Hot water should never b poured la t gtaaw vae- till they nr mederatsly war men with avfM water, an th eudden expansion af th botlera bv th boat af th water has a tendeasrv taforea it fracn th aide. Thin asasebt are better aUa t endur saddsn sxtrina af heat a ad ld laaa thick ones, becaua thav are) aar through thear thkknaas. and easo,ently aa- pandd oonailaia aTKsaage rmfrr. .mm- t Liax. a MiaNa or PBrTExnia Pkaar WsuiD' raoa Blekii. Thia vaar. 1 saved senMi ana Delarronium fracn bWadinc to death, after ( eat down, bv dnstiar alackad ban over Ua woaad. It aairhl have th offset f pceaarviar . I other plan la under nimilarcirei aencrs larsatca. WisTxa MANaaaaim r CAiviav L4 tkaan - J -j"? f 1 J I q-trl .f Watr, pat iat a jar, or saneepan, and I nlarad aa tha hearth aa hot aakea; in ta xoocn- A I aaU will hsdous but not barat Should calrea. --a -- . . . vn tahia 7, 5 SS, aad tw i of whitatt or caaia. uaaea.. V, j : . ? 1 ml .'1 rrrr i'