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The examiner. (Louisville, Ky.) 1847-1849, March 03, 1849, Image 1

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V ; I ' I I i N III 1 V . V i k 1 rVU..V VViXVh?.. .Tf
J iilLU- ,,, 1LA .ilVli II .1. N ALA iLlLo
"prove aiyl things; hold fast that which is good " l III,
is las PeetOSUe.
From the Louuvllle Jouietl.
Gsstlimes: I have read witn much
attention the editorial article in your edition
0 luesuaj,
v- ....,a " Aldioueh I dissent hoin some
0f your views, 1 admire the ability and
;n uhich thev were conceived. The
I.mlrti. well studied and cons'.derate,
and i worthy Uie attention of thinking
men. 1 leve to suoim: to your re
flection some tlioughu suggested by your
retAJ,Sfirst, 1 cannot but congratulate the
friends of emancipation iu Kentucky mat
vour views on many vital points corres
pond with their opinions. Let me si
UiiU "- m .
1 You are not in favor of perpetuating
jal-,rv in Kentucky. i ou do not say in
so many words that slavery is a social and
political evil, but what you do say presup
poses that it is every way desirable that
slavery should be removed from the State
so soon as it can be done with safety to
mtir interests.
2. You evidently regard the removal of
slavery not only as desirable but as practi
cable in piocess of time. You quote
Mirmilav to show how it was abolished in
Eneland. You speak of the possibility of
iis removal by moral causes, as in JJelaware.
You, furthermore, propose an amendment
to our constitution, looking to that end.
You do not regard slavery as a blessing;
i,e ither do you deem it to be an immedica.
11; evil, a cancer seated upon the vitals,
iriemedialle in all time to come.
3. You do not hold that slavery is, in
itself and inevitably, a sin against God.
Tbisis the postulate of the abolitionists.
Grant this, and abolition, immediate, un
conditional, and defiant of consequences, is
ii,e dictate, not of fanaticism, but of im
peraiive duty. You reject the postulate
and abbor the councils of modern aboli
tionism. 1 am persuaded that the eman
cipator of Kentucky, with few, very few
exceptions, are agreed with you therein.
4. You maintain that emancipation
should be very gradual. The result will
be a ereal revolution in the social condition
of our people. Such changes should pro-
ct-ed slowlv and cautiously, disturbing, as
little as poss.ble, the rights of property and
the workings of our social and political
4. You suggest that the new constitu
tion should prohibit the further importation
of s aves.
6. You do not say, but I venture to add.
that you regard the question as eminently a
djta:ic question, to be considered and
adjusted by the people of Kentucky, unem
barrassed, by foreign influences. No at
tempt on the part of Northern abolitionists
or Southern perpetualists to interfere in the
sjbject should be tolerated. We want no
advice either from New York or South
So far, gentlemen, you are a) soucd and
good friends of emancipation as the soundest
and best of them. 1 am most happy to
know that your powerful pen is on the side
of these important principles.
May I venture to infer from your re
marks that you also agree with them in
thinking it proper at this time to discuss the
whole question before the people You
deprecate agitation. So do we. But calm
and temperate discussion is not necessarily
agitation. Fieces written in the tote and
spirit of your article are not agitating. As
you justly remark, "it is only when discus
sion becomes fanatical that there is any
real ground for alarm. It ia here that agi
tauon begins." Again, speaking of a plan
of emancipation, you 687, "it may not be
expedient to propose the plan at this time,
but there is no mischief in the discussion
of it, tt this or any other time, as a simple
social question." If I understand these
remarks, you see no evil in discussing at
this time the whole subject. There is,
there can be no mischief in discussion; only
let it be deliberate, honest, temperate; let
it proceed on the right principle and be
conducted in the right spirit, and the high
est good will grow out of it.
ou do not state whether, in your judg
mem, the newspaper press is the proper
organ of discussion. But, as you have
now used the columns of the J0urn.1l for
this purpose, it is perhaps fair to infer that
you regard it as a suitable topic for the
papers. Indeed, gentlemen, the newspaper
press moves the world. It is a new and
most powerful element in modern civilisa
on. It carried the reform bill and the
corn-law bill io England; it set aside roy
7 and set up republicanism in France,
it destined to still greater triumphs. In
tin country the liberty of the press and of
peech are the means by which our free in
J"uona re embarrassed and preserved.
Am, in Kentucky, pre-eminently, the
newspaper and oral debate are the school
masters to inform and the lights to guide
popular mind. The press and the
ump are our true bulwarks. The tongue
mightier than the bayonet, and the
columns of the newspaper are more formi
atle than columns of artillery. I su rgest,
t respectfully, that the press cannot be
Jlent on this question. You. must either
oacuas it or you must rive reasons why you
refuse to discuss iu Whether you dere to
propose a plan now or to postpone the
nole thing indefinitely, vou miut r!.hst
't, for both questions are debateable. ,
Inow beg leave to examine the main
Ption which you take adverse to the
Jies o. the emancipators. You dweour
S8 the idea of resorting to any direct and
poauve efforts for the removal of slavery.
maintain that by the operation of
'ai causes, without the aid of legislative
Dctmenu, the evil will slowly an5 im
perceptibly diminUh and hv.
ou iilusu-ate your position by the caws or
Delaware mA F.iLj '
moral causes have removed iWr
ebere. You must also show that these
"uses are at work or likely to be at work
10 A-entUCIV. PermU - . 1.. L-
yOW examples. You cite Un case ble
M Lngland and introduce Macaulay toll
prove that th tyranny of the Norman and
English slavery were both abolished with.
out agitation, and without legal enactments,
by moral causes acting tiilcntly end imoer
c'ptibly." To thia 1 reply, first, that the
English wavery here adverted to was the
) stem of villanage which anciently pre
vailed in Eneland, under Inch white vet.
sons were held in slavery. But the ques
tion now relates to ntgr slavery. And
the example of England is unfortunate for
vour arrumenL since necro slavery was
atiolished in her colonies, not by mora
causes, but by act of Parliament.
Arain. what were the "moral causes'
which removed slavery in England? Are
thaae causes armticable to Kentucky? Let
us see. One of the chiif causes was
amalgamation the eradual absorption
of the inferior into the superior class.
Both classes were of the same color and o
the same general family, and the process
was easy and natural. With cs amaiga-
mutton ia a horrible imPOSsiDiiuy. ine
other moral cause of the removal of Eng
lish slavery was the influence of the Roman
. . ... .sua
Catholic cierey. It is thua stated by .Ala-
caulav himself, p. 22. 23:
"When the dyme slaveholder nsked lor
the last sacraments, his spiritual attendants
regularly adjured him, as he loved bis soul,
to emancipate his brethren, for whom Chrisl
died. So successfully had the church used
her formidable machinery that, before the
Reformation came, she had enfranchised
almost all the bondmen in the kingdom
except her own, who, to do her justice
seem to have been very tenderly treated.'
I need haidly say that the clergy of Ken
tucky are not likely to use the formidable
enpmerv ct eliOSUV inumiaauon ai uie
death-bed of the slaveholder, nor would
o J U . - .
ou commend the introduction of such a
moral cause.
You cite the case of Delaware where
you say "slavery haj worked out its own
salvation, under the operation ol moral
causes." This is admitted. The number
of slaves in that State in 1790 was 8.SS7,
and in 1840 the number had gone down to
2,605, But in Kentucky the number of
laves in 1790 was only 11,830. In 1S4S
thev had reached 192,470, being an in-
crease of about jzeen hundred per cent:
This is not only a slow way of "working
out salvation" from slavery, but it shows
that the moral causes which hsve been now
erful in Delaware are not at work in Ken
tucky. We need therefore some stronger
Do not understand me as repudiating the
influence of moral causes. I rely with
high hope upon them. I rely upon the
nnuence Ol discussion in oeuaie ana in
print upoa the acknowledged eviis oi
slavery; upon the social, economical, and
moral advantages of emancipation; upon a
ust pride in the glory ol the ramon-
wealth; upon a wise and philanthropic re
gard for the welfare of both races; upon
the free spirit pervading our literature; upon
the inner life of freedom which animates
our institutions; upon the progress of public
sentiment in favor of free principles; and
most of all upon the general influence ol
Christianity, which looks, with undiverted
eye, to the triumph of universal and rational
iberty. But 1 maintain that an these
moral influences will make themselves felt
through constitutional provisions and legis-
ative enactments. 1 he law ol 1066, even
introduced into the constitution, is not
sufficient. The number of slaves, instead
of dixninishing under it, have multiplied by
least 25,000. We need, in addition to
some wise and sagacious scheme of pros
pective gradual emancipation and removal,
plan which shall, as lar as possible, re
spect existing rights of property, secure the
best interests, orst ol the whites, then ol toe
blacks, and introduce the great revolution
of our social system by cautious and gentle
If you should favor the discussion ol the
ubiect in your columns, I should be happy
to submit a plan of emancipation to your
consideration and to explain its probable
workings. Not unwilling to bear the re.
ponaibihty of what I write, my name is at
your disposal; not wishing to appear osten
tatious, I subscribe myself by the name of
From l be LouUtUc Democrat.
Plaa ! EataacifMUUM.
Gestlkmki: You have my thanks for
publishing roy note of the 14th inst., and
lor allowing me to exhibit more fully before
your readers the plan of emancipation brief-
stated therein. J he press is a great
power and to one woo wishes to extend
his opinions, confident that they are sound,
important and timely, it is a great favor to
be permitted to express them in a sheet so
widely circulated and so influential as
yours, r or it not oniy gives mm access
to a very large number of intelligent and
respectable persons, whom he might not be
able otherwise to reach but it also gives
him a decent introduction to them. For
thou eh you may oppose his opinions, you
do say something both for him and them, in
giving turn an open held, and them a fair
hearing. I do, therefore, highly appieciate
your courtesy in this matter, and it shall be
my aim not to abuse it. Nor will I object
to the most rigid examination to which you
may subject my opinions. 1 am in favor
of free discussion. One of the ereut ob-
ects of my life is to scatter light and bring
the truth to view. I have no interest in
being deceived none, in misleading others.
f you will prove to me that 1 am wrong, I
will ; thank you from the bottom of my
heart and I will instantly turn upon my
steps. I will not be ashamed to acknowl
edge my error but will as freely do it, as
do now, with confluence and without fear.
insist that 1 am right When troth and
reason lead, I hope I shall never be afraid
or ashamed to follow.
I have not known what are your views on
the subject of slavery; but being myself, in
the old and proper sense of that term, a
democrat, the son of a democrat, nurtured
in the faith of my fathers, I had hoped that
the Louisville Democrat would stand
for liberty in every aspect of that sacred
and glorious cause; the justness of its name
indicated by its course; its influence em
ployed to widen out, if possible, the area of
reedom; ISor will 1 yet rive up the nope.
True, you say, "we do not admit the ne
cessity for this movement for emancipation
and we do not believe, any plan that can
be devised at present practicable or possi-
VI- ? -It I"! 1.1 M V. .
in inis - lornmonweaiinv uut when
remember that sensible and thoughtful
men often change their opinions though
the simple and ignorant seldom do I can
not despair of standing at your side, or lol
lowing in your track in the struggle that is
coming led on by the blaze of light that
shall issue from your press,
I ain very free to say that one great con
sideration with me in all this matter res
pects the welfare of the negroes; and
should regard the man who would put that
out of view as little better than a brute.
But I am just as free to say, that a greater
consideration is the weliare ot the white
people of Kentucky; of whom, if there
were nothing else to be said, there are so
many more than of the blacks. 1 he high
est honor; the truest glory; the ' surest and
most enduring prosperity of Ibis Uornmon
wealth; these are the things at which
mainly look. Here has been the home of
my parents from the early settlement of the
btate; here the field ol my fathers best la
bors for bis country; here is his grave.
Here I was born: here I hope to die; here
1 love to think that my children shall abide
for many a generation. For Kentucky
then I go, and for Kentucky as a land of
white men the "pure white man without a
I am sure it will not offend you, gentle
men, if I quote as expressing my views and
feelings on this subject, the words of a man,
who, though a political opponent, you will
acknowledge to be among the first of living
statesmen, and of whom you will not deny,
that through a long and eventful life he
has always stood among the firmest and the
boldest friends of human liberty. "God,
he says, "who knows my heart knows that
love liberty, and ardently desire the freed
om of the human race; but I desire the
reedom of my own country above all other
countries that of my own race before all
other races."
This is the basis of the plan 1 advocate.
n the spirit ot these views, l support a
ystem of very gradual emancipation, look-
ng to the removal oi the liberated slaves.
But it does not follow that sound policy re
quires, or that humanity will allow the ab
solute expulsion of every colored person
from the Statu. I would, therefore, settle
the general principle of removal, but I
would grant to the Legislature or to the
Courts the power to relax the rigor of its
pplication in particular cases.
Again 1 would no; restrain the volun
tary emancipation ot slaves belore the
system provided in the new constitution
should begin to operate but leave every
master free to liberate under no greater re
strictions than the present constitution im
poses, and every freed man at liberty to go
t his pleasure beyond the limits of State,
wherever he might find a place.
And then I would provide
1. That after the adoption of the new
consUtution no slave should be introduced
into the State on any pretence whatever
not interfering with transient persons but
absolutely and forever prohibiting the im
portation of slaves.
2. That all slaves born after a riven
time (say the adoption of the constitution,
or 6uch later day as may be approved,)
hall be free at a certain age, (say twenty-
five years,) provided they are in the State
that time. Ihis will leave- with the
master the unrestricted control of the slave,
up to the day on which he would go free,
f the master so pleased. 1 bis interferes
as little as possible with the master's wishes
or convenience, and throws wide open the
door for his removal of his slave. And,
for the main object in view, it is gained
when ibe slave is gone. As to slaves now
in beirig, or to be born before the given
time, there is no interference whatever.
Under such a system, it cannot be doubted
hat a large part of the colored population
would be removed from the State.
3. That all slaves liberated under the
preceding provision, as they respectively
reach the age of freedom, should come
under the control of the State, through the
other officers appointed to this duty, and be
removed to Liberia or elsewhere as they
may elect; the means for their removal and
snbsistence for a reasonable time being first
obtained by their own labor or hire, when
provided by the master or other benevolent
persons or societies, as beyond all question
would be done in many cases.
Such, gentlemen, is a plan of emanci
pation, which my mind approves as wise,
humane and practicable. It seems to me
promise the highest good to the Com
monwealth at large, in all future time,
with the least inconvenience and injury to
be master in this generation, and the ut
most advantage to the slave, in the condi
tion which Divine Providence has decreed
him. It was net proper for me to urge it
before a meeting of citizens, who, at my
own suggestion, had already referred all
the details of this great movement to a con
vention which it invited. But it may very
properly be presented here for public con
sideration. You may be able to offer in.
superable objections to it; if so, 1 will
cheerfully give it up.
I will go into no argument at this time,
favor of this plan as compared with
others that have been proposed, or in an
ticipation of objections agaiust it. This
communication is already longer than was
intended. The pressure of other indispen
sable engagements has left me no time to
make it shorter.
I am, very respectfully,
Louisville, Feb. 16, 1849.
Califralaaa4 lb Caw thai Ot Craaat.
The discovery of Uie contents of Cali-
ornia puts us in mind ot a circumstance
which occurred to a cowkeepet within our
own knowledge, and though it may appear
strange we can answer for its truth. The
man had for a long time struggled against
adverse fortune, and, as not the least, the
milk from one of his best cows turned out
bad; it became unusually thick and yellow,
and was by him pronounced to be bad, and
unfit for use. The loss was most serious,
but at length after some weeks had elapsed,
and pailfull after pailfull had been cast to
the dogs, he discovered that his cow gave
forth cream instead of milk. The dis
covery made his "fortune. Thia circum
stance, on a small scale, is a type of Cali
fornia. That which was hitherto esteemed
to-be mere worthless rubbish, has turned
out to be the richest of its kind. A con
tinent ' of eold. instead of a continent of
chalk and clay, gladdens the fortunate pos
s eaaon. Herajth's Journal,
Ulctcal Marrey f Mat.
We anticipated much from the adminis
tration of Gov. Crittenden. His qualifica
tions were of the highest order. He had
been prepared by long service in various
onices ol the government of bis country
for all the liberal, enlarged, and elevated
duties of statesmanship. With a fame as
broad as the Union, lie came from his place
in me oenaie io adorn Uie xuxecuuve chair
of his native State. The first act of hit
administration displayed the rich treasures
ol his long ana varied experience. His
message was a monument of the wisdom
and virtues of its author. It was cot con
fined to Uie usual and technical, routine of
State legislation; but was replete with sen
timents of national interest and importance.
and enforced visws and recommendations
to develope the resources and promote the
greatness of the Commonwealth, quite as
essential as the ordinary peljce and com-
merciHt regulations.
Such was the policy wluetf su nested a
Geological survey of the State. Unthink
ing minds cannot perceive the wisdom of
appomtirg an officer to travel over the
State, to look at its surface, examine iis
stone., and it may be, turn over a little of
its soil. 1 hey would regard it as useless
mummery promoted by superstition. But
science ould delight in such an enterprise,
"It finds tongues ia trees, books in the iunninr
Sermons in stones, and good in every thing."
Nature is a great text book, and at the
same time its own commentary. Blind
chance docs not control its operations.
l'hey are the results of an allwise contri-
ranee, and disclose to th studious and
thoughtful mind their owq harmony and
beauty. The earth is now no longer re
garded as merely a blank waste of matter,
a solid mass of clay for men to tread end
docks to graze upon. But its structure, its
external appearance, its rcks and sands,
are subjects of interesting investigation
which lead to wonderfuj tru'hj V,-The
farther and more diligently ihese researches
are prosecuted, the more astonishing will
be the developments disclosed. They will
throw great light on subjects of intense in-
lerest to man.
Geology is no longer a thinir of conjec
ture and speculation. It is a science. Its
discoveries have established its truth. To
explain tie internal foimation and structure
of the earth from its external appearance,
and through the knowledge thus obtained
dispel the obscurity or confirm the truth of
ustory, and aid many other sciences, are the
services which it renders to mankind.
When applied to our nob'e State, none can
fully foretell its advantages. Some of its
greatest riches may be yet unrevealed. A
ague idea pervades the minds of the peo
ple that our mountains are the depositories
of an abundance of mineral wealth. As
one as they remain in their primeval wil
derness, untrodden by any but the hunts
man, their treasures will b valueless.
Who can tell what a scientific Geologist
might discover in only one year's diligent
exploration. Fountaira of wealth might
be disclosed in the discovery of minerals
or other substances, wh'-ch would add in
calculably to the gTeatntas and properiy
of the State. Our landi may bo tilled,
the plwugh may run its furrows through the
soil, and for years it may be adorned with
cultivated vegetation. Yet evmi then its
properties will not be filly known to its
ow ner. Because he has not studied the
science which will inform him. New and
more profitable modes of :ultivation, a bet
ter rotation of crops and iicreasod fertility
of the soil, might be the Ksults of a care
ful examination by a skiful G!ologist
A great light might be thrown upon the
science itself which would 'x;nefV; the whole
Other States have been rrettly bene
fitted by attention to this sibjert. It is a
poor economy which denies to us similar
advantages. Every farmer in the Com
monwealth is interested in t. Every cit
izen should feel its importance. We be-
ve a yearly appropriation siould be made
for the purpose. If not successful at first,
t will ultimately redound to the wealth
and honor of the State. Yet the small
sum of $ 1500 is denied by the legislature
for such a useful object. Maystjuu
Eagle. -
Abaat CaaLIraa, Jke.
Some days since, we 'clipped' an article
from some one of the Pittsburgh papers,
intending to publish it entire. e have
the article, but the name of the paper is
forgotten.-The statistics and suggestions
are worthy of consideration. ,
The latest ecological accounts of coal
formations, show the following square miles
in extent:
In United State, - - - 133,133
Great Britain, - ... 11,859
Spain, - ... 3,408
France, .... 1,719
Belgium, - 519
Britiah American Frovicee, - - IS.UUU
Total square mile, - 168,636
Other countries have coal, but the area
is not given. The quantities mined in 1815
In Belgium,
4,960,000 tone.
3,245,907 do.
Great Britain,
America, about, -
Total tons of coal, - - 48,506,564
To show the increase of consumption in
the State of Pennsylvania alone, we may
slate that in 1820, the anthracite coal trade
commenced with 365 tons, and in the suc
ceeding 28 years it has increased to more
than three millions of tons per annum,
giving, in 23 years, 19,519,133 tons. Now
one great use that ia made of this coal is
the manufacture of the important article of
iron three tons of coal being necessary to
make one ton of iron. .
Up to 1846. we have an account of 48
anthracite furnaces, making 9 1,687 tons of
iron, and using 275,061 tons of anthacrite
coal, besides the immense amount of coal
used in the conversion of this iron into rail
road iron, plate, axles, &c, and other
manufactures. The investments for the
. .-j iois ..easy.
coat and iron were esumaieu, m loiu,
follows: ,
In the mining of eoal, &c J
" Manufacture oflron,
Making a total Pf - $50,777,960
This was the state of things when we
MARC II 3,01849.
were using our own iron and coal, as we
conceive according to the lawa of nature
uuuer me protecuve tarin oi we
have no means of ascertaining what is the
exact amount of miury sustained under the
'benign' influence of the Secretary's tariff
oi 1946, but it must have been very great.
for we are continually informed of furnaces
going out of blast, and of rolling and slit
ting mills, and other iron works stopping,
because the business has become unprofi-
laoie. ....
The truth is, end it must be the convic
tion of every candid mind, that the coal
and iron of the Ucited States was not placed
where it is by tho laws of nattrre, that we
should let it remiu n there and import coal
and iron from Europe. . But the learned
5-ecretary says we must do so; and why?
Because the vicious political institutions of
Lurope cheat the masses out of a large por
lion of the value of their labor, and undl
they are so defrauded ia the United States.
we cannot profi' ibly manufacture any of
the raw materials with which hatnre has
endowed us.
We submit tliene views in all confidence,
satisfied that what Mr. Walker calls free
trade is nothing1 more nor less than low
wages, for if interest and wages were as
low here as bad laws make them in Europe,
we should hear m more of Mr. Walker
or his free trade; for then he would be com
pel led to be satis lied to allow us to manu
facture for ourselves, which would put an
end to the interminable dogma that na
tions should buy where they can buy the
Ta Wafcaaa aa Erie 1'aaal la Ia41aaa.
. The Trustees of the Wabash and Erie
canal, in Indiana, have made their annual
report to the Legislature of that State, from
which the Toledo Blade gathers the fol
' The work from Coal Creek to Terre
Haute, which was put under contract little
n;.:2han a year since, is now so nearly
complet rl, that the water will be let into
die canal, to the latter place, by the first of
next month. From Terre Haute to Point
Commerce, forty and a half miles further.
the work was contracted in May last, and
it is believed the distance w ill be ready for
navigation in the fall of 1849. Another
letting was had in November, for the con-
strucuon ol the work trom f oint Lorn,
merce to Newberry, seventeen miles furth
er. There has been paid for construction.
during (he year ending on the first of De
cember last, the sum of 1 341,953 16.
The present force employed on the canal
ia 1780 men, whom it is expected will be
employed during the current year. There
remains seventy-two miles, from Newberry
to Pigeon dam. to be put under contract.
to complete the entire line. For the pur
pose of carrying oa the work agreeably to
the plan of the Trustees, a call has been
made upon the subscribing bond holders, of
twenty dollars upon each bond, to be paid
on the first day of February, 1849, and the
balance of the advance of 800,000 will
be called in during the ensuing year. The
tolls and water rente of the finished part of
the canal, for the year ending on the first
day of November, amount to 1 146,148 90,
being an increase over the amount of the
previous year of 1-0,1G6 19; the expen
diture for ordinary repairs, superinten
dence, &c, amounts to 134,883 64. A
heavy expenditure for extraordinary repairs
has been incurred, but lor the deficient
wheat crop last year, and the early fall
rains, which rendered the roads impassable.
The canal has been navigable the whole
season from the State line to Coal Creek,
a distance of 1 89 miles. The whole amount
of receipts, from the first of December,
1847, to the fiirt of December, 1S48, is
9727,877 01. Disbursements, for the same
period, $459,004 72. Leaving a balance
of $263,872 29.
Appended to the report are tabular state
ments of all the articles cleared at different
places on the navigable portion of the
canal, from which we extract the follow.
ing, as the total number of tons cleared from
each :
Fort Wayne, tons,
La Gro,
Baal GalltaraU.
The Expositor, published at Independence,
Mo., contains a letter written by CoL W. Gilpin,
in relation to the overland route to California.
It conveys information of much interest to emi
grants: Jacksos Coubtt, Mo., Jan. 8, 1849.
Gentlemen: Independence, now for
twenty yeais the emporium of the com
merce or the prairies, possesses peculiar
advantages as the point of rendezvous and
final embarkation for emigrants going to
the Pacific.
Independence recommends itself from
the unlimited abundance of supplies to be
had at all times, their excellent quality, and
adaptation to the journey.
The habitual annual departure and arri
val of emigrants and travelers, has created
a body of skilful mechanics and all kinds
of complete manufacturing establishments
in every department ol the trades, com
bined with stores filled with supplies for all
wants and tastes. Here may be had the
small tough horses and mules brought from
California, Mexico, and the Indian tribes
of the mountains and prairies, as well as
the horses, cattle and mules of larger size
and good blood, raised upon the prairie
grass of the settlements.
The only road practicable for wagons at
present, from the States to the Pacific, is the
one through the South Pass, beyond which
it branches uear the aait iase; me ngni
hand fork descends by Snake river to the
Columbia; the left hand traverses directly
west through the Great Basin of lligh Cali
fornia, crosses the Sierra Nevada by the
sources of Salmon Trout river and the Rio
de los Americanos, descending the latter to
the Sacramento, and down it to San r ran
cisco Bay. These roads, which only four
years ago were uncertain, difficult and dan
gerous, are now permanently established.
and sale. Ibe largo ana prosperous
'i , nt v,. frtn. t tfei SU
Lake affords a central point to rest and re
emit. I Families traveling with horned cat
tie accomplish the trip in one hundred and
twenty days, and, If judicious in the man
agement of their animals, at no expense
but the small cost of provisions and groce-
ries, so excellent are the roads, the climate
and the pastures.
The following table of latitudes and
longitudes shows the directness of the routes
and the distances:
Latitude. Longitude.
inaepenaence, 3U vi 94
South Pass, 42 29 109
Mormon City, 40 26 112
N. Helvetia, Call., 39 40 120 34
Astona, Uregon, 46 19 J2t 30
These roads are, therefore, direct and
straight, only excepting the deflection into
the South rasa; the distances, roughly esti
mated, being 1,850 miles to San Francisco,
and 1,950 to Astoria.
I have stated 120 days as the length of
.1-- m w
me journey; due parues oi young men.
having packs and good animals and guides.
may easily reach the Sacramento in forty.
nve or nlty days; nor need such confine
themselves, to the wagon road, but may
take the route of the Arkansas, or by Santa
Indpendence has been the point selected
for the departure of the militarv and ex
ploring expeditions to Oregon, Mexico and
ualilornia, both before and during the war.
and of their return and discharge. Other
points higher up the Missouri, as Weston,
St. Joseph, and the Mormon settlement
nesr Council Bluffs, have occasionally been
selected by emigrating parties. These
places have all the disadvantages of being
on the eastern bank ol the Missouri, and,
as yet, far behind Independence in the
abundance and cheapness of supplies.
The maritime country on the Pacific ex
tends along the ocean from San Diego to
Vancouver's Island, and is confined be
tween the snowy ridge of the Sierra Ne
vsda and the beach. Its average width ex
.1 m . - -
ceeds 150 miles iu length 1.200. This
Sierra Nevada is the prolongation of the
Andes of Chili, Peru, Columbia, Central
America, and Mexico preserving all iu
characteristics unaltered, of gteat heighf.
volcanoes, volcanic rock and lava. Itia
grander here than in South America, be
cause, receding from the coast, it is accom
panied by this maritime region, which gives
room for a series of fine rivers the Bona-
ventura, San Joachim, Sacramento, Shasty
.1 T-t tW ,
river, me riameth Utnpqua, v allamette,
Columbia, Puget's Sound.
Ibis whole region, therefore, abounds
with the same mineral productions as Span
ish America, whilst it has its own grand
excellencies for commerce, agriculture, both
arable and "pastoral, infinite fisheries, for.
eats, internal navigation and position be
tween the valley of the Mississippi and
China a delicious and tranquil climate
and sublime scenery, make this incontesta
bly the finest new country of which the
human race has yet anywhere possessed
Yours respectfully,
W. Gurxx,
b Messrs. Sam. Rimlston, Sam. D. Lu
cas, Small wood Noland.
VaaaJttaa aT aha Sfeaala aC Ylaaaa.
We have been favored with the subjoined
extract of a letter from Vienna, dated De
cember (th, 1843:
"Mutism is the order of the day, even at
the theatre. It cannot be said that order
does not reign in the Austrian capital. It
would be wiser to allow the popular voice
in matters mdifierent to condemn or ap
plaud. Absurd prohibitions show the want
of moral strength in a government. One
good enterprise has been projected by the
minister Schwartzenberg, it is the founds
tion of agricultural schools, and of colonies
- a. "
for the poor; this design deserves encour-
agement. Austria possesses vast tracts un
occupied, and which only await the hand
of man to become available to human sus
tenance. If in these waste places govern-
ment should establish centres of reception
lor laborers in health, utensils for labor.
accommodations in advance, and intelligent
superintendence, such provisions would do
much for the extinction of mendacity and
popular discontent, without resorting to the
odious means which are the scourge of
England, cf Holland, and of Switzerland
This passage refers to the poor laws of
these countries.
"Vienna contains multitudes of indigent
people, who might be advantageously em
ployed in agriculture. Iu whole population
is reckoned at 380,000; five thousand are
supported by public funds; fifteen thousand
subsist upon casual charity; one thousand
are thieves; two thousand are presumed to
live by gaming; twenty-thousand subsist
upon precarious labor, while a number
nearly equal are employed upon the public
works. The prisoas contain about six
thousand, the mines in the vicinity, employ
fifteen thousand men wretchedly paid, and
perhaps one thousand find a miserable live
lihood in sundry insufficient ways, not de
signedly dishonest; ten thousand are under
the vigilant eye of police as suspected per
sons, and there are not leas than ten thou
sand drunkards; there still remain eight
thousand honest laborers, very poor, and
ten thousand petty traders who would be J
glad to exchange their condition for one of
certain resource. The fertile steppes of
Hungary, 'now of no benefit to the proprie
tors, or to the country, might, by means of
this surplus population employed upon
them, disembarrass Vienna of part of this
burden. If only a half of the one hun
dred thousand men, women and children.
who rise up in want every morning, and
lie down without hope every night, were
detached from the present inhabitants, it
would go far to the re-establishment of the
Sublie tranquility and security, fsr to the
iminution of vice and misery in Vienna."
elf Pry arara.
The success of individuals in life is
greatly owing to their learning early to de
pend upon their own resources. Money,
or the expectation of it by inheritance, has
ruined more men than the want of it ever
did. Teach the young men to rely upen
their own efforts, to be frugal and indus
trious, and you have furnished them with a
productive capital which no man can ever
wrest from them; and one which they them,
elves will not feel disposed to alienate.
VetaeaTa war.
The necessity of exactitude in legal La
strumenta was never more cogently shown
than in a case in England, in which an
eminent conveyancer, the lata Mr. Butler,
accidentally omitted a single word "Glou
cester," in drawing the will of Lord New.
burgh, 'which deprived a lady, the intended
devisee, of estates worth about seventy
, thousand dollars a year I
MiasioMABite to CAUroBsia-The follev
Inf letter U the Rev. Dr. Berriaa. aad ktea,
wer, have beea handed ia for Micatioa. He
anxiety of the religioae eomnaaalty ie aatarallj
awakened by the cireamataMea ander which,
theeoloniaaiiea of California la beg,., A
d!ea priaiagU that qaarter of a commuait y
of men more intent ea aiakiag thai fortaaaa
than eatabllahinc chnrchee. A plan ie oa foot
tot making a coUecUoa next Seaday la Ua
Epiecopal chnrchee ef thia city and of Brooklyn
for a mission to California:
Ftkmarf 10, 1343.
Mt Dxa S:a: I have nut been iaforaMd thai
a movement la makinr In New York to eetaW
Man a mfaaioa ia California, f which yo are at
uie neaa.
A beet tea daya aiaea I neat a eoaamaaicaliaa
to the Christina Witaeao, at Bootoa, ea the eaa
I rejeiee la all thia. The ahaaviii r th
eh arch ia all qaarter ie wonderfeJ ftorieaa.
I trmat that amonr aa we shall be able to da
somethiaf henerebl to the ehueh. ael
to man and acceptable ta Ued la thia treat
Very truly aad respectfully years.
Rev. Dr. Buuuam.
Niw You, Feb. 13th, 1343.
Jfr Dft Sir; I have aeldoa been mora
gratified, than by the epoataneoiu approbation
ipreaaed in year letter, of the meveraaat la
Now York in behalf of the church la Califorata
It was aeaaonable and refreshlnc- amidet the eeld-
neaa and diaconragement which thia Indepen
dent action haa mat with ia aaaay qaertera hera,
to a degree which wae bat little expected when
the first stepe were Uksa. There wae ooma
reaeoa to apprehend that the eonrce from which
it sprang might indispose certain persons to
anite wilh as ia the meaeare, even thoagtt the
object of it were approved; bat we did not look
for so strong aa opposition oa the part of others,
with whom in general we were accustomed to
think and act in perfect harmony. Indeed, the
thought of awakening hostility to it. by a eao-
poeed interference with the operations ef the Do
mestic Committee, had not even entered mr
mind.antil I had actually learned that each
the fact. So far ae I was personally con
cerned ia the origin of this movement, I had bat
one simple object in view, the desire of doiag
good ia a quarter where it wis so much needed,
and of saving the chusch from the reproach aa
dishonor which it would suffer from iu negli
gence and eupineneaa, when tle public miad
was stimulated to euch activity and enthnalasai
in the mere pursuit ef worldly things.
My course through life has. I am inclined to
believe, been euiEciently quiet and unobtrusive
to shield me from the imputation ef vanity ia
the matter; and the phantom which haa been
raised np by the fears of an excited imagination
as furnishing a different motive, I am very sore
wae never presented, even la a more pleasing
hape, to the minds ef etbera.
la truth, it wae considered by all who enga
ged ia the measure, that the spiritual deetitatioa
of California was one of the moot extraordinary
occasions for the exertion ef Christian benevo
lence that has ever occurred among as; that a
great work called for great efforts; that the at-
moet we could hope to do even with the most
cardial co-operation oa every side, would still
fall very short of the waste ef those who were
famishing for the bread ef life; that all which
we could accomplish by an independent, ardent,
energetic actioa, would only be carrying out
more faUy the designe of the society Itself; that
the committee would still have ample scope fur
its benevolent labors; and that the bounty ef
many would probably be drawn out in this way,
while it might be waaUag towarde aa associa
tion which haa long been familiar to all, and
which, from n variety of causes, baa lost In u
measure the interest it excited upon iu first
establishment, even ia the minds el many wha
had been among its wannest supporters.
Such, my dear air, were the circumstance by
which those have been iaflneneed, who hove
been forward ia thia matter; aad I am diepoeed
to think, if they were generally known, that
they would not be regarded by candid and un
prejudiced mi ads as furnishing any greuad for
cl lmor and reproach.
. Yours very respectfully aad truly,
Of the oejsct In view, being the resterauoa eT the
It gives as great pleasure to call the attsaUon
of our readers to the Important move ef the
"Ohio State Board ef Agriculture," which we
copy from the Ohio CnlUvator, a paper, by the
by, published at Columbus, and exclusively de
voted to the Interests of agriculture and Its
kindred pursuits, edited wilh muck tact and
ability, aad deserving the patronage ef all cul
tivators of the sod.
There is no point ia the West so saay ef ac
cess to those varied Interests ae Cincinnati, and
we feel confident that ear citizens will net dis
appoint the just expectations ef friends abroad
ia n hearty welcome, and an ample provision for
their comfort and co-operation. Already ear
Horticultural Society has appointed a rooimlltsa
to confer with the State Agricultural Commit
tee. No doubt the other interests sought to bo
united ia this Western ExhibiUon of Skill aad
Art are fully prepared to act ia concert.
The object k not to merge these Interest la
one, but to act unitedly holding their exhibi
tions at the same time, with all tho anion that to
consistent with separate organ lea Uoa- thereby
affording the greatest possible convenience aad
Inducement to cultivators, artisans, planters.
pomelogisU, stock growers and visitors to unite,
(rem abroad, as well aa these at home. 47acie
mati Cos.
Okie StaU Arrinltwtl Fmr-It will be i
by tho resolutions of tho State Board of Agri
culture, that the first Ohio State Fair is appoint
ed to bo held at Cincinnati la September next.
Thia place was selected mainly becuuee of tho
facilities for accomodating a crowd of persons,
aad the convenient men no of see ess aad tra as
portation which It possesses.
As competition will be invited from adiolninr
Statee, it is expected that much fine stock, aad a
large attendance of farmers wiU he present from
Kentucky, Indiana, Virginia, Jtc; and as wo
have a goodly number ef readers ia those States,
we should bo pleassd to hour from some ef thesn
ia regard to this point
Tho citixene ef Cincinnati aad Hamilton
county will have placed apoa them a largo share
of tho responsibility of devising and carrying
out such a liberal system of arraagamsnta aa
will make the Fair creditable to their city and to
tho State. Wo have full confidence that they
will net bo foand wanting ia liberality or la
personal effort when the time arrives for thesn to
give and act. A committee of tho State Board
will meet ia Cincinnati oa tho first ef next
month, to coaler with smears ef the Hamiltoa
county Afriealtaral Society, Cincinnati HorU
cultural Society aad Mechanic laetltato, 1
regard to urrengesnente lor tho r sir.
The committee to whom was referred the mat
ter ef ssleeUsg the place for holding the Slat
Fair next fall, reported la favor of CUelaaau
whereupon It was
seJssa, That th first Ohio 8 tote Agricul
tural Fair be hold at CUctonaU to the month of
September next; also ,
Bess feed. That Messrs. Oast, Strickle aad
Lap ham bo a committee to moat la Claeiaaatl
ea tho first of March next, for tho purpose of
making oat tho list of ptiswlun, aad eonmv
ring w ita the officer and managers of th Ham-.
Utoa Coaaty Agricultural Seeety, tho Claeia
aatl Horticmltarul Society aad the MetbaaiceV
Institute, la regard ta taa necessary nrruafa-
meats for the fcir the parti alar tiaw
place moans of eefraylof ei peases, sW-

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