IN RELIGION'S REALM.
Expressions From the Various Re
The Religious Tiiousrlit of tho Day as
Expressed In the Sectarian Pross—
Some Matters of Interest to Both
Ministers and Laymen.
"The plan for holding general missions
simultaneously in several Eastern cities
has aroused well-grouuded misgivings,"
says tho Living Gkureh (P. K. of Chicago.
"Those who realize that some of the
tendencies already developed in connoc
nection with the Christian unity move
ment aro (raught with danger to the cause
of truth and tho internal peace of the
church, cannot view without apprehen
sion a movement like that now pro
posed. A mission conducted by the
church must have two purposes: First,
to awaken in the hearts of men a convic
tion of sin leading on to true repentance
and amendment of life; and second, to
bring them to a knowledge of the truth.
These two elements aro not to be sepa
rated, cannot be separated, without trea
son to the doctrine of Christ as this church
hath received it. It is not permitted us
to preach a Christianity without definite
belief, a religious life without sacraments.
Soy ran we encourage or connive at a
l of preaching which ignores or
depreciates the very foundations upon
which Christianity rests, and upon the
basis of which aione a true Christian life
can be formed."
"The frequency with which tho subject
ol church unity comes up is evidence that
tho loss arising from tLo multiplication
and rivalries of .sects and factions is roc
ogjuized," observes tiie Christian Register
i nit.; of Boston. "Inseeking to repair
this injury it is not worth while to at
tetnpt more than is practicable, li is ev
ident that no organic Union is possible
where perfect freedom and the exercise
vi religion* preferences are allowed.
Mental constitution, tastea and predilec
tions citato tliat variety by whicli one is
a Catholic or a Protestant, a Baptist or an
Episcopalian. In the different denomi
nations .some lay emphasis upon form,
some upon polity, others upon doctrine
and some upon free inquiry. It is im
possible to recognize them by any Uto
pian scheme J;ut though unity is im
possible, co-operation is not. it. may be
promoted in various ways by bodies
which arc as widely separated as the llo
nian Catholic Church and tho Unitarian
—not, indeed, by denominational effort,
but by earnest work in tho cause of social
and philanthropic reform. Among the
Protestants not very widely separated.
such its the Baptists and orthodox Con
gregationalists, or the universaiists and
Hie I nitarians, closer co-operation in
their religious work is easily possible if
the disposition to apply it could be de
"We are confronted with tbo following
situation," says the New York EvangeL
■ tea. |: "A majority of the church be
lieve certain positions held by a minority
tn bo lipscriptural and dangerous. The
minority are firtnly persuaded Uiat they
are neither the one nor the other. On the
one band, certain Professors have been
suspended irom the ministry for teaching
what is charged to bo contrary to tbo
standards, and those who agree with
them are urged to leave a communion in
which they are told they can no longer
conscientiously remain. On the other,
those who arc thus urged to leave, be
lieving themselves to bo in full ai-cord
•with tne Btaudarda and confident of the
mistaken character of recent ecclesiasti
cal judgments, refuse to leave the church
in which they were born, and to whose
history and traditions they know them-
Beives to be loyal. Thus tlio two parties
are set ono agaiust the other, with the re-
Bult of tho friction ami misunderstand
ing which all deplore. It is evident that
such situation cannot permanently con
tiuue. Either the difference between the
isitioha is so groat that they cannot
rightfully remain side by side within the
bosom of a single communion, or it is
not. If the lirsl be true, the sooner it is
known, and the separation made, the
belter for ail concerned and for the
Churcb of < hrist. If it be not true, then
the sooner this is known, and the neces
sary adjustment made, iho better. And
bo we gay, 'Turn on the light that we
may see clearly just, whal the situa
tion is.' "
"To emphasize the necessity of good
business sense in all Christian ell'ort and
enterprises does not imply any disparage
ment of dependnnce on the div:ne effi
ciency, ' .says the A'lraitcr (Pres.) of
Chicago. ''<;od\s grace puts no premium
upon mental indolence of any sort. Jl is
just the other way. The wh o i 0 tendency
of the teachings of Christ Is to waken into
activity every faculty of our being. This
is one reason why the Christian nations
are, even from the material point of view,
tiio most enterprising nations of the
world. Thero is a somewhat hackneyed
phrase about looking at thines 'from the
business point of view,' a phrase that is
oiteu misleading. The business point of
view may not always bo tho Christian
point of view. It may be a lower and
mope limited view than the Christian
laith should take. Nev. rlheless, thero
as no form of Curistian effort, whether
for individuals, churches or other religi
ous associations, which does not have
need of lise constant exercise of good
"The majority of church choirs are to
day etriiegliny to keep up more or less
had imitation of catnoJral service," says
the New York ( i\ j;. . "it is
but reiterating what has been said and
■»\ titles numberless times before to point
out that such ;; service never was in
tended to be congregational in the small
est degree, and never c^i: be made so. It
is ihu irnit and power of tue cathedral es
tablishment, with its system of founda
tions, appointments, scholarships, sii
arni daily round ol cboxml da ties.
I'here exists no complete example of
BQcfa an establishment in this country,
and yet very many of our churches goon
in the vain endeavor to maintain a serv
ico which is no better than a misfit.
'i'liore is no reason why any congregation
.should not be taught to sing wrell-sei acted
iiytnns, to ctiunt the canticles and master
the music of the responses, provided
tho conditions precedent which have
been outlined arc luitdled. Tiiis is the
season of revivification in most parishes.
Could any more praiseworthy work bo
undertaken than the awakening of par
ishioners to a sense of rights and privil
eges Which they have suttered to bo taken
from them and o: the duties which they
have neglected? There is a 'fraud' in the
matter more serious than that which the
sluggish churcti goer permits to be prac
ticed upon himself. 'Will a man rob
<od?' Yes; If he willfully witbolda from
Him the outward and visible—aye and
audible—homage which is His due."
"The advice that some of our Congre
gationalist friends are giving the Young
People's Society of Christian Endeavor—
that it should seek to use its inllueuee in
luvor oi' patting the best men into public
ollice—is an illustration of the danger be
setting this organization, to winch wo
called attention a lew weeks ago," says
the Watchman of lioston. -'That
danger is that the Christian Endeavor
Society, which was formed for the train
ing of young people, will adjust its activ
ities to tiie wants of the now adult gener
erntion in which it was born, rather than
to its original selJ-delined mission. Wo
submit that an organization composed oi
young people - and by young people v,o
mean boys and girls, not gray-haired
*nen and women who call themselves
'young in heart'—that aims to minister to
the specific needs of young people, has
DO relation to such work as putting good
men into oilice. The young people are
not voters. How is it practicable for
them to influence elections? Are boys
and girls to be taught to importune their
fathers to voto 'right,' and in the nursery
to be made the arona for political discus
sion? We fail to sco what the Christian
Endeavor Society has to do with politics
anyway. Let the Christian Endeavor
keep out of politics, and content itself j
with inculcating those true principles of i
religion and morality which will lead ita
members, when they grow up aud be
come old enough to vote, to do so with
intelligence and patriotism."
"It cannot be denied," declares tho
New York Christian Advocate ;Meth.),
•'that politicians of both tho great parties
ali over tho land are constantly coquet
ting with the Komau Catholic Church;
that in many places they defer in the
most obsequious manner on public occa
sions to tin.- Ciitholie hierarchy: and that
where the Catholics have the political
power they are making various modifi
cations in the public school system, the
legitimate results of which would be the
u.-ingof it to promote their ecclesiastical
growth and purposes in a manner inimi
cal to Liberty and conscience and the sep- j
aration of Church and State.
Our deliberate judgment-is that it is both !
proper and necessary to watch Iloinan
Catholic priests, policies and plotters.
Also, that it is wise to watch those,
whether Protestant ministers, editors or
[ politicians, who havo much to say against
j ail who endeavor to preserve our liber
ties, and nothing to say against those
who are constantly sapping and miniifg
THE VOICE OF NIGHT.
When in tho wood sleep gathers life to rest.
Ana gently loids her noQ cray :ii:n> around
The yielding sense, a taint, delicious sound
Calls pkasuiiiiy the willing dream toad gcest;
a long oi pence guiding hi^ careless qneal
Tltro' drowsy liulls wuere mossy nooks
AndternliJte draperies are dimly wound
About the couch no discord may molest.
Oh. kindly voice, that calls aw;iy my fears
And whispers to my heart subllmest peace,
Eatß uoleof Uitnethe torest Me eudears
i;e> ond the limit of n:> transient lease;
Yet taltufully thine echoes will l kieji,
in distant turmoil sweetly with tnem sleep.
— Geurge K. i.oweu.
ROBINSON CRUSOE'S ISLAND.
It Is Inhabited and Brings Chile 800
Pounds lJont a Year.
It is not generally known that Juan
Fernandez —the island on which Alexan
der Selkirk, the Kobinson Crusoe of ro
mance, lived lor so many years—is at tho
present time inhabited. Two valleys,
winding down from different directions,
join a short distance back from the shore,
and there now stands a lutlo village of
small huts scattered round a long oiio-
Btoried building with a veranda running
its whole length. In this house livos the
man who rents the island from tho
Chilean Government, and the village is
made up of a few Gorman and Chilean
The tiny town is called San Juan Bau
tista, and tho crater-like arm oi the sea
on which it is situated, and on which Al
exander Selkirk lirst 'anded, is now
called Cumberland Bay. Tiie island is
rented for about £200 a year. The rent is
paid partly in dried lish. Catching and
drying the many varieties of lish and
raising cattle and lish wholly occupy the
contented settlors, and much of their lit
tle income is obtained lrom the cattle :uid
vegetables sold to passing vessels. Tha
cattle need no care, and the vegetables al
most grow wild. Turnips and radishes,
lirst sown hero by Selkirk himself, now
grow rank and wild in tho valleys, like
weeds. There is also a race of wild dogs
which completely overrun the islaud, de
pending lor oxistonce mainly upon seals.
They aro descendants of a breed of dogs
left by tho Spaniards.
At ilio back of tho little town, in tho
lirst high cliff, is a row of caves of re
markable appearance, hewn into tho
sandstone. An unused path leads to
them, and a short climb brings one to
their mouths. About lOH3' years ago the
Chilean Government thought that a good
way to get rid of its worst criminals
would l>e to transport them to the Island ■
of Juan Fernandez. Here, under the di- j
rection of Chilean soldiers, these poor j
wretches were made to dig caves to live :
in. In 1804 tiiey were taken back again,
however, and the caves have since been 1
slowly crumbling awa}-.
Tho narrow ridge whore Selkirk !
watched, is now cailed "The Saddle," be- '
cause at either end of it a rocky hum- j
mock rises like a pommel. »m one of |
theso is now a largo tabiet with inscrip
tious commemorating Alexander .Sel
kirk's long and lonely stay on tho island.
It was placed there in 1668 by tho oflieers
of the iiritisli steamer Topaz. A small
exclusion steamer now runs from Val
paraiso to Juan Fernandez Island. The j
round trip is made in six days, and three j
of these may be spent on tho island in j
fishing and visiting those lonely, but
beautiful spots which nearly 200 years :
ago were the haunts of Kobinsou Crusoe. !
BALLAD OF THE DRUM.
Hamilton's J>sist Sony? Jlofore His Duel
With Aarou Uurr.
On the Fourth of July, 1804, General
Hamilton sang lor the last time his fa-
I iuous and favorite ballad, "The Drum."
j Upon that momorablo occasion Alexan
• dor Hamilton and Aaron Burr met lace
Ito lace lor tiie last tinio but one. It was
i at the annual banquet of tho Society of
the I inciunati, of which the former was
i the honored President and the latter an
General Hamilton was observed to be
cheoriul and even merry. As the evon
■ ing wore away ho was pressed to sing his
' usual bon^', which was theu known as
! "The Ballad of the Drum." It was no
i ticed that Hamilton seemed less ready
: than common to comply with the request
I of the guests, but, alter some urging, he
made answer, "Weil, you shall have it, it
j you wish." Jle then sang tho ballad in
j his best style, to the delight of the < >lv
Continentals, who made up the festive
Coionoi Burr, on the contrary, was
haughtily reserved, mingled but little
with his friends and appeared to slum all
j intercourse with the President of tho so
j ciety. It was a.so retncinberod after
j ward, and has been credibly handed
; down, that, when Hamilton began to sing,
Burr turned directly toward him, with
ono arm resting on the supper-table, and
gazed intently at the singer, as though
j buried in proiound thought or Immersed
lin a lit of deep abstractiou. He remained
; thus iuimovablo until the ballad was
ended. Little did those present suspect
the deadly import of that look. Hamil
ton paid no attention to Burr's stony
stare, but rendered his song with perfect
composure and careful expression. It
would bo curious to guess wuat was
passing through Burr's mind while his
] familiar comrade in the fellowship of
camp and battle was thus employed in
oontributias his ellorts to the eonviviali
'■ ties ot the evening. Did the rod wine in
tho social glass assume a deeper dye in
tha eyes of the iron Colonel and bring
before his mind the tragic possibilities of
i tuo even then projected duel? And had
i tiie genial Hamilton any premonition of
i his own impending late?— David Graham
■ Adee, in Lippincott's.
COMIN' HOME AGAIN.
It's in the "way buck; yonder, but I see it
just as plaiu
As et that iiay o' leavin' was a dawnin" bright
With me all Hushed and eager—same as any
boy "uu !>.',
Pmnitt 1 to snatch the treasures that I knowed
was w.i it in' me.
I can Mcl tnem nervous fingers still a trem
blln* on iiiv cluefc,
Ad' catch the quiverin' message when mother
tried to speak;
AH the time a-smilin' tryla' to hide from me
As the whispered "Good-bye, darlin', tell
you're comtn' home again :"'
I sec her still a*gasuV as I stepped outside the
Jest like she used to watch for me whenever 1
An' I caught the faintest echo, but it sounded
sweet and plain.
For I heard it "Good-bye, darlin', tell you're
com in' home again."
An" now. wtoeii daylight's fadin' aa' the stars
begin to Ugbl
The sxies. a-t>lu*hm" softly from the tender
Seems like 1 hear her whisper in a lovin' kind
That she's waitin' up In heaven fer my comln'
The sponge market takes kindly to
SACRAMENTO DAILT BECOBD-TTXTOX. SATTTBPAT, OCTOBER 13, 1894.
HISTORY OF FLYING MACHINES.
What Has Been Accomplished in
Man's luc'.orlons Attempts to Go Na
ture One Better and Soar Skyward
on Artificial Wines—Tho Truth
The question whether man can ever
build himself wings or tho equivalent of
them and learn to lly has long occupied
and fascinated many intelligent minds.
It is very pleasing to contemplate tho
possibility of rising free of this sordid
and wearisome earth a:ul roaming
through the atmosphere where there is
plenty of room.
In "'Progress in Flying Machines," the
New* York American Engineer way* that
<>. Chanute, C. EL, has told tho history of
all the known Hying machines that have
been invented. He gives a scientific ex
planation of the principles which the
different inventors have Bought to put
into effect. ile entertains tho opinion
that flight by man is possible, and thinks
that experiments have proved it.
How birds fly is a matter not yet math
ematically demonstrated. Tho earlier
theory \\;;s that when they flapped their
wings downward they produced a react
ing air pressure wholly equal to ttu-ir
weight. This is known as the "'orthogo
nal theory." It has been disproved by
calculations of the wing beats of largo
It has been proved that a buzzard beat
ing his wings two and a half time a sec
ond, with iiii amplitude oi 120 degrees,
could only obtain a sustaining reaction
of about onc-tonth of his weight. But if
his wings are considered as inclined
planes progressing horizontally at a
speed of forty-live miles an hour, a sus
taining reaction is easily obtainable. It
is possible thai small birds are capable of
Large birds, according to Mr. Chanuto,
aro living aeroplanes, under whoso in
clined wings their velocity creates a
pressure which is equal to the surface.
This, he thinks, is continued by the great
ditliculty they experience i:i getting un
der way. They run against tho wind bo
fore springing into the air. Tims tho sur
faces oi Die wings act aa aeroplanes as
well as propellers, tho lattor action being
produced by tho direction of tho stroke
and the bending upward of the rear flex
ible portion of tho feathers.
Bird llighta he divides into throe
1. Marling, during which great exer
tion must be made, unless gravity can bo
•1. Sailing, or llight proper, during
which tho bird exerts its normal force, or
makes use of ti<at of the wind.
>. Stopping, in which great exertion
may a^ain be required i! the headway is
to bo rapidly stopped, or to which the re
tar.ling loroo of gravity may be brought
to do tho work oi simply rising to a
The argument of Mr. Chanute'a work
is that man will only contrive a Hying
machine by adopting the principles of
liirds, ho says, perform all their man
euvers by regulating tho intensity of
their action and by changing too angles!
at which they attack the air. llonco the
important tiling to know is what pressure
the air exerts under a wing, or, to sim- !
plify tho question, under a plane surface, j
when it meets tho air at s certain velocity i
and with a certain auglo of incidence.
This has been made possible by Professor
Langley's table of approximate percent
age of normal pressure.
Professor Langley infers thai mechani
cal flight is possible with engines we now
possess, since effective steam euginoa
have now been built weighing less than
ten pounds to ono horse-power, and ex
periments show that if wo multiply tho
small plants which havo been actually
used, or assume a larger piano to havo
approximately the properties of -similar
smaller ones, ono horse-power, rightly
applied, can sustain over two hundred
pounds in the air at a horizontal velocity
Of over twenty meters per second about
forty-live miles an hour;, and still more
at still higher velocities.
The problem of artificial llight has
fascinated tho minds of .some of the most
ingenious men of every ago, from tho ro
motest antiquity down to the present
time, as the cases of Daedalus and Hiram
Leonardo da Vinci, who was tho Kdi- j
son of the middle ages and painter, sculp
tor and architect in addition, was among
thu first to tackle the problem in a scien"
tilic manner. lie is said to have Dot only
experimented with aerial screws made of
paper and to have designed a parachute,
but also to have seriously contemplated
building an apparatus to propei a pair
dI wings. Ho skotched an apparatus by
which wings were to be worked by arms
and 1< ■„ -.
Bermier, a locksmith, in 1678, succeeded
in Hying from tho tops of houses with an
arrangement of muslin wings.
In iML' the Marquisde Uacqueville an
nounced that lie would lly across the
Seine from his house. Ho got as far as
the near bank of the river, where he fell '
on a washerwoman's barge, breaking his
Leg. Ho had glided about 120 feet. Tho
surfaces of his wing, or hauds and feet
were each about twenty-four feet in area,
and quito iusullicient to sustain a man's i
Experiments have been innumerable,
but practical failure has usually been tho
result. An experiment which Mr. Cha
nuto ascribes as "one of tho most sue
cesslul" was made at tho iirst exhibi
tion of the Aeronautical Society of Great
Britain at the Crystal Palace in 1888.
Charles Spencer exhibited an apparatus
consisting of a pair of wings measuring
Bach fliteen 8 lUare feet in area, to which
was attached an appliance measuring 110
leet more, and also a tail like a boy's
dart, and a longitudinal keel-cloth to pre
serve the equilibrium, and the whole
weighing twenty-four pounds and giving
i sustaining surface of 140 square feet.
Mr. Spencer was an athlete. He took a
preliminary run down a little hill and
was theu able to make short horizontal
[lights of about VH) leet, during which ho
was wholly sustained by the air. Mr.
Spenco.'s experiments seem to havo
been tho most successful ever made.
A great many of the Hying machines
designed have never been put to a prac
tical te-t, which is probably a fortunate
urcumstance for somebody.
In most of these experiments tho mo
tive lorco has been man's own muscles,
hesigns lv which it has been proposed to
use artilicial force have not been less nu
merous. The first diiliculty encountered
by these experimenters, which has in
lact, never been overcome, was that of
A bird relatively is immensely stronger
than a man. Its muscles also contract at
a much more rapid rato than those of
other animals Ii is hardly therefore to
be expected that man will accomplish
much in the way of llight by depend!n e
on his muscles. A man can run up *
staircase at a rate of threa feet a second
JriStharSSST 0"1 ri" vertically at
So less than six artificial birds have
been designed which lly successfully the
motive power being supplied by twisted
robber, but the models are so wasteful of
power that no motor has been found suf
ficiently light to supply in a large ma
chine the place of the rubber. The ex
penditure oi energy In the best model
was6oo foot-pounds per pound of twisted
r v v u6i ■
A wonderful thing was the steam bird
machine exhibited by E. P. Float in 1890 L
Iho wings, which were thirty feet from
tip to tip, are in exact imitation of those
olacrow. The weight of the machine
was about 660 pounds without the man
Ihe engine-maker failed to provide the
N. Trouve put in practical working a
model in which the motive force was sun
plied by exploding cartridges from a re
volver barrel. In a larger model the re
volver barrel was to have been replaced
by explosions of compressed hydrogen.
Herr Lilienthal's liying machine is the
most recent to obtain a certain measure
Of success. His position is thai bird
lliybt should be made the basis of arti
licial llight. Doxterity alone, he says,
makes tho bird superior to the man, and
man's ellorts should be directed to at
taining that dexterity, as far aa possible,
one of Lillenthai's devices consisted of a
pair of birdlike wings, incurvated from
point to back on parboiie lines, and sin
uous in the direction of their lengths.
The area of their sustaining surface was
eighty-six square feet. There was a hor-
Kizontai tail and a vertical rudder or keel.
The framework was of willow and cov
ered with sheeting fabric. The weight of
tho whole apparatus, without the opo
jator, wasi'.'i pounds.
Starting from the top of the hill against
the wind ho managed to fly about eighty
1 feet. He is continuing his experiments
and may add a mechanical motive power.
Hiram Maxim has designed alargenum
ber'otllying machines, the last of which
according to report, only liiiied to lly be
cause equilibrium was not secured.
Mr. Maxim, describing one of his ma-
I chinos, said: "My largo apparatus is pro
vided with a plane 110 lect jong and forty
feet wide* made of a frame ol stc;l tubes
covered witli silk. Other smaller plaues
attached to this make up a surface of .">,;V)O
square feet. There is one great central
plane, and to this arc hinged various
other planes very much smaller, which
aro used for keeping the equilibrium cor
j rect and for keeping tho dying machine
I at a lixed angle in the air.
"The greatest amount of force with the
minimum amount of weight can bo ob
tained from a high-pressure steam com
j pound engine, using steam at a pressure
of from 2UO pounds to 350 pounds to the
j square inch, and lately 1 havo constructed
j two such engines, each weighing UK)
"These engines, when working under
a pressure of 200 pounds to the square
inch, and with a piston speed of .only !• n)
feet por minute, develop in push of
screws over 100 horse-power, tho push of
the screws collectively being over 1,000
Maxim's machine was started on a rail
WHEN MARY RUNS FOR OFFICE.
When Mary runs for Congress, by jinks, but
won 1 we laugh
To see the Fops electln 1 Mister Lease's other
The Prohibs, too, they say the jubilee '11 surely
With .Mary Ellen in the House au" 'nary drop
Wiien tfary gits to Congress she will kill the
An' we'll rule upon the Pullman keers 'ithout
a ingle n d,
She'll give as Bilver plenty, so We'll all be
glad she went,
And we'll borry money on our farms at less'n
I'd like ter tcnow what Thomas Heed, If he is
iv toe chair,
Will uo wi.'.'ii Mary takes the fiooran'shrieks
an' paws the air;
I guesa you.folks "afs got the bonds will
kinder feel afraid
When Mary Ellen stomps her foot au' says
they bha'u'i L>e paid.
The osage orange hedges are a-shakin 1 iv the
That will shortly be a cyolone a rlppin' up
th ■ trees;
You ieilera in the Last bey ijot to knuckle to
Au' you might as well make up yer mm,.< to
btart us In with Mary.
Danger In Colored Paper.
Some ot the colored paper supplied for
kindergarten work is said to have been
proved by ananlysis to contain a .small
quantity of arsenic The only safeguard
I is to purchase it from a roliablo doaier.
The large linns importing or manufact
uring supplies for use in kindergartens
have an interest in furnishing the best
i One linn hp.s long avoided the use of pa
-1 per containing poison, prelorring that
j which is absolutely safe oven though the
colors may not be. as bright.
"I fail," said tho boarder, frantically
sawing at the steak, "to find a weak
point in this Armour plate." Cleveland
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One in Boston Has Over Two
Not Ono "Yankee" In Hancock
School—An Army of Scholars Wlio
Cannot Speak Ono Word of Eng
lish When They Enter tho School.
[From the Boston Advertiser,]
"There aro ii.loo pupils in this school
division," said 11. L. Dntton, muster of
the Hancock School, yesterday. "And."
he continued, "there is not a Plymouth
Hock Yankee among them. Of the 2,100,
about 1,000 are Russian, Polish and Gor
man Jews, and about 600 are Italians.
The remaining .r>oo aro all sorts of
nationalities. A good proportion o!
them, though not, perhaps, a majority,
are Irish, or of Irish extraction. The
rest are of nearly every nation under
heaven. Many aro from the Western
Islands, some are Portuguese, and a few
me Scandinavians. I remember one
class which we had once, which included
fourteen different nationalities."
"How do you account, for the small
number of children of Irish parentage in
the school? "
k*The Irish, you know, have largely
migrated from tho North End since the
.tows and Italians began to come in. And
theu the parochial scuoola take many of
the girls ol Irish pareutage."
"Thechildreu of Italian Catholics do
not atteud the parochial schools eren
•'.Not so generally, I beliovo, as those of
Irish extraction. The Italian people al
most universally send their childien to
the public .schools."
"And what is your chief troubio with
sucii a cosmopolitan school"."
"as may readily b- inferred, our chief
trouble is on the acore of language. The
school year has just begun, aa you know,
and ii'«> new pupils liavo entered the
schools in this division, not one of whom
is able tv speak a word of English. Our
first interest is to teach them to speak our
language. En doing mis, our teachers are
charged not to use a •,.•<-. rd of the language
of the pupil. I should greatly prefer, if
.c, that we might havo teachers
who know nothing of the French, Italian
or Portuguese languages themselves, so
mat it would bo impossible far tho:n to
use them in any degree in teaching Eng
lish. We use the object system of teach
"The teacher has various small objects
on her desk and holding them up, one
by one, siio pronounces its name and
teaches tho pupils to pronounce it. Thou !
she writes the name of the object on tho !
blackboard and thus familiarizes the I
pupil with the object and its writ- '
ten name. The nest step is to wi-ito
phrases or short sentences on the board
in which tho words already learned arc
used. And so, step by step, tiio child
grows into the language. VVe rinu our
greatest trouble in the fact that we ii.r. c
the impil with us and under English in
fluences but a few hours each day, while
.luring all the remainder of the lime she
is at homo with her parents, who con
stantly use their own language and make
no effort to -assist us. On this account
tho progress of the pupils in acquiring
our language is much slowor than it
would be if they heard. English Bpoken at
home and on the street. Tho greater
number of the new pupils who are
obliged to learn our language arc young
children, many of whom wore born in
this country or were brought over as in
fants, wiio have just reached tho Bchool
"There aro some, however, who aro
older, and who have recently come across
the water. Wo do not put theso in the
same class with the littlo oues. even
though the instruction is precisely the
same. Wo group tuo pupils so that chil
dren of approximately tlio same age are
"You have mauy Jews, you saw .Mr.
Dntton, among your papils. Do iheso
child ion, as a rule, .s;u';ik and under
stand Hebrew? Are they able to read
tho many Hebrew signs that are con
spicuous throughout Uie North End?"
"As a rule they are able to read them.
They read the Hebrew scriptures fluently,
especially those parts which their reli
gion requires of them. l»ut they do. not
speak the language erf the countries from
which they come purely. The It
children, too, vary greatly in their speak
ing of their language. There are, appa
rently, several distinct dialects, among
them and a person who speaWs pure
Italian has miK-h troubio in understand
"Llow lon<z does it reiiuire J'or a child of
average intelligence to iearn English so
that sue is able to do good school work?"
"It all <ie; ends, ot course; but in six
months many ol them make such good
progress that tlioy can go ahead v-ith the
tr school work. Then we put them
mio the graded classes, according ;<• their
ages and ability, arid push them ri<;hL
. with the regular work."
•'.Many of them are ex; cc iingly bright,
grasping the thought presented very
readily and making progress in their
At this point in tho conversation a
young girl, of sou, olive complex ion,
dark eyes and gentle manner, entered the
room. A lojig braid of di,<:i<. hair bung
over her shoulder. She was atypical
Rebecca. She waited modestly for i
nition, and then in a low, sweet tone, ad
• I a query to the master. Receiving
a reply, she bowel respectfully and with
drew. A sweeter face and a more porlect
manner could not be seen at the Hack
j Bay than those worn and displayed by
this little Hebrew maiden at the North
"A fair example of our Jewish pupils,"
said Mr. button, when Bhe had gon<.
"1 was at a loss to know whether Bhe
was Jew or Italian," 1 remarked.
MAh f you would soon learn to riistin
thedifference :n type if you were
among them every day. Tho .Jews ate
! readily distinguished from tho Italians.
They aroa very interesting people. As I
said before, many »>, ireigu-born
| children are exceedingly bright. At our
annual exhibition, at the close of school
ia.-it June, some of them did ex
work. We graduated twenty-eight girls
from Hancock School. The subject of the
exhibition was "A Morning hour With
Oliver 'Wendell Holmes.'. 1 It cons
of recitations trom Dr. Holmes' writings
and the singing of hymns an i songs
written by him. A young Italian girl
recited "Dorothy Q," in a manner
which i have never heard surpassed on
the platform. The list of gradual -
• >politan. There were Jews and
Italians, Irish, Portuguese, Swedish, and
in fact any nation except the American
vas represented. I'm "it was 0110 of the
best, classes 1 have scon graduated."
The unblushing New Sforfe Sun pu
the follow In
"i vraa w it:. Del s—" th
Cried John Most: "Say no more,
Bui • tay and driuk a schoonef
Within my bumble door.' 1
•■A- I rcmarkc I—" ■ gan tho tramp;
"Jfay, rest thce!' criea John >.0.-;;
"Slave, bring tho worthy anarchist
Much beer and eggs on toa ;.'
"It was :i i ttter stra .^ii 1 —"
"Aye, truly," quo) h John .Most;
"But eie yoa tell thy story
Eat, drink, I'll tx- thy hosi "
The strai - raciously
And <;u t:ie '. de< |> mugs of beer;
While John Mcsl waited patiently
Tlie thrilling tale to hear.
••You were with D < s-. ' he asfte 1 at last;
Tko strai . ■■sin o, Mike,
I took the Koeli y curewith L)eba '
Two ycius before the strife
Jarvia in surprise)— Why, Jenkins, is
that you? I heard you were killed!
Jenkins (sadly)—No; it was my brother.
Jarvis (thoughtlessly —Toobad—too ban'
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• c . / ST.I<OUIS *nd
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;*> PEOPLE NA/EL.U. 2
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Address plainly, "
G. L. BRISCOE,
1421 Cedar Avenue. - San Francisco. Gil.
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