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scmrrj-Howard Good-by, Manufacturers That the Grundy*tariff bill would reach into the pocket of the American consumer and take out a thousand million dollars a year is not news. But that this bill will take a lot of manufacturers them lelves for a ride is one of these little secrets which some factory owners may discover too late. Unlike the orthodox high tariff bills of old, which robbed the farmer and city worker to inflate profits of manufacturers, the farmers, to get even, have forced raw material tariffs into this bill. That won t help the farmers, but it may give them a laugh at the expense of the manufacturers. For this tariff monstrosity is enough to bring back the ghost of Alexander Hamilton and the fathers of protection to haunt the present tariff makers. Did not Hamilton warn them that a tariff on raw materials is a tax on manufacturers? Has not Henry Ford warned them that this bill carries increases of 830 separate articles and material necessary to the manufacture of ao automobile? Has not the steel industry—the darling of all protective tariffs—been loaded by this bill with in creases on dozens of its raw materials, such as tungsten, ferro-alloys and manganese? The tanning industry has fifteen raw materials to buy, of which fourteen are increased by this bill. This industry is sick already. What will happen to it next year? Most of the raw materials of the coated-paper In dustry, already in bad way, carry heavy increases under this bill. That includes casein, china clay, pig ments, starches. Linoleum manufacturers will have to pay more for 81l their major materials—wool, rags, cork, linseed oil. pigments, jute. More than 90 per cent of the materials of shoe manufacturers are increased. T*>ad pencil factories will have to pay more for every one of their fifteen raw materials. The soft drink manufacturer is hit by increases on seventy different materials he must use. Some manufacturers in some industries, of course, can pass on their full increased cost to the consumer, and some can add an extra increase for good measure. Thus the steel industry is not apt to suffer at first— not, at any rate, until the increased costs which it passes on to the building industry forces a construc tion depression. But there are many industries producing adver tised products at a fixed price which can not pass on their increased costs from this tariff bill to the con sumer. It is not easy to raise the retail price of such things as lead pencils or soft drinks. Even Henry Ford and the manufacturers in the strongest industries of the country, such as automo biles, may not be able to pass this raw material tariff tax on to the public. For two good reasons, the manufacturers of the country are going to have a hard time if this bill be comes law. One reason is this is a period of falling world commodity prices. The other reason is that America is in an economic depression, and higher prices will kill business instead of reviving it. Perhaps it is only just that the bill which bleeds the farmers and the city consumers should injure the manufacturers also, even if they don't know it now. But what a howl there will be when they wake up. Parker Is Rejected There is only one issue in the struggle today be tween the President and the senate over confirmation of John J. Parker for the supreme court. * It is not the fitness of Parker. That issue has been decided by the American people in their only way of jpeaking between elections—through the press and through direct pressure upon the President and the senate. In the most sweeping condemnation ever vented upon a presidential appointment for the court In this generation, public opinion has declared Parker unfit. The issue is not whether the senate conscientiously ind freely can confirm Parker. That answer is known. The senate opposes Parker as unfit. Under the Con stitution. the President must obtain not only the con sent. but the advice, of the senate. Both officially and unofficially, the senate has advised the President against his nomination. The only official method by which the senate can state its advice is through its representative judiciary committee. That committee, afer thorough investiga tion. voted against Parker. 10 to 6. Unofficially, many senators, including the Republican party leaders, have Informed the President of the senate’s opposition. Therefore, only one issue remains. That is whether partisan political pressure can force certain senators to vote for Parker against the will of their constituents and against their own convictions. The result will be determined by about ten Republican senators, who already have voted against Parker in committee or voiced their opposition in private. Can the supreme court be stacked by political pres sure? Let the senate answer. Lost: 1,500,000 Years It takes cold figures to make one realize the im portance of cutting down America's annual toll of accidents. Figures issued by the Travelers Insurance Company show that American adults last year lost just one and one-half million years because of accidents. These years were lost as a result of occupational accidents, on the one hand, and traffic and home acci dents on the other. The traffic accidents alone represented a monetary loss of $3,000,000,000, and the other accidents would prove fully as expensive. Those figures hardly seem reasonable; yet insur ance company statisticians have a way of being accurate They emphasize anew the great impor tance of finding some way of conducting our lives in greater safety. Stupidity Enlightens America has one great assurance that it will not be overwhelmed ultimately by a bureaucracy of medi ocrity-stupidity always defeats itself. No better example has come to light recently than the case of Mrs. Mary Ware Dennett, author of a pamphlet on the sex side of life. Written in 1915 for the benefit of her own adoles cent sons, the pamphlet was circulated privately for fourteen years before it aroused the morals division of the postofflce department. Then every’ agency of the United States government was directed toward Jailing the 00-year-old mother for circulating ob scene literature. Her conviction was hot overthrown The Indianapolis Times (A BCKIPPB-HOWAKO NEWBPAPEK) Owned and published dally (except Sunday) by The Indianapolis Times Publishing Cos., 214-220 West Maryland Street, Indianapolis, Ind. Price In Marlon County, 2 cents a copy: elsewhere. 3 cents - delivered by carrier, 12 cents a week. BOYD GL'RLEY, ROY W. HOWARD. FRANK G. MORRISON, Editor President Business Manager PHONE— Riley 51 TUESDAY. APRIL 29. 1930. Member of United Press, Scripps-Howard Newspaper Alliance, Newspaper Enterprise Asso ciation, Newspaper Information Service and Audit Bureau of Circulations, “Give Light and the People Will Find Their Own Way” until the case reached the circuit court of appeals. What is the net result of this stupid effort to prevent circulation of the elemental facts of human biology? A year ago Mrs. Dennett’s work was not widely known. Today its title and content are known to newspaper readers throughout the nation. It has been revised and republished by half a dozen organizations. It has been incorporated into a book, together with the weird history of the trial, and thus is in the card index of thousands of libraries, for ready reference by all who can read. Thus does official stupidity serve the cause of en lightenment. Citizens or Wooden Soldiers Do we want citizens who will reason or robots • ho will obey mechanically? This question is brought out sharply by the citizenship case of the Rev. T. F. King. King was bom a British citizen. During the World war he served three years with the British army. He went through fifteen months of l;ell with the ill fated Salonika expedition. After the war he came to America as a Methodist preacher. He is settled with a parish in Lake Arthur, La. He decided that he would like to become an American citizen. So he went before the federal dis trict judge. The following dialog took place: Judge—Supposing the United States engaged in a war that you considered wrong. What would be your attitude? Answer—l would consider it my duty to defend democracy. Judge—But supposing, to lake a concrete case, California wanted more territory, and desired to seize some in Mexico, and every man was drafted for some form of service; would you object or be loyal? Answer—l do not believe the United States would engage in such a war. Judge—l do not want any conditions. Under such circumstances, a war of aggression, would you object? Answer—ln all probability I would. I first would have to consider my duty to God and humanity. Judge—ln other words, you can not subscribe under any and every condition to the doctrine, my country, right or wrong? Answer —No. Judge—Then you can not be admitted. What we want are citizens who are prepared to say, “My coun try, right or wrong, but my country.” There is no beating about the bush here. The judge carries the case against the pacifists one step farther than the case of the Rev. Dr. Mclntosh of Yale. King was willing to swear to protect the Constitution and laws of our country by force if necessary. He refused, however, to agree in advance to support an admitted war of aggression. He was asked to suppress the dictates of his conscience and he refused. This case is typical of what has been happening and what is going to happen. Applicants of the high est character and worth as citizens are barred. Clearly this is a self-defeating policy, and just as clearly it was not the intent of congress in passing the natural ization law. That law has been perverted by the labor depart ment in its naturalization regulations. Under these regulations the courts take advantage of their power to bar men of conscience. To correct this situation and get back to the spirit of the Constitution, the Griffin bill has been intro duced in congress. It would clarify the law and pre vent the ban of otherwise desirable citizens who decline, for conscientious reasons, to swear in advance to bear arms. As Justice Holmes of the supreme court remarked in the famous Schwimmer case, it has not been sup posed that followers of Jesus make undesirable citizens. It may be all right for John D. to pass out nick els instead of dimes, but we should like to see him try it on some of the waiters we have had. Now that women’s hats shaped like coal-scuttles are fashionable in Paris, it won’t seem so embarrass ing for the men folk to wear stovepipes. REASON By F LANDI| CK LINDBERGH did a fine tiling when he gave his wife all the credit for flying their plane on its record-breaking trip of fourteen hours from the Pa cific to the Atlantic. It was the expression of the same fine quality with which he won the world, after his trans-Atlantic flight. Ordinarily you would not expect an eagle to seek iiis flying mate at the fireside of wealth and ease, where all are sheltered from life’s rough edges, but Lindy could not have found a more intrepid spirit than the modest daughter of the former ambassador to Mexico. tt a a THAT'S one thing about the young folks these days, they will take any kind of a chance and thirffc no more about it than of accepting an invitation to dinner. You may think they are a little fresh, but you have to take your hat off before tneir audacity, for they will look into a lion's jaws and tickle his tonsils, just for the thrill of it. a tt a We remember one evening in 1917 when we went to spend the night with an old friend in a great city and as we entered the hotel where he lived we heard music and then in the dim light we saw youthful couples dancing. Our friend cast one swift glance toward his son j and shook his head as if the whole creation were one , whirling futility. a b a IN the elevator he said: “I don’t blame that hoy of mine, even if he isn’t worth powder enough to blow 7 him up. for he never had a chance. He’s been raised on velvet all his life and it’s not his fault that he’s utterly worthless. If he had known what it is to struggle he might have amounted to something.” B tt tt As we went down in the elevator some four hours later my friend was very grave of countenance and when we reached the door he said: "I w r ant to quali fy what I said about that boy of mine. You may re member that I said that he wasn’t worth the powder necessary to blow him up? Well, just after we fin ished supper he called me into his bedroom and said he had that afternoon signed up to fight the kaiser. a o a My friend lighted a cigar and continued: “And what do you think the little devil did; he signed up for aviation. He said to me the recruiting officer said they needed fliers more than anything else and so he signed up for that.’’ "Don't judge the rising generation too hastily!” he added as we drove away. THE INDIANAPOLIS TIMES SCIENCE —BY DAVID DIETZ Scientists Radically Change Their Attitude Toward the Fundamental Nature of the Universe. A REVOLUTION has taken place in the last few years in the at titude of scientists to the funda mental nature of the universe. This revolution is a by-product of the amazing advances which have been made in physics since the start of the present century. The thirty years since 1900, according to Dr. R. A. Millikan, famous American physicist, have been the most remarkable in tne entire his tory of science, finding a possible equal in the days of Galileo. It was inevitable that the mar velous period of development ush ered in just before the turn of the century with Roentgen’s discovery of the X-ray eventually should change the scientific outlook upon the universe. Nineteenth century physicists thought that all important scien tific discoveries had been made. Newton’s law of universal gravita tion ruled physical phenomena. Mat ter was composed of atoms, each atom being an individual unit of matter, the smallest in existence. Two fundamental laws were the conservation of matter and the con servation of energy. The first held that matter neither could be de stroyed nor brought into existence. One could change only its form. The second law stated the same thing for energy. And then the discovery of radi um and the other advances which followed upon the heels ofc X-rays came the revolution. tt n • Advice THE universe today is a more puzzling one, in some ways a topsy-turvy universe. All the com placent assurance of nineteenth century physics is gone. We know now that the atom Is composed of electrons, tiny units of electricity. Astronomers assure us that within the stars and our own sun matter is being converted into energy. Einstein has given us curved space and a four-dimensional space-time in place of the absolute quantities of Newtonian theory. Most puzzling of all are the new ! theory of wave mechanics and the principle of uncertainty. Wave me chanics would reduce the whole uni verse to fluctuations of something— perhaps electricity. Schrodinger, the author of the theory, doesn’t specify. He merely works out mathematical equations in which the Greek letter, Psi, rep resents the fluctuating element. The average layman is bewiMered. He need not be ashamed to con fess it. Many scientists are just as bewildered. If the average layman asks us what to do, we v,lll furnish the fol lowing advice: Get at once a copy of “New Frontiers of Physics” by Paul R. Ileyl (just published by D. Appleton & Cos. at $2). tt K U Hey I DR. HEYL is one of the physi cists at the United States Bu reau of Standards* in Washington D. C. He is one of the most skill ful experimenters in the scientific world. But his laboratory skill is matched by his ability to make him self understood to the layman. About four years ago this writer in company with many other read ers of the Scientific Monthly, formed the habit of watching for the occa sional articles by Dr. Heyl. Each one was a model of the way in which an exceedingly complex phase of modern physics could be reduced to simple language. The present book is not a re print of these magazine articles Some of the chapters, however, cover the same ground which was covered by some of the articles. In the book Dr. Heyl first intro duces the opinions of nineteenth century physics. Then he shows how these changed with twentieth century discoveries. • The book is not a large one—only 161 pages. But by the time the reader has reached page 50 he has already gotten on speaking terms with wave mechanics. After twenty more pages he no longer shudders at the mention of the quantum the ory and ten more pages enable him to look the Einstein theory fearlessly in the eye. The book closes with a discus sion of the effect which the new physics is having upon other branches of science and upon phi losophy. -"T qDAVf IB' TIHe 5 - SIEGE OF LIMERICK April 29 ON April 29, 1690, William 111 of England was obliged to end his long siege of Limerick, an im portant river port near Dublin, Ire land. The following year, however, an other Englishman, Ginkel, conduct ed a more vigorous campaign against the Irish stronghold. After a brilliant defense of several weeks an armistice was proposed which led to the well-known treaty of Limerick. The terms of the treaty granted amnesty, liberty and other privileges to the Irish Catholics and permission to volunteer in the French sendee. The Irish parliament later in sisted that the English ignored the terms of the treaty. The alleged vio lation of the treaty has been the subject of frequent and bitter con troversy between political parties in Ireland. Because of this, Lim erick became kr.own as “The City of the Violated Treaty.” The limerick, as applied to a peculiar form of nonsense verse, is thought to have originated with an Irish brigade which was organized in Limerick in 1961 for service in the French army. When the men returned from for eign service they sang and recited the rhymes now known as the lim erick. j SiqKiON , ! ■ Jra*. THE LINE > AMD YOU CAK U Ii ilmJ? HAVE THE ? j i DAILY HEALTH SERVICE Muscles Not Used to Best Advantage BY DR. MORRIS FISHBEIN Editor Journal of the American Medical Association and of Ilvgeia, the Health Magazine. Apparently the speed that a runner may make depends on his ability to consume oxygen and to turn it into energy and to manipu late the muscles which make the conversion. It was estimated in 1926 that the energy expenditure where run ning is at maximum speed is about 13-horse power. About 40 per cent of the energy is expended in the starting phase cf IT SEEMS TO ME "SuT THE opposition to the nomina tion of Judge John J. Parker to the supreme court has come chiefly from two quarters. Labor has op posed it and the National Associa tion for the Advancement of the Colored People has drawn atten tion to his attitude on the political status of the Negro. And this latter factor seems the more effective. It can not be said that Judge Par ker has met the issue with any con siderable courage. There is a vast body of testimony to the effect that in 1920 he did declare, “The partici pation of the Negro in politics is a source of evil and danger to both races, and is not desired by the wise men in either race or by the Re publican party of North Carolina.” I have before me a photo-static copy of the issue of the Greens boror Daily News, in which Judge Parker was quoted to this effect. Yet, when the national association sent a telegram asking Judge Par ker whether or not he had been correctly quoted, he vouchsafed no reply whatsoever. Surely a man who will not stand up and defend what he has said is hardly a person of sufficient char acter to be elevated to the highest court in the land. Timidity has marred Judge Par ker’s claim to consideration. He might have spoken out frankly and legitimatized his own utterance. In deed, he could have gone on to de-, clare, “I said it, and the opinion which I expressed is shared by the vast majority of all w 7 hite men in the south.” That would be a true saying. a a a Not With Bayonets SOONER or later, complete en franchisement must be given to the Negro in America. It is still true that no land can long endure half slave and half free and no man is free when the ballot is de nied to him. But if I were a candidate for high executive office, or judicial office, I would say, even without being cornered, that I would not now sanction the effort to enforce the fourteenth and fifteenth amend ments to the Constitution of the United States. I believe in the purpose for which they were formulated, but we must face the fact that in the year 1930 they can not be put universally into practice except through coercion and the use of armed force. And coercion and armed force have never won a victory of any lasting moment since the world began. An ounce of conviction is worth ten tons of coercion. The only way political discrimination against the Negro can be removed is by the process of education. Unfortunately, that is a slow process. But the faster ones just won’t do the trick. It may be said, indeed it has been said, that if Judge Parker is turned down on the Negro issue, it will be impossible to nominate any other southerner to the supreme bench. That may be true, and such a con dition seems unjust. a a a If I Were King— PLEASE permit me to indulge for a moment in a pleasant day dream. In school we were all invited to cotnemplate the prospect of being President. If I were the man in the White House, it would not necessarily go against my grain to The ‘Yellow Dog’ Contract muscular contraction and the rest is carried on through the work. It is shown that the sprint run ner gradually accelerates until he reaches a constant maximum veloc ity. The velocity that he reaches depends among other thing on the thickness or viscosity of his muscle. To get at the various factors, Dr. Wallace O. Fenn made a series of physical studies of sprinters, includ ing a detailed study of motion pic tures of sprinters in action. A runner must overcome the force of gravity and transfer energy from one portion of his tissues to another. Doctor Fenn shows that the aver- send a southerner to the supreme court. I’ll almit that I would not select John J. Parker, because, even though there were nothing against him, the fact still remains that there is nothing in particular for him. I could find a sage southerner and say to him, “How about taking a job on the supreme court? I know, of course, that you don’t believe in the fourteenth and fifteenth amend ments and I do, but I realize that they can’t be enforced throughout the south without landing United States marines to restore order, and I’m against that. “Fortunately, you are also against the eighteenth amendment, which can’t be inforced, either. You can go on the supreme bench with a clear conscience. You don’t believe in trying to enforce the unenforce able. Neither do I.” But this is not the attitude of John J. Parker. He comes from a Times Readers Voice Views Editor The Times—Your paper deserves the thanks of the public for the opportunity given to express views on the prohibition question. The writer suggests that the most effective means to combat the in fluence of those responsible for the disgraceful conditions now existing is to take care not to vote in the primary for any of the candidates recently indorsed by the Anti- Saloon league. If all those of con trary views follow this suggestion, the support of that organization will become a handicap rather than an asset, and its influence thereby greatly diminished. JAY S. MILLER. Editor Times—Why don’t you put the bank failures in the first column on the first page of your newspaper? That’s what the Republican pa pers did in 1893, after Cleveland got in office, although the banks were failing long before that. Wheat was under 60 cents in 1892, and all farm produce was cheap in propor tion. That’s what elected Cleve land and Altgeld in November, 1892. Wheat was below 60 cents before Cleveland even was nominated in the spring of 1892, and Cleveland didn’t take his seat until March 4. 1893. Harrison was President all Wow WellVoYou i 'KnowYtur'Bible?. I FIVE QUESTIONS A DAY” K ON FAMILIAR PASSAOEB K wwvivwvnpipmvK 1. Finish the quotation, “Ho, ev ery one that thirsteth . . .” 2. Which of the brothers of Jesus wrote books of the New Testament? 3. Where does the phrase, "filthy lucre,” come from? 4. Where is the famous descrip tion of the tongue? 5. What was the brazen serpent? Answen to Yesterday’s Queries 1. Nathan to David, n Samuel 12:7. 2. Jephthah. Judges 11:31-40. * ‘3. Jesus’ parable of the pearl of great price. Matthew 13:45-46. 4. Jonathan. I Samuel 18:1. 5. “A glad father.’” Proverbs 10:1. age sprinter incurs an oxygen debt at the rate of 13-horse power while turning out mechanical work at the rate of 2.95-horse power. His effi ciency is therefore 22.7 per cent. In arriving at this efficiency, he has to work against gravity equiva lent of 0.1 horse power, changes in velocity and acceleration and de celeration of his limbs. Obviously it should be possible by studies of this sort to develop better function of muscle tissues planned not so much for increasing the speed of sprinters as for permitting man in general to use his muscle to bet ter advantage. ideals and opinions expressed in this column are those o( one of America’s most inter esting writers swd are pre sented without regard to their agreement or disagreement with the editorial attitude of this pauer.—The Editor. state which Hoover won on the issue of prohibition (plus, of course, the religious issue, which would get us all tangled up in another amend ment). A President who says that every thing must be enforced is trying to jam through a judge who said, before his spine began to quiver, that he had no belief at all in two of the amendments. What kind of management is this? It has also been charged that there is politics in the fight against Parker. Os course there is. Many old line Republican senators would much prefer to support the admin istration, but they are frightened because they may lose Negro votes in the next election. Their opposi tion rests upon the low plane of political expediency. All right, but where does Presi dent Hoover get off? Where do his supporters get off? May they be reasonably acquitted of any taint of politics? I don’t think so. (Copyright, 1930. by The Times) that time. Banks were failing ev erywhere. The agricultural depression was the cause of the bank failures, and both were the cause of the success of the Democratic party, but as soon as Cleveland was inaugurated every Republican paper commenced putting the bank failures all in a bunch on the first page. Why not repeat, the dose for the administration now headed by what Senator Reed calls “a misplaced cipher?” JAMES C. BURNS. Williamsport, Ind. What do the. names Norma and Jean mean? Norma means "from the north,” and Jean means “beloved of G<r’ ” The common stocks of America’s leading cor porations, properly balanced and diversified, welded into a single, convenient trust investment. CORPORATE TRUST SHARES For the investor who wants maximum current income BASIC INDUSTRY SHARES For the investor who wants principal accumulation Included in the portfolios are such common stocks as American Tel. & TeL, New York Cen tral, Du Pont, Standard Oils, General Electric, United States Steel, Union Pacific, International Harvester • . . a fixed type of investment trust. Both trusts rated “A” by Moody’s Investor Service. Affiliated with • _ City Securities A Corporation msmm DICK MILLER, Pre.ident Lincoln 5535 108 East Washington Street APRIL 29, 1930 M. E. Tracy SAYS: Man Is Not Nonresistant by Nature; in the End He Will Do Something or Shut Up. THE week-end news centers around those enterprises and ac tivities which are changing the so cial and economic order. Lindbergh reaches Panama two hours ahead of time. Lord Irwin curbs the press of India; passengers on a Canadian train traveling sixty miles an hour get into telephone communication with their friends and acquaintances as easily and ex peditiously as though they were in their own homes; Soviet Russia or ders forty tanks from England; La Prmsa. foremost journal in Argen tina, denounces the talkies as inim ical to art, culture and the devel opment of national character. Mechanized life has come to grips, not only with the time-honored habits of thought, but with those economic conceptions which have ruled the world since the dawn of consciousness. People no longer can maintain a localized viewpoint and enjoy the privileges of civilization. One by one the .barriers which they formerly regarded as insur mountable are breaking down. Trade, travel and communication suddenly have become international. For the first time in history a uni versal language threatens to oblit erate the various tongues and dia lects, except as they may be pre served out of respect to the past. a a a Provincialism AS though the confusion of re adjustment were not enough, some would have us pause and argue the question on a philosophi cal basis. Most conspicuous among these is Mahatma Gandhi, who aspires to lead India in revolt, not only against the British government, but against the basic theories of white civiliza tion. At that he is little more reaction ary than La Prensa, which would like to see the American talkie checked because it is familiarizing Argentinians “with inferior mental standards and social customs.” a o a Provincialism, though compelled to stand on a broader basis, is still provincialism. Gandhi, demanding the return of hand-woven cloth, and La Prensa, renouncing the talkies because they teach Latin Americans to think in English, represent the same spirit that once inspired farmhands to smash the McCormick reaper. But the outstanding folly of their attitude consists in the fact that they think it possible to stir up op position without going beyond non resistance. it a u Man Will Resist MAN is not nonresistant by na ture. For a time he may consent to show his disapproval by a negative attitude, but in the end he is going to do something, or shut up. As Lord Irwin points out, the In dian revolt rapidly is changing from a passive to an active mood. Even the slight amount of tem per thus far aroused is not con tent with merely refusing to do things. Five thousand years of more or less open discussion have trained us to stand a certain amount of it; to disagree without becoming vio lent, up to a certain point, and co ' accept decisions with regard to gen eral policy provided they do not in clude too much. But when the world undertakes to open a forum on the question of whether the material progress for which it has fought and struggled is worth while, of whether the hu man brain should be allowed to ex press itself in terms of mechanical power, or should be suppressed ar bitrarily, it does little less than In vite calamity. The hour is late to release such an issue. The die already has been cast. This age of machinery was born * of the universal desire for physical comfort. Men who have the privilege of riding will not walk, and those who try to prevent them from riding are likely to get run over. Much as one may admire the pe culiar ideals of a Gandhi, or the patriotic verve of a La Prensa, both are foredoomed, and were when Columbus landed at San Salvador,' or James Watt perfected the steam engine. DAILY THOUGHT - The price of wisdom is above rubies.—Job 28:18. As for me, all I know is that X know nothing.—Socrates.