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StK I * P J - H OW *.AO Sarajevo Sixteen Years After It was sixteen years ago Saturday that Gavrillo Princip, a consumptive Bosnian youth, leaped upon the running board of the royal car at Sarajevo and riddled the bodies of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. This tragedy of St. Vitus’ day in Bosnia grew into the World war, the massacre of mill lions, the maiming of more millions and the impover ishment and degradation of western civilization. Never has there been a greater revolution in his torical knowledge than exists in the contrast between what we believed about the assassination in 1914 and vfcat we now know tc be the truth. In 1914 we believed the frantic assertion of Serbian etatesmen that Serbia was totally innocent of collu sion in the plot. We thought that Austria acted as a great bully, demanding her last pound of flesh. We supposed that Serbia surrendered to all the Austrian demands. We took it for granted that Austria declared war on Serbia to bring on a greater European war. We believed that she did so under ad vice and pressure Irom Germany. Finally, we were told that when Austria gave signs of weakening at the eleventh hour, Germany jumped into the breach and made the European war certain by a premaiuic and unjustified declaration of war on Russia. Nobody doubted that Russia was morally bound to aid her little Slavic brother, Serbia. This was an obligation of honor. What have we learned in the place of this chaste myth, which made war in behalf of “poor little Serbia’’ a chivalrous crusade? It was the chief of the intelligence division of the Serbian general staff who laid the plot to murder Franz Ferdinand, instructed the assassins in pistol practice and bomb throwing, and smuggled them across the border into Bosnia. The Serbian cabinet knew of the plot a month be fore the murder, but did nothing to stop it or to warn Austria. Prominent Russians in the military clique at St. Petersburg knew cf the plot and urged the Serbians to proceed. The Austrian ultimatum was not the work of a bully. It was the minimum which would safeguard Austria-Hungary against Serbian plots. Serbia re fused to concede any of the important demands of the Austrians. Austria did not want a European war. To avoid one, she waited in sending her ultimatum antil after Poincare had left Russia. Germany did not urge Austria on, but after July 27, pleaded with her to hold up her army and nego tiate with Russia. Germany did not take the initia tive with Russia. Her declaration of war was only an answer t( the previous and utterly unjustified Russian general mobilization which every European leader knew meant a German answer of war. Finally, Russia recognized no debt of honor to Serbia. Indeed, in !9QB she offered to sacrifice Ser bian Interests to the Austrians and in 1911 to the Turks. In short, the immediate occasion of the outbreak es the World war was a sorry affair and a nasty mesa with which no civilized nation can be proud to have been associated. Serbia ma> erect monuments to the assassins, but enlightened world opinion will see in the incident of June 28, 1914, another outstanding reason for demanding better international protection aga'nst another such calamity to the human race. College Militarism American youth has won at last the right to walk In t m ways of peace instead of the ways of war. No more boys with bitter and rebellious hearts will march and charge and shoulder arms as the price of an education. No more boys courageous •rough to set their faces against militarism will be expelled from college for refusing to march. For this release youth is indebted to several in telligent men In Washington who have ruled that military training is not compulsory in land grant colleges and universities. The law establishing these schools was for some years interpreted as meaning that miltary tactics must be studied by every male student before funds contributed by the federal government would be available. Some years ago Wisconsin rebelled at this and Insisted on making military training optional in the state university. The United States department of Interior held that the state was within its rights and continued to give it financial support. Now Attorney-General Mitchell has rendered an •pinion sustaining this decision. Hereafter any university that continues to make military training compulsory or any state legislature that continues to require it will do so on its own responsibility, without pressure from the federal gov ernment. There will be no adequate excuse for organizing college girls into military auxiliaries to 6ugarcoat the unwelcome service for boys. There will be no excuse for drumming and bugling and coercing boys into the ranks for drill. Military training now may take its place with mathematic* and other courses as something a youi'| man is fre# to take or leave alone. Perhaps we shall learn something about human nature by watching what happens. Playing in the Clouds Disarmament is a goal worth working for, and the world probably will be better off when the time comes for it to throw away its war-making tools; but for the present let’s be thankful that the United States army maintains an air force. Not because the airplane is such a potent mili tary weapon. General Mitchell may be right about that and he may not. The thing that makes the army air force so appealing is the fact that it can put on such a whale of a good show. The army recently staged a big exhibition along the lake front in Chicago. The air corps was on hand with some forty or more planes to lend a hand, and the thrills these planes furnished was worth going a long way to see. Promptly at noon two big groups of planes, eighteen In each group, would go roaring over the Loop. Fly ing in perfect formation, they would play a grand, spectacular game of follow the leader. In and out among the spires of the office buildings they would soar, motors wide open, darting along with aerial skill displayed at its very best; then they would come down in one magnificent, breath-taking dive over Michigan boulevard, dipping low In a gorgeous half circle and then spring upward again as if they had hit the earth and bounced off. Now the thing that made all of this so good to look at was the fact that these fliers seemed to bt stunting simply for their own amusement. They weren't, real ly, of course; they were performing methodical evo lutions, and long hours of hard training had pr;- , ceded this display. 1 But it looked as if they were flying around just i for the fun of it, masters of the air as a seal is The Indianapolis Times (A BCBIPPB-HOWARD NEWSPAPER) Owned end published defly (except Sunday) by The Indlanapolla Times Publishing Cos., 214-220 West Maryland Street, Indianapolis, Ind. Price in Marion County, 2 cents a copy: elsewhere, 3 centa— delivered by carrier. 12 cent* a week. BOYD GURLEY. BOY W. HOWARD. FRANK G. MORRISON, Editor President Buslnesa Mapager rHONE— Rliey 5551 MONDAY. JUNE 30. 1930. Member of United Press, Scrippa-Howard Newapaper Alliance, Newspaper Enterprise Asso ciation, Newspaper Information Service and Audit Bureau of Circulations. “Give Light and the People Will Find Their Own Way.” master of the waves. And that is a side of flying that can’t be emphasized too often. The commercial planes don't often give us much of it. They are too business-like. They fly across the sky like homing pigeons, and in a minutes they are gone, but these army chaps turn somersaults and do dizzying dives and banks as if they existed solely to enjoy the sport of flipping about in the upper air. Most sport spectacles are none too good for the spectator. He sits idle where he ought to be getting some exercise himself. But watching a group of army war-birds going through their stunts is something else again. It is not only exciting and pulse-quicken ing; it is inspiring. Misleading Figures To mislead the country on the size of unemploy ment is dangerous business. It is comparable to a physician giving a false diagnosis. And yet re sponsible officials of the Hoover administration have been guilty of this offense repeatedly. The public has tried to overlook these unfor tunate episodes and to make allowance for mitigating circumstances. It was felt that these officials were not entirely to blame, because of the difficulty in estimating unemployment on the information avail able. But as the secretary of commerce and others have repeated with monotonous regularity their prosperity statements, which were just as regularly disproved by later official department of commerce statistics, it has become increasingly difficult to take a charitable view. To wipe out the element of doubt by providing adequate federal employment statistics was an obvious necessity. But the administration blocked this re form. Finally a rider was attached to the census law, providing for an unemployment count. While the census was being taken, charges were made in several communities that the unemployment question was not being asked by enumerators, and that the jobless were being listed as working. On top of this, now comes misleading estimates by Secretary of Commerce Lamont. He states that, on the basis of approximately one-fourth of the na tional population enumerated in representative lo calities, the total number of unemployed in the coun try is only a little more than 2,000,000, or 2 per cent. Apart from the bad taste of Lamont making light of two million unemployed, a study of the figures shows that his conclusions are both premature and false. First, the one-quarter of the population enumer ated is not representative of the total industrial popu lation, but overbalanced by agricultural districts, where the depression at its worst is not listed as un employment. Second, even though the two million figure were accurate, it is patently false to give the impression that this constitutes unemployment of only 2 per cent. American Federation of Labor statistics show union unemployment of 20 per cent. Then how is it possible for the secretary of commerce to arrive at his 2 per cent figure? The New York state industrial commissioner has exposed the methoa of the secretary of commerce. For instance, Lamont says that seven New York cities with a population of two million, have 61,350 unemployed, which he calls 3 per cent. But, in fact, of course the employable population of that two mil lion is only about 40 per cent, or 800,000, which makes the unemployment on the basis of the commerce de partment’s own figures not 3 per cent, but 13 per cent. Repeated collapses of the stock market and of the grain exchanges whenever administration officials make prosperity statements demonstrate that the business world has about lost confidence in the ad ministration's accuracy. The administration can not afford to an- roy any more confidence by misleading statements on unemployment. With the announcement that intelligence tests were given cats at Columbia university and that music classes were started there for children under 5, speculation is aroused as to whether the institution has become nursery, menagerie or both. REASON By F LAND?S CK IT is rather unusual that with all the other monu ments it has built, this nation never has erected one to mark the spot where occurred the most im portant event in its history since Yorktown, the sur render of Lee at Appomatox courthouse, but at last this is to be done. ana The papers refer to Lee’s having surrendered his sword to Grant, but this little piece of theatricalism did not occur, no hardware having been exchanged between the vanquished and the victor. In fact, that was the most gentlemanly surrender in all history. nan In his supreme hour Grant arose to such mag nanimity the historian never will tire in the telling of it, for it is a velvet contrast to the merciless finish of other wars, and it was also great statesman ship, for it did much to heal the bitterness between the north and south. ana IEE was dressed in an immaculate uniform of gray * and carried the sword given him by the state of Virginia, while Grant wore a private’s blouse, much the worse for wearing, his only mark of rank being shoulder straps, sewn on the blouse, and as for a sword he had none at all. ana And Grant’s feeling were in harmony with his simple attire, for he said that while jubilant over the end, he felt sad and depressed on meeting the gal lant foe who had fought so long and valiantly. Far from rejoicing in Lee’s presence, he actually avoided the grim purpose which brought them to gether. ana He talked of ordinary things for a while, then branched off into reminiscences of the Mexican war in which they had fought in the same army; he was waiting for Lee to broach the subject, strange modesty for a warrior in his supreme hour. a a a FINALLY Lee introduced the subject, asking Giant’s terms, and Grant gave them, then launched into other conversation. When Lee asked Grant to write down the stipulation, he did. Then it occurred to Grant to permit Lee’s officers to keep their horses and side arms, and all other mounted men who owned their horses to keep them, remarking that they would need them on their farms. a a a Lee was greatly impressed with this generosity and said it would have ave-y happy effect on his sol diers. Then he remarked that his army was hungry, having lived on parched corn, whereupon Grant told him to send his commissary over and get all the rations he wanted. This monument at Appomatox courthouse will mark the chivalric meeting of two great soldiers and in harmony with that it should be unveiled by those who wore the blue and those who wore the gray. THE INDIANAPOLIS TIMES SCIENCE —BY DAVID DIETZ— Legend of Lost Atlantis Per sists, Kept Alive by Argu ments Down Through the Centuries. Discussion stui rages around the island of Atlantis. A tale which can be traced to the early days of Greek civilization still is alive. Down through the middle ages, stories of many mythical islands in the Atlantic persisted. There was St. Brandan’s island, for example, which the good Irish abbot, St. Brandan, was alleged to have dis covered. There was also Antiilia, or the Isle of Seven Cities, alleged to have been peopled by Christian refugees driven from Spain by the Moors. But when Columbus and the bold navigators who came after him crossed the Atlantic, it became ap parent that these islands existed only in imagination. Atlantis, however, persisted. This is because the legend holds that Atlantis had sunk beneath the waves many centuries before. Atlantis was a lost island. Consequently, nobody expected mariners to discover it. Plato told the story of Atlantis 2,300 years ago. Plato says that the story then was 150 years old, hav ing been told to Solon of Athens by an Egyptian priest. This priest, according to Plato, told Solon of records 9,000 years old which described an island in the sea “beyond the pillars of Hercu les.” u Cataclysm ACCORDING to Plato’s version of the Egyptian priest’s narrative, a powerful people dwelled on At lantis. This people attacked the Greeks, who united under the lead ership of Athens. Then came the great cataclysm which wiped Atlantis from the face of the earth. “With great earthquakes and in undations, in a single day and one fatal night, all who had been war riors against you were swallowed up,” the priest is made to say in Plato’s narrative. “The Island of Atlantis disap peared beneath the sea. Since that time the sea in these quarters has become unnavigable; vessels can not pass there because of the sands which extend over the site of the buried isle.” “Is the story of Atlantis a literary invention, or does it embody in a more or less legendary form an ac tual story of the sea?” asks H. A. Marmer in his interesting book, “The Sea.” “Does this story owe its strong appeal through the centuries to the literary genius of Plato, or does it awaken some vague subconscious reminiscences of the catastrophic end of a great nation? “Both sides of the question have been maintained vigorously ever since Plato gave the story to the world. “Those who hold to the fictional character of Atlantis stress the fact that before Plato this story, which purports to record an event of strik ing and unusual character that happened many years before, is ap parently unknown.” Earthquake AVERY plausible solution re cently has been offered by the German geographer, Paul Borchardt, according to Marmer. Borchardt places the site of the lost Atlantis, not in the Atlantic ocan, but in the Mediterranean sea, in the re gion of the Gulf of Gabes, near Tunis. “Many facts indicate that this re gion was at one time the seat of an extended civilization which was destroyed by some convulsion of na ture like an earthquake,” Marmer writes. “By a painstaking interpretation of the text of Plato’s story in the light of the geographic knowledge of that time, Borchardt makes out a strong case for this location. “It is to be remembered that in the story of Atlantis we have Egyp tian material translated into ancient Greek, which again then is trans lated into modern languages. “We are far removed from the geogrpahic conception of the an cient people. It appears, for ex ample, that the word ‘island,’ by which Atlantis is described, may not have been used in the strict sense that we employ it nowadays. “And while there is no question that the term ‘Pillar of Hercules,’ finally had come to mean the Strait of Gibraltar, in earlier times it may have been a more general term ap plied to places marked by a temple of Hercules. “Such temples were set up as symbols of the god of maritime tra ders and were distinguished by two columns of pillars. “It is not at all certain that Plato meant that Atlantis lay out side the Mediterranean, which hitherto has been the generally ac cepted location.” Vfiw We/fThybu 'JCnow'KurWMe? FIVE QUESTIONS A DAY* ON FAMILIAR PASSAGEB 1. Finish the Beatitude, “Blessed are the merciful . . .” 2. In what two gospels is the Lord’s Prayer recorded? 3. Who was Naaman? 4. How were the Israelites guided in their wanderings through the wilderness? 5. Quote the proverb about a soft answer. Answers to Saturday’s Queries 1. “There will your heart be also;” Matthew 6:21. 2. The feast of unleavened bread; Exodus 12:17-20. 3. Five barley cakes and two small fishes; John 6:9. 4. It refers to the cure of the Gadarene man who had been “pos sessed of an evil spirit.” Mark 5:15. 5. “Or the leopard his spots?” Jeremiah 13:23. Daily Thought But he that sinneth against me wrongeth his own soul.—Proverbs 8:36. Sin is essentially a departure from God.—Luther. Doing Our Best to Solve the Foul Problem! | t YEW?-WILL \ 1 & n JUST TAKE OFF XOA \ ,0/ | I /? THAT BAI?PEL it \ I / B / AH* I'll SMOV/VOU loY* WHO C -^ r K EEP ymKoJ mMQ w£.Th£eP THEIR BLOWS jpMpCra THEIR BLOWS Up! VsT ! " DAILY HEALTH SERVICE How Many Calories? Depends on Job BY DR. MORRIS FISHBEIN Editor Journal of the American Medical Association and of Hygeia, the Health Magazine. AGAIN and again in this column the energy values of various foods have been mentioned. The coming of exact knowledge regard ing the importance of the vitamins and the mineral salts in food has taken interest away from the calo ries, but the fact remains that the calories are the one measure of value of energy. A child 1 year old requires almost 1,000 calories a nay; 9 years of age, 2,000; 13 years of age, 3,000, and 16 years of age, 4,000. The average adult requires anywhere from 2,400 to 4,000 calories a day, depending on the kind of work he may be doing. There are Innumerable books available which tell the important IT SEEMS TO ME “”T FROM the ends of the earth con gratulations have come to the Lindberghs. The world is ever so friendly to the newly arrived small eaglet. One might assume, as they do, that there is a child born under the most favorable auspices possible. His background is that of wealth and fame, of courage and high rep utation. But I already am moved with compassion for the little citi zen. He can not now possibly realize the price that he must pay for be ing a front-page baby. He will later. Tribulation lies in wait for him. I am not referring to the necessary mishaps which seem to enter into every life. This lad may grow up well equipped to handle the general run of the mill misfortune. He can do as well with the meas les as the next one. His difficulties are likely to be somewhat peculiar. Many of them he will suffer at the hands of the well meaning. I trust that from now on we shall hear no more of that excellent, but overly exploited smile of Irvin Cobb’s concerning goldfish and privacy. Young Lindbergh, through no fault of his own, is doomed to live in a glass bowl. ana Nation’s Eyes ALREADY the photographers, the reporters and the news reel men are besieging the Morrow home. More than a year ago I spoke with harshness about the colonel because it seemed to me that he had grown too brusque in his dealings with the members of my profession. But from now on I am prepared to forgive him much. It is a strain never to venture forth without be ing accosted by well-dressed stran gers wanting to know, “when does he get the next bottle? And have you decided on his nume yet?” Mind you, I realize that this per sistent watchfulness is not the choice of any reporter. Ke must take such assignments as come. He, too, is worthy of your pity as he plays the role of baby carriage sleuth. Nor are his superiors, who sent him out to get a story on the Lind bergh baby, monsters intent on the destruction of privacy. The fault, and. I will concede that it is a fault, lies with the public. Possibly we Americans are more strongly motivated by curiosity than other people, but I doubt whether there is any spot in all the world ■where the colonel and Anne Morrow Lindbergh and the baby could go and find neighbors completely in different to their presence. Fame can’t be turned on and off like water from tap. When the mist rose up from the Atlantic and the sleet storms clutched at Lindy’s plane he was leaving behind him more than land and safety. Indeed, from the moment the Spirit of St. Louis sailed toward the sky, the young aviator lost all hope he ever had of leading the restful thing called private life. tt u a Pajamas, Headlines ww tITHUJ an hour after the W coloJlil donned the ambassa dorial pajamas the world knew of it. Only at such times as he sits be hind close-drawn curtains can the colonel move or speak without the facts regarding the amount of cal ories provided by various food sub stances, but few” people seem to be able to carry these figures in mind. The best way to remember calory values is to associate them with some portion of common food; thus, one slice of bread one-naif inch thick and about six inches by three inches provides 100 calories. The same amount is supplied by an ounce of oatmeal; one large egg; one-third of a pint of milk; a large apple, banana or orange; two dozen peanuts or raisins; two ounces of beefsteak; six cubes of sugar, or one shredded wheat biscuit. Thus it is possible to eat ■& con siderable amount of food without overeating, and only by eating an amount of food sufficient to take care of the ordinary wear and tear of the body can good health be continued. Some industries demand many attention of most of the continents being focused on him. And yet it must be said that in a sense he brought it on himself. Probably Lindy didn’t know, but any student of our national psychology could have told him that he never again would know the simple life after flying from New York to Paris. The case of young Lindbergh is quite different. He has made no conscius effort to command the at tention of his fellowmen. If he at tempts to put one toe in his mouth he seeks only a private satisfaction and fails to understand the mil lions wait with bated breath to find out whether he will succeed. And if the theory of heredity is sound, I have no doubt the lad will make the contact, indeed, that the toe will get to the mouth some hour or so ahead of schedule. Yet, heredity is by no means the science which some would have urf believe. Though he comes of flying folk, young Lindbergh may never be any better than an average avi ator. It’s in the cards that he will know something of planes and their habits. And that, I’ll bet, before he’s grown much older. One can imagine the child’s mother says, “Augustus Jr. seems a little restless this eve ning. Why not take him up and do a few loops while the bottle’s being heated?” But suppose this child, practically YOSEMITE VALLEY GRANT June 30 ON June 30, 1864, the Yosemite Valley was passed to Cali fornia by an act of congress un der the condition that it be kept open as a national park. In 1890 the Yosemite National Park, in cluding the valley, was established by an act of congress, and fifteen years later the original reservation was ceded back to the government by the state. The park, embracing an area of 1,125 square miles, contains some of the most magnificent scen ery in America. The celebrated Sequoia trees, the largest of which is 204 feet in height and 29 Vz feet in diameter, are in this region. Besides the trees, the park con tains, as John Muir, explorer, beau tifully writes: “The headwaters of the Tuolumne and Merced rivers, two of the most songful streams in the world; innumerable lakes and waterfalls and smooth, silky lawns; the noblest forests, the loftiest granite domes, the deepest ice sculptured canyons, the brightest crystalline pavements, and snowy mountains . . , arrayed in open ranks, spiry pinnacled groups partially separated by tremendous canyons and amphitheaters; gardens on their sunny brows, avalanches thundering down their long white slopes, cataracts roaring gray and foaming in the crooked rugged gorges, and glaciers in their shadowy recesses working in silence, slowly completing their sculptures; new born lakes at their feet, blue and green, free or encumbered with drifting icebergs like miniature arctic oceans, shining, sparkling, calm as stars.” more calories than do others. A brain worker uses about 2,000 calo ries a day, since he does not do any muscular work. If he has to travel around, he increases his number to 2,300 or 2,500. A tailor or box maker uses an ad ditional 300 to 500 calories, a metal worker, carpenter or painter uses an additional 800 to 1,000, a stone ma son or lumberman uses an addi tional 2,400 to 3,000 calories; a lady of leisure uses about the same number of calories a day as a brain work, although her brain never may think a thought; a seamstress uses fifty more calories a day; a typist 200 more; a housemaid 700 more; and a laundress 1,600 more calories a day. The range varies then from the sedentary office worker with 2,000 calories in twenty-four hours to the lumberman with 8,000 calories in the same period of time. Ideals and opinions expressed in this column are those of one of America’s most inter esting writers and are pre sented without regard to their agreement or disagreement with the editorial attitude of this paper.—The Editor. dedicated to aviation before birth, turns out not to like flying? He’ll have to go through with it. The weight of precedent will hang heavy on him. He has no choice in the matter. He must fly whether he would or not. And he must shoulder, as well, the terrific obligation of maintain ing his father’s reputation for abso lute fearlessness. He must take the darkness in his stride. And when he first begins to walk and heads forward in that ter rific hop from the rocker to the sofa there can be no turning back. He must not crash on his fuselage. Lindberghs don’t do that. (CoDvriKht. 1930. by The Times) Who invented the Braille system for the blind? Is it used outside the United States? The Braille system is now in world-wide use, having been adapted even to the Chinese language by Dr. Murray, a Scottish mission ary, and a Braille magazine is pub lished in Esperanto. Louis Braille was born near Paris, France, in 1809 and became blind when 3 years of age. He was a pupil and later an Instructor at the Institution des Jenues Aveugles, Paris, and adapted the alphabet that bears his name from that invented by Captain Charles Barbier, a young French cavalry officer. Braille published his system in 1829 and developed it further five years later. It was not given official recognition in Paris until two years after his death. What does Lucille mean? It is from the French, and means shining one. In what year did Eli Whitney in vent the cotton gin? 1792. In what country is the city of Bucharest? It is the capital of Rumania. 'AFTER ALL - THERE IS A DIFFERENCE A!4 — (M)~ '/nv Gentlemen s Tropical Worsted Suits —cool, shapely, smart.. T 16 3 ° L STRAUSS & COMPANY JUNE 30,1930 M. E. Tracy SAYS: Stalin of Russia Reasons That Capitalism Is Pre paring for Another Big Meal on the Battlefield. Archduke francis Ferdi nand and his morganatic wife were shot to death at Sarajevo six teen years ago last Saturday. In itself it was just another mur der, but in the midst of a Europe armed to the teeth and itching for war, it was like a lighted match in a haymow. The real cause of trouble was too plain to be misunderstood, and the resultant conflict gradually shaped itself into a struggle for the over throw of militarism. Four years of war to end war. with the United States standing neutral for the first two, calling for “peace without victory” and proposing a league of nations as the one thing which would justify all the sacrifice* when obliged to join the melee. O tt u They Kidded Themselves IT was not only the greatest bat - tle ever waged in human his tory, but it centered around the most revolutionary dreams. White civilization became soused with illusionment, not so much over what should be done, as over the time In which it could be done. When the boys sat down to make peace, they began by tearing up the map of Europe, kicking the prece dents and tradition of a thousand years under the table, and kidding themselves with the notion that they could make it stick. Though not the first, it undoubt edly was the most stupendous at tempt to exorcise devils ever made by man. Beginning with the hypothesis that all evil thoughts regarding in tern itionalism were confined to the northern side of the Rhine, the world proceeded on the assumption that when Germany had been puri fied, all danger from militarism would cease. Ail Era Ends THE last French troops are leav ing the Rhineland, carrying their banners, brasses and kit bags, the allied commission, and all oth er paraphernalia symbolic of vic tory. The French people, though out wardly reconciled to the move, ands though admitting that it represents the only possible way to peace, arc reported as feeiing very blue. Who wouldn’t, In their place? They have come not only to the end of an era, but to the realization that, though forged on a grander mold, it was too much like some other eras for comfort. As an isolated episode, we have ceased fighting, counted the dead, and estimated the damage, but as a snarl in the web of human des tiny we barely have begun the un raveling process. Stalin Rants EXISTING conditions furnish Joseph Stalin, political over-, lord of Russia, many an argument with which to pep up his Com munist subjects. Looking west, he beholds wide spread depression, with trade hunger sharpening the teeth of in-, ternational rivalry. Looking east, he beholds China still locked in deadly Civil war, and India in revolt. Capitalism merely is preparing for another good meal on the battle field, he reasons, and regales his infatuated disciples with a seven hour exordium to prove the point. Russia wants peace, he exclaims in one breath, and then declares that capitalism is getting ready to make war on her, in the next. a a a Conflict in Making LIKE most other leaders, Stalin is running true to tradition, though unwittingly, perhaps—work ing up the military spirit in his, own crowd by telling it how good it is, and how bad other people are. - It requires no great degree of ex-; pertness to perceive where all this is leading and how another holo caust is developing from sparks in the embers of the previous one. Stalin poses as a Communist, and Mussolini as a Fascist, but at hearty* they are Hohenzoilern, Hapsburg or Bourbon. At heart, they are not only dic tators, but drivers. At heart, they are determined to impose their pet ideas on other peo- ■. pie, no matter what the cost. That is the spirit which breeds conflict, whether it appears on ai> inherited throne, or as the voice of revolution. What are pairs in the federal congress? Pairing in legislative assemblies is an agreement between two members who would have voted on opposite sides to refrain from voting. The;, pairs are equivalent to the number of implied votes for and against.